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1.
Anticancer Res ; 42(4): 2017-2022, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To assess response rates and survival in patients with recurrent platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who received PARP inhibitor (PARP-i) maintenance and who subsequently underwent salvage chemotherapy for disease progression after PARPi. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective investigation analyzed 103 patients who were treated in five Italian Gynecologic centers. The PARPi used was olaparib in 46 patients, niraparib in 55, and rucaparib in 2. The interval time between the last cycle of pre- PARPi platinum-based chemotherapy and the diagnosis of progression during PARPi maintenance was defined as platinum-free interval (PFI). RESULTS: Of the 28 patients with PFI <6 months, 23 received chemotherapy (non-platinum single agent, 20; trabectedin + pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), 3). Forty-two of the 43 patients with PFI 6-12 months underwent chemotherapy (platinum-based chemotherapy,11; trabectedin + PLD, 10; non platinum-single agent, 21). Thirty-one of the 32 patients with PFI >12 months received chemotherapy (platinum-based chemotherapy, 23; trabectedin + PLD, 3; non platinum - single agent, 5). An objective response was found in 13.0%, 26.2% and 41.9 % of the patients with PFI <6 months, 6-12 months, and >12 months (p= 0.03), respectively, and the corresponding median survivals after PARPi were 8.9 months, 17.5 months and 24.1 months (p= 0.002), respectively. CONCLUSION: Before the PARPi era, some randomized trials on platinum rechallenge in patients with recurrent EOC after more than 6 months from the last platinum cycle have shown response rates ranging from 47.2% to 66%. Response rates to chemotherapy for progression after PARPi appear to be lower than those expected according to PFI.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 87(4): 331-345, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527371

RESUMO

Reaction of (ADP-ribosyl)ation catalyzed by DNA-dependent proteins of the poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) family, PARP1, PARP2, and PARP3, comprises the cellular response to DNA damage. These proteins are involved in the base excision repair (BER) process. Despite the extensive research, it remains unknown how PARPs are involved in the regulation of the BER process and how the roles are distributed between the DNA-dependent members of the PARP family. Here, we investigated the interaction of the PARP's family DNA-dependent proteins with nucleosome core particles containing DNA intermediates of the initial stages of BER. To do that, the nucleosomes containing damage in the vicinity of one of the DNA duplex blunt ends were reconstituted based on the Widom's Clone 603 DNA sequence. Dissociation constants of the PARP complexes with nucleosomes bearing DNA contained uracil (Native), apurine/apyrimidine site (AP site), or a single-nucleotide gap with 5'-dRp fragment (Gap) were determined. It was shown that the affinity of the proteins for the nucleosomes increased in the row: PARP3<

Assuntos
Nucleossomos , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , DNA/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA
3.
Investig Clin Urol ; 63(3): 350-358, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534220

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to verify the effects of atorvastatin (ATO) on prostate cancer (PCa) proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis and to further explore the drug's mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) and clone formation experiments to study the effect of ATO on the proliferation of PC3 cells. Flow cytometry and Hoechst 33342 staining were used to detect cell apoptosis. Cell migration and invasion were detected through wound healing experiments and transwell experiments. Western blotting was applied to detect apoptosis-related proteins (BAX, Bcl-2, PARP, and Caspase-3), epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) proteins, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. A mouse xenograft tumor model was established, and tumor volume and weight were determined. The expression levels of the above-mentioned proteins were determined through western blot. RESULTS: ATO inhibited PC-3 cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. ATO significantly up-regulated the expression of BAX, PARP, and Caspase-3 and inhibited the expression of Bcl-2. Wound healing and transwell experiments showed that ATO inhibited invasion and metastasis in PC-3 cells, possibly because ATO could inhibit the EMT and the expression of MMPs in PC-3 cells. Studies in nude mice showed that ATO significantly reduced tumor volume and weight; the expression levels of related proteins were consistent with the in vitro results. CONCLUSIONS: ATO inhibits the occurrence and development of PCa and regulates the migration and invasion of PCa cells by inhibiting the EMT and MMPs.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias da Próstata , Animais , Atorvastatina/farmacologia , Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Caspase 3/farmacologia , Caspase 3/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/farmacologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2400, 2022 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504881

