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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445544

RESUMO

Patients with advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are susceptible to malnutrition and develop folate deficiency (FD). We previously found that folate deprivation induces drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma; here, we assessed whether disrupted cytoplasmic folate metabolism could mimic FD-induced metastasis and affect the sensitivity of NSCLC cells to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). We examined whether cytosolic folate metabolism in NSCLC cells was disrupted by FD or the folate metabolism blocker pemetrexed for 1-4 weeks. Our results revealed an increase in NF-κB overexpression-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition biomarkers: N-cadherin, vimentin, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), SOX9, and SLUG. This finding suggests that the disruption of folate metabolism can drastically enhance the metastatic properties of NSCLC cells. Cytosolic FD also affected EGFR-TKI cytotoxicity toward NSCLC cells. Because SLUG and N-cadherin are resistance effectors against gefitinib, the effects of SLUG knockdown in folate antagonist-treated CL1-0 cells were evaluated. SLUG knockdown prevented SLUG/NF-κB/SOX9-mediated invasiveness and erlotinib resistance acquisition and significantly reduced pemetrexed-induced gelatinase activity and MMP gene expression. To summarize, our data reveal two unprecedented adverse effects of folate metabolism disruption in NSCLC cells. Thus, the folic acid status of patients with NSCLC under treatment can considerably influence their prognosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Apoptose , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores ErbB/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Mutação , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
2.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 165: 103451, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389458

RESUMO

The NTRK genes encode the tropomyosin-related receptor tyrosine kinases TrkA, TrkB and TrkC. TRK receptors regulate the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of many neuronal and non-neuronal glial cells during embryogenesis, thus playing a critical role in synaptic plasticity and the development of nociceptive pathways. Recurrent genomic alterations in NTRK genes, typically fusions involving the 3' region encoding the kinase domain juxtaposed to 5' sequences from numerous partner genes, occur at a low frequency in a wide diversity of adult and pediatric cancers. The contributions of the resulting constitutively activated kinase to oncogenesis and cancer progression are being elucidated. Larotrectinib and entrectinib are potent first-generation TRK inhibitors with IC50 values in the nanomolar range across cancer cell lines harboring NTRK fusions. Larotrectinib is highly selective for TRK receptors, whereas entrectinib also potently inhibits ROS1 and ALK. Clinical trials of both drugs demonstrated significant and durable responses in patients with tumors harboring NTRK alterations, leading to first of its kind cancer agnostic FDA approvals in the United States for drugs targeting a genomic alteration. Unfortunately, acquired resistance inevitably develops. The second-generation TRK inhibitors selitrectinib and repotrectinib are designed to overcome known mechanisms of resistance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Humanos , Compostos Macrocíclicos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Medicina de Precisão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas , Pirazóis , Receptor trkA/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445110

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in lung cancer patients. Despite treatment with various EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, recurrence and metastasis of lung cancer are inevitable. Docetaxel (DTX) is an effective conventional drug that is used to treat various cancers. Several researchers have studied the use of traditional herbal medicine in combination with docetaxel, to improve lung cancer treatment. SH003, a novel herbal mixture, exerts anticancer effects in different cancer cell types. Here, we aimed to investigate the apoptotic and anticancer effects of SH003 in combination with DTX, in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). SH003, with DTX, induced apoptotic cell death, with increased expression of cleaved caspases and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in NSCLC cells. Moreover, SH003 and DTX induced the apoptosis of H460 cells via the suppression of the EGFR and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathways. In H460 tumor xenograft models, the administration of SH003 or docetaxel alone diminished tumor growth, and their combination effectively killed cancer cells, with increased expression of apoptotic markers and decreased expression of p-EGFR and p-STAT3. Collectively, the combination of SH003 and DTX may be a novel anticancer strategy to overcome the challenges that are associated with conventional lung cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
4.
Clin Immunol ; 230: 108823, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400321

