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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1052, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594070

RESUMO

The parasitic protist Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of Human African Trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness. The parasite enters the blood via the bite of the tsetse fly where it is wholly reliant on glycolysis for the production of ATP. Glycolytic enzymes have been regarded as challenging drug targets because of their highly conserved active sites and phosphorylated substrates. We describe the development of novel small molecule allosteric inhibitors of trypanosome phosphofructokinase (PFK) that block the glycolytic pathway resulting in very fast parasite kill times with no inhibition of human PFKs. The compounds cross the blood brain barrier and single day oral dosing cures parasitaemia in a stage 1 animal model of human African trypanosomiasis. This study demonstrates that it is possible to target glycolysis and additionally shows how differences in allosteric mechanisms may allow the development of species-specific inhibitors to tackle a range of proliferative or infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfofrutoquinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Trypanosoma/enzimologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/metabolismo , Tripanossomíase Africana/parasitologia , Doença Aguda , Regulação Alostérica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Camundongos , Parasitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfofrutoquinases/química , Fosfofrutoquinases/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Multimerização Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Trypanosoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Tripanossomíase Africana/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Nat Med ; 27(1): 165-173, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442015

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) are progressive, multicellular neoplasms that cause morbidity and may transform to sarcoma. Treatment of Nf1fl/fl;Postn-Cre mice with cabozantinib, an inhibitor of multiple tyrosine kinases, caused a reduction in PN size and number and differential modulation of kinases in cell lineages that drive PN growth. Based on these findings, the Neurofibromatosis Clinical Trials Consortium conducted a phase II, open-label, nonrandomized Simon two-stage study to assess the safety, efficacy and biologic activity of cabozantinib in patients ≥16 years of age with NF1 and progressive or symptomatic, inoperable PN ( NCT02101736 ). The trial met its primary outcome, defined as ≥25% of patients achieving a partial response (PR, defined as ≥20% reduction in target lesion volume as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) after 12 cycles of therapy. Secondary outcomes included adverse events (AEs), patient-reported outcomes (PROs) assessing pain and quality of life (QOL), pharmacokinetics (PK) and the levels of circulating endothelial cells and cytokines. Eight of 19 evaluable (42%) trial participants achieved a PR. The median change in tumor volume was 15.2% (range, +2.2% to -36.9%), and no patients had disease progression while on treatment. Nine patients required dose reduction or discontinuation of therapy due to AEs; common AEs included gastrointestinal toxicity, hypothyroidism, fatigue and palmar plantar erythrodysesthesia. A total of 11 grade 3 AEs occurred in eight patients. Patients with PR had a significant reduction in tumor pain intensity and pain interference in daily life but no change in global QOL scores. These data indicate that cabozantinib is active in NF1-associated PN, resulting in tumor volume reduction and pain improvement.


Assuntos
Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/tratamento farmacológico , Neurofibromatose 1/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anilidas/efeitos adversos , Anilidas/farmacocinética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Genes da Neurofibromatose 1 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/genética , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/patologia , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/patologia , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/farmacocinética , Qualidade de Vida , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Adulto Jovem
3.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 45(6): 801-808, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sorafenib is an oral, multikinase inhibitor with established single-agent activity in several tumor types. Sorafenib was moderately transported by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and more efficiently by breast cancer resistance protein. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in P-gp regulation in the brain microvasculature. Paracetamol is a CAR activator. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of paracetamol on the brain uptake of sorafenib and sorafenib N-oxide. METHODS: The rats were assigned to two groups-rats receiving oral paracetamol 100 mg/kg and sorafenib 100 mg/kg (n = 42, ISR+PA) and rats receiving oral vehicle and sorafenib 100 mg/kg (n = 42, IISR). The sorafenib and sorafenib N-oxide concentrations in blood plasma and brain tissue were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection. Brain-to-plasma partition coefficient (Kp) was calculated as a ratio of the area under the curve from zero to 24 h (AUC) in the brain and plasma. A drug targeting index (DTI) was estimated as the group ISR+PA Kp to group IISR Kp ratio. RESULTS: Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed increased brain exposure to sorafenib and sorafenib N-oxide after co-administration of paracetamol. The brain maximum concentration (Cmax) and the AUC of the parent drug in the ISR+PA group compared with the IISR group were greater by 49.5 and 77.8%, respectively, and the same parameters for the metabolite were higher by 51.4 and 50.9%. However, the Kp values of sorafenib and sorafenib N-oxide did not differ significantly between the two animal groups and the DTI values were close to 1. CONCLUSION: Paracetamol increases exposure to sorafenib and sorafenib N-oxide in the brain, likely due to increased exposure in plasma.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/farmacologia , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Sorafenibe/farmacocinética , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Masculino , Veículos Farmacêuticos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
4.
J Med Chem ; 63(13): 6748-6773, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479083

