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1.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(10): 2413-2422, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492983

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates centriole duplication. PLK4 deregulation causes centrosome number abnormalities, mitotic defects, chromosomal instability and, consequently, tumorigenesis. Therefore, PLK4 has emerged as a therapeutic target for the treatment of multiple cancers. In this review, we summarize the critical role of centrosome amplification and PLK4 in cancer. We also highlight recent advances in the development of PLK4 inhibitors and discuss potential combination therapies for cancer. METHODS: The relevant literature from PubMed is reviewed in this article. The ClinicalTrials.gov database was searched for clinical trials related to the specific topic. RESULTS: PLK4 is aberrantly expressed in multiple cancers and has prognostic value. Targeting PLK4 with inhibitors suppresses tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: PLK4 plays an important role in centrosome amplification and tumor progression. PLK4 inhibitors used alone or in combination with other drugs have shown significant anticancer efficacy, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer. The results of relevant clinical trials await evaluation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Centrossomo/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
2.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 5149-5156, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Factors associated with response to lenvatinib have not been clarified in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed 50 patients treated with lenvatinib as first-line therapy between March 2018 and March 2019. Patients were divided into two groups by the Modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (mRECIST) (responders and non-responders, whose best overall responses were complete (CR)/partial response (PR) and stable (SD)/progressive disease (PD), respectively). Factors associated with response were assessed, including the relative dose intensity 8 weeks after lenvatinib induction (8W-RDI). RESULTS: The best overall responses were 0/22/14/14 of CR/PR/SD/PD. Multivariate analysis revealed that only 8W-RDI was significantly associated with response. The receiver operating characteristic curve for 8W-RDI in differentiating responders from non-responders revealed a cut-off value of 75%. Patients with 8W-RDI ≥75% experienced a higher response rate and longer progression-free survival than patients with 8W-RDI <75%. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that maintaining an RDI ≥75% during the initial 8 weeks of lenvatinib treatment has a favorable impact on response.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(9): 1405-1411, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530780

RESUMO

Abemaciclib, a selective cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6(CDK4 & 6)inhibitor, is under development for the treatment of hormone receptor(HR)-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer. CDK4 & 6 inhibitors attenuate Rb phosphorylation resulting in a G1 arrest and tumor growth inhibition. Abemaciclib potently inhibits both CDK4 and CDK6, with 14-fold higher potency for CDK4-cyclin D1 complexes than CDK6-cyclin D3 in enzymatic assays. Low frequency of severe neutropenia requiring drug holiday in clinical trials of abemaciclib in breast cancer patients enables continuous daily dosing. Abemaciclib's preclinical difference in selectivity for CDK4 vs CDK6 could help explain its safety profile and ability to be dosed on a continuous schedule. Continuous inhibition of CDK4 & 6 by abemaciclib results in irreversible growth inhibition through induction of senescence and apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. Abemaciclib shows its growth inhibitory effect particularly in estrogen receptor(ER)- positive breast cancer, and sensitivity to abemaciclib is associated with high ER levels and Rb positivity. In animals bearing ERpositive breast cancer, significant tumor growth inhibition was shown by single-agent and combination with anti-estrogen agents. Abemaciclib penetrates the blood-brain barrier and showed antitumor activity in glioma models. As described above, there are some characteristics demonstrate differences of abemaciclib and other CDK4 & 6 inhibitors. In clinical studies, abemaciclib has demonstrated efficacy and generally tolerable safety profile in HR-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina , Humanos
4.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(9): 1413-1419, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530781

RESUMO

Few studies have evaluated the influence of anticancer drugs on the anticoagulation response to warfarin(WF). This retrospective, single-center, observationalstudy evaluated the changes in prothrombin time-internationalnormal ized ratio (PT-INR)in patients receiving a combination of WF and anticancer drugs. We compared(a)PT-INR changes between groups receiving WF and concomitantly started on either tyrosine kinase inhibitors(TKI)(WF+TKI group: n=14)or anticancer drugs other than TKI(WF+non-TKI group: n=20)and(b)PT-INR changes between groups that were started on WF concomitantly while receiving either TKI(TKI+WF group: n=16)or anticancer drugs other than TKI(non-TKI+WF group: n=13). (a)PT-INR changes were significantly larger in the WF+TKI group than in the WF+non-TKI group(2.23 vs 0.42, p<0.001). In the WF+TKI group, the WF dose was reduced after all 14 patients(100.0%)showed increased PT-INR.(b)PT-INR changes during the WF induction period were significantly larger in the TKI+WF group than in the non-TKI+WF group(2.18 vs 0.68, p<0.001). In the TKI+WF group, the WF dose was reduced after 12 patients(75.0%)showed increased PT-INR. It might be necessary to consider a reduction in WF dose when WF is administered in combination with TKIs.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases , Tempo de Protrombina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Varfarina
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16766, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415376