RESUMO

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinases (ROCKs) are key coordinators of tissue response to injury, regulating multiple functions, such as gene expression and cell migration, proliferation and survival. Relevant to cGVHD and autoimmunity, only the ROCK2 isoform drives a pro-inflammatory type 17 helper T (Th17) cell response. Moreover, ROCK2 inhibition shifts the Th17/regulatory T (Treg) cell balance toward Treg cells and restores immune homeostasis in animal models of autoimmunity and cGVHD. Furthermore, the selective inhibition of ROCK2 by belumosudil reduces fibrosis by downregulating both transforming growth factor-ß signaling and profibrotic gene expression, thereby impeding the creation of focal adhesions. Consistent with its anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activities, belumosudil has demonstrated efficacy in clinical studies, resulting in an overall response rate of >70% in patients with cGVHD who failed 2 to 5 prior lines of systemic therapy. In summary, selective ROCK2 inhibition has emerged as a promising novel therapeutic approach for treating cGVHD and other immunologic diseases with unique mechanisms of action, targeting both immune imbalance and detrimental fibrotic responses.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/enzimologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/imunologia , Acetamidas/farmacologia , Animais , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/terapia , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Modelos Imunológicos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5053, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417459

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that PTEN loss is associated with p110ß signaling dependency, leading to the clinical development of p110ß-selective inhibitors. Here we use a panel pre-clinical models to reveal that PI3K isoform dependency is not governed by loss of PTEN and is impacted by feedback inhibition and concurrent PIK3CA/PIK3CB alterations. Furthermore, while pan-PI3K inhibition in PTEN-deficient tumors is efficacious, upregulation of Insulin Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) promotes resistance. Importantly, we show that this resistance can be overcome through targeting AKT and we find that AKT inhibitors are superior to pan-PI3K inhibition in the context of PTEN loss. However, in the presence of wild-type PTEN and PIK3CA-activating mutations, p110α-dependent signaling is dominant and selectively inhibiting p110α is therapeutically superior to AKT inhibition. These discoveries reveal a more nuanced understanding of PI3K isoform dependency and unveil novel strategies to selectively target PI3K signaling nodes in a context-specific manner.


Assuntos
Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/enzimologia , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Humanos , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Organoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Organoides/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/deficiência , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445786

