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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(676-7): 92-98, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961093

RESUMO

This article reviews the novelties in the prevention and treatment of HIV infection as well as the perspectives for a potential cure. The PrEP is a key component in the prevention of infection and the control of the epidemic. In order to decrease long-term toxicities, two-drug antiretroviral regimens are being implemented. Long-acting injectable molecules show promising efficacy and safety and are long awaited for patients tired of taking daily pills. Concerning adverse events, the association between integrase inhibitors and weight gain as well as recent data on the safety of dolutegravir during pregnancy are presented. Finally, a second case of sustained virological suppression in a patient who received a stem cell transplant with a mutation of the co-receptor CCR5 was reported, renewing hopes for possible cure by gene therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis , Humanos
2.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 55(11): 669-682, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840682

RESUMO

Bictegravir (BIC), a second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) approved for HIV treatment in fixed-dose combination with emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide, has potent antiviral activity in vitro to wild-type virus and strains with resistance to first-generation INSTIs. As part of combination therapy, BIC's virologic suppression rates in clinical trials are comparable to those of first-line combination antiretroviral drug regimens. BIC has demonstrated a high genetic barrier to resistance development in vitro, can be administered with or without food, and has a bioavailability of > 70%. A median plasma half-life of 18 hours allows once-daily dosing. Clearance is primarily hepatic through cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) oxidation and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) glucuronidation. Thus, potent inducers of UGT1A1 and CYP3A4 (e.g., rifamycins/anticonvulsants) should be avoided due to significantly decreased BIC serum exposure. Chelation with polyvalent cations can decrease absorption; otherwise, drug-drug interactions are few. BIC is well tolerated; diarrhea, nausea and headache are the main adverse effects associated with its use.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/uso terapêutico , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Emtricitabina , Humanos
3.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 2271-2282, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371921

RESUMO

Purpose: Integrase inhibitor (INI)-containing regimens are increasingly replacing protease inhibitor(PI)-containing regimens in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the determinants of the durability of INI-containing regimens after the switch. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analysed all of the people with HIV infection attending the University of Milan's Infectious Diseases Unit at Luigi Sacco Hospital who were switched from a PI- to an INI-containing regimen between April 2008 and March 2017. The probability of remaining on an INI-containing regimen was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves, and the baseline clinical predictors of INI-containing regimen durability were assessed using a multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results: Three hundred and twelve patients were included in the analysis. The median time of observation was 21 months (interquartile range 10-36 months). The main reasons for switching from a PI-containing regimen to an INI-containing regimen were toxicities (31.4%) and simplification (31.1%). Univariate analysis revealed no difference in the probability of INI discontinuation between the patients treated with raltegravir, dolutegravir or elvitegravir (p=0.060), but the multivariable Cox regression model showed that the patients treated with dolutegravir were at less risk of discontinuation than those treated with raltegravir (adjusted hazard ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.26-0.95; p=0.034). Conclusion: Switching from a PI- to an INI-containing regimen may be an option for patients under virological control. The patients switched to dolutegravir were less likely to discontinue the INI than those switched to raltegravir. Our findings support this therapeutic strategy and highlight the durability and efficacy of dolutegravir containing-regimens after switching from a PI-containing regimen.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Raltegravir Potássico/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16866, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464915