RESUMO

A series of N-phenyl-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-amine derivatives with NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK) inhibitory activity were obtained through structure-based drug design and synthetic chemistry. Among them, 4-(3-((7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-4-morpholinophenyl)-2-(thiazol-2-yl)but-3-yn-2-ol (12f) was identified as a highly potent NIK inhibitor, along with satisfactory selectivity. The pharmacokinetics of 12f and its ability to inhibit interleukin 6 secretion in BEAS-2B cells were better than compound 1 developed by Amgen. Oral administration of different doses of 12f in an imiquimod-induced psoriasis mouse model showed effective alleviation of psoriasis, including invasive erythema, swelling, skin thickening, and scales. The underlying pathological mechanism involved attenuation of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression, and the infiltration of macrophages after the treatment of 12f. This work provides a foundation for the development of NIK inhibitors, highlighting the potential of developing NIK inhibitors as a new strategy for the treatment of psoriasis.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/química , Animais , Cães , Desenho de Fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
J Med Chem ; 63(13): 7143-7162, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551607

RESUMO

Two chemical series of novel protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) inhibitors, 4,6-disubstituted and 5,7-disubstituted isoquinolines, were rapidly identified using our fragment merging strategy. This methodology involves biochemical screening of a high concentration of a monosubstituted isoquinoline fragment library, then merging hit isoquinoline fragments into a single compound. Our strategy can be applied to the discovery of other challenging kinase inhibitors without protein-ligand structural information. Furthermore, our optimization effort identified the highly potent and orally available 5,7-isoquinoline 37 from the second chemical series. Compound 37 showed good efficacy in a mouse collagen-induced arthritis model. The in vivo studies suggest that PKCζ inhibition is a novel target for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and that 5,7-disubstituted isoquinoline 37 has the potential to elucidate the biological consequences of PKCζ inhibition, specifically in terms of therapeutic intervention for RA.


Assuntos
Desenho de Fármacos , Isoquinolinas/química , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Proteína Quinase C/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Animais , Isoquinolinas/farmacocinética , Ligantes , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Proteína Quinase C/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Distribuição Tecidual
6.
Clin Immunol ; 218: 108517, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585295

RESUMO

Approximately 15% of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) experience severe disease, and 5% progress to critical stage that can result in rapid death. No vaccines or antiviral treatments have yet proven effective against COVID-19. Patients with severe COVID-19 experience elevated plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can result in cytokine storm, followed by massive immune cell infiltration into the lungs leading to alveolar damage, decreased lung function, and rapid progression to death. As many of the elevated cytokines signal through Janus kinase (JAK)1/JAK2, inhibition of these pathways with ruxolitinib has the potential to mitigate the COVID-19-associated cytokine storm and reduce mortality. This is supported by preclinical and clinical data from other diseases with hyperinflammatory states, where ruxolitinib has been shown to reduce cytokine levels and improve outcomes. The urgent need for treatments for patients with severe disease support expedited investigation of ruxolitinib for patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacocinética , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Janus Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 1/genética , Janus Quinase 1/imunologia , Janus Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Janus Quinase 2/imunologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
J Med Chem ; 63(11): 6144-6163, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420739