RESUMO

Diabetes, and several diseases related to diabetes, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders, represent one of the major ongoing threats to human life, becoming a true pandemic of the 21st century. Current treatment strategies for diabetes mainly involve promoting ß-cell differentiation, and one of the most widely studied targets for ß-cell regeneration is DYRK1A kinase, a member of the DYRK family. DYRK1A has been characterized as a key regulator of cell growth, differentiation, and signal transduction in various organisms, while further roles and substrates are the subjects of extensive investigation. The targets of interest in this review are implicated in the regulation of ß-cells through DYRK1A inhibition-through driving their transition from highly inefficient and death-prone populations into efficient and sufficient precursors of islet regeneration. Increasing evidence for the role of DYRK1A in diabetes progression and ß-cell proliferation expands the potential for pharmaceutical applications of DYRK1A inhibitors. The variety of new compounds and binding modes, determined by crystal structure and in vitro studies, may lead to new strategies for diabetes treatment. This review provides recent insights into the initial self-activation of DYRK1A by tyrosine autophosphorylation. Moreover, the importance of developing novel DYRK1A inhibitors and their implications for the treatment of diabetes are thoroughly discussed. The evolving understanding of DYRK kinase structure and function and emerging high-throughput screening technologies have been described. As a final point of this work, we intend to promote the term "diabetic kinome" as part of scientific terminology to emphasize the role of the synergistic action of multiple kinases in governing the molecular processes that underlie this particular group of diseases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo
7.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(9): 729-738, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tolebrutinib is an oral, CNS-penetrant, irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, an enzyme expressed in B lymphocytes and myeloid cells including microglia, which are major drivers of inflammation in multiple sclerosis. We aimed to determine the dose-response relationship between tolebrutinib and the reduction in new active brain MRI lesions in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. METHODS: We did a 16-week, phase 2b, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, dose-finding trial at 40 centres (academic sites, specialty clinics, and general neurology centres) in ten countries in Europe and North America. Eligible participants were adults aged 18-55 years with diagnosed relapsing multiple sclerosis (either relapsing-remitting or relapsing secondary progressive multiple sclerosis), and one or more of the following criteria: at least one relapse within the previous year, at least two relapses within the previous 2 years, or at least one active gadolinium-enhancing brain lesion in the 6 months before screening. Exclusion criteria included a diagnosis of primary progressive multiple sclerosis or a diagnosis of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis without relapse. We used a two-step randomisation process to randomly assign eligible participants (1:1) to two cohorts, then further randomly assign participants in each cohort (1:1:1:1) to four tolebrutinib dose groups (5, 15, 30, and 60 mg administered once daily as an oral tablet). Cohort 1 received tolebrutinib for 12 weeks, then matched placebo (ie, identical looking tablets) for 4 weeks; cohort 2 received 4 weeks of placebo followed by 12 weeks of tolebrutinib. Participants and investigators were masked for dose and tolebrutinib-placebo administration sequence; investigators, study team members, and study participants did not have access to unmasked data. MRI scans were done at screening and every 4 weeks over 16 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the number of new gadolinium-enhancing lesions detected on the scan done after 12 weeks of tolebrutinib treatment (assessed at week 12 for cohort 1 and week 16 for cohort 2), relative to the scan done 4 weeks previously, and compared with the lesions accumulated during 4 weeks of placebo run-in period in cohort 2. Efficacy data were analysed in a modified intention-to-treat population, using a two-step multiple comparison procedure with modelling analysis. Safety was assessed for all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03889639), EudraCT (2018-003927-12), and WHO (U1111-1220-0572), and has been completed. FINDINGS: Between May 14, 2019, and Jan 2, 2020, we enrolled and randomly assigned 130 participants to tolebrutinib: 33 to 5 mg, 32 to 15 mg, 33 to 30 mg, and 32 to 60 mg. 129 (99%) completed the treatment regimen and 126 were included in the primary analysis. At treatment week 12, there was a dose-dependent reduction in the number of new gadolinium-enhancing lesions (mean [SD] lesions per patient: placebo, 1·03 [2·50]; 5 mg, 1·39 [3·20]; 15 mg, 0·77 [1·48]; 30 mg, 0·76 [3·31]; 60 mg, 0·13 [0·43]; p=0·03). One serious adverse event was reported (one patient in the 60 mg group was admitted to hospital because of a multiple sclerosis relapse). The most common non-serious adverse event during tolebrutinib treatment was headache (in one [3%] of 33 in the 5 mg group; three [9%] of 32 in the 15 mg group; one [3%] of 33 in the 30 mg group; and four [13%] of 32 in the 60 mg group). No safety-related discontinuations or treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: 12 weeks of tolebrutinib treatment led to a dose-dependent reduction in new gadolinium-enhancing lesions, the 60 mg dose being the most efficacious, and the drug was well tolerated. Reduction of acute inflammation, combined with the potential to modulate the immune response within the CNS, provides a scientific rationale to pursue phase 3 clinical trials of tolebrutinib in patients with relapsing and progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. FUNDING: Sanofi.


Assuntos
Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico por imagem , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Recidiva , Adulto Jovem
8.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443331

RESUMO

KD025, a ROCK2 isoform-specific inhibitor, has an anti-adipogenic activity which is not mediated by ROCK2 inhibition. To identify the target, we searched binding targets of KD025 by using the KINOMEscanTM screening platform, and we identified casein kinase 2 (CK2) as a novel target. KD025 showed comparable binding affinity to CK2α (Kd = 128 nM). By contrast, CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 and ROCK inhibitor fasudil did not show such cross-reactivity. In addition, KD025 effectively inhibited CK2 at a nanomolar concentration (IC50 = 50 nM). We examined if the inhibitory effect of KD025 on adipocyte differentiation is through the inhibition of CK2. Both CX-4945 and KD025 suppressed the generation of lipid droplets and the expression of proadipogenic genes Pparg and Cebpa in 3T3-L1 cells during adipocyte differentiation. Fasudil exerted no significant effect on the quantity of lipid droplets, but another ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 increased the expression of Pparg and Cebpa. Both CX-4945 and KD025 acted specifically in the middle stage (days 1-3) but were ineffective when treated at days 0-1 or the late stages, indicating that CX-4945 and KD025 may regulate the same target, CK2. The mRNA and protein levels of CK2α and CK2ß generally decreased in 3T3-L1 cells at day 2 but recovered thereafter. Other well-known CK2 inhibitors DMAT and quinalizarin inhibited effectively the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Taken together, the results of this study confirmed that KD025 inhibits ROCK2 and CK2, and that the inhibitory effect on adipocyte differentiation is through the inhibition of CK2.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Caseína Quinase II/antagonistas & inibidores , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos
9.
J Int Med Res ; 49(8): 3000605211035005, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396834

