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1.
Angiol Sosud Khir ; 26(3): 16-26, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063748

RESUMO

The routine practice of a vascular surgeon is invariably associated with decreasing the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in patients presenting with either arterial or venous pathology. Antithrombotic therapy is one of the key approaches used to achieve this purpose. However, a wide variety of modern drugs inhibiting platelet aggregation and agents blocking the coagulation cascade, as well as their combinations makes the selection of the most appropriate treatment for a particular patient quite a difficult task. The choice should carefully be made taking into consideration the nosology, aetiology, accompanying diseases and therapy thereof, as well as the balance of the risk of ischaemic and haemorrhagic complications. Therefore, availability of modern antithrombotic drugs favourably contributing to a more personified approach to treatment is of utmost importance. Thus, for example, rivaroxaban, an anticoagulant belonging to the class of direct-acting oral factor Xa inhibitors, provides a possibility to select an optimal dosage and regimen for a particular patient with arterial or vascular pathology in practice of a cardiovascular surgeon.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos
2.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 76(4): 369-371, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027192

RESUMO

The use of heparin has been shown to decrease the mortality in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical impact of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with fondaparinux versus enoxaparin among 100 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The incidence of pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, major bleeding (MB), clinically relevant non-MB, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and in-hospital mortality was compared between patients on fondaparinux versus enoxaparin therapy. The 2 groups were homogeneous for demographic, laboratory, and clinical characteristics. In a median follow-up of 28 (IQR: 12-45) days, no statistically significant difference in venous thromboembolism (14.5% vs. 5.3%; P = 0.20), MB and clinically relevant non-MB (3.2% vs. 5.3%, P = 0.76), ARDS (17.7% vs. 15.8%; P = 0.83), and in-hospital mortality (9.7% vs. 10.5%; P = 0.97) has been shown between the enoxaparin group versus the fondaparinux group. Our preliminary results support the hypothesis of a safe and effective use of fondaparinux among patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in internal medicine units.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Fondaparinux/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Enoxaparina/efeitos adversos , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fondaparinux/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia
3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104982, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689586

RESUMO

We report a case of ophthalmic artery occlusion (OAO) in a young patient with COVID-19 infection that was on therapeutic anticoagulation with apixaban for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). A 48-year-old man with obesity was hospitalized with a severe form of COVID-19 infection, complicated with acute respiratory failure, septic shock, dilated cardiomyopathy and fungemia. Despite treatment with prophylactic enoxaparin (initial D-Dimer 1.14 µg/ml FEU (normal < 0.05 µg/ml FEU), D-Dimer increased to above 20 µg/ml FEU and patient continued to spike high fevers. This prompted further investigations and upper and lower extremities DVTs were confirmed and managed with enoxaparin 1 mg/kg twice daily. D-dimer level decreased to 4.98 µg/ml FEU while on therapeutic anticoagulation. Three weeks later pending hospital discharge, the anticoagulation was switched to oral apixaban 10 mg twice daily. Patient developed acute severe right eye visual loss of no light perception and was diagnosed with incomplete OAO. D-Dimer was elevated at 2.13 µg/ml FEU. Stroke etiological work-up found no embolic sources, resolution of the dilated cardiomyopathy and negative antiphospholipid antibodies. Treatment was changed to enoxaparin and no thrombotic events were encountered to date. Ocular vascular complications have not yet been reported in COVID-19. Controversy exists on the best management algorithm for the hypercoagulable state associated to COVID-19 Either direct oral anticoagulants or low-molecular-weight-heparin are considered appropriate at discharge for patients with venous thromboembolism. The optimum regimen for ischemic stroke prevention and the significance of D-Dimer for anticoagulation monitoring in COVID-19 remain unclear.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Artéria Oftálmica , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/diagnóstico por imagem , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Substituição de Medicamentos , Enoxaparina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Oftálmica/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/virologia
5.
Neurology ; 95(5): e480-e487, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651298

