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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18517, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914024

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The association between AF and serum lipid profile is unclear and statin use for lowering the incidence of new-onset AF remains controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate whether statins confer a beneficial effect on AF after AMI.Data available in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database on 32886 AMI patients between 2008 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Total 27553 (83.8%) had complete 1-yr follow-up data. Cardiovascular outcomes were analyzed based on the baseline characteristics and AF type (existing, new-onset, or non-AF). AF groups had significantly higher incidence of heart failure (HF), stroke, all-cause death, and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) after index AMI (all P < .05). In contrast, myocardial re-infarction (re-MI) was not significantly different among the three groups (P = .95). Statin use tended to be associated with lower risk of new-onset AF after AMI (HR: 0.935; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.877-0.998; P = .0427).Existing AF and new-onset AF subgroups had similar cardiovascular outcomes after AMI and were both inferior to the non-AF group. Statin tended to reduce new-onset AF after AMI.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Taiwan/epidemiologia
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 331-337, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893428

RESUMO

Obesity, a risk factor of coronary artery disease, is known to cause peripheral microcirculatory disturbances. This study evaluated the relationship between the degree of obesity and peripheral microcirculatory disturbances, using peripheral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with a vascular occlusion test (VOT). We compared correlations between the NIRS parameter changes induced by VOT and body mass index (BMI) in patients with and without statin therapy. A NIRS probe was set on the right thenar eminence, brachial artery blood flow was blocked for 3 min, and then released. Although total hemoglobin (ΔcHb), deoxyhemoglobin (ΔHHb) and tissue oxygenation index (ΔTOI) were not correlated with BMI, a significant negative correlation was found between oxyhemoglobin (ΔO2Hb) and BMI in the overall study population (r = -0.255, p-value 0.02). In addition, a significant negative correlation was found between ΔO2Hb and BMI in patients without statin therapy (r = -0.353, p-value 0.02) but not in patients with statin therapy (r = -0.181, p-value 0.27). These findings suggest that ΔO2Hb may be a useful indicator to assess peripheral microcirculation.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Oxigênio , Consumo de Oxigênio , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/normas
3.
Life Sci ; 240: 117110, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786191

RESUMO

AIMS: Thymic carcinoma is a rare epithelial tumor, for which, optimal pharmacotherapeutic methods have not yet been established. To develop new drug treatments for thymic carcinoma, we investigated the effects of fluvastatin-mediated pharmacological inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) on thymic carcinoma. MAIN METHODS: Thymic carcinoma tissue was surgically excised and HMGCR expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Ty82 human thymic carcinoma cells were treated with fluvastatin (1-10 µM) and their growth was monitored. KEY FINDINGS: HMGCR was expressed on carcinoma cells but not on normal epithelial cells in thymic tissue. Inhibition of HMGCR by fluvastatin suppressed cell proliferation and induced the death of Ty-82 human thymic carcinoma cells. Fluvastatin mediated its antitumor effects by blocking the production of geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate (GGPP), an isoprenoid that is produced from mevalonate and binds to small GTPases, which promotes cell proliferation. SIGNIFICANCE: Fluvastatin showed marked antitumor effects on thymic carcinoma. The results suggest that the statin has clinical benefits in thymic carcinoma management.