RESUMO

Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and de novo brain metastasis (BM) have poor prognosis. We aim to investigate the characteristic of brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and the association with the treatment response of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) for lung cancer with BM.EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients with BM from October 2013 to December 2017 in a tertiary referral center were retrospectively analyzed. Patient's age, sex, cell type, EGFR mutation status, treatment, and characteristics of BM were collected. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier method. The efficacy of different EGFR-TKIs were also analyzed.Among the 257 eligible patients, 144 patients with Exon 19 deletion or Exon 21 L858R were included for analysis. The erlotinib group had the best progression free survival (PFS) (median PFS 13 months, P = .04). The overall survival (OS) revealed no significant difference between three EGFR-TKI groups. Brain MR imaging features including tumor necrosis, rim enhancement and specific tumor locations (frontal lobe, putamen or cerebellum) were factors associated with poor prognosis. Patients with poor prognostic imaging features, the high-risk group, who received erlotinib had the best PFS (median PFS 12 months, P < .001). However, the OS revealed no significant difference between 3 EGFR-TKI groups. The low risk group patients had similar PFS and OS treated with three different EGFR-TKIs.In NSCLC patients with common EGFR mutation and de novo BM, those with poor prognostic brain MR characteristics, erlotinib provided better PFS than afatinib or gefitinib.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/secundário , Terapia Combinada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Receptores ErbB/genética , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan
6.
Presse Med ; 48(7-8 Pt 1): 807-815, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447332

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is the most frequent adult leukemia. Eighty per cent of the patients are asymptomatic at diagnosis and 30% of the patients will be never treated. The diagnosis is based on the blood smear examination and immunophenotyping by flow cytometry of blood lymphocytes. The first line option is immunochemotherapy in 90% of the patients without genetic abnormalities associated with chemo resistance. The use of new compounds targeting different pathways is more frequent especially in relapsing patients and could be an alternative to the chemotherapy in the future. Asymptomatic patients with a stable disease assessed by the specialist can be followed by the general practitioner with a blood count and clinical examination every six months or once a year.


Assuntos
Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem/métodos , Imunoterapia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/classificação , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/diagnóstico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/tendências , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Terapias em Estudo/métodos , Terapias em Estudo/tendências
7.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(10): 2613-2624, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463717

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of co-occurring genes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and the predictive effect of co-mutations on the efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). METHODS: 54 patients with advanced NSCLC were tested for 422 clinically relevant genes by next-generation sequencing (NGS) before treatment. Among them, patients with EGFR mutation received first-line treatment of EGFR-TKIs. Progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR) were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier methods and compared between two groups using log-rank test. RESULTS: Among 24 EGFR mutant and 30 EGFR wild-type patients, co-mutation rate was lower in patients with EGFR mutation (62.5% [15/24] vs 93.3% [28/30], p = 0.005). There was lower frequency for co-alterations in BRAF (0% [0/24] vs 20% [7/30], p = 0.033), NF1 (4.2% [1/24] vs 30% [9/30], p = 0.038) and RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway genes (16.6% [4/24] vs 56.7% [17/30], p = 0.003) in EGFR mutation group. 24 patients with EGFR mutation received first-line treatment of gefitinib or erlotinib, with an ORR of 83.3% and a median PFS of 12.3 months (95% CI 10.00-14.60). Co-mutation was associated with shorter median PFS (10.2 months [95% CI 5.20-15.20] vs 15.3 months [95% CI 12.09-15.81]; HR 0.29 [95% CI 0.10-0.82]; p = 0.014) in EGFR mutation cohort. Among patients with EGFR mutation and distant metastasis, median PFS was decreased in those with co-mutations (6.3 months [95% CI 3.25-9.35] vs 22.0 months[95% CI 12.10-31.90]; HR 0.12 [95% CI 0.00-5.87]; p = 0.007) and frequency of PIK3CA (0% [0/12] vs 41.7% [5/12], p = 0.037) and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway genes (0% [0/12] vs 50% [6/12], p = 0.014) was lower. CONCLUSION: The presence of co-mutations was lower in the EGFR mutation patients and reduces the efficacy of EGFR-TKI, especially in patients with distant metastases. Lower frequency of co-mutation in PIK3CA and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway genes may be responsible for promoting metastasis and limiting the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Mutação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Oncology ; 97(4): 206-210, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390629

RESUMO

Lenvatinib (LEN) is a multikinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic properties recently approved in radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma in combination with everolimus. LEN-treated patients frequently have adverse events (AEs) that generally require such dose modifications, including drug discontinuation. Hypertension, diarrhea, weight loss, proteinuria, fatigue, and palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia are reported among the most frequent AEs, often leading to discontinuations or dose modifications. This paper reports a case series focusing on the role of the immediate multidisciplinary approach to manage AEs.


