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1.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 905-912, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921660

RESUMO

There is little data on management and outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients on direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) undergoing general surgery.We retrospectively assessed 98 surgeries in 85 nonvalvular AF patients aged 73 ± 8 (59 men) receiving DOACs. Cardiac, emergency, and minimally invasive surgeries were excluded.The CHA2DS2-VASc score ranged from 0 to 8. The DOACs being given were: dabigatran, 16; rivaroxaban, 25; apixaban, 28; and edoxaban, 16. While the DOACs were not suspended in 11 cases, they were interrupted for a median of 2.0 days before surgery and restarted at a median of 3.0 days after surgery. There were 9 complications (9.2%), 3 instances of thromboembolism and 6 bleeding. Thromboembolism occurred at a mean of 3.0 postoperative days, all of which occurred before resumption of DOACs, while bleeding events occurred at a mean of 4.0 postoperative days. Two of the 3 patients with thromboembolism went into cardiopulmonary arrest during the event, but were resuscitated. There were significantly more patients with congestive heart failure or combined antiplatelets in the patients with complications. The complication group had a significantly higher HAS-BLED score and lower preoperative hemoglobin level. There were no significant differences in the management of DOAC interruption between those with complications and without.The perioperative complication rate in nonvalvular AF patients undergoing elective surgery treating with DOACs was 9.2%. Patients with congestive heart failure, receiving combined therapy with antiplatelets, a higher HAS-BLED score, or lower preoperative hemoglobin level were at higher risk. Further studies evaluating the ideal perioperative DOAC protocol are warranted.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Infarto Cerebral/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Embolia/epidemiologia , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares
2.
J Med Vasc ; 45(5): 288-293, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) is increasing. Its management is sometimes complex and difficult due to its complications and the lack of strong recommendations. The aim was to describe the practice of vascular physicians in Occitanie region in the management of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used a descriptive observational study in the form of a declarative survey by means of a questionnaire from April to May 2019 among vascular physicians. RESULTS: Of the 142 physicians contacted, 84 responded, with a reply rate of 59.1%. The majority of physicians introduced low-molecular-weight heparin treatment (60.71%) and 29.76% direct oral anticoagulation after a diagnosis of UEDVT. Three months of anticoagulation was chosen by 69% of physicians against 27.4% for a duration of 6 months. Diagnostic work-up included biological risk factors, chest and/or cervical radiography and ultrasonography with dynamic maneuvers. Three quarters of doctors recommended venous compression. A control ultrasonography was performed for 67.86% of patients at one month and at the end of treatment. After the acute phase, 63% of physicians introduced direct oral anticoagulation and 11% recommended venous revascularization. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The mobilization of vascular physicians reflects their interest for this pathology. The management of UEDVT requires specific studies to address therapeutic modalities, the duration of anticoagulation or the place of venous compression in the acute phase.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Bandagens Compressivas/tendências , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Trombose Venosa Profunda de Membros Superiores/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/tendências , Administração Oral , Adulto , Esquema de Medicação , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , França/epidemiologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa Profunda de Membros Superiores/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa Profunda de Membros Superiores/epidemiologia
3.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(6): 228, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767034

RESUMO

Rivaroxaban (RXB) is a class II drug, according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. Since its bioavailability is low at high doses, dose proportionality is not achieved for pharmacokinetic parameters. However, when taken with food, its bioavailability increases at high doses. In this study, nanocrystal technology was used to increase the solubility and, hence, the bioavailability of RXB. Pluronic F127, pharmacoat 603, and PVP K-30 were used as stabilizers to prepare RXB nanosuspension, combining ball mill and high pressure homogenization methods. Particle sizes of RXB in nanosuspension (formulation A:348 nm; formulation B:403 nm) and nanocrystal formulations (formulation A:1167 nm; formulation B:606 nm) were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) compared to those of bulk RXB. In both formulations, 80% of the drug dissolved in 30 min. For dose proportionality evaluation, 3, 10, and 15 mg/kg of RXB nanosuspensions (formulation B) were administered to rabbits. The dose proportionality for AUC and Cmax of RXB nanocrystals was assessed by the power model, variance analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters, linear regression, and equivalence criterion methods. Dose proportionality for AUC was achieved at doses between 10-15 and 3-15 mg/kg. In conclusion, the preparation of a nanocrystal formulation of RXB improved its dissolution rate and pharmacokinetic profile.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Disponibilidade Biológica , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores do Fator Xa/química , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacocinética , Tamanho da Partícula , Coelhos , Rivaroxabana/química , Rivaroxabana/farmacocinética , Solubilidade
4.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 1743927, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684980