Assuntos
Fluvastatina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Timoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Timo/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/biossíntese , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/genética , Imuno-Histoquímica , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatos de Poli-Isoprenil/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfatos de Poli-Isoprenil/biossíntese , Prenilação/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(6): 691-697, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different strategies have been proposed for the cardiovascular risk management of patients with psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cardiovascular risk and evaluate two cardiovascular prevention strategies in patients with psoriasis, analyzing which proportion of patients would be candidates to receive statin therapy. METHODS: A retrospective cohort was selected from a secondary database. All patients >18 years with psoriasis without cardiovascular disease or lipid-lowering treatment were included. The atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease calculator (2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines) and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation risk calculator (2016 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Atherosclerosis guidelines) were calculated. The SCORE risk value was adjusted by a multiplication factor of 1.5. The recommendations for the indication of statins suggested by both guidelines were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 892 patients (mean age 59.9±16.5 years, 54.5% women) were included. The median atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease calculator and Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation values were 13.4% (IQR 6.1-27.0%) and 1.9% (IQR 0.4-5.2), respectively. According to the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease calculator, 20.1%, 11.0%, 32.9%, and 36.4% of the population was classified at low, borderline, moderate, or high risk. Applying the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation, 26.5%, 42.9%, 20.8%, and 9.8% of patients were stratified as having low, moderate, high, or very high risk, respectively. The proportion of subjects with statin indication was similar using both strategies: 60.1% and 60.9% for the 2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and 2016 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Atherosclerosis guidelines, respectively. STUDY LIMITATIONS: This was a secondary database study. Data on the severity of psoriasis and pharmacological treatments were not included in the analysis. CONCLUSION: This population with psoriasis was mostly classified at moderate-high risk and the statin therapy indication was similar when applying the two strategies evaluated.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Complicações do Diabetes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Psoríase/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Triglicerídeos/sangue
5.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 533-538, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824165

RESUMO

Purpose: Real-world data may provide insight into relationships between high triglycerides (TG), a modifiable cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, and increased heart failure (HF) risk. Patients and methods: This retrospective administrative claims analysis included statin-treated patients aged ≥45 years with diabetes and/or atherosclerotic CV disease enrolled in 2010 and followed for ≥6 months to March 2016. Patients with TG ≥150 mg/dL and a comparator cohort with TG <150 mg/dL and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol >40 mg/dL were included. A sub-analysis was conducted in patients with TG 200-499 mg/dL. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated from multivariate analyses controlled for patient characteristics and comorbidities using Cox proportional hazard modeling. New diagnosis of HF required diagnosis in the follow-up period without prior evidence of HF. Results: Multivariate analyses revealed a 19% higher rate of new HF diagnosis in the TG ≥150 mg/dL cohort (HR=1.192; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.134-1.252; P<0.001; n=24,043) and a 24% higher rate in the TG 200-499 mg/dL sub-cohort (HR=1.235; 95% CI=1.160-1.315; P<0.001; n=11,657), each versus the comparator cohort (n=30,218). Conclusion: In a real-world analysis of statin-treated patients with high CV risk, elevated and high TG were significant predictors of new HF diagnosis.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bases de Dados Factuais , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Regulação para Cima
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18510, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861037

RESUMO

Statins therapy decrease both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) with considerable individual variability. Whether the amount of LDL-C lowering is a surrogate maker of statin responsiveness to ASCVD prevention has not been fully investigated. Among 2352 eligible patients with statin prescriptions in a cardiovascular center between January 2005 and February 2014, one-third of patients (33%) on statin therapy failed to achieve effective reductions in LDL-C (LDL-C level reduction of less than 15%). By using, propensity-score matched population (480 pairs, n = 960), the 5-year cumulative incidences of total major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were evaluated. The 5-year total MACE did not differ between normal cholesterol responders and non-responders (15.4% vs 16.1%, respectively; P = .860). In the subgroup analysis, male sex, older age, percutaneous coronary intervention, and heart failure were positive predictors, and dyslipidemia at the beginning of statin therapy was the only negative predictor of MACE in the 5-year follow-up (all P value < .05). However, cholesterol responsiveness after statin therapy did not influence the incidence of MACE (P = .860). The amount of LDL-C lowering did not predict beneficial effect on clinical outcomes of ASCVD after statin therapy. This result supports that given statin therapy, total ASCVD risk reduction should be tailored, which may not dependent to adherence to degree of LDL-C lowering or LDL-C goal based treatment.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 62(5): 414-422, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669498