Assuntos
Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/radioterapia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Masculino , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/radioterapia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 55(8): 495-501, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461086

RESUMO

Erdafitinib is the first Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved oral pan-fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) kinase inhibitor that binds to four FGFRs (FGFR-1 to -4), leading to decreased cell signaling and cellular apoptosis. Erdafitinib also binds to RET, colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R), platelet-derived growth factor receptor α and ß (PDGFR-α and PDGFR-ß), Fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4), KIT and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), exhibiting additional antitumor mechanisms resulting in cell kill. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the preclinical and clinical activity of erdafitinib, which has been recently approved in the U.S. for the treatment of adult patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma with susceptible FGFR3/FGFR2 genetic alterations following progression during or after at least one line of platinum-containing chemotherapy and within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant platinum-containing chemotherapy. Erdafitinib is the first oral treatment option for patients with urothelial carcinoma.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Quinoxalinas/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Urológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Urotélio/patologia , Humanos
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16065, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apatinib is an oral small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). Some clinical trials have demonstrated that apatinib is efficacious against advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to probe efficacy and safety of apatinib plus docetaxel, as the second or above line treatment, in advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective, single arm study. SETTING: Three teaching hospitals centers in the Sichuan. PARTICIPANTS: Fourteen patients with stage IVA/B nonsquamous NSCLC had previously received at least 1 platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. INTERVENTION: Patients who were enrolled between November 2016 and January 2018 were given docetaxel (75 mg/m, i.v., d1) plus oral apatinib (250 mg/d), 4 weeks as one cycle, until disease progression or intolerance to adverse events (AE). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints comprised objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), and AE incidence rate. RESULTS: All patients carried adenocarcinoma by pathological type. The median follow-up duration was 9.76 months. Out of 14 cases, 12 were evaluable, showing ORR of 33.33%, DCR of 66.67%, DCR of 50% in cases with brain metastasis, median PFS of 2.92 months (95% CI: 1.38-4.48), and 6-month OS of 80%. Primary AEs encompassed: leukopenia in 7 cases (58.33%), hand-foot skin reaction in 5 cases (41.67%), and diarrhea in 4 cases (33.33%). Among them, grade 3 AEs were: leukopenia in 4 cases (33.33%), and hand-foot skin reaction in 1 case (8.33%). No grade 4/5 AEs were reported. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted respectively for PFS and OS. These factors encompassed: gender, age, gene mutations, clinical stage, ECOG scores, quantity of metastatic foci, brain metastasis, and hand-foot skin reaction. Results demonstrated zero risk factors for PFS or OS. CONCLUSION: Apatinib plus docetaxel, as the second or above line treatment, is effective and safe against advanced nonsquamous NSCLC, with good tolerance profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03416231.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Docetaxel/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados Preliminares , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Retratamento , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Moduladores de Tubulina/efeitos adversos , Moduladores de Tubulina/uso terapêutico
11.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3923-3929, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) shows a durable response against NSCLC harboring EGFR mutation; however, treatment resistance occurs within 1-1.5 years following first-line EGFR-TKIs [first- and second-generation (G) TKIs]. When resistant NSCLC exhibits T790M mutations, osimertinib is the standard therapy. However, intratumoral heterogeneity and clonal evolution may occur in NSCLC. Afatinib may overcome tumor heterogeneity, leading to T790M colonal purity. We aimed to determine whether NSCLC treatment with afatinib followed by osimertinib (afatinib group) provides higher therapeutic efficacy than other 1st-G EFGR-TKIs followed by osimertinib (1st-G group). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study evaluated outcomes between afatinib group and 1st-G group. We analyzed clinical data from NSCLC patients receiving osimertinib after progression following 1st- or 2nd-G EGFR-TKIs between March 28, 2016 and March 31, 2018. Patients with performance status (PS) 0-2 were enrolled to reduce bias of patients' conditions. RESULTS: We enrolled 111 patients treated with osimertinib. The median age was 69 (range: 39-88) years. Out of 111 patients, 33 (29.7%) were men, 100 (90%) had PS 0-1, and 35 (31.5%) were in the afatinib group. The objective RR and DCR were significantly higher in the afatinib group than in the 1st-G group [82.9% vs. 53.9% (p=0.0065); 91.4% vs. 71.1% (p=0.032)]. The median PFS tended higher in the afatinib group than in the 1st-G group (15.6 vs. 8.9 months, p=0.195). CONCLUSION: Afatinib followed by osimertinib may provide better outcomes for T790M-positive NSCLC than 1st-G EGFR-TKIs. Afatinib followed by osimertinib may be a therapeutic option for NSCLC harboring EGFR mutation.


