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1.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(8): 1012-1023, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497187

RESUMO

The chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) therapeutic landscape has dramatically changed with the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which allows for a near-normal life expectancy. Five TKIs have been currently approved for CML treatment in Japan, of which four have been indicated as first-line therapy (i.e., imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, and bosutinib). Nowadays, the long-term prognosis of patients with CML is determined not by the primary disease but rather by the comorbidities and treatment-related adverse events (AEs), including cardiovascular events. Assessment of risk profile and comorbidities at diagnosis is essential for the appropriate choice of TKI and long-term survival management. The ability of some patients who achieve deep molecular responses to discontinue therapy successfully is well documented. Long-term treatment-free remission with continued response to TKI therapy is now recognized as the most optimal treatment benefit for some patients.This article discusses treatment strategies, AE management, and future perspectives based on the latest CML treatment guidelines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Dasatinibe/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
2.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(8): 1085-1093, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497195

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a rare type of lymphoid malignancy among Japanese. Its clinical course is indolent, and the prognosis is good. The two types of CLL based on the mutation status of the IgH gene V segment have been documented in the literature. Then, the del (17p)/TP53 subtype is emphasized, and the treatment strategy for the three subtypes differs. Recent knowledge on molecular pathogenesis facilitated the usage of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) and BCL2 inhibitors for the treatment of CLL. A better response can be obtained with the use of these novel agents, resulting in a higher rate of negativity for measurable residual disease (MRD). The treatment strategy based on MRD negativity and the treatment outcomes of CLL will improve in future.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/diagnóstico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico
3.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(8): 954-966, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497236

RESUMO

Mutations in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene represent the most common genetic alteration in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), identified in approximately one third of patients newly diagnosed with AML. FLT3 internal tandem duplication mutations (FLT3-ITD) are associated with increased relapse and inferior overall survival. Multiple inhibitors of FLT3 signaling have been developed in the last few years with variable kinase-inhibitory properties, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity profiles. At present, two FLT3 inhibitors (gilteritinib and quizartinib) have been approved as monotherapies for relapsed/refractory FLT3-mutated AML in Japan, and many more drugs are currently being researched in clinical trials as monotherapies or in combination with conventional chemotherapy or hypomethylating agents and in various settings, including front line, relapsed/refractory disease, and maintenance therapy after consolidation chemotherapy or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Despite significant advances, some issues need to be overcome, including the resistance to FLT3 inhibitors and controversies regarding the role of FLT3 inhibitors in maintenance therapies and the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in FLT3-mutated AML.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497100

RESUMO

Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKis) encompass a new class of therapeutics currently being evaluated for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Whether BTKis affect COVID-19 risk or severity or reduce vaccine efficacy are important but unanswered questions. Here, we provide an overview on BTKi mechanisms relevant to COVID-19 infection and vaccination and review preliminary data on BTKi use in patients with COVID-19. BTKis block B-cell receptor- and myeloid fragment crystallizable receptor-mediated signaling, thereby dampening B-cell activation, antibody class-switching, expansion, and cytokine production. Beyond antibodies, COVID-19 severity and vaccine efficacy appear largely linked to T-cell responses and interferon induction, processes not directly affected by BTKis. Given that B cells have clear roles in antigen presentation to T cells, however, it is possible that BTKis may indirectly interfere with beneficial or detrimental T-cell responses during COVID-19 infection or vaccination. In addition to these possible effects on generating a protective immune response, BTKis may attenuate the hyperinflammatory dysregulation often seen in severe cases of COVID-19 that evolves as a key risk factor in this disease. Currently available outcomes from BTKi-treated patients with COVID-19 are discussed. Clinical trials are currently underway to evaluate the safety and efficacy of BTKis in individuals with MS. Although limited data suggest a potential benefit of BTKis on outcomes for some COVID-19 patients, data from adequately powered, prospective and randomized clinical trials are lacking. Likewise, the specific effect of BTKis on the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines remains to be determined. Any potential unknown risks that BTKi therapy may present to the patient relative to COVID-19 infection, severity, and vaccine efficacy must be balanced with the importance of timely intervention to prevent or minimize MS progression.