RESUMO

Improved survival rates for prostate cancer through more effective therapies have also led to an increase in the diagnosis of metastases to infrequent locations such as the brain. Here we investigate the repertoire of somatic genetic alterations present in brain metastases from 51 patients with prostate cancer brain metastases (PCBM). We highlight the clonal evolution occurring in PCBM and demonstrate an increased mutational burden, concomitant with an enrichment of the homologous recombination deficiency mutational signature in PCBM compared to non-brain metastases. Focusing on known pathogenic alterations within homologous recombination repair genes, we find 10 patients (19.6%) fulfilling the inclusion criteria used in the PROfound clinical trial, which assessed the efficacy of PARP inhibitors (PARPi) in homologous recombination deficient prostate cancer. Eight (15.7%) patients show biallelic loss of one of the 15 genes included in the trial, while 5 patients (9.8%) harbor pathogenic alterations in BRCA1/2 specifically. Uncovering these molecular features of PCBM may have therapeutic implications, suggesting the need of clinical trial enrollment of PCBM patients when evaluating potential benefit from PARPi.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Neoplasias da Próstata , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação/genética
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408845

RESUMO

Cancer cells are known to have chromosomal number abnormalities (aneuploidy), a hallmark of malignant tumors. Cancer cells also have an increased number of centrosomes (centrosome amplification). Paradoxically, cancer therapies, including γ-irradiation and some anticancer drugs, are carcinogenic and can induce centrosome amplification and chromosomal aneuploidy. Thus, the processes of carcinogenesis and killing cancer cells might have some mechanisms in common. Previously, we found that the inhibitors of polyADP-ribosylation, a post-translational modification of proteins, caused centrosome amplification. However, the mechanism of action of the inhibitors of polyADP-ribosylation is not fully understood. In this study, we found that an inhibitor of polyADP-ribosylation, 3-aminobenzamide, caused centrosome amplification, as well as aneuploidy of chromosomes in CHO-K1 cells. Moreover, inhibitors of polyADP-ribosylation inhibited AKT phosphorylation, and inhibitors of AKT phosphorylation inhibited polyADP-ribosylation, suggesting the involvement of polyADP-ribosylation in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway for controlling cell proliferation. Our data suggest a possibility for developing drugs that induce centrosome amplification and aneuploidy for therapeutic applications to clinical cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Aneuploidia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Centrossomo/metabolismo , Instabilidade Cromossômica , Cromossomos/metabolismo , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
6.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 6: e2100461, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476551

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) are used for patients with advanced prostate cancer bearing alterations in homologous recombination repair (HRR) genes. We sought to characterize HRR gene variants and describe real-world outcomes for patients on PARPi. METHODS: The US Department of Veterans Affairs' National Precision Oncology Program's database was reviewed to identify patients who underwent somatic DNA sequencing and were prescribed a PARPi before May 15, 2020. Somatic and germline variants within HRR genes were reported, and pathogenicity was reviewed via OncoKB. In patients treated with PARPi for > 4 weeks, the rate of those achieving a 30% decrease in prostate-specific antigen (PSA30) and composite progression-free survival (PFS) were compared between patients bearing pathogenic variants of BRCA2 and patients without these variants using Mann-Whitney and log-rank tests, respectively. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients bearing 67 total HRR gene variants were prescribed PARPi for prostate cancer. Twenty-one patients (43.8%) were found to have at least one pathogenic HRR gene variant. Eight (16.6%) were referred to genetic counseling, and five (10.4%) were ultimately confirmed with germline variants. The median PFS was 4.0 months, and PSA30 was 25.6% (11 of 43) for all 43 evaluable patients. Patients with pathogenic BRCA2 variants (n = 13) had higher PSA30 (69.2% v 4.0%; P < .001) and longer PFS (7.2 v 2.8 months; P = .0291) than those without. CONCLUSION: In a real-world setting, heavily pretreated patients with prostate cancer and pathogenic BRCA2 variants have a significant PSA response rate and a PFS > 7 months with PARPi. This work emphasizes the importance of determining pathogenicity and origin of HRR alterations to better inform clinical treatment decisions and highlights the need for provider education and other decision support tools.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , Neoplasias da Próstata , Difosfato de Adenosina , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Medicina de Precisão , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação/genética , Ribose , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Pharmacol Res ; 179: 106232, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462012