RESUMO

Calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1) is an essential Ser/Thr kinase that controls invasion and egress by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The Gly gatekeeper of CDPK1 makes it exquisitely sensitive to inhibition by small molecule 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine-4-amine (PP) compounds that are bulky ATP mimetics. Here we rationally designed, synthesized, and tested a series of novel PP analogs that were evaluated for inhibition of CDPK1 enzyme activity in vitro and parasite growth in cell culture. Optimal substitution on the PP scaffold included 2-pyridyl ethers directed into the hydrophobic pocket and small carbocyclic rings accessing the ribose-binding pocket. Further optimization of the series led to identification of the lead compound 3a that displayed excellent potency, selectivity, safety profile, and efficacy in vivo. The results of these studies provide a foundation for further work to optimize CDPK1 inhibitors for the treatment of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas de Protozoários/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirimidinas/química , Doença Aguda , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Crônica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Toxoplasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxoplasma/enzimologia , Toxoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico
8.
J Med Chem ; 63(9): 4978-4996, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369358

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma is an aggressive pediatric cancer for which no effective chemotherapeutic drugs exist. Analysis of the genomic landscape of this disease has led to the identification of the serine/threonine kinase ALK2 as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In this work, we adopted an open science approach to develop a series of potent type I inhibitors of ALK2 which are orally bio-available and brain-penetrant. Initial efforts resulted in the discovery of M4K2009, an analogue of the previously reported ALK2 inhibitor LDN-214117. Although highly selective for ALK2 over the TGF-ßR1 receptor ALK5, M4K2009 is also moderately active against the hERG potassium channel. Varying the substituents of the trimethoxyphenyl moiety gave rise to an equipotent benzamide analogue M4K2149 with reduced off-target affinity for the ion channel. Additional modifications yielded 2-fluoro-6-methoxybenzamide derivatives (26a-c), which possess high inhibitory activity against ALK2, excellent selectivity, and superior pharmacokinetic profiles.


Assuntos
Receptores de Ativinas Tipo I/antagonistas & inibidores , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Receptores de Ativinas Tipo I/genética , Animais , Benzamidas/síntese química , Benzamidas/farmacocinética , Células CACO-2 , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glioma Pontino Intrínseco Difuso/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos SCID , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Mutação , Piperazinas/síntese química , Piperazinas/farmacocinética , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Piridinas/síntese química , Piridinas/farmacocinética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
J Med Chem ; 63(13): 7347-7354, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462866

RESUMO

The recent disclosure of type I 1/2 inhibitors for p38α MAPK demonstrated how the stabilization of the R-spine can be used as a strategy to greatly increase the target residence time (TRT) of inhibitors. Herein, for the first time, we describe N-acylhydrazone and selenophene residues as spine motifs, yielding metabolically stable inhibitors with high potency on enzymatic, NanoBRET, and whole blood assays, improved metabolic stability, and prolonged TRT.


Assuntos
Dibenzocicloeptenos/química , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Amidas/química , Desenho de Fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidrazonas/química , Microssomos Hepáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/química , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Compostos Organosselênicos/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Fatores de Tempo
10.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(8): e12697, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473600

