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1.
Planta Med ; 86(3): 205-211, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918446

RESUMO

Three phenylpropanoid glucosides (1:  - 3: ) and one iridoid glucoside (11: ), together with eleven known glucosides, were isolated from the ethanol extract of the whole plant of Hemiphragma heterophyllum. Their structures were elucidated by means of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, HRMS, and chemical methods. All compounds except 11: and 13:  - 15: showed varying degrees of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Compounds 5, 9: , and 12: were marginally active in the bioassay, while compounds 1:  - 4: , 6:  - 8: , and 10: exhibited appreciable inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 33.6 ~ 83.1 µM, which was much lower than that of the positive control acarbose (IC50 = 310.8 µM).


Assuntos
Glucosídeos Iridoides , alfa-Glucosidases , Glucosídeos , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Iridoides , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(6): 1555-1562, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986026

RESUMO

Passiflora edulis Sims (passion fruit) seeds are often discarded as byproducts during juice processing. In fact, the seeds are of considerable commercial value in the food and cosmetics industry because of their rich polyphenols, especially piceatannol. In this study, high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was applied for the separation of stilbene polyphenols from passion fruit seeds. The n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:2:1:2.8, v/v) was found to be the optimum two-phase solvent for the preparation of two major stilbenes, scirpusin B (8) and piceatannol (9) with purities of 90.2% and 94.8%, respectively. In addition, a continuous semipreparative HPLC was applied to further purify the HSCCC fractions containing minor stilbenes and obtain four new piceatannol derivatives (1-4) along with three known ones (5-7). The structures of these new compounds were determined using spectroscopic methods, including NMR, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), and circular dichroism (CD). The isolated compounds were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in vitro. The result suggested that all of them exhibited more significant activity than acarbose, and passiflorinol B (2) had the strongest activity, with a IC50 value of 1.7 µM.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Passiflora/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Estilbenos/química , Estilbenos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Distribuição Contracorrente , Frutas/química , Sementes/química , alfa-Glucosidases/química
3.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 565-573, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969031

RESUMO

Embelin is a naturally occurring para-benzoquinone isolated from Embelia ribes (Burm. f.) of the Myrsinaceae family. It was first discovered to have potent inhibitory activity (IC50 = 4.2 µM) against α-glucosidase in this study. Then, four series of novel embelin derivatives were designed, prepared and evaluated in α-glucosidase inhibition assays. The results show that most of the embelin derivatives synthesised are effective α-glucosidase inhibitors, with IC50 values at the micromolar level, especially 10d, 12d, and 15d, the IC50 values of which are 1.8, 3.3, and 3.6 µM, respectively. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies suggest that hydroxyl groups in the 2/5-position of para-benzoquinone are very important, and long-chain substituents in the 3-position are highly preferred. Moreover, the inhibition mechanism and kinetics studies reveal that all of 10d, 12d, 15d, and embelin are reversible and mixed-type inhibitors. Furthermore, docking experiments were carried out to study the interactions between 10d and 15d with α-glucosidase.


Assuntos
Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Desenho de Drogas , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Benzoquinonas/síntese química , Benzoquinonas/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Embelia/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/síntese química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
4.
Phytochemistry ; 171: 112232, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911266

RESUMO

Corni Fructus, also known as the fruit of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc., has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine and is widely consumed as a nutritional food in the form of function drink and wine. Recently, Corni Fructus has attracted considerable interest because of its anti-diabetic effects. A systematic phytochemical investigation of Corni Fructus was performed to find anti-diabetic components, which led to the isolation of 10 unreported iridoid glycosides, cornusdiglycosides A-J (1-8, 9a/9b and 10a/10b). Their chemical structures were determined through spectroscopic analysis (ultraviolet [UV], infrared [IR], high-resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectroscopy [HRESIMS], one-dimensional [1D] and two-dimensional [2D] nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR]). Such morroniside-type diglycosides were first reported from natural sources, and all isolates were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The results showed that all compounds (1-10) exhibited α-glucosidase (from Saccharomyces cerevisiae) inhibitory activities with IC50 values ranging from 78.9 ± 4.09 to 162.2 ± 9.17 µM, whereas acarbose, the positive control, displayed α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 118.9 ± 7.89 µM.