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Subdural hematomas (SDHs) are an uncommon, but important, complication of anticoagulation therapy. We hypothesized that the risks of SDH would be similar during treatment with oral factor Xa inhibitors compared with aspirin. METHODS: We assessed the frequency and the effects of antithrombotic treatments on SDHs in the recent international Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) randomized trial comparing aspirin 100 mg daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, and rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin. A systematic review/meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing oral factor Xa inhibitors vs aspirin on SDH risk was undertaken. RESULTS: Among 27,395 COMPASS participants, 28 patients with SDHs were identified (mean age 72 years). SDH-associated mortality was 7%. Incidence was 0.06 per 100 patient-years (11 SDH/17,492 years observation) during the mean 23-month follow-up among aspirin-assigned patients and did not differ significantly between treatments. Three additional randomized controlled trials including 16,177 participants reported a total of 14 SDHs with an incidence ranging from 0.06 to 0.1 per 100 patient-years. Factor Xa inhibitor use was not associated with an increased risk of SDH compared to aspirin (odds ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-1.81; I2 = 0%). CONCLUSION: The frequency of SDH was similar in all 3 treatment arms of the COMPASS trial. The COMPASS trial results markedly increase the available evidence from randomized comparisons of oral factor Xa inhibitors with aspirin regarding SDH. From available, albeit limited, evidence from 4 randomized trials, therapeutic dosages of factor Xa inhibitors do not appear to increase the risk of SDH compared with aspirin. CLINICAL TRIAL IDENTIFIER NUMBER: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Hematoma Subdural Intracraniano/induzido quimicamente , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hematoma Subdural Intracraniano/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Am Heart J ; 227: 91-99, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693197

RESUMO

Vitamin K antagonists are the only approved oral anticoagulants for long-term prophylaxis against valve thrombosis and thromboembolism in patients with a mechanical heart valve. Despite the proven efficacy and safety of anticoagulation with the oral direct factor Xa inhibitor apixaban compared with warfarin in high-risk populations including subjects with atrial fibrillation or with venous thromboembolism, it remains unknown whether patients with a mechanical heart valve can be safely managed with apixaban. The On-X Aortic Heart Valve and On-X Ascending Aortic Prosthesis with the Vascutek Gelweave Valsalva Graft may have lower rates of valve thrombosis and thromboembolism than conventional bileaflet and tilting disc valves due its unique pyrolytic carbon composition and flared inlet design. DESIGN: PROACT Xa is a randomized, multicenter, open-label, active-controlled trial comparing apixaban with warfarin in patients with an On-X Aortic Heart Valve or On-X Ascending Aortic Prosthesis with the Vascutek Gelweave Valsalva Graft. The study will randomize approximately 1,000 patients from approximately 60 sites in North America who underwent aortic valve replacement at least 3 months prior. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to receiving apixaban 5 mg twice daily or warfarin with a target international normalized ratio of 2.0-3.0. The last randomized participant will be followed for at least 2 years. The primary efficacy outcome is the composite of valve thrombosis and valve-related thromboembolism, and the primary safety outcome is major bleeding. Assuming the primary outcome occurs in warfarin-anticoagulated patients at a rate of 1.75%/patient-year, the study has more than 90% power to assess noninferiority of apixaban treatment with an absolute noninferiority margin of 1.75%/patient-year. A second co-primary analysis is to compare the hazard rate for the apixaban arm to twice the objective performance criterion for thromboembolism and valve thrombosis, that is, 3.4%/patient-year. SUMMARY: PROACT Xa will determine whether patients with an On-X Aortic Heart Valve can be anticoagulated with apixaban as an alternative to warfarin.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Desenho de Prótese , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
7.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 1743927, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684980