RESUMO

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a frequent genetic disorder characterized by elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and early onset of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. FH is caused by mutations in genes that regulate LDL catabolism, mainly the LDL receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB) and gain of function of proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9). However, the phenotype may be encountered in individuals not carrying the latter monogenic defects, in approximately 20% of these effects of polygenes predominate, and in many individuals no molecular defects are encountered at all. These so-called FH phenocopy individuals have an elevated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in comparison with normolipidemic individuals but this risk is lower than in those with monogenic disease. Individuals with FH are exposed to elevated LDL-C levels since birth and this explains the high cardiovascular, mainly coronary heart disease, burden of these subjects. However, recent studies show that this risk is heterogenous and depends not only on high LDL-C levels but also on presence of previous cardiovascular disease, a monogenic cause, male sex, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, low HDL-cholesterol, obesity and elevated lipoprotein(a). This heterogeneity in risk can be captured by risk equations like one from the SAFEHEART cohort and by detection of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. High dose high potency statins are the main stain for LDL-C lowering in FH, however, in most situations these medications are not powered enough to reduce cholesterol to adequate levels. Ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors should also be used in order to better treat LDL-C in FH patients.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Fenótipo , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 62(5): 401-405, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666183

RESUMO

The REDUCE-IT study found that patients at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) who were already taking statins obtained a marked benefit by taking 4 g/d of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters (icosapent ethyl, IPE; Vascepa) over about 5 years. Although approved for triglyceride (TG) lowering, IPE had only a modest TG-lowering effect in REDUCE-IT, largely because median TG levels were relatively low already. Hence the question of what mechanisms IPE might be working through is of great interest. At present, it appears that the best mechanistic candidates would be anti-platelet effects and/or anti-inflammatory effects. Whatever the cause, the powerful effects of IPE on CVD risk have renewed interest in the clinical utility of omega-3 fatty acids.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue
10.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(11): 719-723, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have beneficial effects on health outcomes in the general population. Their effect on survival in debilitated nursing home residents is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationships between statins, SSRIs, and survival of nursing home residents. METHODS: Baseline patient characteristics, including chronic medications, were recorded. The association of 5-year survival with different variables was analyzed. A sub-group analysis of survival was performed according to baseline treatment with statins and/or SSRIs. RESULTS: The study comprised 993 residents from 6 nursing homes. Of them, 285 were males (29%), 750 (75%) were fully dependent, and 243 (25%) were mobile demented. Mean age was 85 ± 7.6 years (range 65-108). After 5 years follow-up, the mortality rate was 81%. Analysis by sub-groups showed longer survival among older adults treated with only statins (hazard ratio [HR] for death 0.68, 95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 0.49-0.94) or only SSRIs (HR 0.6, 95%CI 0.45-0.81), with the longest survival among those taking both statins and SSRIs (HR 0.41, 95%CI 0.25-0.67) and shortest among residents not taking statins or SSRIs (P < 0.001). The survival benefit remained significant after adjusting for age and after conducting a multivariate analysis adjusted for sex, functional status, body mass index, mini-mental state examination, feeding status, arrhythmia, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and hemato-oncological diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with statins and/or SSRIs at baseline was associated with longer survival in debilitated nursing home residents and should not be deprived from these patients, if medically indicated.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Análise de Sobrevida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Casas de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
JAMA ; 322(18): 1780-1788, 2019 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714986