RESUMO

Baricitinib is an oral Janus kinase (JAK)1/JAK2 inhibitor approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that was independently predicted, using artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, to be useful for COVID-19 infection via proposed anti-cytokine effects and as an inhibitor of host cell viral propagation. We evaluated the in vitro pharmacology of baricitinib across relevant leukocyte subpopulations coupled to its in vivo pharmacokinetics and showed it inhibited signaling of cytokines implicated in COVID-19 infection. We validated the AI-predicted biochemical inhibitory effects of baricitinib on human numb-associated kinase (hNAK) members measuring nanomolar affinities for AAK1, BIKE, and GAK. Inhibition of NAKs led to reduced viral infectivity with baricitinib using human primary liver spheroids. These effects occurred at exposure levels seen clinically. In a case series of patients with bilateral COVID-19 pneumonia, baricitinib treatment was associated with clinical and radiologic recovery, a rapid decline in SARS-CoV-2 viral load, inflammatory markers, and IL-6 levels. Collectively, these data support further evaluation of the anti-cytokine and anti-viral activity of baricitinib and support its assessment in randomized trials in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Inteligência Artificial , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas/farmacocinética , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/virologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacocinética , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico
11.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(5): e265-e279, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359502

RESUMO

During the past two decades, small-molecule kinase inhibitors have proven to be valuable in the treatment of solid and haematological tumours. However, because of their oral administration, the intrapatient and interpatient exposure to small-molecule kinase inhibitors (SMKIs) is highly variable and is affected by many factors, such as concomitant use of food and herbs. Food-drug interactions are capable of altering the systemic bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of these drugs. The most important mechanisms underlying food-drug interactions are gastrointestinal drug absorption and hepatic metabolism through cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. As food-drug interactions can lead to therapy failure or severe toxicity, knowledge of these interactions is essential. This Review provides a comprehensive overview of published studies involving food-drug interactions and herb-drug interactions for all registered SMKIs up to Oct 1, 2019. We critically discuss US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines concerning food-drug interactions and offer clear recommendations for their management in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Interações Alimento-Droga , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Biotransformação , Absorção Gástrica , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal , Fígado/enzimologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Fatores de Risco
12.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 146(10): 2693-2697, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449002

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sorafenib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) and first-line treatment option for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Preliminary evidence indicates proton pump inhibitors (PPI) may affect the absorption of TKIs through decreased gut dissolution. This study aims to evaluate the impact of PPI use on the survival outcomes of advanced HCC patients treated with sorafenib. METHODS: The study was a secondary analysis of individual-participant data from the phase III clinical trial NCT00699374. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to evaluate the association between baseline PPI use and survival outcomes. Overall survival (OS) was the primary outcome with progression-free survival (PFS) secondary. RESULTS: In a cohort of 542 advanced HCC patients initiating sorafenib treatment, 122 were concomitantly using a PPI at baseline. No significant associations between baseline PPI use and OS were identified on univariable (HR [95% CI]; 1.01 [0.80-1.28], P = 0.93) and adjusted (1.10 [0.82-1.41], P = 0.62) analysis. Furthermore, no significant associations between baseline PPI use and PFS were identified on univariable (0.96 [0.76-1.21], P = 0.73) and adjusted (1.11 [0.86-1.44], P = 0.41) analysis. CONCLUSION: In a large high-quality dataset, PPI use was not observed to compromise the survival outcomes of advanced HCC patients initiated on sorafenib.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/farmacologia , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem , Sorafenibe/farmacocinética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Estudos de Coortes , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Absorção Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Oncogene ; 39(21): 4312-4322, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300176

RESUMO

Aurora kinases are a family of serine/threonine kinases vital for cell division. Because of the overexpression of Aurora kinases in a broad range of cancers and their important roles in mitosis, inhibitors targeting Aurora kinases have attracted attention in cancer therapy. VX-680 is an effective pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor; however, its clinical efficacy was not satisfying. In this study, we performed CRISPR/Cas9 screens to identify genes whose depletion shows synthetic lethality with VX-680. The top hit from these screens was GSG2 (also known as Haspin), a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates histone H3 at Thr-3 during mitosis. Moreover, both Haspin knockout and Haspin inhibitor-treated HCT116 cells were hypersensitive to VX-680. Furthermore, we showed that the synthetic lethal interaction between Haspin depletion and VX-680 was mediated by the inhibition of Haspin with Aurora kinase B (AURKB), but not with Aurora kinase A (AURKA). Strikingly, combined inhibition of Haspin and AURKB had a better efficacy than single-agent treatment in both head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and non-small cell lung cancer. Taken together, our findings have uncovered a synthetic lethal interaction between AURKB and Haspin, which provides a strong rationale for this combination therapy for cancer patients.