RESUMO

Sex-specific differences have been definitively demonstrated in cardiovascular (CV) diseases. These differences can also impact on the effects of CV therapies. Female sex is recognized as an independent predictor of thromboembolic risk, particularly in older patients. Most of strokes are due to atrial fibrillation (AF). Women affected by AF have higher stroke risk compared to men. The introduction of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for long-term anticoagulation completely changed the anticoagulant therapeutic approach and follow-up of patients affected by nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). CHA2DS2-VASc stroke risk scoring in use in the current international guidelines attributes 1 point to "female sex". Besides, no anticoagulation is indicated for AF female patients without other risk factors. Interestingly, NOACs seem to normalize the differences between males and females both in terms of safety and efficacy, whereas residual higher stroke risk and systemic embolism persist in AF women treated with vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants VKA with optimal time in therapeutic range. Based on the CHA2DS2-VASc score, NOACs represent the preferred choice in NVAF patients. Moreover, complete evaluation of apparently lower risk factor along with concomitant clinical conditions in AF patients appears mandatory, particularly for female patients, in order to achieve the most appropriate anticoagulant treatment, either in male or in female patients. The present review was performed to review sex differences in AF-related thromboembolic risk reported in the literature and possibly highlight current knowledge gaps in prevention and management that need further research.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/sangue , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores
8.
Am Heart J ; 225: 69-77, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a neglected disease affecting 33 million people, mainly in low and middle income countries. Yet very few large trials or registries have been conducted in this population. The INVICTUS program of research in RHD consists of a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) of 4500 patients comparing rivaroxaban with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) in patients with RHD and atrial fibrillation (AF), a registry of 17,000 patients to document the contemporary clinical course of patients with RHD, including a focused sub-study on pregnant women with RHD within the registry. This paper describes the rationale, design, organization and baseline characteristics of the RCT and a summary of the design of the registry and its sub-study. Patients with RHD and AF are considered to be at high risk of embolic strokes, and oral anticoagulation with VKAs is recommended for stroke prevention. But the quality of anticoagulation with VKA is poor in developing countries. A drug which does not require monitoring, and which is safe and effective for preventing stroke in patients with valvular AF, would fulfill a major unmet need. METHODS: The INVestIgation of rheumatiC AF Treatment Using VKAs, rivaroxaban or aspirin Studies (INVICTUS-VKA) trial is an international, multicentre, randomized, open-label, parallel group trial, testing whether rivaroxaban 20 mg given once daily is non-inferior (or superior) to VKA in patients with RHD, AF, and an elevated risk of stroke (mitral stenosis with valve area ≤2 cm2, left atrial spontaneous echo-contrast or thrombus, or a CHA2DS2VASc score ≥2). The primary efficacy outcome is a composite of stroke or systemic embolism and the primary safety outcome is the occurrence of major bleeding. The trial has enrolled 4565 patients from 138 sites in 23 countries from Africa, Asia and South America. The Registry plans to enroll an additional 17,000 patients with RHD and document their treatments, and their clinical course for at least 2 years. The pregnancy sub-study will document the clinical course of pregnant women with RHD. CONCLUSION: INVICTUS is the largest program of clinical research focused on a neglected cardiovascular disease and will provide new information on the clinical course of patients with RHD, and approaches to anticoagulation in those with concomitant AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Cardiopatia Reumática/tratamento farmacológico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiopatia Reumática/complicações , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos
9.
Minerva Med ; 111(3): 203-212, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal antithrombotic therapy after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unsettled. Short and longer-term thromboembolic and bleeding risk post TAVI remain high. Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant drugs (NOAC) may be attractive after TAVI but the implications of prolonged NOAC in this setting require further research. The aim of this study was to assess the HAS-BLED bleeding risk in a contemporary TAVI population and explore its correlation with the effective bleeding complications with or without (N)OAC. METHODS: This study included 986 consecutive successful TAVI patients from 2 tertiary care facilities. Statistical analysis consisted of Cox regression. Bleedings were classified according to VARC-2 criteria. RESULTS: Mean age was 80.5 years, mean STS was 4.7 and 54% were males. A total of 483 patients (49.2%) had AF and 42.1% were on (N)OAC. The median HAS-BLED score was 2, 42.6% had a HAS-BLED≥3. Overall 216 patients (21.9%) experienced at least 1 bleeding, 166 (16.9%) occurred early after TAVI. HAS-BLED≥3 was an independent predictor of overall and pre-discharge bleeding (respectively HR 1.347 CI 1.029-1.763, P=0.03: HR 1.403 CI 1.032-1.905, P=0.05). The incidence of bleeding was similar in patient on (N)OAC vs. patients not on (N)OAC, both in the low and high HAS-BLED cohorts (P=0.93, P=0.42 respectively). Cardiovascular mortality was significantly higher in the high HAS-BLED cohort (37.5% vs. 24%, P=0.04) and HAS-BLED≥3 was an independent predictor of late mortality (HR 1.452 CI 1.028-2.053, P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In our series, contemporary TAVI patients had an elevated HAS-BLED score. The HAS-BLED score correlated with early bleedings and mortality after TAVI. Use of (N)OAC was not associated with more bleedings after TAVI.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Análise de Regressão , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD005259, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knee arthroscopy (KA) is a routine orthopedic procedure recommended to repair cruciate ligaments and meniscus injuries and in eligible patients, to assist the diagnosis of persistent knee pain. KA is associated with a small risk of thromboembolic events. This systematic review aims to assess if pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions may reduce this risk. This review is the second update of the review first published in 2007. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of interventions, whether mechanical, pharmacological, or in combination, for thromboprophylaxis in adult patients undergoing KA. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, the Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL databases, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registries, on 14 August 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs), whether blinded or not, of all types of interventions used to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in males and females aged 18 years and older undergoing KA. There were no restrictions on language or publication status. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed trial quality with the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, and extracted data. A third author addressed discrepancies. We contacted study authors for additional information when required. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: This update adds four new studies, bringing the total of included studies to eight and involving 3818 adult participants with no history of thromboembolic disease undergoing KA. Studies compared daily subcutaneous (sc) low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) versus control (five studies); oral rivaroxaban 10 mg versus placebo (one study); daily sc LMWH versus graduated compression stockings (GCS) (one study); and aspirin versus control (one study). The incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in all trials combined was low, with seven cases in 3818 participants.There were no deaths in any of the intervention or control groups. LMWH versus control When compared with control, LMWH probably results in little to no difference in the incidence of PE in patients undergoing KA (risk ratio (RR) 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 6.65; 1820 participants; 3 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). LMWH showed no reduction of the incidence of symptomatic DVT (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.18 to 2.03; 1848 participants; 4 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). LMWH may reduce the risk of asymptomatic DVT but the evidence is very uncertain (RR 0.14, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.61; 369 participants; 2 studies; very low-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of an increased risk of all adverse events combined (RR 1.85, 95% CI 0.95 to 3.59; 1978 participants; 5 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). No evidence of a clear effect on major bleeding (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.72; 1451 participants; 1 study; moderate-certainty evidence), or minor bleeding was observed (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.84 to 3.84; 1978 participants; 5 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). Rivaroxaban versus placebo One study with 234 participants compared oral rivaroxaban 10 mg versus placebo. No evidence of a clear impact on the risk of PE (no events in either group), symptomatic DVT (RR 0.16, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.29; moderate-certainty evidence); or asymptomatic DVT (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.01; very low-certainty evidence) was detected. Only bleeding adverse events were reported. No major bleeds occurred in either group and there was no evidence of differences in minor bleeding between the groups (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.18 to 2.19; moderate-certainty evidence). Aspirin versus control One study compared aspirin with control. No PE, DVT or asymptomatic events were detected in either group. Adverse events including pain and swelling were reported but it was not clear what groups these were in. No bleeds were reported. LMWH versus GCS One study with 1317 participants compared the use of LMWH versus GCS. There was no clear difference in the risk of PE (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.14 to 7.05; low-certainty evidence). LMWH use did reduce the risk of DVT compared to people using GCS (RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.75; low-certainty evidence). No clear difference in effects was seen between the groups for asymptomatic DVT (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.09; very low-certainty evidence); major bleeding (RR 3.01, 95% CI 0.61 to 14.88; moderate-certainty evidence) or minor bleeding (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.08; moderate-certainty evidence). Levels of thromboembolic events were higher in the GCS group than in any other group. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for imprecision resulting from overall small event numbers; risk of bias due to concerns about lack of blinding, and indirectness as we were uncertain about the direct clinical relevance of asymptomatic DVT detection. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is a small risk that healthy adult patients undergoing KA will develop venous thromboembolism (PE or DVT). There is moderate- to low-certainty evidence of no benefit from the use of LMWH, aspirin or rivaroxaban in reducing this small risk of PE or symptomatic DVT. There is very low-certainty evidence that LMWH use may reduce the risk of asymptomatic DVT when compared to no treatment but it is uncertain how this directly relates to incidence of DVT or PE in healthy patients. No evidence of differences in adverse events (including major and minor bleeding) was seen, but data relating to this were limited due to low numbers of events in the studies reporting within the comparisons.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Artroscopia/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Meias de Compressão
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(7): 104899, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The periprocedural administration of dual antiplatelet therapy has been recommended in patients treated by carotid artery stenting. However, some patients with concurrent disease have been prescribed anticoagulants. We compared the post-operative incidence of hemorrhagic and thromboembolic events in two patient groups treated by different regimens of multi-antithrombotic agents. METHODS: As our 31 patients had a history of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, they had received anticoagulants; they were also treated with aspirin and clopidogrel before carotid artery stenting. The prior anticoagulant therapy was continued in 17 patients and they received vitamin K antagonist plus dual antiplatelet therapy after the procedure (group 1). Other 14 patients underwent direct oral anticoagulant plus aspirin or clopidogrel (group 2). Post-procedural hemorrhagic and thromboembolic events were compared between two groups. RESULTS: Carotid artery stenting was angiographically successful in all patients. Complications were encountered in two group 1 patients. Post-operative image revealed a silent subarachnoid hemorrhage in one. The other presented with superior mesenteric artery occlusion 6 months after the procedure. No hemorrhagic or thromboembolic events occurred in group 2. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the administration of a direct oral anticoagulant plus an antiplatelet agent reduced the risk for periprocedural hemorrhagic and embolic events in patients with concurrent nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who underwent carotid artery stenting.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Estenose das Carótidas/terapia , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Stents , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/mortalidade , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(7): 1152-1160, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We determined the association between left atrial (LA) thrombus occurrence and a non-classic risk marker, plasma levels of vitamin D, in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients on continuous non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) therapy for ≥4 weeks. Low levels of plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) are predictive of fatal stroke. Vitamin D has anticoagulant effects on the coagulation cascade, which are indirectly targeted by NOAC therapy. The impact of plasma levels of vitamin D on the rate of LA thrombus detected by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in AF patients is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 201 (133 female) AF patients who were using continuous NOAC therapy for ≥4 weeks. All patients underwent transthoracic and TEE examination. Serum concentrations of 25-OHD, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, CHA2DS2-VASc scores and parameters, LA size, and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) were examined before the TEE procedure. LA thrombus occurrence was independently associated with serum levels of 25-OHD (OR: 0.884; 95% CI: 0.839-0.932; P < 0.001), LA diameter (OR: 1.120; 95% CI: 1.038-1.209; P = 0.003), and LVEF(OR: 0.944; 95% CI: 0.896-0.995; P = 0.032). Dense spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) presence was also inversely associated with 25-OHD concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Low 25-OHD levels, as a non-classic risk factor, were independently and significantly associated with dense SEC and LA thrombus occurrence in AF patients under NOAC therapy, as well as LA enlargement and decreased LVEF. Further large-scale studies are needed to explain the role of vitamin D deficiency, or efficacy of replacement, on LA thrombus occurrence.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Administração Oral , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Esquema de Medicação , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Turquia/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
13.
Cerebrovasc Dis Extra ; 10(2): 44-49, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375143