RESUMO

Importance: Additional treatment options are needed for patients who do not achieve sufficient reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level with available lipid-lowering therapies. Objective: To assess the efficacy of bempedoic acid vs placebo in patients at high cardiovascular risk receiving maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted at 91 clinical sites in North America and Europe from November 2016 to September 2018, with a final date of follow-up of September 22, 2018. A total of 779 patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, or both met randomization criteria, which included LDL-C level 70 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L) or greater while receiving maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy. Interventions: Patients were randomized 2:1 to treatment with bempedoic acid (180 mg) (n = 522) or placebo (n = 257) once daily for 52 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was percent change from baseline in LDL-C level at week 12. Secondary measures included changes in levels of lipids, lipoproteins, and biomarkers. Results: Among 779 randomized patients (mean age, 64.3 years; 283 women [36.3%]), 740 (95.0%) completed the trial. At baseline, mean LDL-C level was 120.4 (SD, 37.9) mg/dL. Bempedoic acid lowered LDL-C levels significantly more than placebo at week 12 (-15.1% vs 2.4%, respectively; difference, -17.4% [95% CI, -21.0% to -13.9%]; P < .001). Significant reductions with bempedoic acid vs placebo were observed at week 12 for non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-10.8% vs 2.3%; difference, -13.0% [95% CI, -16.3% to -9.8%]; P < .001), total cholesterol (-9.9% vs 1.3%; difference, -11.2% [95% CI, -13.6% to -8.8%]; P < .001), apolipoprotein B (-9.3% vs 3.7%; difference, -13.0% [95% CI, -16.1% to -9.9%]; P < .001), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (median, -18.7% vs -9.4%; difference, -8.7% [asymptotic confidence limits, -17.2% to -0.4%]; P = .04). Common adverse events included nasopharyngitis (5.2% vs 5.1% with bempedoic acid and placebo, respectively), urinary tract infection (5.0% vs 1.9%), and hyperuricemia (4.2% vs 1.9%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease receiving maximally tolerated statins, the addition of bempedoic acid compared with placebo resulted in a significant lowering of LDL-C level over 12 weeks. Further research is needed to assess the durability and clinical effect as well as long-term safety. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02991118.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipidemia Familiar Combinada/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Aterosclerose/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipidemia Familiar Combinada/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 62(5): 395-400, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715195

RESUMO

Statin therapy is effective in primary and secondary prevention, but substantial residual risk remains on statin treatment, especially among high risk and very high risk patients. Add-on therapy with ezetimibe and proprotein convertase subtilisin /kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors provides additional risk reduction through further reduction in low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Elevated triglycerides/triglyceride rich lipoproteins contribute to atherogenesis and to the residual risk on statin therapy. Addition of icosapent ethyl to statins has recently been shown to markedly lower risk of ASCVD events in patients with established atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) and high risk patients with type II diabetes mellitus. These data are discussed in the context of current guidelines and synthesized in a decision pathway to guide combination lipid-lowering therapy in patients at high ASCVD risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/antagonistas & inibidores , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/uso terapêutico , Ezetimiba/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue
13.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 15(3): 171-178, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687095

RESUMO

Three recent clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of marine omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular disease end points. In the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL), 840 mg/d of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) resulted in a 28% reduced risk for heart attacks, 50% reduced risk for fatal heart attacks, and 17% reduced risk for total coronary heart disease events. In the ASCEND trial (A Study of Cardiovascular Events in Diabetes), cardiovascular disease death was significantly reduced by 19% with 840 mg/d of EPA and DHA. However, the primary composite end points were not significantly reduced in either study. In REDUCE-IT (the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial), there was a 25% decrease in the primary end point of major cardiovascular events with 4 g/d EPA (icosapent ethyl) in patients with elevated triglycerides (135-499 mg/dL) who also were taking a statin drug. For clinical practice, we now have compelling evidence of the cardiovascular benefits of omega-3 fatty acids. The findings of REDUCE-IT provide a strong rationale for prescribing icosapent ethyl for patients with hypertriglyceridemia who are on a statin. For primary prevention, the goal is to increase the population intake of omega-3 fatty acids to levels currently recommended, which translates to consuming at least one to two servings of fish/seafood per week. For individuals who prefer taking omega-3 fatty acid supplements, recent findings from clinical trials support the benefits for primary prevention.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Quimioterapia Combinada , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/mortalidade , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Primária , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 15(3): 192-199, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687098