RESUMO

Sex-specific differences have been definitively demonstrated in cardiovascular (CV) diseases. These differences can also impact on the effects of CV therapies. Female sex is recognized as an independent predictor of thromboembolic risk, particularly in older patients. Most of strokes are due to atrial fibrillation (AF). Women affected by AF have higher stroke risk compared to men. The introduction of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for long-term anticoagulation completely changed the anticoagulant therapeutic approach and follow-up of patients affected by nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). CHA2DS2-VASc stroke risk scoring in use in the current international guidelines attributes 1 point to "female sex". Besides, no anticoagulation is indicated for AF female patients without other risk factors. Interestingly, NOACs seem to normalize the differences between males and females both in terms of safety and efficacy, whereas residual higher stroke risk and systemic embolism persist in AF women treated with vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants VKA with optimal time in therapeutic range. Based on the CHA2DS2-VASc score, NOACs represent the preferred choice in NVAF patients. Moreover, complete evaluation of apparently lower risk factor along with concomitant clinical conditions in AF patients appears mandatory, particularly for female patients, in order to achieve the most appropriate anticoagulant treatment, either in male or in female patients. The present review was performed to review sex differences in AF-related thromboembolic risk reported in the literature and possibly highlight current knowledge gaps in prevention and management that need further research.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/sangue , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104982, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689586

RESUMO

We report a case of ophthalmic artery occlusion (OAO) in a young patient with COVID-19 infection that was on therapeutic anticoagulation with apixaban for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). A 48-year-old man with obesity was hospitalized with a severe form of COVID-19 infection, complicated with acute respiratory failure, septic shock, dilated cardiomyopathy and fungemia. Despite treatment with prophylactic enoxaparin (initial D-Dimer 1.14 µg/ml FEU (normal < 0.05 µg/ml FEU), D-Dimer increased to above 20 µg/ml FEU and patient continued to spike high fevers. This prompted further investigations and upper and lower extremities DVTs were confirmed and managed with enoxaparin 1 mg/kg twice daily. D-dimer level decreased to 4.98 µg/ml FEU while on therapeutic anticoagulation. Three weeks later pending hospital discharge, the anticoagulation was switched to oral apixaban 10 mg twice daily. Patient developed acute severe right eye visual loss of no light perception and was diagnosed with incomplete OAO. D-Dimer was elevated at 2.13 µg/ml FEU. Stroke etiological work-up found no embolic sources, resolution of the dilated cardiomyopathy and negative antiphospholipid antibodies. Treatment was changed to enoxaparin and no thrombotic events were encountered to date. Ocular vascular complications have not yet been reported in COVID-19. Controversy exists on the best management algorithm for the hypercoagulable state associated to COVID-19 Either direct oral anticoagulants or low-molecular-weight-heparin are considered appropriate at discharge for patients with venous thromboembolism. The optimum regimen for ischemic stroke prevention and the significance of D-Dimer for anticoagulation monitoring in COVID-19 remain unclear.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Artéria Oftálmica , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/diagnóstico por imagem , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Substituição de Medicamentos , Enoxaparina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Oftálmica/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/virologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234048, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Warfarin is an anticoagulant medication proven effective in the initial treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism. Anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulants are alternatives to warfarin; however there is limited data assessing satisfaction after switching from warfarin to an anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulant in patients for treatment of venous thromboembolism. OBJECTIVES: To assess medication satisfaction in patients requiring anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism after conversion from warfarin to an anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulant. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study with prospective assessment of satisfaction and review of adverse events following anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulant replacement of warfarin for treatment of venous thromboembolism. Out of 165 patients who had switched from warfarin to rivaroxaban or apixaban from an outpatient haematology practice, 126 patients consented for a survey of patient's relative satisfaction of anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulant therapy compared with previous warfarin therapy using the Anti-Clot Burden and Benefits Treatment Scale and SWAN Score. RESULTS: The mean Anti-Clot Burden and Benefits and SWAN Score was 93% (56/60) and 83% (24.8/30) respectively reflecting high satisfaction with anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulants. 120 patients stated preference for anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulants over warfarin. Leading perceptions driving this was the reduction in frequency of medical contact and fewer bleeding side effects. Thirteen patients (10.3%) experienced an adverse event after the anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulant switch (majority were non-major bleeding) but most remained on anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulant treatment after management options were implemented with continued high satisfaction scores. CONCLUSIONS: Patient satisfaction with anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulant therapy for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism after switching from warfarin in routine clinical practice appeared high. Improved patient convenience including reduced frequency of medical contact and fewer unpredictable side effects were perceived as significant advantages of anti-Xa direct oral anticoagulants compared to warfarin.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Satisfação do Paciente , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am Heart J ; 226: 85-93, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526533