Assuntos
Aurora Quinase B , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Neoplasias , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Células A549 , Aurora Quinase B/antagonistas & inibidores , Aurora Quinase B/genética , Aurora Quinase B/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231877, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315352

RESUMO

Alterations in fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genes have been identified as potential driver oncogenes. Pharmacological targeting of FGFRs may therefore provide therapeutic benefit to selected cancer patients, and proof-of-concept has been established in early clinical trials of FGFR inhibitors. Here, we present the molecular structure and preclinical characterization of INCB054828 (pemigatinib), a novel, selective inhibitor of FGFR 1, 2, and 3, currently in phase 2 clinical trials. INCB054828 pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were investigated using cell lines and tumor models, and the antitumor effect of oral INCB054828 was investigated using xenograft tumor models with genetic alterations in FGFR1, 2, or 3. Enzymatic assays with recombinant human FGFR kinases showed potent inhibition of FGFR1, 2, and 3 by INCB054828 (half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 0.4, 0.5, and 1.0 nM, respectively) with weaker activity against FGFR4 (IC50 30 nM). INCB054828 selectively inhibited growth of tumor cell lines with activation of FGFR signaling compared with cell lines lacking FGFR aberrations. The preclinical pharmacokinetic profile suggests target inhibition is achievable by INCB054828 in vivo with low oral doses. INCB054828 suppressed the growth of xenografted tumor models with FGFR1, 2, or 3 alterations as monotherapy, and the combination of INCB054828 with cisplatin provided significant benefit over either single agent, with an acceptable tolerability. The preclinical data presented for INCB054828, together with preliminary clinical observations, support continued investigation in patients with FGFR alterations, such as fusions and activating mutations.


Assuntos
Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos SCID , Morfolinas/química , Morfolinas/farmacocinética , Neoplasias/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirróis/química , Pirróis/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Nus , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
J Med Chem ; 63(9): 4517-4527, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297743

RESUMO

JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, and TYK2 belong to the JAK (Janus kinase) family. They play critical roles in cytokine signaling. Constitutive activation of JAK/STAT pathways is associated with a wide variety of diseases. Particularly, pSTAT3 is observed in response to the treatment with inhibitors of oncogenic signaling pathways such as EGFR, MAPK, and AKT and is associated with resistance or poorer response to agents targeting these pathways. Among the JAK family kinases, JAK1 has been shown to be the primary driver of STAT3 phosphorylation and signaling; therefore, selective JAK1 inhibition can be a viable means to overcome such treatment resistances. Herein, an account of the medicinal chemistry optimization from the promiscuous kinase screening hit 3 to the candidate drug 21 (AZD4205), a highly selective JAK1 kinase inhibitor, is reported. Compound 21 has good preclinical pharmacokinetics. Compound 21 displayed an enhanced antitumor activity in combination with an approved EGFR inhibitor, osimertinib, in a preclinical non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) xenograft NCI-H1975 model.