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Even though the introduction of less cumbersome anticoagulant agents has improved, the rates ofoverall anticoagulant treatment in eligible patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) remain to be defined. We aimed to assess the rates of and determinants for the use of anticoagulation treatment before stroke in patients with known AF since the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) in clinical practice. METHODS: Consecutive patients admitted to an individual stroke unit, from September 2013 through July 2019, for acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) with known AF before the event were included in the study. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of the use of anticoagulant treatment. RESULTS: Overall, 155 patients with ischemic stroke/TIA and known AF were included in this study. Among 152 patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score >1, 43 patients were not receiving any treatment, 47 patients were receiving antiplatelet agents, and the remaining 62 patients were on oral anticoagulants. Among 34 patients on DOAC, 13 were receiving a nonlabeled reduced dose and 18 out of 34 patients on vitamin K antagonists had an INR value <2 at the time of admission. Before stroke, only 34 out of 155 patients (21.9%) were adequately treated according to current guidelines. Previous stroke/TIA was the only independent predictor of the use of anticoagulant therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Only 21.9% of the patients hospitalized for a stroke or TIA with known AF before the event were adequately treated according to recent treatment guidelines. It is important to improve medical information about the risk of AF and the efficacy of anticoagulants in stroke prevention.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/tendências , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Admissão do Paciente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 130: 106682, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438078