RESUMO

Targeted therapy in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) often fails because of drug resistance. Here, we report a 57-year-old male patient with stage IV small cell lung cancer (SCLC) transformation during targeted therapy. Chest computerized tomography (CT), hematoxylin and eosin histological examination, immunohistochemistry, allele refractory mutation system-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of EGFR point mutations, and next-generation sequencing were performed for diagnosis and therapeutic efficacy evaluation. A combination of chest CT, histological examination, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the initial NSCLC diagnosis. Next-generation sequencing detected only EGFR exon 19 deletion (ex19del) before treatment and later identified EGFR exon20p.T790M point mutation, EGFR amplification, myc proto-oncogene (MYC) amplification, retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) mutation, and tumor protein 53 (TP53) mutation. Histology and immunohistochemistry revealed transformation from NSCLC to SCLC during treatment, which eventually returned to NSCLC. Drug resistance to targeted therapy for patients with NSCLC frequently occurs because of EGFR exon20p.T790M point mutation, TP53 mutation, RB1 mutation, and MYC amplification. These mutations are also the major determining factors of NSCLC outcomes. Therefore, next-generation sequencing should be performed to confirm drug efficacy during targeted therapy for NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética
10.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(17): 3214-3224, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387082

RESUMO

Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has been reported in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity is a therapeutic approach that may provide new treatments for PD. In this study, novel LRRK2 inhibitors were identified by performing a docking-based virtual screening (VS). Due to the absence of a crystal structure of LRRK2, homology modeling was adopted to model human LRRK2 kinase domain that binds the inhibitor. Next, a docking-based virtual screening protocol was applied to identify LRRK2 small molecule inhibitors targeting the ATP binding pocket. A total of 28 compounds were selected and subjected to LRRK2 kinase inhibition assay. As a result, two small molecules with novel skeleton, compounds LY2019-005 and LY2019-006, were identified as potential LRRK2 kinase inhibitors with the IC50 of these two compounds against the wild-type and G2019S mutant LRRK2 kinase being 424.40 ± 1.31 nM, 378.80 ± 1.20 nM and 1526.00 ± 0.87 nM, 1165.00 ± 1.18 nM, respectively. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was carried out to reveal the binding mode of the newly identified compound LY2019-005 to the LRRK2 kinase domain. The binding modes indicate that the important hydrogen bond between hinge region (such as Ala1950) and inhibitor is crucial for the inhibition activity. In summary, our study provides a highly efficient way to discover LRRK2 inhibitors, and we find two highly efficient novel LRRK2 inhibitors, which could be helpful for the development of potential drugs targeting LRRK2 in PD therapy.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/genética , Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia
11.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1884-1897, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340602

RESUMO

Sorafenib is recommended as the primary therapeutic drug for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. To discover a new compound that avoids low response rates and toxic side effects that occur in sorafenib therapy, we designed and synthesized new hybrid compounds of sorafenib and 2,4,5-trimethylpyridin-3-ols. Compound 6 was selected as the best of 24 hybrids that inhibit each of the four Raf kinases. The anti-proliferative activity of 6 in HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh7 cell lines was slightly lower than that of sorafenib. However, in H6c7 and CCD841 normal epithelial cell lines, the cytotoxicity of 6 was much lower than that of sorafenib. In addition, similar to sorafenib, compound 6 inhibited spheroid forming ability of Hep3B cells in vitro and tumour growth in a xenograft tumour model of the chick chorioallantoic membrane implanted with Huh7 cells. Compound 6 may be a promising candidate targeting hepatocellular carcinoma with low toxic side effects on normal cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Pirimidinas/química , Sorafenibe/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Galinha , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361750