RESUMO

With the common use of poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) for the man-agement of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) across the treatment life cycle, there is a critical need for the development of functional tests, as a complementary to genomic assays, in the study of PARPi sensitivity and resistance. Patient-derived organoids (PDOs) are found feasible for rapid functional testing and predicting drug response. Here, we established a series of PDOs from EOC and tested the sensitivity of seven cases to various agents including PARPi. PDOs recapitulated patient clinical response to platinum chemotherapy and displayed drug response heterogeneity to targeted agents including PARPi. Of three PDOs harboring mutational signature of homologous recombination repair (HRR) deficiency, two were PARPi sensitive while one was inherent resistant. Another PDO derived from a patient who relapsed during olaparib maintenance therapy was found acquired resistant to PARPi. Subsequent functional analysis revealed the potential resistant mechanisms related to replication fork protection and HRR functional restoration, and combination strategies targeting the mechanisms could reverse the resistance. Our research demonstrated the capacity of EOC PDOs for evaluating the sensitivity to PARPi under different settings, exploring mechanisms of resistance, and identifying effective combined strategies, which has implications for the clinical application of PARPi.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Humanos , Organoides , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(4)2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444023

RESUMO

Over the past decade, the treatment of ovarian cancer has been revolutionised by poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP)) inhibitors. Based on the results from clinical trials, olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, is indicated for use in the first-line treatment for patients with BRCA gene mutations, and as a maintenance treatment in platinum-sensitive relapsed ovarian cancer after a complete or partial response to platinum-based chemotherapy. Although PARP inhibitors have been shown to be well tolerated, adverse side effects can affect the quality of life of patients and lead to the discontinuation of therapy. Here, we report a case of dermatosis of the left dorsal hand as a rare adverse side effect of olaparib. Dermatological adverse side effects may become the crux of a clinical problem that requires the cooperation of professionals in many fields.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Ftalazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida
9.
Cells ; 11(8)2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456022

RESUMO

Herein, the apoptotic mechanism of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucopyranose (PGG) was examined in cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells. PGG significantly reduced viability; increased sub-G1 accumulation and the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells; induced the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspases (8,9,3,7), B-cell lymphoma protein 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X (Bax) and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN); and attenuated the expression of p-AKT, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin in A549/cisplatin-resistant (CR) and H460/CR cells. Notably, PGG activated p53, p-checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) and p-H2A histone family member X (p-H2AX), with increased levels of DNA damage (DSBs) evaluated by highly expressed pH2AX and DNA fragmentation registered on comet assay, while p53 knockdown reduced the ability of PGG to reduce viability and cleave caspase 3 and PARP in A549/CR and H460/CR cells. Additionally, PGG treatment suppressed the growth of H460/CR cells in Balb/c athymic nude mice with increased caspase 3 expression compared with the cisplatin group. Overall, PGG induces apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells via the upregulation of DNA damage proteins such as γ-H2AX, pCHK2 and p53.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Cisplatino , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Animais , Apoptose , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/metabolismo , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Glucose , Humanos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Fosforilação , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457012

RESUMO

MicroRNA (miRNA) acts as a critical regulator of growth in various human malignancies. However, the role of miRNA-3614 in the progression of human prostate cancer remains unknown. In this study, our results demonstrated that miRNA-3614-5p exerts a significant inhibitory effect on cell viability and colony formation and induces sub-G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) acts as a master regulator of cell survival. Using the miRNA databases, miRNA-3614-5p was found to regulate Mcl-1 expression by targeting positions of the Mcl-1-3' UTR. The reduction of Mcl-1 expression by miRNA-3614-5p was further confirmed using an immunoblotting assay. Pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were significantly activated by miRNA-3614-5p to generate cleaved caspase-3 (active caspase-3) and cleaved PARP (active PARP), accompanied by the inhibited Mcl-1 expression. These findings were the first to demonstrate the anti-growth effects of miRNA-3614-5p through downregulating Mcl-1 expression in human prostate cancer cells.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Neoplasias da Próstata , Apoptose , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo
11.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 23(6): 887-903, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412195