RESUMO

While oral anticoagulation is a cornerstone of stroke prevention therapy in atrial fibrillation (AF), few studies have evaluated comparative discontinuation rates in clinical practice. The objective of this study is to evaluate discontinuation rates among patients on warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in clinical practice. METHODS: The ORBIT-AF II Registry enrolled 10,005 total AF patients with a CHA2DS2VASc score of ≥2 on warfarin or DOACs from 235 clinical practices across the US from February 13, 2013 and July 12, 2017. Descriptive statistics and multivariable Cox regression modeling were used to describe baseline characteristics and predictors of discontinuation. Unadjusted and adjusted discontinuation rates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models and propensity score adjustment, respectively. RESULTS: At baseline, 16.4% (N = 1642/10,005) were treated with warfarin, 83.6% (N = 8363/10,005) with DOACs and 1498/10,005 patients (15.0%) discontinued therapy [warfarin = 236/1642 (14.4%) vs DOACs = 1262/8363 (15.1%)]. At 6 and 12 months respectively, among 7049 patients with a new diagnosis of AF within 6 months, adjusted discontinuation rates for warfarin versus DOACs were as follows: [6 months: 7.9%, 95%CI (6.8%-9.0%) vs 9.6% (8.4%-10.7%), P = .16]; [12 months: 12.7% (11.0%-14.3%) vs 15.3% (13.6%-16.9%), P = .02)]. Patients who discontinued therapy with warfarin or DOACs had higher risk of adverse clinical outcomes including: all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death (CV) than those who continued treatment. CONCLUSION: In a community based AF cohort, adjusted rates of discontinuation at 12-months were higher in DOAC-treated versus VKA-treated patients. Discontinuation of oral anticoagulation was associated with increased absolute risk of all-cause mortality and CV death. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL:https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique Identifier: NCT01701817.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Suspensão de Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(25): e20570, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569181

RESUMO

The CHA2DS2-VASc scale does not include potential risk factors for left atrial appendage thrombus (LAAT) formation such as a form of atrial fibrillation (AF) and impaired kidney function. The real risk of thromboembolic complications in AF patients is still unclear as well as an optimal anticoagulant treatment in males with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 1 and females with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 2.The aim of this study was to compare the predictive value of the CHA2DS2-VASc scale and other scales to estimate the risk of LAAT formation in AF patients treated with non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and to assess the prevalence of thrombi in patients at intermediate risk of stroke.The observational study included consecutive patients with a diagnosis of non-valvular AF treated with NOACs, admitted to 3 high-reference institutions between 2013 and 2018. All individuals underwent transoesophageal echocardiography before cardioversion or ablation.Out of 1163 enrolled AF patients (62.1% male, mean age 62 years) the LAAT had been detected in 50 individuals (4.3%). Among patients with LAAT, 1 patient (2.0%) was classified as a low-risk category, 9 (18.0%) were at intermediate-risk, and 40 (80.0%) were at high risk of thromboembolic complications according to CHA2DS2-VASc scale. All patients were treated with NOACs: 51.0% rivaroxaban, 47.1% dabigatran, and 1.9% apixaban.Patients at intermediate stroke-risk with detected LAAT had higher R2CHADS2 score (2.1 ±â€Š1.2 vs 1.2 ±â€Š0.8, P = .007), higher CHA2DS2-VASc-RAF score (6.4 ±â€Š4.4 vs 3.7 ±â€Š2.6, P = .027) and more often had an estimated glomerular filtration rate below 56 mL/min/1.73 m (44.4% vs 13.2%, P = .026) compared to patients without LAAT. The receiver operating characteristics revealed that the CHA2DS2-VASc-RAF scale had better predictive ability to distinguish between patients with and without LAAT in the study group than CHA2DS2-VASc (P = .0006), CHADS2 (P = .0006) and R2CHADS2 scale (P = .0140).The CHA2DS2-VASc scale should be supplemented with an assessment of renal function and form of AF to improve stroke risk estimation. The application of additional scales to estimate the risk of LAAT might be especially useful among males with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 1 and females with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 2.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Apêndice Atrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle
9.
Cerebrovasc Dis Extra ; 10(2): 44-49, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375143