RESUMO

The extract of red yeast rice (RYR) is the most effective cholesterol-lowering nutraceutical on the market. In particular, its effectiveness is directly related to the amount of monacolin K within the extract (up to 10 mg/day). Consuming monacolin K on a daily basis reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol plasma levels between 15% and 25% within 6 to 8 weeks. Certainly, the decrease in LDL-cholesterol is accompanied by a similar reduction in total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, plasma apolipoprotein B, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Furthermore, the RYR lipid-lowering effect is associated with significant improvements in pulse wave velocity and endothelial function, which are validated and reliable biomarker tools able to detect vascular aging. Although it has a mechanism of action similar to statins, a daily consumption of between 3 and 10 mg monacolin K has only minimal associated risks, and mild myalgias are seen only in the frailest patients (those who also cannot tolerate minimal dosages of statin). The monacolin K found in RYR is a safe and effective supplement for managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia in people with no additional cardiovascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Colesterol/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Lovastatina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Regulação para Baixo , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/diagnóstico , Lovastatina/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Herz ; 44(8): 688-695, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650209

RESUMO

In August 2019 the updated dyslipidemia guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) were published. Since the last version from 2016, important large randomized trials especially with proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors and new genetic analyses have become available that show additional reduction of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk on top of the previously recommended treatments. Based on these data the main concept of the recommendations is achieving an early and as large as possible absolute reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). As a result of this knowledge and the extended pharmaceutical treatment options the LDL­C goals are amended to lower values. Patients at very high cardiovascular risk are recommended to achieve LDL­C <1.4 mmol/l (55 mg/dl). For patients with high, moderate, and low cardiovascular risks, LDL­C goals are set at <1.8 mmol/l (70 mg/dl), <2.6 mmol/l (100 mg/dl) and <3.0 mmol/l (116 mg/dl), respectively. A new classification of patients with recurrent cardiovascular events despite maximum tolerated statin-based therapy is introduced. For these patients the LDL­C goal is <1.0 mmol/l (40 mg/dl). Novel recommendations comprise a more precise classification of patients at low or moderate risk based on cardiovascular imaging, recommendations for familial hypercholesterolemia, screening for increased lipoprotein(a) and determination of apolipoprotein B as diagnostic and therapeutic goal.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes , Dislipidemias , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9
16.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 240, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cause of cerebral infarction, which could lead to endothelial dysfunction, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL).AF is associated with higher mortality and more severe neurologic disability. Statins may exert neuroprotective effects that are independent of LDL-C lowering. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether prestroke statins use could reduce plasma Ox-LDL levels and improve clinical outcomes in patients with AF-related acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: This was a multicenter prospective study that involved four medical centers, 242 AIS patients with AF were identified, who underwent a comprehensive clinical investigation and a 72 h-Holter electrocardiogram monitoring. All patients were divided into two groups: prestroke statins use and no prestroke statins use groups, who were followed up for 3 months. Plasma Ox-LDL levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on admission and at 3 months. The outcome was death, major disability (modified Rankin Scale score ≥ 3), and composite outcome (death/major disability) at 3 months after AIS. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-six patients were in no prestroke statins use group, and 106 in prestroke statins use group. Plasma Ox-LDL levels were significantly lower in prestroke statins use than in no prestroke statins use on admission and at 3 months (P < 0.001). Plasma Ox-LDL levels on admission were associated with 3-month mortality [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.99-1.12; P = 0.047]. In fully adjusted models, prestroke statins use was associated with reduced 3-month mortality [adjusted OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.16-0.91; P = 0.031)], major disability (adjusted OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.15-0.99; P = 0.047), and composite outcome (adjusted OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.17-0.74; P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Prestroke statins use can reduce plasma Ox-LDL levels and improve clinical outcomes in patients with AF-related AIS.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/efeitos dos fármacos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infarto Cerebral/sangue , Infarto Cerebral/etiologia , Infarto Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17404, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593092