Assuntos
Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , COVID-19 , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Linfócitos T/imunologia
5.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 48(9): 1145-1151, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521793

RESUMO

Although cytokine therapy has been a common drug therapy for renal cell carcinoma for long since the 1980s, the evidence for the rationale of this therapy has been limited. Currently, 7 molecular targeted drugs(ie, sorafenib, sunitinib, axitinib, pazopanib, cabozantinib, everolimus, and temsirolimus)are available in Japan. Among these molecular targeted drugs, we clinically evaluated 5 tyrosine kinase inhibitors(ie, sorafenib, sunitinib, axitinib, pazopanib, and cabozantinib)in terms of their effects on blood pressure and the response rate by Bayes-mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis(Bayes- MTC analysis)to develop the decision-making model for the optimal treatment selection. Cabozantinib and axitinib exerted the greatest effect on blood pressure, and their probability of affecting blood pressure was 1.7 to 2 times higher than the probability of sunitinib. Among the 5 tyrosine kinase inhibitors, the effects of sunitinib and sorafenib on blood pressure were small. According to the results of clinical trials in Japan, hypertension was observed in 27.5% of patients treated with sorafenib, 51.0% with sunitinib, and 75.7% with axitinib. Our analysis also showed similar results. This study demonstrated that Bayes-MTC analysis is a useful tool enabling not only direct evaluation but also indirect evaluation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , Pressão Sanguínea , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
6.
Clin Drug Investig ; 41(9): 751-755, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351607

RESUMO

We review here the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, dosage and administration, and place in therapy of tirbanibulin for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK). A literature search using PubMed was conducted using the terms tirbanibulin (tirbanibulin) and actinic keratosis from September 2014 to February 2021. All English-language articles evaluating tirbanibulin were analyzed for this review. Tirbanibulin was granted approval for the treatment of AK of the face or scalp as a first-line therapy. It is administered at a dose of 2.5 mg in 250 mg of white or off-white ointment for a 25 cm2 contiguous treatment surface for 5 consecutive days. Adverse effects include flaking/scaling, crusting, swelling, vesiculation/pustulation, and erosion/ulceration. This article discusses the clinical trials that led to the approval of tirbanibulin and comparison with other approved topical ointments indicated for the treatment of AK. In the clinical trials, all participants experienced a decrease in lesion size or saw complete clearance with minimal adverse effects.


Assuntos
Ceratose Actínica , Administração Tópica , Humanos , Ceratose Actínica/tratamento farmacológico , Pomadas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445095