RESUMO

The purpose of this work is to investigate the protein kinase inhibitory activity of constituents from Acacia auriculiformis stem bark. Column chromatography and NMR spectroscopy were used to purify and characterize betulin from an ethyl acetate soluble fraction of acacia bark. Betulin, a known inducer of apoptosis, was screened against a panel of 16 disease-related protein kinases. Betulin was shown to inhibit Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (ABL1) kinase, casein kinase 1ε (CK1ε), glycogen synthase kinase 3α/ß (GSK-3 α/ß), Janus kinase 3 (JAK3), NIMA Related Kinase 6 (NEK6), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 kinase (VEGFR2) with activities in the micromolar range for each. The effect of betulin on the cell viability of doxorubicin-resistant K562R chronic myelogenous leukemia cells was then verified to investigate its putative use as an anti-cancer compound. Betulin was shown to modulate the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway, with activity similar to that of imatinib mesylate, a known ABL1 kinase inhibitor. The interaction of betulin and ABL1 was studied by molecular docking, revealing an interaction of the inhibitor with the ABL1 ATP binding pocket. Together, these data demonstrate that betulin is a multi-target inhibitor of protein kinases, an activity that can contribute to the anticancer properties of the natural compound and to potential treatments for leukemia.


Assuntos
Acacia/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/antagonistas & inibidores , Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/genética , Caseína Quinase Iépsilon/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/genética , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Humanos , Janus Quinase 3/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 3/genética , Janus Quinase 3/metabolismo , Células K562 , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Quinases Relacionadas a NIMA/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases Relacionadas a NIMA/genética , Quinases Relacionadas a NIMA/metabolismo , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-abl/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4671, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344863

RESUMO

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains challenging because of heterogeneous responses to chemotherapy. Incomplete response is associated with a greater risk of metastatic progression. Therefore, treatments that target chemotherapy-resistant TNBC and enhance chemosensitivity would improve outcomes for these high-risk patients. Breast cancer stem cell-like cells (BCSCs) have been proposed to represent a chemotherapy-resistant subpopulation responsible for tumor initiation, progression and metastases. Targeting this population could lead to improved TNBC disease control. Here, we describe a novel multi-kinase inhibitor, 108600, that targets the TNBC BCSC population. 108600 treatment suppresses growth, colony and mammosphere forming capacity of BCSCs and induces G2M arrest and apoptosis of TNBC cells. In vivo, 108600 treatment of mice bearing triple negative tumors results in the induction of apoptosis and overcomes chemotherapy resistance. Finally, treatment with 108600 and chemotherapy suppresses growth of pre-established TNBC metastases, providing additional support for the clinical translation of this agent to clinical trials.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caseína Quinase II/antagonistas & inibidores , Caseína Quinase II/química , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299628

RESUMO

We performed an X-ray crystallographic study of complexes of protein kinase PIM-1 with three inhibitors comprising an adenosine mimetic moiety, a linker, and a peptide-mimetic (d-Arg)6 fragment. Guided by the structural models, simplified chemical structures with a reduced number of polar groups and chiral centers were designed. The developed inhibitors retained low-nanomolar potency and possessed remarkable selectivity toward the PIM kinases. The new inhibitors were derivatized with biotin or fluorescent dye Cy5 and then applied for the detection of PIM kinases in biochemical solutions and in complex biological samples. The sandwich assay utilizing a PIM-2-selective detection antibody featured a low limit of quantification (44 pg of active recombinant PIM-2). Fluorescent probes were efficiently taken up by U2OS cells and showed a high extent of co-localization with PIM-1 fused with a fluorescent protein. Overall, the developed inhibitors and derivatives represent versatile chemical tools for studying PIM function in cellular systems in normal and disease physiology.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Imagem Molecular , Peptidomiméticos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-pim-1 , Carbocianinas/química , Carbocianinas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cristalografia por Raios X , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacologia , Humanos , Peptidomiméticos/química , Peptidomiméticos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-pim-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-pim-1/metabolismo
15.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(9): 2431-2451, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196217