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Even though the introduction of less cumbersome anticoagulant agents has improved, the rates ofoverall anticoagulant treatment in eligible patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) remain to be defined. We aimed to assess the rates of and determinants for the use of anticoagulation treatment before stroke in patients with known AF since the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) in clinical practice. METHODS: Consecutive patients admitted to an individual stroke unit, from September 2013 through July 2019, for acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) with known AF before the event were included in the study. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of the use of anticoagulant treatment. RESULTS: Overall, 155 patients with ischemic stroke/TIA and known AF were included in this study. Among 152 patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score >1, 43 patients were not receiving any treatment, 47 patients were receiving antiplatelet agents, and the remaining 62 patients were on oral anticoagulants. Among 34 patients on DOAC, 13 were receiving a nonlabeled reduced dose and 18 out of 34 patients on vitamin K antagonists had an INR value <2 at the time of admission. Before stroke, only 34 out of 155 patients (21.9%) were adequately treated according to current guidelines. Previous stroke/TIA was the only independent predictor of the use of anticoagulant therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Only 21.9% of the patients hospitalized for a stroke or TIA with known AF before the event were adequately treated according to recent treatment guidelines. It is important to improve medical information about the risk of AF and the efficacy of anticoagulants in stroke prevention.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/tendências , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Admissão do Paciente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD005259, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knee arthroscopy (KA) is a routine orthopedic procedure recommended to repair cruciate ligaments and meniscus injuries and in eligible patients, to assist the diagnosis of persistent knee pain. KA is associated with a small risk of thromboembolic events. This systematic review aims to assess if pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions may reduce this risk. This review is the second update of the review first published in 2007. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of interventions, whether mechanical, pharmacological, or in combination, for thromboprophylaxis in adult patients undergoing KA. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, the Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL databases, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registries, on 14 August 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs), whether blinded or not, of all types of interventions used to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in males and females aged 18 years and older undergoing KA. There were no restrictions on language or publication status. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed trial quality with the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, and extracted data. A third author addressed discrepancies. We contacted study authors for additional information when required. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: This update adds four new studies, bringing the total of included studies to eight and involving 3818 adult participants with no history of thromboembolic disease undergoing KA. Studies compared daily subcutaneous (sc) low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) versus control (five studies); oral rivaroxaban 10 mg versus placebo (one study); daily sc LMWH versus graduated compression stockings (GCS) (one study); and aspirin versus control (one study). The incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in all trials combined was low, with seven cases in 3818 participants.There were no deaths in any of the intervention or control groups. LMWH versus control When compared with control, LMWH probably results in little to no difference in the incidence of PE in patients undergoing KA (risk ratio (RR) 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 6.65; 1820 participants; 3 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). LMWH showed no reduction of the incidence of symptomatic DVT (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.18 to 2.03; 1848 participants; 4 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). LMWH may reduce the risk of asymptomatic DVT but the evidence is very uncertain (RR 0.14, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.61; 369 participants; 2 studies; very low-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of an increased risk of all adverse events combined (RR 1.85, 95% CI 0.95 to 3.59; 1978 participants; 5 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). No