RESUMO

The expanding clinical application of CDK4- and CDK6-inhibiting drugs in the managements of breast cancer has raised a great interest in testing these drugs in other neoplasms. The potential of combining these drugs with other therapeutic approaches seems to be an interesting work-ground to explore. Even though a potential integration of CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitors with radiotherapy (RT) has been hypothesized, this kind of approach has not been sufficiently pursued, neither in preclinical nor in clinical studies. Similarly, the most recent discoveries focusing on autophagy, as a possible target pathway able to enhance the antitumor efficacy of CDK4 and CDK6 inhibitors is promising but needs more investigations. The aim of this review is to discuss the recent literature on the field in order to infer a rational combination strategy including cyclin-D1/CDK4-CDK6 inhibitors, RT, and/or other anticancer agents targeting G1-S phase cell cycle transition.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos da radiação , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos da radiação , Quimiorradioterapia , Ciclina D1/antagonistas & inibidores , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia
8.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(9): 1312-1321, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have shown activity in osteosarcoma and might enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy. We aimed to determine the recommended phase 2 dose and antitumour activity of lenvatinib with etoposide plus ifosfamide in patients with refractory or relapsed osteosarcoma. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, multicohort, phase 1/2 trial was done at 17 hospitals in six countries. Eligible patients were aged 2-25 years, had relapsed or refractory osteosarcoma, measurable or evaluable disease per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1, Lansky play-performance score or Karnofsky performance score of 50% or higher, up to one previous VEGF or VEGF receptor-targeted therapy, and a life expectancy of at least 3 months. This study includes a combination dose-finding phase 1 part (cohort 3A) and a phase 2 combination expansion in patients with osteosarcoma (cohort 3B). Lenvatinib was administered orally at a starting dose of 11 mg/m2 per day, capped at 24 mg per day, and etoposide (100 mg/m2 per day) plus ifosfamide (3000 mg/m2 per day) were administered intravenously on days 1-3 of each 21-day cycle for a maximum of five cycles. Lenvatinib monotherapy continued after these five cycles until disease progression, toxic effects, or patient choice to discontinue. The phase 1 primary endpoint was to determine the recommended phase 2 dose by evaluating dose-limiting toxicity and the phase 2 primary endpoint was progression-free survival at 4 months. Progression-free survival was measured in the full analysis set, which included all patients enrolled for efficacy outcomes; safety was assessed in all patients who received any study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02432274. FINDINGS: 30 patients were screened for enrolment into cohort 3A between May 9, 2016, and June 3, 2019, and 22 patients for enrolment into cohort 3B between Sept 13, 2018, and July 18, 2019. Eight patients from cohort 3A and two from cohort 3B were ineligible for enrolment in the study. In phase 1, dose-limiting toxicities were observed in three patients (one in the lenvatinib 11 mg/m2 combination group and two in the 14 mg/m2 combination group) and the recommended phase 2 dose was determined as lenvatinib 14 mg/m2 per day (with daily dose cap of 24 mg) and etoposide 100 mg/m2 per day plus ifosfamide 3000 mg/m2 per day administered intravenously on days 1-3 of each 21-day cycle for a maximum of five cycles. 35 patients from phase 1 (cohort 3A; n=15) and phase 2 (cohort 3B; n=20) were treated at the recommended phase 2 dose and their results were pooled. Progression-free survival at 4 months was 51% (95% CI 34-69) in 18 of 35 patients per the binomial estimate. The most common grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia (27 [77%] of 35), thrombocytopenia (25 [71%]), anaemia (19 [54%]), and decreased white blood cell count (19 [54%]). 26 [74%] of 35 patients had serious treatment-emergent adverse events and no treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: Lenvatinib with etoposide plus ifosfamide shows promising antitumour activity with no new safety signals in patients with refractory and relapsed osteosarcoma. These findings warrant further investigation in an ongoing randomised phase 2 study (NCT04154189). FUNDING: Eisai and Merck Sharp & Dohme.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Etoposídeo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Ifosfamida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Critérios de Avaliação de Resposta em Tumores Sólidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(33): e26975, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414970

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Dasatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), induces pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, information on other TKIs is limited.We retrospectively analyzed PH prevalence by reviewing transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) findings in a population of Korean CML patients treated with TKI at a single hospital between 2003 and 2020. PH was defined as a high PH probability according to the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society (ESC/ERS) guidelines.Of the 189 patients treated with TKI(s) during the study period, 112 (59.3%) underwent TTE. Among the 112 patients treated with a TKI for a median of 40.4 months (range: 1.1-167.2 months), PH was found in 12 (10.7%), most frequently in those treated with dasatinib (ie, in 3 [7.5%] of 40 of those treated with imatinib, 1 [3.1%] of 32 of those treated with nilotinib, and 8 [21.6%] of 37 of those treated with dasatinib). PH resolved in 4 (50.0%) of the 8 dasatinib-treated patients after discontinuation of the agent. One nilotinib-treated and all three imatinib-treated patients recovered from PH. In multivariate analyses, age >60 years, dasatinib treatment, and positive cardiopulmonary symptoms/signs at the time of transthoracic echocardiography were statistically significant risk factors for developing PH.These results show that PH is induced not only by dasatinib, but also by imatinib and nilotinib. Careful screening for PH during any TKI treatment may thus be warranted in patients with CML.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Dasatinibe/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Mesilato de Imatinib/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Dasatinibe/uso terapêutico , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361615