Assuntos
Afatinib/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/uso terapêutico , Gefitinibe/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 60(6): 594-599, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281150

RESUMO

Standard treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) comprises (1) induction therapy with both cytarabine and anthracycline and (2) consolidation therapy that is modified according to patients' conditions, including prognostic factors. However, this strategy is not satisfactory, especially for elderly patients. Novel technologies have revealed several driver mutations of numerous critical genes in AML, which can be targeted by novel drugs; the discovery of such targetable genes and the development of novel drugs have evolved the treatment strategy for AML. We should always monitor these advances in hematology. In the United States, the FDA has already approved several new drugs for AML, including FLT3 inhibitors and IDH neoenzyme inhibitors. In Japan, gilteritinib, an FLT3 inhibitor, was also approved at the end of 2018. These promising drugs will facilitate performing "precision medicine" on patients with AML soon.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Citarabina/uso terapêutico , Genômica , Humanos , Japão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 310: 108731, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265827

RESUMO

Lung cancer is one of the most common and lethal types of oncological diseases. Despite the advanced therapeutic approaches, the prognosis for lung cancer still remains poor. Apparently, there is an imperative need for more efficient therapeutic strategies. In this work we report that concurrent treatment of human adenocarcinoma A549 cells with specific concentrations of two antitumor agents, the sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor N, N dimethylsphingosine (DMS) and the alkylphosphocholine miltefosine, induced synergistic cytotoxic effect, which was confirmed by calculation of the combination index. The simultaneous action of these agents, induced significant decrease of A549 cell number, as well as pronounced morphological alterations. Combined drugs caused substantial apoptotic events, and significant reduction of the pro-survival marker sphingosine- 1-phosphate (S1P), when compared to the individual treatments with each of the anticancer drugs alone. Miltefosine is known to affect the synthesis of choline-containing phospholipids, including sphingomyelin, but we report for the first time that it also reduces S1P. Here we suggest a putative mechanism underlying the effect of miltefosine on sphingosine kinase 1, involving miltefosine-induced inhibition of protein kinase C. In conclusion, our findings provide a possibility for treatment of lung cancer cells with lower concentrations of the two antitumor drugs, DMS and miltefosine, which is favorable, regarding their potential cytotoxicity to normal cells.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Lisofosfolipídeos/análise , Fosforilcolina/farmacologia , Fosforilcolina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Esfingosina/análise
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1143: 191-215, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338821

RESUMO

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder characterized by a chromosome translocation that generates the BCR-ABL oncogene encoding a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase. Although BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are highly effective in treating CML at chronic phase, a number of patients develop drug resistance due to the inability of TKIs to kill leukemia stem cells (LSCs). Similar to other types of hematopoietic malignancies, LSCs in CML are believed to be a rare cell population responsible for leukemia initiation, disease progression, and drug resistance. Therefore, a full understanding of the biology of LSCs will help to develop novel therapeutic strategies for effective treatment of CML to possibly reach a cure. In recent years, a significant progress has been made in studying the biology of LSCs in both animal models and human patients at cellular and molecular levels, providing a basis for designing and testing potential molecular targets for eradicating LSCs in CML.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pesquisa/tendências
16.
Cancer Invest ; 37(6): 242-252, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296070

RESUMO

Drug resistance to TKIs and the existance of CML leukemia stem cells is an urgent problem. In this study, we demonstrate that quinacrine (QC) induces apoptosis in BCR-ABL positive CML and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. Interestingly, QC inhibits the colony formation of primary CD34+ progenitor/stem leukemia cells from CML patients. QC targets RNA polymerase I, which produces ribosomal (r)RNA, involving in protein translation process. Also, QC treatment prolongs CML-like mice survival and inhibits K562 tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, we demonstrate that QC depletes BCR-ABL protein and suppresses Ph-positive leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/metabolismo , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Quinacrina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Células K562 , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
17.
Cancer Invest ; 37(6): 253-264, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303065