RESUMO

OPINION STATEMENT: Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) are a class of anti-cancer drugs that target DNA repair pathways and have shown promising efficacy in patients with ovarian cancer in recent clinical trials. To date, there have been 9 FDA PARPi approvals/indications in ovarian cancer since 2014, highlighting the importance of this class of agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer. BRCA1/2-mutated tumors or other forms of homologous recombination deficient (HRD) tumors are particularly susceptible to PARP inhibition and have seen the greatest benefits of improvement in response rate and progression-free survival (PFS) in clinical trials. Patients with homologous recombination-proficient tumors also receive benefit, especially when a nice response to paltinum is noted, but to a lesser extent. PARP inhibitors now have FDA approval and indications in first-line and recurrent maintenance, and treatment. PARP inhibitor use as maintenance therapy in the front-line setting is now considered the standard of care in patients with BRCA1/2 mutations based on the SOLO-1/GOG-3004/ENGOT study. PARP inhibitors are also recommended per ASCO guidelines in all patients with ovarian cancer as front-line maintenance therapy based on the PRIMA/ENGOT-OV26/GOG-3012 trial. The combination of PARP inhibitor, olaparib, and the anti-angiogenesis inhibitor bevacizumab is also approved as maintenance therapy after front-line chemotherapy treatment in patients with HRD tumors and is an option for patients who have initiated bevacizumab with their chemotherapy treatment. PARPi are also FDA approved and can be utilized as a treatment in third-line and beyond in recurrent ovarian cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations and HRD tumors. In this review, we will cover in detail when PARP inhibitor use is appropriate in ovarian cancer, as well as the various clinical factors to take into consideration when selecting a PARP inhibitor regimen.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico
12.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 21(4): 647-657, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35373300

RESUMO

High-grade serous ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic malignancy due to progression to resistant disease. Claudin-4 is classically defined as a tight junction protein and is often associated with epithelial cancers. Claudin-4 is aberrantly expressed in nearly 70% of all ovarian cancer tumors and conveys a worse overall prognosis. Elevated claudin-4 expression correlates to increased DNA repair activity and resistance to DNA damaging agents. PARP inhibitors are emerging as an effective therapeutic option for patients with ovarian cancer and function by promoting DNA damage. The study examines the relationship between claudin-4 expression and the response to PARP inhibitors using both genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of claudin-4 in in vitro and ex vivo models of ovarian cancer to examine DNA repair markers and functional activity. Genetic inhibition of claudin-4 results in the downregulation of several DNA damage repair effectors, including 53BP1 and XRCC1. Claudin-4 knockdown did not change homology-directed repair but inhibited nonhomologous end-joining and reduced 53BP1 foci formation. In 15 primary ovarian cancer tumors, higher claudin-4 expression significantly correlated to a dampened PARP inhibitor-mediated antiproliferation response. Further, claudin-4 inhibition in high claudin-4 tumors sensitized tumor sections to PARP inhibition. These data highlight that claudin-4 expression in ovarian cancer tumors could serve as both a marker of PARP inhibitor response and a therapeutic target to improve PARP inhibitor response.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , Claudina-4/genética , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Proteína 1 Complementadora Cruzada de Reparo de Raio-X/genética
13.
Epigenetics Chromatin ; 15(1): 11, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), a posttranslational modification introduced by PARP-1 and PARP-2, has first been implicated in DNA demethylation due to its role in base excision repair. Recent evidence indicates a direct influence of PARP-dependent PARylation on TET enzymes which catalyse hydroxymethylation of DNA-the first step in DNA demethylation. However, the exact nature of influence that PARylation exerts on TET activity is still ambiguous. In our recent study, we have observed a negative influence of PARP-1 on local TET-mediated DNA demethylation of a single gene and in this study, we further explore PARP-TET interplay. RESULTS: Expanding on our previous work, we show that both TET1 and TET2 can be in vitro PARylated by PARP-1 and PARP-2 enzymes and that TET1 PARylation negatively affects the TET1 catalytic activity in vitro. Furthermore, we show that PARylation inhibits TET-mediated DNA demethylation at the global genome level in cellulo. CONCLUSIONS: According to our findings, PARP inhibition can positively influence TET activity and therefore affect global levels of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation. This gives a strong rationale for future examination of PARP inhibitors' potential use in the therapy of cancers characterised by loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine.


Assuntos
Poli ADP Ribosilação , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , DNA/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Reparo do DNA , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409229