RESUMO

Type 2 myocardial infarction (MI) is defined as myocardial necrosis due to imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand. The objective of this study was to assess the features, treatments, and outcomes of patients with type 2 MI in comparison with patients with type 1 MI hospitalized in general medical wards. A retrospective review was performed on patients admitted to general medicine wards diagnosed with MI in Sheba Medical Center between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2016. Comparative analysis between patients with type 1 and type 2 MI was performed. The study included 349 patients with type 1 MI and 206 patients with type 2 MI. The main provoking factors for type 2 MI were sepsis (38.1%), anemia (29.1%), and hypoxia (23.8%). Patients with type 2 MI were older (79.1 ±â€Š11.9 vs 75.2 ±â€Š11.7, P < .001) and had a lower rate of prior MI (23.3% vs 38.1%, P < .001) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (34% vs 48.7%, P = .023) compared with patients with type 1 MI. Patients with type 2 MI were significantly less prescribed antiplatelet therapy (79.1% vs 96%, P < .001) and statins (60.7% vs 80.2%, P < .001), and were less referred to coronary angiography (10.7% vs 54.4%, P < .001). Type 2 MI was associated with a significantly higher 1-year mortality rate compared with type 1 MI (38.8% vs 26.6%, P = .004), but after accounting for age and sex differences, this association lacked statistical significance. In conclusion, type 2 MI patients were older and had similar comorbidities compared with those with type 1 MI. These patients were less prescribed medical therapy and coronary intervention, and had a higher 1-year mortality rate. Establishing a clear therapeutic approach for type 2 MI is required.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Quartos de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17476, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593109

RESUMO

A population-based case-control study investigated possible association between statin use and risk of hip fracture among the elderly in Taiwan.The Taiwan National Health Insurance Program database was used to identify 7464 subjects aged 65 years or older with newly diagnosed hip fracture in 2000 to 2013. An additional 7464 subjects aged 65 years or older without hip fracture were randomly selected as the control group. Hip fracture cases and controls were matched for sex, age, comorbidities, and index year of hip fracture diagnosis. Statin use was defined as "current," "recent," or "past" if the patient's statin prescription was respectively filled <3, 3 to 6, or ≥6 months before the date of the hip fracture. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for hip fracture associated with statin use was estimated using the logistic regression model.The logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the odds of current statin use in cases with hip fracture were lower than the odds of current statin use in subjects without hip fracture (adjusted OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.65, 0.82).The odds of current statin use in cases with hip fracture were lower than the odds of current statin use in subjects without hip fracture in elderly people in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
20.
N Engl J Med ; 381(16): 1547-1556, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by severely elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and premature cardiovascular disease. The short-term efficacy of statin therapy in children is well established, but longer follow-up studies evaluating changes in the risk of cardiovascular disease are scarce. METHODS: We report a 20-year follow-up study of statin therapy in children. A total of 214 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (genetically confirmed in 98% of the patients), who were previously participants in a placebo-controlled trial evaluating the 2-year efficacy and safety of pravastatin, were invited for follow-up, together with their 95 unaffected siblings. Participants completed a questionnaire, provided blood samples, and underwent measurements of carotid intima-media thickness. The incidence of cardiovascular disease among the patients with familial hypercholesterolemia was compared with that among their 156 affected parents. RESULTS: Of the original cohort, 184 of 214 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (86%) and 77 of 95 siblings (81%) were seen in follow-up; among the 214 patients, data on cardiovascular events and on death from cardiovascular causes were available for 203 (95%) and 214 (100%), respectively. The mean LDL cholesterol level in the patients had decreased from 237.3 to 160.7 mg per deciliter (from 6.13 to 4.16 mmol per liter) - a decrease of 32% from the baseline level; treatment goals (LDL cholesterol <100 mg per deciliter [2.59 mmol per liter]) were achieved in 37 patients (20%). Mean progression of carotid intima-media thickness over the entire follow-up period was 0.0056 mm per year in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and 0.0057 mm per year in siblings (mean difference adjusted for sex, -0.0001 mm per year; 95% confidence interval, -0.0010 to 0.0008). The cumulative incidence of cardiovascular events and of death from cardiovascular causes at 39 years of age was lower among the patients with familial hypercholesterolemia than among their affected parents (1% vs. 26% and 0% vs. 7%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, initiation of statin therapy during childhood in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia slowed the progression of carotid intima-media thickness and reduced the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. (Funded by the AMC Foundation.).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Criança , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Incidência , Masculino , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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