RESUMO

This study evaluated whether the interval from the first clinic visit until the start of antiretroviral treatment (ART) was correlated with common parameters of immunological recovery among patients with early HIV infection (EHI).We reviewed the medical records of patients with EHI who started ART using integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (ISTIs) within the first 6 months after diagnosis. Simple linear regression analyses were performed to determine whether the interval from the first visit to the start of ART was correlated with 1-year changes in CD4+ cell count, CD8+ cell count, CD4+ percentage, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio.Fifty-three patients with probable or definite EHI started ART using ISTIs between April 2014 and August 2016. Forty-nine patients completed 1 year of follow-up, including 48 men. The routes of HIV transmission were 1 case of needle sharing, 5 cases of heterosexual activity, and 43 cases of men who had sex with men. None of the immunological recovery parameters were correlated with time to the start of ART (CD4+ cell count: R = .12, P = .42; CD8+ cell count: R = .107, P = .5; CD4+ percentage: R = .14, P = .34; CD4+/CD8+ ratio: R = .23, P = .14). Furthermore, subgroup sensitivity analyses failed to detect significant correlations based on definite or probable diagnoses, treatment using elvitegravir or dolutegravir, or the time from HIV diagnosis to ART initiation.This series of EHI cases indicate that using ART with ISTI-based regimens is efficacious and well-tolerated. However, earlier initiation of treatment was not significantly correlated with common parameters of immunological recovery.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Relação CD4-CD8 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Intervirology ; 62(2): 65-71, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to analyze for the first time in Morocco the integrase (IN) sequence variability among highly experienced HIV-1-infected patients with no prior IN strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) exposure who failed on reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors. METHODS: The HIV-1 IN region was sequenced from plasma samples of all 78 recruited patients. The amino acid IN sequences were HIV-1 subtyped and screened for the presence of polymorphisms against the HxB2 clade B consensus sequence by the geno2pheno subtyping tool and interpreted for drug resistance according to the Stanford algorithm. RESULTS: The viral subtypes were subtype B (88.4%), CRF02_AG (8.9%), CRF01_AE (1.28%), and subtype C (1.28%). The major INSTI resistance mutations at positions 66, 92, 118, 138, 140, 143, 147, 148, 155, and 263 were absent, while two accessory mutations, L74M/I, known to have no clinical impact to INSTIs in the absence of the major resistance mutations, were detected in three samples (3.84%; two CRF02_AG and one CRF01_AE). Others specific substitutions with an uncertain role on the HIV-1 susceptibility to INSTIs at positions 72, 101, 119, 124, 156, 165, 193, 201, 203, 206, 230, 232, and 249 were found to be relatively common. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that INSTIs should be an excellent alternative for salvage therapy in highly experienced patients with multidrug resistant viruses in Morocco.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral Múltipla/genética , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Integrase de HIV/genética , HIV-1/enzimologia , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos , Polimorfismo Genético , Terapia de Salvação , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
9.
N Engl J Med ; 381(9): 816-826, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An efavirenz-based regimen (with a 600-mg dose of efavirenz, known as EFV600) was the World Health Organization preferred first-line treatment for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection until June 2018. Given concerns about side effects, dolutegravir-based and low-dose efavirenz-based combinations have been considered as first-line treatments for HIV-1 in resource-limited settings. METHODS: We conducted an open-label, multicenter, randomized, phase 3 noninferiority trial in Cameroon. Adults with HIV-1 infection who had not received antiretroviral therapy and had an HIV-1 RNA level (viral load) of at least 1000 copies per milliliter were randomly assigned to receive either dolutegravir or the reference treatment of low-dose efavirenz (a 400-mg dose, known as EFV400), combined with tenofovir and lamivudine. The primary end point was the proportion of participants with a viral load of less than 50 copies per milliliter at week 48, on the basis of the Food and Drug Administration snapshot algorithm. The difference between treatment groups was calculated, and noninferiority was tested with a margin of 10 percentage points. RESULTS: A total of 613 participants received at least one dose of the assigned regimen. At week 48, a viral load of less than 50 copies per milliliter was observed in 231 of 310 participants (74.5%) in the dolutegravir group and in 209 of 303 participants (69.0%) in the EFV400 group, with a difference of 5.5 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.6 to 12.7; P<0.001 for noninferiority). Among those with a baseline viral load of at least 100,000 copies per milliliter, a viral load of less than 50 copies per milliliter was observed in 137 of 207 participants (66.2%) in the dolutegravir group and in 123 of 200 participants (61.5%) in the EFV400 group, with a difference of 4.7 percentage points (95% CI, -4.6 to 14.0). Virologic failure (a viral load of >1000 copies per milliliter) was observed in 3 participants in the dolutegravir group (with none acquiring drug-resistance mutations) and in 16 participants in the EFV400 group. More weight gain was observed in the dolutegravir group than in the EFV400 group (median weight gain, 5.0 kg vs. 3.0 kg; incidence of obesity, 12.3% vs. 5.4%). CONCLUSIONS: In HIV-1-infected adults in Cameroon, a dolutegravir-based regimen was noninferior to an EFV400-based reference regimen with regard to viral suppression at week 48. Among participants who had a viral load of at least 100,000 copies per milliliter when antiretroviral therapy was initiated, fewer participants than expected had viral suppression. (Funded by Unitaid and the French National Agency for AIDS Research; NAMSAL ANRS 12313 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02777229.).