RESUMO

Objective: Arterial restenosis is the pathological narrowing of arteries after endovascular procedures, and it is an adverse event that causes patients to experience recurrent occlusive symptoms. Following angioplasty, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) change their phenotype, migrate, and proliferate, resulting in neointima formation, a hallmark of arterial restenosis. SIKs (salt-inducible kinases) are a subfamily of the AMP-activated protein kinase family that play a critical role in metabolic diseases including hepatic lipogenesis and glucose metabolism. Their role in vascular pathological remodeling, however, has not been explored. In this study, we aimed to understand the role and regulation of SIK3 in vascular SMC migration, proliferation, and neointima formation. Approach and Results: We observed that SIK3 expression was low in contractile aortic SMCs but high in proliferating SMCs. It was also highly induced by growth medium in vitro and in neointimal lesions in vivo. Inactivation of SIKs significantly attenuated vascular SMC proliferation and up-regulated p21CIP1 and p27KIP1. SIK inhibition also suppressed SMC migration and modulated actin polymerization. Importantly, we found that inhibition of SIKs reduced neointima formation and vascular inflammation in a femoral artery wire injury model. In mechanistic studies, we demonstrated that inactivation of SIKs mainly suppressed SMC proliferation by down-regulating AKT (protein kinase B) and PKA (protein kinase A)-CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) signaling. CRTC3 (CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivator 3) signaling likely contributed to SIK inactivation-mediated antiproliferative effects. Conclusions: These findings suggest that SIK3 may play a critical role in regulating SMC proliferation, migration, and arterial restenosis. This study provides insights into SIK inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating restenosis in patients with peripheral arterial disease.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação a CREB/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/enzimologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/enzimologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/enzimologia , Animais , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Constrição Patológica , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/enzimologia , Artéria Femoral/lesões , Artéria Femoral/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/lesões , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Neointima , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/genética , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/patologia
16.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1454-1471, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210212

RESUMO

A new set of 4,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolin-5(1H)-ones were designed as cytotoxic agents against breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and synthesised under ultrasonic irradiation using chitosan decorated copper nanoparticles (CS/CuNPs) catalyst. The new compounds 4b, 4j, 4k, and 4e exhibited the most potent cytotoxic activity of IC50 values (0.002 - 0.004 µM) comparing to Staurosporine of IC50; 0.005 µM. The latter derivatives exhibited a promising safety profile against the normal human WI38 cells of IC50 range 0.0149 - 0.048 µM. Furthermore, the most promising cytotoxic compounds 4b, 4j were evaluated as multi-targeting agents against the RTK protein kinases; EGFR, HER-2, PDGFR-ß, and VEGFR-2. Compound 4j showed promising inhibitory activity against HER-2 and PDGFR-ß of IC50 values 0.17 × 10-3, 0.07 × 10-3 µM in comparison with the reference drug sorafenib of IC50; 0.28 × 10-3, 0.13 × 10-3 µM, respectively. In addition, 4j induced apoptotic effect and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase preventing the mitotic cycle in MCF-7 cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Química Verde , Quinolonas/química , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Desenho de Fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinolonas/síntese química , Análise Espectral/métodos
17.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279406

RESUMO

Three novel pyrazolo-[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolopyrimidine derivatives (1, 2, and 3) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their in vitro biological activity. All three compounds exhibited different levels of cytotoxicity against cervical and breast cancer cell lines. However, compound 1 showed the best antiproliferative activity against all tested tumor cell lines, including HCC1937 and HeLa cells, which express high levels of wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Western blot analyses demonstrated that compound 1 inhibited the activation of EGFR, protein kinase B (Akt), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2 in breast and cervical cancer cells at concentrations of 7 and 11 µM, respectively. The results from docking experiments with EGFR suggested the binding of compound 1 at the ATP binding site of EGFR. Furthermore, the crystal structure of compound 3 (7-(4-bromophenyl)-9-(pyridin-4-yl)-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine) was determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. Our work represents a promising starting point for the development of a new series of compounds targeting EGFR.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Pirimidinas/química , Triazóis/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
18.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(9): 2483-2493, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320838