Assuntos
Cornus/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Glucosídeos Iridoides/química , Glucosídeos Iridoides/isolamento & purificação , Conformação Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
5.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(1): 121-130, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689132

RESUMO

Background: Vildagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor that reduces glycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). When approved in 2013, data on vildagliptin combined with >750 mg/day metformin in Japanese patients were limited. There is a need to confirm the safety and efficacy of vildagliptin in combination with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs).Research design and methods: This 52-week post-marketing surveillance (PMS) observational study in Japanese T2DM patients evaluated the safety and efficacy of vildagliptin in combination with OADs including high-dose metformin or insulin but excluding combination with sulfonylureas alone.Results: During this survey of 3006 Japanese T2DM patients, 13.61% of patients experienced adverse events (AEs) and 2.20% reported a serious AE (SAE). The frequency of AEs/SAEs was similar when in combination with biguanides (12.93%/1.46%), metformin ≥1000 mg/day (12.92%/1.22%), metformin <1000 mg/day (12.62%/1.54%), thiazolidine derivatives (16.71%/2.86%), α-glucosidase inhibitors (13.18%/1.90%), rapid-acting insulin secretagogues  (glinides) (20.41%/5.71%), or insulin (15.87%/2.47%). The mean ± SD changes from baseline at endpoint in glycated hemoglobin and fasting blood glucose were -0.76 ± 1.27% and -23.3 ± 57.3 mg/dL, respectively, and these changes were consistent, regardless of concomitant OAD.Conclusions: Long-term vildagliptin combination therapy is safe and effective in Japanese T2DM patients in real-world settings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Vildagliptina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Japão , Masculino , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico , Vildagliptina/efeitos adversos
6.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(3): 598-605, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724491

RESUMO

Red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) contain bioactive compounds that are known to exhibit antidiabetic effects via inhibition of α-glucosidase. However, information on the nonpolar components that exhibit antidiabetic activity is limited. Here, we report the isolation and structure determination of components with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, which were obtained from the hexane extract of red kidney beans. Triacylglycerols (TAGs) were identified as the major components exhibiting inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase. The chemical structure of TAGs was determined by a combination of GC-MS and UPLC-MS/MS. The primary TAGs identified were LnLnLn (trilinolenin) and LnLLn (1,3-dilinolenoyl-2-linoleoyl glycerol). The major fatty acids present in these TAGs were α-linolenic acid (ω-3) and linoleic acid (ω-6). These TAGs were also found to inhibit the α-glucosidase activity in a similar fashion as acarbose. These results suggest that TAGs have potency as antidiabetics and support the potential suitability of red kidney beans for diabetes treatment.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Hexanos/química , Phaseolus/química , Triglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/uso terapêutico , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triglicerídeos/química
7.
Phytochemistry ; 170: 112192, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726325

RESUMO

Chemical fractionation of the ethanolic extract of Eclipta prostrata yielded a series of unreported terpenoid constituents, including a rare 6/6/6/6-fused tetracyclic triterpenoid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid, two pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins, a diterpenoid and a sesquiterpenoid. Structures were assigned to these compounds on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, with the absolute configurations of the tetracyclic triterpenoid, the diterpenoid and the sesquiterpenoid being determined via explanation of electronic circular dichroism data. Screening of these isolates in an array of bioassays revealed antibacterial, cytotoxic and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities for selective compounds. Of particular interest, the tetracyclic triterpenoid showed very strong inhibition against α-glucosidase with an IC50 of 0.82 ±â€¯0.18 µM, being 103-fold as active as the positive control acarbose.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Eclipta/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Terpenos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Células HeLa , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neoplasias/patologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
8.
Eur J Med Chem ; 186: 111831, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740052