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer (OC) has a high impact on morbidity and mortality in the female population. Survival is modest after platinum progression. Therefore, the search for new therapeutic strategies is of utmost importance. BRCA mutations and HR-deficiency occur in around 50% of OC, leading to increased response and survival after Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis) administration. PARPis represent a breakthrough for OC therapy, with three different agents approved. On the contrary, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), another breakthrough therapy for many solid tumors, led to modest results in OC, without clinical approvals and even withdrawal of clinical trials. Therefore, combinations aiming to overcome resistance mechanisms have become of great interest. Recently, PARPis have been evidenced to modulate tumor microenvironment at the molecular and cellular level, potentially enhancing ICIs responsiveness. This represents the rationale for the combined administration of PARPis and ICIs. Our review ought to summarize the preclinical and translational features that support the contemporary administration of these two drug classes, the clinical trials conducted so far, and future directions with ongoing studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral
15.
Ren Fail ; 44(1): 137-145, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sustained type I interferon (IFN) activation via Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3, 7 and 9 signaling has been reported to play a pivotal role in the development of lupus nephritis (LN). Although type I IFN activation has been shown to induce interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) expression in systemic lupus erythematosus, the implication of ISGs expression in intrinsic glomerular cells remains largely unknown. METHODS: We treated cultured human glomerular endothelial cells (GECs) with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly IC), R848, and CpG (TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 agonists, respectively) and analyzed the expression of DExD/H-Box Helicase 60 (DDX60), a representative ISG, using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Additionally, RNA interference against IFN-ß or DDX60 was performed. Furthermore, cleavage of caspase 9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), markers of cells undergoing apoptosis, was examined using western blotting. We conducted an immunofluorescence study to examine endothelial DDX60 expression in biopsy specimens from patients with LN. RESULTS: We observed that endothelial expression of DDX60 was induced by poly IC but not by R848 or CpG, and RNA interference against IFN-ß inhibited poly IC-induced DDX60 expression. DDX60 knockdown induced cleavage of caspase 9 and PARP. Intense endothelial DDX60 expression was observed in biopsy specimens from patients with diffuse proliferative LN. CONCLUSION: Glomerular endothelial DDX60 expression may prevent apoptosis, which is involved in the pathogenesis of LN. Modulating the upregulation of the regional innate immune system via TLR3 signaling may be a promising treatment target for LN.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box , Nefrite Lúpica , Receptor 3 Toll-Like , Antivirais , Caspase 9/metabolismo , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon beta/farmacologia , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408915

RESUMO

Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are pivotal mediators and effectors of the DNA damage response (DDR) that regulate both the pathway components and proteins involved in repair processes. Synthetic lethality (SL) describes a situation in which two genes are linked in such a way that the lack of functioning of just one maintains cell viability, while depletion of both triggers cell death. Synthetic lethal interactions involving CDKs are now emerging, and this can be used to selectively target tumor cells with DNA repair defects. In this review, SL interactions of CDKs with protooncogene products MYC, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1), and cellular tumor antigen p53 (TP53) are discussed. The individual roles of each of the SL partners in DDR are described.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , Mutações Sintéticas Letais , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/genética , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo
17.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(6): 2515-2526, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35414773

RESUMO

Rationale: In multiple myeloma (MM), the activities of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair (HR) are increased compared with healthy controls. Whether and how IKZF1 as an enhancer of MM participates in the DNA repair pathway of tumor cells remains elusive. Methods: We used an endonuclease AsiSI-based system and quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (qChIP) analysis to test whether IKZF1 is involved in DNA repair. Immunopurification and mass spectrometric (MS) analysis were performed in MM1.S cells to elucidate the molecular mechanism that IKZF1 promotes DNA damage repair. The combination effect of lenalidomide or USP7 inhibitor with PARP inhibitor on cell proliferation was evaluated using MM cells in vitro and in vivo. Results: We demonstrate that IKZF1 specifically promotes homologous recombination DNA damage repair in MM cells, which is regulated by its interaction with CtIP and USP7. In this process, USP7 could regulate the stability of IKZF1 through its deubiquitinating activity. The N-terminal zinc finger domains of IKZF1 and the ubiquitin-like domain of USP7 are necessary for their interaction. Furthermore, targeted inhibition IKZF1 or USP7 could sensitize MM cells to PARP inhibitor treatment in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: Our findings identify USP7 as a deubiquitinating enzyme for IKZF1 and uncover a new function of IKZF1 in DNA damage repair. In translational perspective, the combination inhibition of IKZF1 or USP7 with PARP inhibitor deserves further evaluation in clinical trials for the treatment of MM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Mieloma Múltiplo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Reparo do DNA/genética , Endodesoxirribonucleases , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/genética , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/metabolismo , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação , Peptidase 7 Específica de Ubiquitina/genética , Peptidase 7 Específica de Ubiquitina/metabolismo
18.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 89(5): 683-695, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35419627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the use of PARP inhibitor has received considerable amount of attention in ovarian cancer, PARP inhibitor resistance still emerges with disease progression. PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitors have been proposed to synergize with PARP inhibition to slow tumor growth, but the exact molecular mechanisms are still elusive. METHODS: Utilizing tumor samples from recurrent EOC patients with platinum resistance and prior PARP inhibitor use, Mini PDX and PDX models were established to study the anti-tumor effect of AKT inhibitor (LAE003) and LAE003/PARP inhibitor (Olaparib) in combination. Five ovarian cancer cell lines were treated with Olaparib or LAE003 or in combination in vitro. Cell viability and apoptosis rate were measured after the treatments. Combination index by the Chou-Talalay was used to evaluate in vitro combination effect of Olaparib and LAE003. The protein expression level of PARP1 and PAR was measured by Western blot in cell lines and by immunohistochemistry in PDX tumor tissues. RESULTS: Tumor cells from two out of five platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patients previously treated with PARP inhibitor were sensitive to AKT inhibition in Mini-PDX study. Inhibition of AKT further increased the response of tumor cells to Olaparib in a PDX model derived from a recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer patient. Additive anti-proliferation effect of LAE003 and Olaparib was also observed in three ovarian cancer cell lines with high PARP1 protein level. Interestingly, mechanism study revealed that AKT inhibition decreased PARP enzyme activity as measured by PAR level and/or reduced PARP1 protein level in the tumor cell lines and PDX tumor tissues, which may explain the observed combined anti-tumor effect of LAE003 and Olaparib. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results suggest that the combination of AKT inhibitor and PARP inhibitor could be a viable approach for clinical testing in recurrent ovarian cancer patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase , Ftalazinas/farmacologia , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1 , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 89(5): 721-735, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435472