evidence of a clear effect on major bleeding (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.72; 1451 participants; 1 study; moderate-certainty evidence), or minor bleeding was observed (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.84 to 3.84; 1978 participants; 5 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). Rivaroxaban versus placebo One study with 234 participants compared oral rivaroxaban 10 mg versus placebo. No evidence of a clear impact on the risk of PE (no events in either group), symptomatic DVT (RR 0.16, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.29; moderate-certainty evidence); or asymptomatic DVT (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.01; very low-certainty evidence) was detected. Only bleeding adverse events were reported. No major bleeds occurred in either group and there was no evidence of differences in minor bleeding between the groups (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.18 to 2.19; moderate-certainty evidence). Aspirin versus control One study compared aspirin with control. No PE, DVT or asymptomatic events were detected in either group. Adverse events including pain and swelling were reported but it was not clear what groups these were in. No bleeds were reported. LMWH versus GCS One study with 1317 participants compared the use of LMWH versus GCS. There was no clear difference in the risk of PE (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.14 to 7.05; low-certainty evidence). LMWH use did reduce the risk of DVT compared to people using GCS (RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.75; low-certainty evidence). No clear difference in effects was seen between the groups for asymptomatic DVT (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.09; very low-certainty evidence); major bleeding (RR 3.01, 95% CI 0.61 to 14.88; moderate-certainty evidence) or minor bleeding (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.08; moderate-certainty evidence). Levels of thromboembolic events were higher in the GCS group than in any other group. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for imprecision resulting from overall small event numbers; risk of bias due to concerns about lack of blinding, and indirectness as we were uncertain about the direct clinical relevance of asymptomatic DVT detection. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is a small risk that healthy adult patients undergoing KA will develop venous thromboembolism (PE or DVT). There is moderate- to low-certainty evidence of no benefit from the use of LMWH, aspirin or rivaroxaban in reducing this small risk of PE or symptomatic DVT. There is very low-certainty evidence that LMWH use may reduce the risk of asymptomatic DVT when compared to no treatment but it is uncertain how this directly relates to incidence of DVT or PE in healthy patients. No evidence of differences in adverse events (including major and minor bleeding) was seen, but data relating to this were limited due to low numbers of events in the studies reporting within the comparisons.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Artroscopia/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Meias de Compressão
11.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 63, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of adverse clinical outcomes for non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOACs) and warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and diabetes mellitus are limited. We investigated the effectiveness, safety, and major adverse limb events for NOACs versus warfarin among diabetic AF patients. METHODS: In this nationwide retrospective cohort study collected from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified a total of 20,967 and 5812 consecutive AF patients with diabetes taking NOACs and warfarin from June 1, 2012, to December 31, 2017, respectively. We used propensity-score stabilized weighting to balance covariates across study groups. RESULTS: NOAC was associated with a lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR):0.88; [95% confidential interval (CI) 0.78-0.99]; P = 0.0283), major adverse limb events (MALE) (aHR:0.72;[95% CI 0.57-0.92]; P = 0.0083), and major bleeding (aHR:0.67;[95% CI 0.59-0.76]; P < 0.0001) compared to warfarin. NOACs decreased MACE in patients of ≥ 75 but not in those aged < 75 years (P interaction = 0.01), and in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) compared to those without IHD (P interaction < 0.01). For major adverse limb events, the advantage of risk reduction for NOAC over warfarin persisted in high risk subgroups including age ≥ 75 years, chronic kidney disease, IHD, peripheral artery disease, or use of concomitant antiplatelet drugs. CONCLUSION: Among diabetic AF patients, NOACs were associated with a lower risk of thromboembolism, major bleeding, and major adverse limb events than warfarin. Thromboprophylaxis with NOACs should be considered in the diabetic AF population with a high atherosclerotic burden.