RESUMO

In cell development, the cell cycle is crucial, and the cycle progression's main controllers are endogenous CDK inhibitors, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and cyclins. In response to the mitogenic signal, cyclin D is produced and retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is phosphorylated due to activated CDK4/CDK6. This causes various proteins required in the cell cycle progression to be generated. In addition, complexes of CDK1-cyclin A/B, CDK2-cyclin E/A, and CDK4/CDK6-cyclin D are required in each phase of this progression. Cell cycle dysregulation has the ability to lead to cancer. Based on its role in the cell cycle, CDK has become a natural target of anticancer therapy. Therefore, understanding the CDK structures and the complex formed with the drug, helps to foster the development of CDK inhibitors. This development starts from non-selective CDK inhibitors to selective CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors, and these have been applied in clinical cancer treatment. However, these inhibitors currently require further development for various hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, based on the results demonstrated. In drug development, the main strategy is primarily to prevent and asphyxiate drug resistance, thus a determination of specific biomarkers is required to increase the therapy's effectiveness as well as patient selection suitability in order to avoid therapy failure. This review is expected to serve as a reference for early and advanced-stage researchers in designing new molecules or repurposing existing molecules as CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors to treat breast cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
11.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(16): 1908-1919, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343148

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy has dramatically altered the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Currently, the emergence of combination strategies in immunotherapy has brightened the prospects of improved clinical outcomes and manageable safety profiles in the first/second-line settings. However, sub-optimal response rates are still observed in several clinical trials. Hence, alternative combination models and candidate selection strategies need to be explored. Herein, we have critically reviewed and commented on the published data from several clinical trials, including combined immunotherapy and chemotherapy, anti-angiogenic agents, epidermal growth factor receptor/anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors, radiotherapy, and other immune checkpoint inhibitors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27038, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449486

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Whether programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression could predict the outcome of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment and prognosis of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is remaining controversial.Potential studies were search from PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases. Pooled odds ratio of objective response rate was used to describe the relationship between PD-L1 expression and primary resistance to EGFR-TKIs. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were included to assess the effects of PD-L1 status on the outcome of EGFR-TKI treatment and survival of EGFR-mutant NSCLCs.Eighteen eligible studies (1986 EGFR-mutant NSCLCs) were included in this meta-analysis. Positive PD-L1 expression correlated with lower objective response rate of EGFR-TKI treatment (odds ratio [95% confidence interval {CI}] = 0.52 [0.28-0.98], P = .043), while PFS (adjusted HR [95% CI] = 1.49 [0.96-1.89], P = .332) and OS (HR [95% CI] = 1.24 [0.70-2.20], P = .456) of EGFR-TKI treatment did not correlated with PD-L1 status. Furthermore, PD-L1 expression was not a predictive biomarker for the OS (HR [95% CI] = 1.43 [0.98-2.08], P = .062) in overall EGFR-mutant cohort.Positive PD-L1 expression indicated a higher incidence of primary resistance, but did not correlate with the PFS or OS of EGFR-TKI therapy. In addition, PD-L1 expression was unlikely a predictive biomarker for prognosis of EGFR-mutant NSCLCs.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/biossíntese , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Cancer J ; 27(4): 328-333, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398560