RESUMO

Heparanase is regarded as a promising target for anticancer drugs and Ronepastat is one of the most promising heparanase inhibitors insert in clinical study for Multiple Myeloma Therapy. To improve its pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile, as well to have an antidote able to neutralize its activity in case of over dosages or intolerance, a new class of its derivatives was obtained inserting non-carbohydrate moieties of different length between the polysaccharide chain and biotin or its derivatives. In vitro these novel derivatives maintain the anti-heparanase activity without induced toxicity. The newly synthesized compounds retained the ability to attenuate the growth of CAG myeloma tumors in mice with potency similar, or in one case even higher than that of the reference compound Roneparstat as well as inhibited metastatic dissemination (lung colonization) of murine B16-F10 melanoma cells in vivo.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biotina/química , Glucuronidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicóis/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Heparina/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Glicóis/síntese química , Glicóis/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/síntese química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estrutura Molecular , Imagem Óptica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Fitoterapia ; 140: 104442, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790769

RESUMO

Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) was widely cultivated for fruits (star fruit), whereas the value of leaves remains to be discovered. Our study on the leaves yielded five flavan-3-ols (1-5) and two 2-diglycosyloxybenzoates. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Epicatechin-(5,6-bc)-4ß-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-dihydro-2(3H)-pyranone (1) and benzyl 2-ß-d-apiofuranosyl-(1 â†’ 6)-ß-d-glucopyranosyloxybenzoate (6) were new structures. 6-(S-2-Pyrrolidinone-5-yl)epicatechin (4) and 6-(R-2-pyrrolidinone-5-yl)epicatechin (5) were obtained as monomeric diastereomer for the first time and their absolute configurations were determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) computation. Epicatechin-(7,8-bc)-4α-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-dihydro-2(3H)-pyranone (2), epicatechin-(7,8-bc)-4ß-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-dihydro-2(3H)-pyranone (3), and methyl 2-ß-d-apiofuranosyl-(1 â†’ 6)-ß-d-glucopyranosyloxybenzoate (7) were not previously reported from the genus Averrhoa. Compounds 1-5 showed more potent 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) than l-ascorbic acid. Meanwhile 1 and 3 exhibited lipase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, respectively. The results clarified the structures of flavan-3-ols and 2-diglycosyloxybenzoates in the leaves and their antioxidant, lipase, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Averrhoa/química , Benzoatos/química , Flavonoides/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Benzoatos/isolamento & purificação , China , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
10.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(1): e4705, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629370

RESUMO

Lithocarpus polystachyus leaves exhibit antidiabetic activity and is consumed as a herbal tea in China. In this study, phytochemical profiles of L. polystachyus leaves were identified and characterized by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-MS in both positive and negative ion modes. A total of 17 compounds were tentatively characterized and identified by accurate mass and characteristic fragment ions. The total phenolic contents in the leaf extracts ranged from 9.0 to 13.4 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g of dry weight (DW). In addition, the effect of these extracts on inhibiting the activities of α-glucosidase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) were evaluated. L. polystachyus extracts demonstrated significant inhibition of α-glucosidase (more than 88.1% at a concentration of 1.25 mg/mL) and acarbose (93.6% at a concentration of 5 mg/mL) while the PTP1B inhibition rate was over 84.3%. The antioxidant capacities of the leaf extracts were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ABTS, and ferric reducing ability of plasma methods and ranged from 50.5 to 72.5 g trolox, from 43.2 to 77.7 g trolox, and from 5.0 to 10.6 g butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; equaling trolox or BHT per 100 g of DW), respectively. Based on these results, L. polystachyus can be considered as a functional food owing to its antidiabetic and antioxidative activities, which are attributed to its rich phenolic and dihydrochalcone contents.


Assuntos
Fagaceae , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Antioxidantes , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores
11.
Food Chem ; 302: 125373, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442706

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the phenolic profile of 15 wild growing blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.) genotypes from the slopes of Fruska Gora mountain in north Serbia. Their effect in inhibiting i) α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities and ii) colorectal cancer cell line (HT29) growth was also studied. Blackthorn fruit extracts exhibited high phenolic content being enrich in anthocyanins. Principal component analysis was used to correlate the bioactive response with phenolic composition. It was found that derivatives quercetin and anthocyanin peonidin are the major contributors of the inhibition of carbohydrates hydrolyzing enzymes as well as with the antiproliferative effect of blackthorn. Among all samples, the genotype from Beska locality showed the higher capacity in inhibiting alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase and HT29 cell growth. Because of high anthocyanin content and higher bioactive response, these genotypes could be recommended for the further cultivation and investigation.