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , HIV-1 , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , HIV-1/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lamivudina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez , RNA Viral/sangue , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
N Engl J Med ; 381(9): 827-840, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A preliminary safety signal for neural-tube defects was previously reported in association with dolutegravir exposure from the time of conception, which has affected choices of antiretroviral treatment (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women of reproductive potential. The signal can now be evaluated with data from follow-up of additional pregnancies. METHODS: We conducted birth-outcomes surveillance at hospitals throughout Botswana, expanding from 8 to 18 sites in 2018. Trained midwives performed surface examinations of all live-born and stillborn infants. Research assistants photographed abnormalities after maternal consent was obtained. The prevalence of neural-tube defects and major external structural defects according to maternal HIV infection and ART exposure status was determined. In the primary analyses, we used the Newcombe method to evaluate differences in prevalence with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: From August 2014 through March 2019, surveillance captured 119,477 deliveries; 119,033 (99.6%) had an infant surface examination that could be evaluated, and 98 neural-tube defects were identified (0.08% of deliveries). Among 1683 deliveries in which the mother was taking dolutegravir at conception, 5 neural-tube defects were found (0.30% of deliveries); the defects included two instances of myelomeningocele, one of anencephaly, one of encephalocele, and one of iniencephaly. In comparison, 15 neural-tube defects were found among 14,792 deliveries (0.10%) in which the mother was taking any non-dolutegravir ART at conception, 3 among 7959 (0.04%) in which the mother was taking efavirenz at conception, 1 among 3840 (0.03%) in which the mother started dolutegravir treatment during pregnancy, and 70 among 89,372 (0.08%) in HIV-uninfected mothers. The prevalence of neural-tube defects was higher in association with dolutegravir treatment at conception than with non-dolutegravir ART at conception (difference, 0.20 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01 to 0.59) or with other types of ART exposure. Major external structural defects were found in 0.95% of deliveries among women exposed to dolutegravir at conception and 0.68% of those among women exposed to non-dolutegravir ART at conception (difference, 0.27 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.13 to 0.87). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of neural-tube defects was slightly higher in association with dolutegravir exposure at conception than with other types of ART exposure at conception (3 per 1000 deliveries vs. 1 per 1000 deliveries). (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 81(3): 355-360, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV is produced in lymphoid tissues (LT) and stored on the follicular dendritic cell network in LT. When antiretroviral therapy is started, plasma viremia decays in 2 phases; the first within days of starting therapy and the second over weeks. Raltegravir (RAL), an integrase inhibitor, has been associated with only a single rapid phase of decay, and we speculated this may be due to higher intracellular concentration (IC) of RAL in LT. We have previously measured suboptimal ICs of antiretroviral therapy agents in LT, which were associated with slower decay of both vRNA+ cells and the follicular dendritic cell network pool. SETTING: Outpatient clinic at the Joint Clinical Research Center in Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: We compared the rate of decay in LT in people starting RAL with those starting efavirenz (EFV). RESULTS: There was no difference in the rate of virus decay in LT. The ratio of the ICs of RAL and EFV in lymph node to the concentration of drug that inhibits 95% of virus in blood was 1 log lower in lymph node for EFV and >3 logs lower for RAL. CONCLUSION: These data further highlight the challenges of drug delivery to LT in HIV infection and demonstrate that RAL is not superior to EFV as judged by direct measurements of the source of virus in LT.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Tecido Linfoide/virologia , Raltegravir Potássico/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Células Dendríticas Foliculares/virologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Hibridização In Situ , Linfonodos/virologia , Masculino , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 54(4): 487-490, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the tolerability and viro-immunological efficacy of dolutegravir-based regimens (DTG group) with regimens based on EVG, RAL, PI or NNRTI (NODTG group) in patients with acute HIV-1 infections (AHI). METHODS: All patients diagnosed with AHI and on antiretroviral therapy (ART) between January 2015 and December 2017 from five centers in Italy were included and followed-up to 30th April 2018. AHI was defined by the presence of the positive p24 antigen with negative or indeterminate western blot. RESULTS: Forty-three patients were enrolled: 20 in the DTG group, 23 in the NODTG group. Nine patients (20.9%; four in the DTG group, five in the NODTG group) were prescribed a four-drug regimen. In the cohort, 81.4% were Italian and 83.7% were male, with a median age of 41 years (interquartile range [IQR] 31-48). Median time between HIV diagnosis and ART initiation was 12 days (IQR 5-28). Seven patients harbored a virus with transmitted mutations at baseline (16.2%), all were in the DTG group (P=0.005). All patients had undetectable HIV-RNA at the end of follow-up except two patients, one of whom had 57 copies and one who was lost to follow-up. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, time to virological suppression was similar in the two groups (log rank: P= 0.7155). After achieving virological suppression, four patients stopped ART because of toxicity: two on DTG, two on EVG for neurological and gastrointestinal toxicity, respectively. CONCLUSION: In our setting, ART in AHI is started very early. DTG showed good viro-immunological efficacy even in the presence of NRTI-transmitted mutations. DTG interruptions were rare.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/efeitos adversos , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Int J STD AIDS ; 30(7): 680-688, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042101