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has markedly impacted on the management of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and their outcome in the last year. The cumulative incidence of COVID-19 in patients with CLL in 1 year was approximately 3% in the recent Italian CAMPUS CLL survey; large retrospective studies have documented a higher mortality in patients with CLL hospitalized for severe COVID-19 compared with the general population. Controversial results for CLL-directed treatment have been reported, with some studies suggesting a potential benefit for BTK inhibitors. Reducing the number of hospital visits, delaying treatment whenever possible, and using oral therapy have become the mainstay of management in these patients. Available results with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccines indicate an immune serological response in 40% of patients only, with a detrimental effect of recent therapy with or without anti-CD20 therapy, older age, and hypogammaglobulinemia. Further studies are needed to determine the best strategies in patients with CLL regarding (i) management of concomitant COVID-19, (ii) identification of patients in whom CLL therapy can be safely postponed, (iii) CLL treatment algorithms, and (iv) optimal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
14.
Orv Hetil ; 162(34): 1362-1369, 2021 08 22.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428172

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. A molekuláris diagnosztikai módszerek folyamatos fejlodésének köszönhetoen egyre több onkogén genetikai eltérést azonosítanak. A neurotrofikus tropomiozin receptor-tirozin-kináz (NTRK-) génfúziók fontos precíziós onkológiai célpontok, melyek mindhárom NTRK-génben elofordulhatnak, onkogén-hajtóeroként viselkednek. A génfúziók különbözo molekuláris diagnosztikai módszerekkel azonosíthatók, melyek közül a legpontosabb, legköltségesebb és legidoigényesebb meghatározást az újgenerációs szekvenálási technika jelenti. A tropomiozin receptor-tirozin-kináz (TRK-) fúziós fehérjék szelektív gátlása személyre szabott onkológiai kezelési lehetoséget jelent a tumor típusától, lokalizációjától és a beteg életkorától függetlenül. Az elso generációs TRK-gátlók gyors, hatékony és tartós daganatellenes hatást biztosítanak kimutatott NTRK-fúzió-pozitív daganatok esetén, alacsony mellékhatásprofil mellett. Az elso generációs TRK-gátlók mellett jelentkezo 'on target' rezisztenciát a második generációs TRK-gátlók oldják fel. Szekvenciális tirozin-kináz-inhibitor-kezeléssel tartós betegségmentes túlélés érheto el. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(34): 1362-1369. Summary. Due to the continuous development of molecular diagnostic methods, more and more oncogenic genetic abnormalities are being identified. Neurotrophic tropomyosin receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK) gene fusions are important precision oncology targets that can occur in all three NTRK genes and act as oncogenic drivers. Gene fusions can be identified by a variety of molecular diagnostic technologies, of which next-generation sequencing is the most accurate, costly and time-consuming determination. Selective inhibition of tropomyosin receptor tyrosine kinase (TRK) fusion proteins represents a personalized oncology treatment option regardless of tumour type, localization and patient age. First-generation TRK inhibitors provide rapid, efffective and long-lasting antitumor activity in NTRK fusion-positive tumors with a low side-effect profile. On target resistance to first-generation TRK inhibitors is resolved by second-generation TRK inhibitors. Durable disease-free survival can be achieved with sequential tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapies. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(34): 1362-1369.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Tropomiosina , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica , Medicina de Precisão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Tropomiosina/genética
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4671, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344863

RESUMO

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains challenging because of heterogeneous responses to chemotherapy. Incomplete response is associated with a greater risk of metastatic progression. Therefore, treatments that target chemotherapy-resistant TNBC and enhance chemosensitivity would improve outcomes for these high-risk patients. Breast cancer stem cell-like cells (BCSCs) have been proposed to represent a chemotherapy-resistant subpopulation responsible for tumor initiation, progression and metastases. Targeting this population could lead to improved TNBC disease control. Here, we describe a novel multi-kinase inhibitor, 108600, that targets the TNBC BCSC population. 108600 treatment suppresses growth, colony and mammosphere forming capacity of BCSCs and induces G2M arrest and apoptosis of TNBC cells. In vivo, 108600 treatment of mice bearing triple negative tumors results in the induction of apoptosis and overcomes chemotherapy resistance. Finally, treatment with 108600 and chemotherapy suppresses growth of pre-established TNBC metastases, providing additional support for the clinical translation of this agent to clinical trials.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caseína Quinase II/antagonistas & inibidores , Caseína Quinase II/química , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360896