Assuntos
Indóis/uso terapêutico , Janus Quinase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Acrilamidas/farmacologia , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Desenho de Fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/síntese química , Indóis/farmacocinética , Camundongos Nus , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 50(8): 859-866, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tepotinib (MSC2156119J) is an oral, potent and highly selective small molecule mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) inhibitor for which the recommended Phase II dose of 500 mg once daily has been defined, based on the first-in-man trial conducted in the USA and Europe. We carried out a multicenter Phase I trial with a classic `3 + 3' design to determine the recommended Phase II dose in Japanese patients with solid tumors (NCT01832506). METHODS: Patients aged ≥20 years with advanced solid tumors (refractory to standard therapy or for whom no effective standard therapy was available) received tepotinib at 215, 300 or 500 mg once daily in a 21-day cycle. Occurrence of dose-limiting toxicities during cycle 1 was used to determine the maximum tolerated dose. Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics were also evaluated to support the dose assessment. RESULTS: Twelve patients were treated. Tepotinib was generally well tolerated with no observed dose-limiting toxicities; treatment-related adverse events were mainly grades 1-2. The tolerability profile of tepotinib was similar to that observed in non-Japanese populations. Pharmacokinetics in Japanese and Western patients was comparable. One patient with gastric cancer and one patient with urachal cancer had stable disease of ≥12 weeks in duration. The observed safety profile and pharmacokinetics are comparable with those in patients from the USA and Europe, and the recommended Phase II dose of tepotinib in Japanese patients was confirmed as 500 mg once daily. CONCLUSIONS: These results, including initial signals of antitumor activity, support further development of tepotinib in Japanese patients with cancer.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Piridazinas/efeitos adversos , Piridazinas/farmacocinética , Piridazinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/farmacocinética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia
17.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 85(5): 931-940, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: (Pre)clinical evidence is accumulating that intermittent exposure to increased doses of protein kinase inhibitors may improve their treatment benefit. In this phase I trial, the safety of high-dose, pulsatile sorafenib was studied. PATIENTS AND METHODS: High-dose sorafenib was administered once weekly in exposure escalation cohorts according to a 3 + 3 design. Drug monitoring was performed in weeks 1-3 and doses were adjusted to achieve a predefined target plasma area under the curve (AUC)(0-12 h). The effect of low gastric pH on improving sorafenib exposure was investigated by intake of the acidic beverage cola. RESULTS: Seventeen patients with advanced malignancies without standard treatment options were included. Once weekly, high-dose sorafenib exposure was escalated up to a target AUC(0-12 h) of 125-150 mg/L/h, achieving a twofold higher Cmax compared to standard continuous dosing. Dose-limiting toxicity was observed in three patients: grade 3 duodenal perforation (2800 mg sorafenib), grade 5 multiorgan failure (2800 mg sorafenib) and grade 5 biliary tract perforation (3600 mg sorafenib). The mean difference between observed and target AUC(0-12 h) was 45% (SD ± 56%) in week 1 using a fixed starting dose of sorafenib compared to 2% (SD ± 32%) in week 3 as a result of drug monitoring (P = 0.06). Dissolving sorafenib in cola, instead of water, did not improve sorafenib exposure. Clinical benefit with stable disease as the best response was observed in two patients. CONCLUSION: Treatment with high-dose, once weekly sorafenib administration resulted in dose-limiting toxicity precluding dose escalation above the exposure cohort of 125-150 mg/L/h. Drug monitoring was a successful strategy to pursue a target exposure.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Pulsoterapia/métodos , Sorafenibe , Área Sob a Curva , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Sorafenibe/administração & dosagem , Sorafenibe/efeitos adversos , Sorafenibe/farmacocinética , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278292

RESUMO

Repotrectinib, a next-generation ROS1/TRK/ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor, overcomes resistance due to acquired solvent-front mutations involving ROS1, NTRK1-3, and ALK. A bioanalytical assay for quantification of repotrectinib in mouse plasma and seven tissue-related matrices (brain, liver, spleen, kidney, small intestinal tissue, small intestinal content, and testis homogenates) was developed and validated using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection in a high-throughput 96-well format. Protein precipitation was performed by adding acetonitrile, also containing the internal standard axitinib, to 10-µl samples for all matrices. Chromatographic separation of analytes was done on an ACQUITY UPLC® BEH C18 column by gradient elution using ammonium hydroxide in water and methanol. Compounds were monitored with positive electrospray ionization using a triple quadruple mass spectrometer in selected reaction monitoring mode. The method was successfully validated in the 1-1000 ng/ml calibration range. Precisions (intra- and interday) were in the range of 1.3-8.7% and accuracies were in between 90.5% and 107.3% for all levels in all matrices. The developed method was successfully applied to investigate the plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue accumulation of repotrectinib in wild-type mice.