RESUMO

Information on the virologic durability of modern antiretroviral regimens is important to clinicians. We aimed to describe virologic durability of first-line integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-, or protease inhibitor (PI)-based antiretroviral regimens. This was a retrospective study of antiretroviral-naïve patients that initiated first-line antiretroviral regimens with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and an INSTI, NNRTI, or PI between January 2006 and June 2016. The outcome was time to virologic failure, which was assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression models. There were 780 patients (median age = 37 years [interquartile range (IQR) = 30-45], 93.3% male, 56.2% Caucasian, median HIV duration = 1.8 years [IQR = 0.4-5.4], baseline log10 viral load [VL]=4.6 [IQR = 4.1-5.1], and baseline CD4+ cell count = 320 cells/µl [IQR = 217-440]). In total, 189/780 were on a third agent INSTI, 339/780 on a third agent NNRTI, and 252/780 on a third agent PI. Kaplan-Meier survival probability revealed longer time to virologic failure for INSTI, followed by NNRTI then PI (p < 0.001). Multivariable Cox regression revealed that being on an INSTI regimen (aHR = 0.27; 95%CI = 0.18-0.41) or NNRTI regimen (aHR = 0.64; 95%CI = 0.47-0.87) versus PI regimen, frequent VL testing (per year), (aHR = 0.64; 95%CI = 0.47-0.87), and duration of ART (aHR = 0.22; 95%CI = 0.17-0.30) (years) were inversely associated with time to virologic failure, and log10 of baseline VL (aHR = 1.94; 95%CI = 1.58-2.39 per log10) increased risk. Virologic failure was delayed and virologic durability prolonged for INSTI- compared to NNRTI- and PI-based regimens, supporting current antiretroviral therapy guidelines.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2005, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043606

RESUMO

A long-acting injectable formulation of the HIV integrase inhibitor cabotegravir (CAB-LA) is currently in clinical development for PrEP. Although the long plasma half-life of CAB-LA is an important attribute for PrEP, it also raises concerns about drug resistance emergence if someone becomes infected with HIV, or if PrEP is initiated during undiagnosed acute infection. Here we use a macaque model of SHIV infection to model risks of drug resistance to CAB-LA PrEP. Six macaques infected with SHIV received CAB-LA before seroconversion. We show integrase mutations G118R, E92G/Q, or G140R in plasma from 3/6 macaques as early as day 57, and identify G118R and E92Q in viruses from vaginal and rectal fluids. G118R and G140R confer > 800-fold resistance to CAB and cross-resistance to all licensed integrase inhibitors. Our results emphasize the need for appropriate HIV testing strategies before and possibly shortly after initiating CAB LA PrEP to exclude acute infection.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/farmacologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Piridonas/farmacologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/prevenção & controle , Doença Aguda , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Integrase de HIV/genética , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/sangue , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Macaca , Masculino , Piridonas/sangue , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Soroconversão , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/sangue , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Int J STD AIDS ; 30(6): 530-535, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074360

RESUMO

With the increasing incidence of chronic kidney disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the number of HIV-infected patients requiring hemodialysis has also increased. Dolutegravir is an integrase inhibitor that is a common component of HIV treatment regimens. Currently, there is no guidance regarding the use of dolutegravir in patients requiring hemodialysis. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the clinical correlates of safe and effective use of dolutegravir in hemodialysis. This was a retrospective cohort analysis of patients receiving dolutegravir and hemodialysis for at least six months at a single academic HIV medical clinic. The primary safety outcome was discontinuation of dolutegravir due to an adverse effect. The primary efficacy outcome was viral suppression six months after being on dolutegravir and hemodialysis simultaneously. Ten patients received dolutegravir while receiving hemodialysis for six months. No patients discontinued the medication during the six months. Eighty percent of the patients were virally suppressed at six months with 62.5% of those suppressed maintaining suppression and 37.5% achieving suppression over the course of the six months. In a retrospective review of ten patients receiving dolutegravir while on hemodialysis for at least six months, dolutegravir was generally safe and effective for use at standard dosages.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal/métodos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 32(3): 263-267, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037930