RESUMO

Despite the improved overall survival rates in most cancers, pancreatic cancer remains one of the deadliest cancers in this decade. The rigid microenvironment, which majorly comprises cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), plays an important role in the obstruction of pancreatic cancer therapy. To overcome this predicament, the signaling of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and TGF beta receptor (TGFßR) in both pancreatic cancer cell and supporting CAF should be considered as the therapeutic target. The activation of receptors has been reported to be aberrant to cell cycle regulation, and signal transduction pathways, such as growth-factor induced proliferation, and can also influence the apoptotic sensitivity of tumor cells. In this article, the regulation of RTKs/TGFßR between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and CAFs, as well as the RTKs/TGFßR inhibitor-based clinical trials on pancreatic cancer are reviewed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 165: 103451, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389458

RESUMO

The NTRK genes encode the tropomyosin-related receptor tyrosine kinases TrkA, TrkB and TrkC. TRK receptors regulate the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of many neuronal and non-neuronal glial cells during embryogenesis, thus playing a critical role in synaptic plasticity and the development of nociceptive pathways. Recurrent genomic alterations in NTRK genes, typically fusions involving the 3' region encoding the kinase domain juxtaposed to 5' sequences from numerous partner genes, occur at a low frequency in a wide diversity of adult and pediatric cancers. The contributions of the resulting constitutively activated kinase to oncogenesis and cancer progression are being elucidated. Larotrectinib and entrectinib are potent first-generation TRK inhibitors with IC50 values in the nanomolar range across cancer cell lines harboring NTRK fusions. Larotrectinib is highly selective for TRK receptors, whereas entrectinib also potently inhibits ROS1 and ALK. Clinical trials of both drugs demonstrated significant and durable responses in patients with tumors harboring NTRK alterations, leading to first of its kind cancer agnostic FDA approvals in the United States for drugs targeting a genomic alteration. Unfortunately, acquired resistance inevitably develops. The second-generation TRK inhibitors selitrectinib and repotrectinib are designed to overcome known mechanisms of resistance.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Humanos , Compostos Macrocíclicos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Medicina de Precisão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas , Pirazóis , Receptor trkA/genética
18.
In Vivo ; 35(5): 2941-2945, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osimertinib is a third-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of T790M-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. More recently, osimertinib demonstrated improved disease control compared to other EGFR-TKIs. Multiple mechanisms of resistance have been described in T790M-positive patients who experienced treatment failure with osimertinib. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 78-year-old non-smoker woman with stage IV EGFR L858R-positive lung adenocarcinoma presented with T790M mutation after five years of treatment with gefitinib. The patient was started on osimertinib, but after two and a half years of treatment experienced disease progression. The analyses of circulating tumor DNA using next-generation sequencing showed, together with the pre-existing T790M and exon 21 L858R, the presence of the EGFR C797G resistance mutation. CONCLUSION: Our case report revealed a rare EGFR-dependent acquired resistance mutation to osimertinib in circulating tumor DNA. Liquid biopsy appears to be a promising resource to understand the biology of osimertinib resistance by clonal evolution monitoring and the identification of novel resistance mechanisms.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Acrilamidas , Idoso , Compostos de Anilina , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
19.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443496

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) plays a crucial role in B-cell receptor and Fc receptor signaling pathways. BTK is also involved in the regulation of Toll-like receptors and chemokine receptors. Given the central role of BTK in immunity, BTK inhibition represents a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Great efforts have been made in developing BTK inhibitors for potential clinical applications in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. This review covers the recent development of BTK inhibitors at preclinical and clinical stages in treating these diseases. Individual examples of three types of inhibitors, namely covalent irreversible inhibitors, covalent reversible inhibitors, and non-covalent reversible inhibitors, are discussed with a focus on their structure, bioactivity and selectivity. Contrary to expectations, reversible BTK inhibitors have not yielded a significant breakthrough so far. The development of covalent, irreversible BTK inhibitors has progressed more rapidly. Many candidates entered different stages of clinical trials; tolebrutinib and evobrutinib are undergoing phase 3 clinical evaluation. Rilzabrutinib, a covalent reversible BTK inhibitor, is now in phase 3 clinical trials and also offers a promising future. An analysis of the protein-inhibitor interactions based on published co-crystal structures provides useful clues for the rational design of safe and effective small-molecule BTK inhibitors.