Assuntos
Compostos Macrocíclicos/sangue , Compostos Macrocíclicos/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/sangue , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Pirazóis/sangue , Pirazóis/farmacocinética , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Axitinibe/química , Axitinibe/normas , Bioensaio , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Compostos Macrocíclicos/administração & dosagem , Camundongos , Plasma/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Receptor trkA/antagonistas & inibidores , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Distribuição Tecidual
19.
Nat Chem Biol ; 16(6): 635-643, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251410

RESUMO

Doublecortin like kinase 1 (DCLK1) is an understudied kinase that is upregulated in a wide range of cancers, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, little is known about its potential as a therapeutic target. We used chemoproteomic profiling and structure-based design to develop a selective, in vivo-compatible chemical probe of the DCLK1 kinase domain, DCLK1-IN-1. We demonstrate activity of DCLK1-IN-1 against clinically relevant patient-derived PDAC organoid models and use a combination of RNA-sequencing, proteomics and phosphoproteomics analysis to reveal that DCLK1 inhibition modulates proteins and pathways associated with cell motility in this context. DCLK1-IN-1 will serve as a versatile tool to investigate DCLK1 biology and establish its role in cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Proteômica , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Peixe-Zebra
20.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 373(3): 361-369, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217770

RESUMO

The orally available and novel small molecule ONO-7579 (N-{2-[4-(2-amino-5-chloropyridin-3-yl)phenoxy]pyrimidin-5-yl}-N'-[2-(methanesulfonyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]urea) is a highly potent and selective pan-tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) inhibitor. The objective of the present study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD), and antitumor efficacy relationships of ONO-7579 in mice xenografted with a human colorectal cancer cell line, KM12 (harboring the tropomyosin 3 (TPM3) -neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase 1 fusion gene), via a PK/PD modeling approach. Plasma and tumor concentrations of ONO-7579, tumor levels of phosphorylated TPM3-TRKA (pTRKA), and tumor volumes in the murine model were measured with a single or multiple dose of ONO-7579 (0.06-0.60 mg/kg) administered once daily. The PK/PD/efficacy models were developed in a sequential manner. Changes in plasma concentrations of ONO-7579 were described with an oral one-compartment model. Tumor concentrations of ONO-7579 were higher than plasma concentrations, and changes in ONO-7579 tumor concentrations were described with an additional tumor compartment that had no influence on plasma concentrations. pTRKA in tumors was described with a direct Emax model, and the tumor ONO-7579 concentration causing 50% of the maximum effect was estimated to be 17.6 ng/g. In addition, a pTRKA-driven tumor growth inhibition model indicated that ONO-7579 started to sharply increase the antitumor effect at pTRKA inhibition rates >60% and required >91.5% to reduce tumors. In conclusion, the developed PK/PD/efficacy models revealed a "switch-like" relationship between pTRKA inhibition rate and antitumor effect in a murine KM12 xenograft model, demonstrating that pTRKA in tumors could serve as an effective biomarker for scheduling the dose regimen in early-stage clinical studies. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: In recent years, clinical development of TRK inhibitors in patients with neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase fusion-positive solid tumors has been accelerated. This research found that phosphorylated TRKA was a useful biomarker for explaining the antitumor efficacy of TRK inhibitors using a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling approach in xenograft mice. This finding suggests a rational dosing regimen in early-stage clinical studies for ONO-7579 (N-{2-[4-(2-amino-5-chloropyridin-3-yl)phenoxy]pyrimidin-5-yl}-N'-[2-(methanesulfonyl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]urea), a novel pan-TRK inhibitor.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Xenoenxertos/efeitos dos fármacos , Xenoenxertos/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
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