Assuntos
Amputação , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amputação/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(7): 104899, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The periprocedural administration of dual antiplatelet therapy has been recommended in patients treated by carotid artery stenting. However, some patients with concurrent disease have been prescribed anticoagulants. We compared the post-operative incidence of hemorrhagic and thromboembolic events in two patient groups treated by different regimens of multi-antithrombotic agents. METHODS: As our 31 patients had a history of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, they had received anticoagulants; they were also treated with aspirin and clopidogrel before carotid artery stenting. The prior anticoagulant therapy was continued in 17 patients and they received vitamin K antagonist plus dual antiplatelet therapy after the procedure (group 1). Other 14 patients underwent direct oral anticoagulant plus aspirin or clopidogrel (group 2). Post-procedural hemorrhagic and thromboembolic events were compared between two groups. RESULTS: Carotid artery stenting was angiographically successful in all patients. Complications were encountered in two group 1 patients. Post-operative image revealed a silent subarachnoid hemorrhage in one. The other presented with superior mesenteric artery occlusion 6 months after the procedure. No hemorrhagic or thromboembolic events occurred in group 2. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the administration of a direct oral anticoagulant plus an antiplatelet agent reduced the risk for periprocedural hemorrhagic and embolic events in patients with concurrent nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who underwent carotid artery stenting.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Estenose das Carótidas/terapia , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Stents , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/mortalidade , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(7): 1152-1160, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We determined the association between left atrial (LA) thrombus occurrence and a non-classic risk marker, plasma levels of vitamin D, in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients on continuous non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) therapy for ≥4 weeks. Low levels of plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) are predictive of fatal stroke. Vitamin D has anticoagulant effects on the coagulation cascade, which are indirectly targeted by NOAC therapy. The impact of plasma levels of vitamin D on the rate of LA thrombus detected by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in AF patients is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 201 (133 female) AF patients who were using continuous NOAC therapy for ≥4 weeks. All patients underwent transthoracic and TEE examination. Serum concentrations of 25-OHD, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, CHA2DS2-VASc scores and parameters, LA size, and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) were examined before the TEE procedure. LA thrombus occurrence was independently associated with serum levels of 25-OHD (OR: 0.884; 95% CI: 0.839-0.932; P < 0.001), LA diameter (OR: 1.120; 95% CI: 1.038-1.209; P = 0.003), and LVEF(OR: 0.944; 95% CI: 0.896-0.995; P = 0.032). Dense spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) presence was also inversely associated with 25-OHD concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Low 25-OHD levels, as a non-classic risk factor, were independently and significantly associated with dense SEC and LA thrombus occurrence in AF patients under NOAC therapy, as well as LA enlargement and decreased LVEF. Further large-scale studies are needed to explain the role of vitamin D deficiency, or efficacy of replacement, on LA thrombus occurrence.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Administração Oral , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Esquema de Medicação , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Turquia/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
14.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(6): 1320-1323, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiviral drugs are administered in patients with severe COVID-19 respiratory syndrome, including those treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Concomitant administration of antiviral agents has the potential to increase their plasma concentration. A series of patients managed in the Cremona Thrombosis Center were admitted at Cremona Hospital for SARS-CoV-2 and started antiviral drugs without stopping DOAC therapy. DOAC plasma levels were measured in hospital and results compared with those recorded before hospitalization. METHODS: All consecutive patients on DOACs were candidates for administration of antiviral agents (lopinavir, ritonavir, or darunavir). Plasma samples for DOAC measurement were collected 2to 4 days after starting antiviral treatment, at 12 hours from the last dose intake in patients on dabigatran and apixaban, and at 24 hours in those on rivaroxaban and edoxaban. For each patient, C-trough DOAC level, expressed as ng/mL, was compared with the one measured before hospitalization. RESULTS: Of the 1039 patients hospitalized between February 22 and March 15, 2020 with COVID-19 pneumonia and candidates for antiviral therapy, 32 were on treatment with a DOAC. DOAC was stopped in 20 and continued in the remaining 12. On average, C-trough levels were 6.14 times higher during hospitalization than in the pre-hospitalization period. CONCLUSION: DOAC patients treated with antiviral drugs show an alarming increase in DOAC plasma levels. In order to prevent bleeding complications, we believe that physicians should consider withholding DOACs from patients with SARS-CoV-2 and replacing them with alternative parenteral antithrombotic strategies for as long as antiviral agents are deemed necessary and until discharge.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/sangue , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Dabigatrana/sangue , Inibidores do Fator Xa/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/sangue , Piridinas/sangue , Piridonas/sangue , Tiazóis/sangue , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Darunavir/efeitos adversos , Interações Medicamentosas , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Itália , Lopinavir/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pandemias , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/efeitos adversos
15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(6): 104763, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265139