Assuntos
Polifenóis/análise , Prunus/química , Prunus/genética , Antocianinas/análise , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Ácido Clorogênico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutas/química , Genótipo , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Células HT29 , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Quercetina/análise , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Quínico/análise , Sérvia , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 509-516, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emblica officinalis, known as amla in Ayurveda, has been used as a folk medicine to treat numerous pathological conditions, including diabetes. However, the novel extract of E. officinalis fruit extract (amla fruit extract, AFE, Saberry®) containing 100 g kg-1 ß-glucogallin along with hydrolyzable tannins has not yet been extensively studied for its antidiabetic potential. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of AFE and its stability during gastric stress as well as its thermostability. METHODS: The effect of AFE on the inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase and salivary α-amylase enzymes was studied using starch and yeast α-glucosidase enzyme using 4-nitrophenyl α-d-glucopyranoside as substrate. Further, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and reactive oxygen species inhibition assay was performed against AFE. RESULTS: AFE potently inhibited the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in a concentration-dependent manner with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) values of 135.70 µg mL-1 and 106.70 µg mL-1 respectively. Furthermore, it also showed inhibition of α-glucosidase (IC50 562.9 µg mL-1 ) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4; IC50 3770 µg mL-1 ) enzyme activities. AFE is a potent antioxidant showing a free radical scavenging activity (IC50 2.37 µg mL-1 ) and protecting against cellular reactive oxygen species (IC50 1.77 µg mL-1 ), and the effects elicited could be attributed to its phytoconstituents. CONCLUSION: AFE showed significant gastric acid resistance and was also found to be thermostable against wet heat. Excellent α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and DPP-4 inhibitory activities of AFE, as well as antioxidant activities, strongly recommend its use for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/química , Frutas/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Phyllanthus emblica/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enzimologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/química , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/química
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 188: 111974, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883489

RESUMO

A series of 28 novel 1,2,3-triazole hybrids of myrrhanone B have been designed and synthesized by employing regioselective Cu catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction in highly efficient manner. All the synthesized analogues were assessed for their antiproliferative potential against A549 (Lung), DU145 (Prostate), MDA-MB-231 (Breast), SiHa (Cervical), U87MG (Glioblastoma), PC-3 (Prostate), HT-29 (Colon), L132 (Normal lung) cell lines. Further, the synthesized hybrids have also been screened for anti-inflammatory activity (TNF-α and IL-1ß) and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The biological results revealed that compound 11 (meta hydroxy phenyl 1,2,3-triazole) and compound 29 (deoxyuridine 1,2,3-triazole) found to be the most potent antiproliferative ones against PC-3 cell line. Compound 11 (IC50: 6.57 ± 0.62 µM) showed six folds more potent than parent compound 1 (IC50: 40.67 ± 2.2 µM) and displayed almost identical inhibitory activity with standard doxorubicin (IC50: 5.05 ± 0.25 µM), whereas compound 29 (IC50: 10.85 ± 0.90 µM) exhibited four folds more potent than parent myrrhanone B (1). In view of potent activity of compounds 11 and 29 they have been subjected to detailed flowcytometry analysis. Compound 29 treated cells significantly increased the SubG1 population of cells indicative of apoptosis compared to compound 11. Further, the results of anti-inflammatory studies indicated that compounds 3, 6, 9, 27, 28, 29 and 30 exhibited significant inhibitory activity against both TNF-α and IL-1ß than the parent compound 1. Interestingly, compound 27 exhibited good activity towards inflammatory cytokines TNF-α (IC50: 7.83 ± 0.95 µM). Interestingly, α-glucosidase inhibitory assay results revealed that compounds 14 (IC50: 2.77 ± 0.59 µM) and 16 (IC50: 4.12 ± 0.77 µM) as the most potent ones. In fact, compound 14 exhibited highest activity and found to be several times more potent than the parent compound 1 as well as standard acarbose (IC50: 2124 ± 170 µM).