Assuntos
Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/antagonistas & inibidores , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Autoimunes/enzimologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/enzimologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/química , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos
20.
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 42(7): 535-542, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455739

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the current status of treatment choice and responses in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in China. Methods: From the end of April to mid-May in 2020, a cross-sectional survey, by filling out a survey questionnaire, was conducted to explore the first-line choice of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) , current medications, drug switch and major molecular responses (MMR) as well as the variables associated with them in patients in China. Results: Data of 2933 respondents with CML from 31 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions across the country were included in this study. 1683 respondents (57.4%) were males. Median age was 38 (16-87) years old. 2481 respondents (84.6%) received imatinib as first-line TKI; 1803 (61.5%) , the original new drug (branded drug) . When completing the questionnaire, 1765 respondents (60.2%) were receiving imatinib; 1791 (61.1%) , branded drug. 1185 respondents (40.4%) had experienced TKI switch. With a median follow-up of 45 (3-227) months, 1417 of 1944 (72.9%) respondents with newly diagnosed CML in the chronic phase achieved MMR. Multivariate analysis showed that the respondents with urban household registration (OR=0.6, 95%CI 0.5-0.8, P<0.001) , ≥ bachelor degree (OR=0.5, 95%CI 0.4-0.7, P<0.001) , and in the advanced phase at diagnosis (OR=0.5, 95%CI 0.3-0.8, P=0.001) less preferred Chinese generic TKI, while the respondents from the central region in China more preferred Chinese generic TKI more than those from the eastern region (OR=1.7, 95%CI 1.4-2.0, P<0.001) . Moreover, the respondents in the advanced phase at diagnosis more preferred second-generation TKI (OR=5.4, 95%CI 3.6-8.2, P<0.001) ; those ≥60 years old, less preferred second-generation TKI (OR=0.4, 95%CI 0.2-0.7, P=0.002) . Being in the advanced phase at diagnosis (OR=2.2, 95%CI 1.6-3.2, P<0.001) , first-line choice of imatinib (OR=2.0, 95%CI 1.6-2.6, P<0.001) or Chinese generic drugs (OR=1.3, 95%CI 1.1-1.6, P=0.002) , longer interval from diagnose of CML to starting TKI treatment (OR=1.2, 95%CI 1.1-1.2, P<0.001) and longer duration of TKI therapy (OR=1.1, 95%CI 1.0-1.1, P<0.001) were significantly associated with TKI switch; urban household registration (OR=0.7, 95%CI 0.6-0.8, P<0.001) , ≥MMR (OR=0.6, 95%CI 0.5-0.8, P<0.001) and unknown response (OR=0.7, 95%CI 0.6-0.9, P=0.003) , no TKI switch. Female sex (OR=1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.7, P=0.003) , urban household registration (OR=1.6, 95%CI 1.3-2.0, P<0.001) , front-line imatinib therapy (OR=1.4, 95%CI 1.1-1.9, P=0.016) and longer duration of TKI treatment (OR=1.2, 95%CI 1.2-1.3, P<0.001) were significantly associated with achieving a MMR or better response; age ≥ 60 years old (OR=0.7, 95%CI 0.4-1.0, P=0.047) and TKI switch (OR=0.6, 95%CI 0.5-0.7, P<0.001) , achieving no MMR. Conclusions: By 2020, the majority of Chinese CML patients received imatinib as the fist-line TKI therapy and continue to take it. More than half of TKIs were branded drugs. Socio-demographic characteristics and clinical variables affect their TKI choice, drug switch, and treatment response.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
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