RESUMO

Dupilumab, a dual inhibitor of IL-4 and IL-13 cytokine signaling, is indicated for the treatment of moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis, which leads to the control of atopic dermatitis. The cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 are related to vascular inflammation, which is mediated by vascular endothelial cells. We report the case of a 20-year-old man with atopic dermatitis treated with dupilumab for half a year, who presented with sudden onset of dizziness, nausea, and slight cerebellar ataxia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute infarction in the bicerebellar hemispheres. No risk factors known to be associated with ischemic stroke in young adults were detected. We suspected this ischemic stroke might be related to dupilumab. The administration of dupilumab was discontinued, and he had no recurrence subsequently. IL-4 and IL-13, anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted from T helper 2 cells, suppress proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, dupilumab, a dual inhibitor of IL-4 and IL-13 cytokine signaling, leads to the promotion of coagulation and thrombosis. We speculate that the activation of proinflammatory cytokines in vascular endothelial cells by the inhibition of IL-4 and IL-13 signaling by dupilumab led to ischemic stroke even at a young age.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Encefálica/induzido quimicamente , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Dermatológicos/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Idade de Início , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(6): 1320-1323, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiviral drugs are administered in patients with severe COVID-19 respiratory syndrome, including those treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Concomitant administration of antiviral agents has the potential to increase their plasma concentration. A series of patients managed in the Cremona Thrombosis Center were admitted at Cremona Hospital for SARS-CoV-2 and started antiviral drugs without stopping DOAC therapy. DOAC plasma levels were measured in hospital and results compared with those recorded before hospitalization. METHODS: All consecutive patients on DOACs were candidates for administration of antiviral agents (lopinavir, ritonavir, or darunavir). Plasma samples for DOAC measurement were collected 2to 4 days after starting antiviral treatment, at 12 hours from the last dose intake in patients on dabigatran and apixaban, and at 24 hours in those on rivaroxaban and edoxaban. For each patient, C-trough DOAC level, expressed as ng/mL, was compared with the one measured before hospitalization. RESULTS: Of the 1039 patients hospitalized between February 22 and March 15, 2020 with COVID-19 pneumonia and candidates for antiviral therapy, 32 were on treatment with a DOAC. DOAC was stopped in 20 and continued in the remaining 12. On average, C-trough levels were 6.14 times higher during hospitalization than in the pre-hospitalization period. CONCLUSION: DOAC patients treated with antiviral drugs show an alarming increase in DOAC plasma levels. In order to prevent bleeding complications, we believe that physicians should consider withholding DOACs from patients with SARS-CoV-2 and replacing them with alternative parenteral antithrombotic strategies for as long as antiviral agents are deemed necessary and until discharge.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/sangue , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Dabigatrana/sangue , Inibidores do Fator Xa/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/sangue , Piridinas/sangue , Piridonas/sangue , Tiazóis/sangue , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Darunavir/efeitos adversos , Interações Medicamentosas , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Itália , Lopinavir/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pandemias , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/efeitos adversos
17.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 25(4): 316-323, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe major events at follow up in octogenarian patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) according to anticoagulant treatment: direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) versus vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). METHODS: A total of 578 anticoagulated patients aged ≥80 years with AF were included in a prospective, observational, multicenter study. Basal features, embolic events (stroke and systemic embolism), severe bleedings, and all-cause mortality at follow up were investigated according to the anticoagulant treatment received. RESULTS: Mean age was 84.0 ± 3.4 years, 56% were women. Direct oral anticoagulants were prescribed to 123 (21.3%) patients. Compared with 455 (78.7%) patients treated with VKAs, those treated with DOACs presented a lower frequency of permanent AF (52.9% vs 61.6%, P = .01), cancer history (4.9% vs 10.9%, P = .046), renal failure (21.1% vs 32.2%, P = .02), and left ventricular dysfunction (2.4% vs 8.0%, P = .03); and higher frequency of previous stroke (26.0% vs 16.6%, P = .02) and previous major bleeding (8.1% vs 3.6%, P = .03). There were no significant differences in Charlson, CHA2DS2VASc, nor HAS-BLED scores. At 3-year follow up, rates of embolic events, severe bleedings, and all-cause death (per 100 patients-year) were similar in both groups (DOACs vs VKAs): 0.34 vs 1.35 (P = .15), 3.45 vs 4.41 (P = .48), and 8.2 vs 11.0 (P = .18), respectively, without significant differences after multivariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03-1.93, P = .19; HR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.44-1.76, P = .72 and HR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.53-1.33, P = .46, respectively). CONCLUSION: In this "real-world" registry, the differences in major events rates in octogenarians with AF were not statistically significant in those treated with DOACs versus VKAs.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 25(4): 332-337, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266832