RESUMO

Objective: Despite considerable research, the goal of finding nonsurgical remedies against thoracic aortic aneurysm and acute aortic dissection remains elusive. We sought to identify a novel aortic PK (protein kinase) that can be pharmacologically targeted to mitigate aneurysmal disease in a well-established mouse model of early-onset progressively severe Marfan syndrome (MFS). Approach and Results: Computational analyses of transcriptomic data derived from the ascending aorta of MFS mice predicted a probable association between thoracic aortic aneurysm and acute aortic dissection development and the multifunctional, stress-activated HIPK2 (homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2). Consistent with this prediction, Hipk2 gene inactivation significantly extended the survival of MFS mice by slowing aneurysm growth and delaying transmural rupture. HIPK2 also ranked among the top predicted PKs in computational analyses of DEGs (differentially expressed genes) in the dilated aorta of 3 MFS patients, which strengthened the clinical relevance of the experimental finding. Additional in silico analyses of the human and mouse data sets identified the TGF (transforming growth factor)-ß/Smad3 signaling pathway as a potential target of HIPK2 in the MFS aorta. Chronic treatment of MFS mice with an allosteric inhibitor of HIPK2-mediated stimulation of Smad3 signaling validated this prediction by mitigating thoracic aortic aneurysm and acute aortic dissection pathology and partially improving aortic material stiffness. Conclusions: HIPK2 is a previously unrecognized determinant of aneurysmal disease and an attractive new target for antithoracic aortic aneurysm and acute aortic dissection multidrug therapy.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/prevenção & controle , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/prevenção & controle , Fibrilina-1/genética , Síndrome de Marfan/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Aneurisma Dissecante/enzimologia , Aneurisma Dissecante/genética , Aneurisma Dissecante/patologia , Animais , Aorta Torácica/enzimologia , Aorta Torácica/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/enzimologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/genética , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Dilatação Patológica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Marfan/complicações , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202704

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, on red blood cell parameters in the context of iron homeostasis in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and evaluate its effect on cell size in vitro. Everolimus has a significant impact on red blood cell parameters in patients with TSC. The most common alteration was microcytosis. The mean MCV value decreased by 9.2%, 12%, and 11.8% after 3, 6, and 12 months of everolimus treatment. The iron level declined during the first 3 months, and human soluble transferrin receptor concentration increased during 6 months of therapy. The size of K562 cells decreased when cultured in the presence of 5 µM everolimus by approximately 8%. The addition of hemin to the cell culture with 5 µM everolimus did not prevent any decrease in cell size. The stage of erythroid maturation did not affect the response to everolimus. Our results showed that the mTOR inhibitor everolimus caused red blood cell microcytosis in vivo and in vitro. This effect is not clearly related to a deficit of iron and erythroid maturation. This observation confirms that mTOR signaling plays a complex role in the control of cell size.


Assuntos
Tamanho Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Biomarcadores , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Índices de Eritrócitos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Everolimo/efeitos adversos , Everolimo/farmacologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Células K562 , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos
20.
Anticancer Res ; 41(8): 4047-4052, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling plays a role in inducing malignant phenotypes in several aggressive types of cancers. To create a conclusive therapy targeting TrkB/BDNF signaling in solid refractory cancers, the biological significance of TrkB/BDNF signaling was analyzed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three PDAC cell lines were used as target cells to investigate proliferation and invasiveness. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the TrkB tyrosine kinase inhibitor k252a were used as TrkB/BDNF signaling inhibitors. RESULTS: All PDAC cell lines expressed TrkB and BDNF. When TrkB and BDNF were inhibited by siRNA or k252a, the invasiveness of PANC-1 and SUIT-2 cells significantly decreased. When TrkB was inhibited by siRNA or k252a, proliferation was significantly inhibited in PDAC cells. CONCLUSION: TrkB/BDNF signaling may be a new therapeutic target for PDAC. Therapies targeting TrkB/BDNF signaling may be a conclusive cancer therapy for refractory solid cancer.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Receptor trkB/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor trkB/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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