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: No data on resistance to HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors (InSTIs) in Argentina are available as access to these drugs and to integrase genotypic resistance test is limited. We aimed to evaluate the clinical profile of patients who underwent an integrase genotypic resistance test, prevalence of InSTI resistance mutations and predicted efficacy of raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir in our country. METHODS: Retrospective multicentric pilot survey from January 2011 to November 2017 of InSTI-failing patients assisted at two private and one public healthcare institutions located in Buenos Aires city, Argentina. RESULTS: Sixty seven patients were included. Patients had a median of 5 (4-7) prior treatments. All patients had InSTI-containing regimens (median exposure of 22.5 months); 94% were under raltegravir therapy and 71.9% had InSTI-resistance mutations. Predominant major mutations were N155H (35.1%), Q148H/R (15.8%) and G140A/S (14%). Considering Stanford HIVdb program, extremely low and identical activity of raltegravir and elvitegravir was described while dolutegravir remained either partially or fully active in 97.7% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Integrase resistance test was prescribed almost exclusively in heavily pretrated raltegravir-exposed patients. The three main mutational pathways were described, with a predominance of N155H. Despite almost null susceptibility and extensive cross resistance was shown among raltegravir and elvitegravir, dolutegravir remains active in the majority of patients.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/farmacologia , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiologia , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Raltegravir Potássico/farmacologia , Raltegravir Potássico/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 81(4): 481-486, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dolutegravir, an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (InSTI), is a major antiretroviral agent for HIV infection. Its use is promising, especially in low- and middle-income countries, because of a high resistance barrier and a good safety profile. Very recently, a World Health Organization safety signal has been raised regarding neural tube defects after the first-trimester exposure. Furthermore, to date, the experience is limited regarding the use of the other InSTI drugs (raltegravir and elvitegravir) during pregnancy. Our objective is to analyze the safety of InSTI drugs in pregnant women. SETTING: Nation-wide database cohort analysis. METHODS: We evaluated the risk of major birth defects according to EUROCAT classification in pregnant women, which had had a first-trimester exposure to dolutegravir, raltegravir, or elvitegravir. RESULTS: We found a major birth defect rate of 1.9% in the general population between 2012 and 2016. As InSTI drugs are not used as first-line therapy in pregnant women, we found a very low exposure in this population. Among 49, 240, and 70 pregnancy outcomes exposed to dolutegravir, raltegravir, and elvitegravir, respectively, during the first trimester, there were 2, 3, and 1 major birth defects, respectively. There was no case of neural tube defect. CONCLUSIONS: Drug exposure to InSTI is limited in our nation-wide database. Nevertheless, our data do not support a pharmacovigilance signal on neural tube defects in women exposed to dolutegravir, raltegravir or elvitegravir during pregnancy. Owing to a small number of pregnancy outcomes, these results need to be confirmed with further studies.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Gravidez/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , França , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Farmacovigilância , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Raltegravir Potássico/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J STD AIDS ; 30(5): 467-471, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999834

RESUMO

Raltegravir (RAL) is an HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor that is well established as a component of highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens for the treatment of adults living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), due to its high virological efficacy and good tolerability profile. To date, limited data are available on the use of RAL with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC). We investigated retrospectively 62 HIV-1 infected patients managed by three Italian Infectious Diseases Outpatient Departments, including 57 treatment-experienced patients and 5 treatment-naïve patients, treated with ABC/3TC plus RAL. In all five naïve patients (100%), virological suppression was achieved and maintained , while 55 experienced patients (96.5%) maintained viral suppression at the most recent review. In the treatment-experienced patients, we observed a significant decrease in triglyceride levels (p < 0.01), while liver transaminases, renal function and cholesterol levels remained substantially stable. In the 34 treatment-experienced patients who switched from a protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimen, we observed a significant improvement of total cholesterol (p=0.03) and triglyceride (p < 0.01) levels. No significant alterations were found on renal and liver function and serum lipid profile of treatment-naïve patients. Despite the small number of participants, results support the efficacy and safety of ABC/3TC plus RAL, either in treatment-naïve or treatment-experienced patients.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Didesoxinucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Raltegravir Potássico/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Colesterol/sangue , Didesoxinucleosídeos/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Lamivudina/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Raltegravir Potássico/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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