RESUMO

AIM: Oral anticoagulants are the first-line drugs for treating thrombotic disorders related to nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and for treating deep vein thrombosis, diseases that increase in prevalence with age. Older patients have a greater risk of thrombotic and hemorrhagic events and are more prone to drug interactions. Given this backdrop, we wanted to determine the factors associated with the prescription of direct oral anticoagulants and vitamin K antagonists in older patients. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional observational study using a hospital prescription database. The study population consists of 405 older patients who were given oral anticoagulants. The 2 variables of interest were the prescription of 1 of the 2 classes of oral anticoagulants (direct oral anticoagulants vs vitamin K antagonists) and appropriateness of oral anticoagulant prescribing according to Summary of Product Characteristics (potentially inappropriate vs appropriate). RESULTS: The factors associated with direct oral anticoagulant prescribing were the female gender (odds ratio [OR]: 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.88) and initiation during hospital stay (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: [1.52-4.32]). Stage 4 and 5 chronic kidney diseases (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: [0.19-0.79] and OR: 0.07, 95% CI: [0.01-0.53]) were factors favoring vitamin K antagonist prescription. Being 90 years of age or more (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: [1.06-3.98]) was a factor for potentially inappropriate anticoagulant prescribing. The gastroenterology department (OR: 2.91, 95% CI: [1.05-8.11]) was associated with potentially inappropriate anticoagulant prescribing. CONCLUSIONS: Direct oral anticoagulants are the drugs of choice for anticoagulant treatment, including in older adults. The female gender and the initiation during hospital stay increased the chances of being prescribed a direct oral anticoagulant in older adults. Stage 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease increased the likelihood of having a vitamin K antagonist prescribed. Our study also revealed a persistence of potentially inappropriate oral anticoagulant prescriptions in older patients.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/classificação , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Interações Medicamentosas , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/classificação , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada , Masculino , Prevalência , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia
20.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 30, 2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies specifically examining the association between glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and ischemic stroke/systemic thromboembolism (IS/SE) risk in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients are limited. Here, we investigated the association between HbA1c levels and the risk of IS/SE, as well as major bleeding, among AF patients with or without oral anticoagulants (OACs). We also compared the effectiveness and safety of warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in different HbA1c categories. METHODS: We utilized medical data from a multi-center healthcare provider in Taiwan, which included 34,036 AF patients with serum HbA1c data available within 3 months after AF being diagnosed. Patients were divided into seven study groups according to their HbA1c levels: < 5.4%, 5.4%-5.6%, 5.7%-5.9%, 6.0%-6.4%, 6.5%-6.9%, 7.0%-7.9%, and ≥ 8.0%. The risks of IS/SE and major bleeding were compared among the groups after adjusting for baseline stroke and bleeding risk factors. RESULTS: Compared with the patients with HbA1c level < 5.4%, IS/SE risk significantly increased at HbA1c levels higher than 6.5% [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.43 for HbA1c level 6.5%-6.9%; 1.32, (95% CI 1.11-1.57) for HbA1c level 7.0%-7.9%; and 1.48 (95% CI 1.25-1.76) for HbA1c level ≥ 8.0%]. These results were generally consistent in AF patients without OACs (n = 24,931). However, among 9105 patients receiving OACs, IS/SE risk was not higher for patients having higher HbA1c levels. The risk of major bleeding was comparable across all HbA1c categories. Compared with warfarin, DOACs were associated with lower risks of IS/SE (adjusted HR: 0.61, 95% CI 0.49-0.75) and major bleeding (adjusted HR: 0.30, 95% CI 0.21-0.42) without interactions across different HbA1c categories (all P interactions > 0.05). CONCLUSION: For AF patients, IS/SE risk significantly increased once HbA1c levels exceeded 6.5%, and OACs may attenuate these associations. Compared with warfarin, DOACs were more effective and safer across broad HbA1c categories. Therefore, in addition to prescribing DOACs when indicated, more aggressive glycemic control to achieve an HbA1c level < 6.5% may be considered for eligible AF patients and should be tested in further prospective studies.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/sangue , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/administração & dosagem
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