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutated cancers (BRCAmut) have intrinsic sensitivity to PARP inhibitors due to deficiency in homologous recombination-mediated DNA repair. There are similarities between BRCAmut and BRCAwt ovarian and basal-like breast cancers. This phase I study determined the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) and preliminary efficacy of the PARP inhibitor, veliparib (ABT-888), in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients (n = 98) were dosed with veliparib 50-500 mg twice daily (BID). The BRCAmut cohort (n = 70) contained predominantly ovarian (53%) and breast (23%) cancers; the BRCAwt cohort (n = 28) consisted primarily of breast cancer (86%). The MTD, DLT, adverse events, PK, PD, and clinical response were assessed. RESULTS: DLTs were grade 3 nausea/vomiting at 400 mg BID in a BRCAmut carrier, grade 2 seizure at 400 mg BID in a patient with BRCAwt cancer, and grade 2 seizure at 500 mg BID in a BRCAmut carrier. Common toxicities included nausea (65%), fatigue (45%), and lymphopenia (38%). Grade 3/4 toxicities were rare (highest lymphopenia at 15%). Overall response rate (ORR) was 23% (95% CI 13-35%) in BRCAmut overall, and 37% (95% CI 21-55%) at 400 mg BID and above. In BRCAwt, ORR was 8% (95% CI 1-26%), and clinical benefit rate was 16% (95% CI 4-36%), reflecting prolonged stable disease in some patients. PK was linear with dose and was correlated with response and nausea. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous veliparib is safe and tolerable. The RP2D was 400 mg BID. There is evidence of clinical activity of veliparib in patients with BRCAmut and BRCAwt cancers.


Assuntos
Linfopenia , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Benzimidazóis , Feminino , Humanos , Linfopenia/induzido quimicamente , Linfopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Platina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/efeitos adversos , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 607: 89-95, 2022 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367833

RESUMO

DNA repair processes represent attractive synthetic lethal targets because many cancers exhibit impaired DNA repair pathways, which leads to dependence on specific repair proteins. The finding that poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 inhibitors are highly effective against cancers with deficient homologous recombination highlights the potential of this approach. In hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection, degradation of the structural maintenance of the chromosome 5/6 (Smc5/6) complex, which plays a key role in repairing double-stranded DNA breaks by homologous recombination, is induced by HBV regulatory protein X (HBx). Here, we hypothesized that a deficiency in the Smc5/6 complex in HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) increases susceptibility to PARP inhibitors via a deficiency in homologous recombination. We confirmed impaired double-stranded DNA break repair in HBx-expressing HCC cells using a sensitive reporter to monitor homologous recombination. Treatment with a PARP inhibitor was significantly more effective against HBx-expressing HCC cells, and overexpression of Smc5/6 prevented these effects. Overall, our results suggest that homologous recombination deficiency in HBV-associated HCC leads to increased susceptibility to PARP inhibitors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Recombinação Homóloga , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/farmacologia , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/genética
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