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Commiphora/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/síntese química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Resinas Vegetais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triazóis/síntese química , Triazóis/química , Triterpenos/síntese química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
14.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104400, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669962

RESUMO

Two novel epimer pairs of acetaminophen derivatives penicilquei A-D (1-4) were isolated from Penicillium herquei JX4. Their structures were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods. The absolute configurations of penicilquei A-D (1-4) were determined by modifified Mosher's method, and comparing their experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Penicilquei A-D (1-4) are the first example of acetaminophen derivatives featuring an unprecedented carbon skeleton. The inhibitory activities of all compounds against nine phytopathogenic fungi and α-glucosidase were evaluated. Penicilquei A-D (1-4) showed strong inhibitory activities against at least eight phytopathogenic fungus.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/farmacologia , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Penicillium/química , Acetaminofen/química , China , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Rhizophoraceae/microbiologia
15.
Analyst ; 144(24): 7398-7405, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670357

RESUMO

α-Glucosidase and its inhibitors play a key role in diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. In the present work, we established a facile, sensitive and selective fluorescence method based on silicon quantum dots (SiQDs) and MnO2 nanosheets for the determination of α-glucosidase and one of its inhibitors acarbose. The fluorescence of SiQDs was greatly quenched by MnO2 nanosheets due to the inner filter effect. α-Glucosidase could easily catalyze the hydrolysis of l-ascorbic acid-2-O-α-d-glucopyranosyl (AAG) to produce ascorbic acid (AA), which could reduce MnO2 nanosheets to Mn2+, resulting in dramatic recovery of the fluorescence of SiQDs. The proposed sensing platform could provide a good linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity of SiQDs and the concentration of α-glucosidase in the range of 0.02-2.5 U mL-1 with a detection limit of 0.007 U mL-1. In addition, the sensing platform could be used for α-glucosidase inhibition. Acarbose was one of the most common and typical inhibitors, and this sensing platform can be utilized to detect acarbose in the range of 1-1000 µM. The developed fluorescence method was successfully validated for the determination of α-glucosidase in human serum samples.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/análise , Nanocompostos/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , alfa-Glucosidases/sangue , Humanos , Compostos de Manganês/química , Óxidos/química , Silício/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
16.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(7): 703-711, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679304

RESUMO

Ganoderma mushrooms are widely used in clinical therapies and functional foods. The antidiabetic effect of Ganoderma has become a research hot spot in recent decades. To search for a superior antidiabetic Ganoderma extract, five common Ganoderma species (G. lucidum, G. sinense, G. tsugae, G. applanatum, and G. leucocontextum) were investigated. A total of 10 fractions, including a total triterpenes fraction and a crude polysaccharides fraction for each, were prepared for further assays. Activities of α-glucosidase and α-amylase are inhibited dominantly by triterpenes from all five Ganoderma species rather than the polysaccharides. G. lucidum triterpenes inhibits α-glucosidase and α-amylase most significantly with IC50 values of 10.02 ± 0.95 µg/mL and 31.82 ± 4.30 µg/mL. Even more, triterpenes content was positively correlated with anti-α-glucosidase and anti-α-amylase activities. Therefore, triterpenes were considered to be the active compounds in inhibiting α-glucosidase and α-amylase activity. It is hoped that the results will provide more systematic information for the application of Ganoderma in the functional food and traditional medicine industries in the future.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enzimologia , Ganoderma/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Ganoderma/classificação , Fármacos Gastrointestinais , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Triterpenos/farmacologia , alfa-Glucosidases
17.
Molecules ; 24(19)2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590396