RESUMO

We fully investigate the skin toxicities of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in cancer patients. The studies about randomized controlled trials in cancer treatment with EGFR-TKIs were retrieved and the systematic evaluation was conducted. The results suggest that EGFR-TKIs significantly increase the risk of skin toxicities including all-grade rash, pruritus, dry skin, and high-grade rash, pruritus. However, the risk of high-grade dry skin did not increase. Rash was the most common toxicity. Physicians should be aware of skin toxicities and should monitor cancer patients when receiving EGFR-TKIs.


Assuntos
Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Exantema/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3893-3899, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome, resulting from the reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes 9 and 22. About 5-10% of newly diagnosed patients in chronic-phase (CP) CML show complex additional chromosomal aberrations (ACA), that may involve one or more chromosomes in addition to 9 and 22. Data concerning the prognostic significance of ACA in CP-CML subjects at diagnosis are controversial. Furthermore, there is no evidence showing that selection of imatinib (IM) or second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (2G-TKI) would be of benefit for these patients. CASE REPORT: We report the three-way complex variant translocation t(2;9;22) in a CP-CML patient. Conventional cytogenetic analysis was employed to identify the ACA. Multiplex reverse transcription-PCR was used to identify the BCR-ABL1 transcript and its levels were measured using quantitative real-time-PCR. This rare ACA t(2;9;22) in our young patient displayed primary resistance to IM, but was responsive to second-line treatment with nilotinib. CONCLUSION: CP-CML patients exhibiting this rare aberration at diagnosis may benefit from a 2G-TKI therapy compared to IM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Translocação Genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Anticancer Res ; 39(7): 3949-3954, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262926

RESUMO

We report the case of an 89-year-old male diagnosed with chronic-phase CML and expressing a rare e13a3 BCR-ABL1 fusion transcript. His cytogenetic analysis showed the t(9;22) translocation generating the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph), with a multiplex RT-PCR detecting an atypical fragment. Using two primers complementary to exon 10 of BCR and exon 4 of ABL1, a larger PCR product was observed, where after Sanger sequencing, an e13a3 BCR-ABL1 transcript was revealed. Given the diagnosis, the patient received 100 mg of dasatinib every other day and was then monitored by measuring both hematological and cytogenetic parameters, while his BCR-ABL1 transcripts were examined by PCR and semi-nested-PCR. According to the 2013 European Leukemia Network criteria, after six months of dasatinib the patient's response was classified as warning as he displayed 20% of Philadelphia-positive metaphases. Sequencing of the ABL1 catalytic domain did not detect point mutations. A complete cytogenetic response was achieved after one year of dasatinib. However, semi-nested-PCR confirmed the presence of the e13a3 BCR-ABL1 fusion transcript that has persisted up to the latest follow-up visit.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Dasatinibe/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Fusão bcr-abl/genética , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/genética , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Translocação Genética , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(10): 2555-2564, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350622

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previously, the combination of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) and bevacizumab (BEV) was investigated. A subgroup analysis of the IMpower150 trial, which investigated the combination of atezolizumab, carboplatin, paclitaxel, and bevacizumab (ABCP), demonstrated the benefit of ABCP in patients harboring EGFR mutations. This study aims to assess the prognostic significance of the qualification for BEV use and the proportion of patients who potentially benefit from BEV-containing combination therapy before and after initial EGFR-TKI treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 297 patients with advanced or recurrent non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring EGFR mutations who had received EGFR-TKIs. We performed statistical analyses using the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox regression adjusted for risk factors. RESULTS: Of the 297 patients, 203 (68%) were eligible to receive BEV ("BEV fit") at the time of EGFR-TKI initiation. Among the "BEV unfit" patients at baseline (n = 70), 14 (20%) became eligible to receive ABCP ("ABCP fit") at the time of EGFR-TKI failure. The median overall survival (OS) of the "BEV fit" and "BEV unfit" patients was 26.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 23.7-31.2] and 19.1 (95% CI 15.0-25.1) months, respectively (P < 0.001). The multivariate analysis revealed a marked correlation between survival and the qualification for BEV use. CONCLUSIONS: The qualification for BEV use at baseline is independently related to the OS. Some patients harboring EGFR mutations, including those who were "BEV unfit" at baseline, could be eligible for the ABCP regimen after EGFR-TKI treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bevacizumab/farmacologia , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
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