RESUMO

Wheat is one of the most consumed foods in the world and unfortunately causes allergic reactions which have important health effects. The α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) have been identified as potentially allergen components of wheat. Due to a lack of data on optimization of ATI extraction, a new wheat ATIs extraction approach combining solvent extraction and selective precipitation is proposed in this work. Two types of wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.), Julius and Ponticus were used and parameters such as solvent type, extraction time, temperature, stirring speed, salt type, salt concentration, buffer pH and centrifugation speed were analyzed using the Plackett-Burman design. Salt concentration, extraction time and pH appeared to have significant effects on the recovery of ATIs (p < 0.01). In both wheat cultivars, Julius and Ponticus, ammonium sulfate substantially reduced protein concentration and inhibition of amylase activity (IAA) compared to sodium chloride. The optimal conditions with desirability levels of 0.94 and 0.91 according to the Doehlert design were: salt concentrations of 1.67 and 1.22 M, extraction times of 53 and 118 min, and pHs of 7.1 and 7.9 for Julius and Ponticus, respectively. The corresponding responses were: protein concentrations of 0.31 and 0.35 mg and IAAs of 91.6 and 83.3%. Electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/MS analysis showed that the extracted ATIs masses were between 10 and 20 kDa. Based on the initial LC-MS/MS analysis, up to 10 individual ATIs were identified in the extracted proteins under the optimal conditions. The positive implication of the present study lies in the quick assessment of their content in different varieties especially while considering their allergenic potential.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Triticum/metabolismo , Inibidores da Tripsina/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Teóricos , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triticum/classificação , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
18.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 20(18): 2229-2235, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593486

RESUMO

Introduction: Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) - oral antihyperglycemic drugs, inhibit upper gastrointestinal enzymes that break down complex carbohydrates into glucose. As a result, the absorption of glucose is delayed, postprandial glucose reduced, and glycemic control improved.Areas covered: In this review, the authors describe the current recommendations on the use of the three major approved AGIs (acarbose, miglitol, voglibose). Efficacy and safety parameters together with ethnic considerations have been highlighted throughout the manuscript. The article also discusses potential diabetes prevention and cardiovascular effects of these medications.Expert opinion: The overall safety and efficacy of this class of drug appears to be high: AGIs do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia, do not cause weight gain; they also significantly improve postprandial hyperglycemia, have been associated with the reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease and may also delay the progression of prediabetes to T2DM. In general, we continue to believe that acarbose, miglitol, and voglibose should be used as third-line add on treatment options to other anti-hyperglycemic agents. However, this class can have earlier consideration in elderly and/or when metformin is contraindicated.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , 1-Desoxinojirimicina/análogos & derivados , 1-Desoxinojirimicina/uso terapêutico , Acarbose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Inositol/análogos & derivados , Inositol/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104376, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629048

RESUMO

Ten compounds were isolated from the root bark of Bombax malabarica, including two new compounds, bombamalin (1) and 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenol-1-[ß-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-ß-glucopyranoside (3), and shorealactone (4), a rare dehydroascorbic acid fused l-ε-viniferin. Compound 1 is an unusual bissesquiterpene, containing a 1,4-dioxene ring formed by fusing isohemigossypol with ent-cadinen-2-one. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. This chemical reinvestigation is of value for chemotaxonomy of the Bombax genus, in particular the finding of the unusual 1 and rare 4. Among the isolates, shorealactone (4), l-epicatechin 5-O-ß-D-xyloside (5), and 2-C-[ß-D-apiosyl-(1 → 6)]- ß-D-glucosyl]-1,3,6-trihydroxy-7-methoxyxanthone (6) displayed some inhibition against α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 224, 345, and 285 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Bombax/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Casca de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Taiwan
20.
Fitoterapia ; 139: 104373, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629053

RESUMO

A new aurone named (2Z)-2-[(4'-hydroxyphenyl) methylene]-6-hydroxy-7-prenyl-3(2H)-benzofurane (1), two new flavonoids named (2S)-7-methoxy-6-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)chroman-4-one (2), (2S)-4'-hydroxyl-7-hydroxymethylene-6-(2″,3″-epoxy-3″-methylbutyl)flavanone (3), and a new coumestan named bavacoumestan E (4), together with eleven known compounds (5-15), were isolated from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia. The chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and physico-chemical analyses. All isolates were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against DGAT, PTP1B and α-glucosidase. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 showed potential inhibitory activities on DGAT1 with IC50 values of 35.2 ±â€¯1.3, 51.3 ±â€¯1.1 and 43.4 ±â€¯0.7 µM, respectively. Compounds 6 and 8 displayed the significant inhibitory activities on α-glucosidase with IC50 value of 28.0 and 23.0 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Psoralea/química , Sementes/química , China , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores
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