RESUMO

No data are available on rivaroxaban use in renal transplant recipients and on its surmised interaction with immunosuppressants. The aim was to investigate potential interactions between rivaroxaban and immunosuppressants in this setting. Renal transplant recipients with a stable renal function treated with rivaroxaban and tacrolimus with or without everolimus were investigated. All drugs and creatinine concentrations were determined daily for 2 weeks after the start of anticoagulation. Blood samples were drawn at 8.00 am and 3-4 h later for trough and peak concentrations, respectively. Bleeding and thrombotic events were recorded during a minimum follow-up of 6 months. In 8 renal transplant patients, rivaroxaban levels showed a predictable pharmacokinetic trend, both at Ctrough (30-61 µg/L) and at Cpeak (143-449 µg/L), with limited variability in the 25th-75th percentile range. Tacrolimus (Ctrough 3-13 µg/L; Cpeak 3-16 µg/L), everolimus (Ctrough 3-11 µg/L; Cpeak 5-17 µg/L) and creatinine concentrations were stable as well. Immunosuppressors variability before and after rivaroxaban were 30% and 30% for tacrolimus, 27% and 29% for everolimus, respectively, as well as 14% and 3% for creatinine. For rivaroxaban monitoring, the reference change value better performed in identifying significant variations of its concentration. No patient had bleeding or thrombotic events, worsening of renal graft function, and signs of immunosuppressants toxicity during a mean follow-up of 23 (9-28) months. In conclusion, rivaroxaban does not seem to interact with tacrolimus and everolimus in renal transplant recipients. Both anticoagulant and immunosuppressive effects seem warranted, without major bleeding complications and effect on the graft function.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Everolimo/farmacocinética , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacocinética , Imunossupressores/farmacocinética , Transplante de Rim , Rivaroxabana/farmacocinética , Tacrolimo/farmacocinética , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Medicamentosas , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Everolimo/efeitos adversos , Everolimo/sangue , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/sangue , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/sangue , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/sangue , Tacrolimo/efeitos adversos , Tacrolimo/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico
15.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 63, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of adverse clinical outcomes for non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOACs) and warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and diabetes mellitus are limited. We investigated the effectiveness, safety, and major adverse limb events for NOACs versus warfarin among diabetic AF patients. METHODS: In this nationwide retrospective cohort study collected from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified a total of 20,967 and 5812 consecutive AF patients with diabetes taking NOACs and warfarin from June 1, 2012, to December 31, 2017, respectively. We used propensity-score stabilized weighting to balance covariates across study groups. RESULTS: NOAC was associated with a lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR):0.88; [95% confidential interval (CI) 0.78-0.99]; P = 0.0283), major adverse limb events (MALE) (aHR:0.72;[95% CI 0.57-0.92]; P = 0.0083), and major bleeding (aHR:0.67;[95% CI 0.59-0.76]; P < 0.0001) compared to warfarin. NOACs decreased MACE in patients of ≥ 75 but not in those aged < 75 years (P interaction = 0.01), and in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) compared to those without IHD (P interaction < 0.01). For major adverse limb events, the advantage of risk reduction for NOAC over warfarin persisted in high risk subgroups including age ≥ 75 years, chronic kidney disease, IHD, peripheral artery disease, or use of concomitant antiplatelet drugs. CONCLUSION: Among diabetic AF patients, NOACs were associated with a lower risk of thromboembolism, major bleeding, and major adverse limb events than warfarin. Thromboprophylaxis with NOACs should be considered in the diabetic AF population with a high atherosclerotic burden.


Assuntos
Amputação , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amputação/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
16.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(6): 1320-1323, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiviral drugs are administered in patients with severe COVID-19 respiratory syndrome, including those treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Concomitant administration of antiviral agents has the potential to increase their plasma concentration. A series of patients managed in the Cremona Thrombosis Center were admitted at Cremona Hospital for SARS-CoV-2 and started antiviral drugs without stopping DOAC therapy. DOAC plasma levels were measured in hospital and results compared with those recorded before hospitalization. METHODS: All consecutive patients on DOACs were candidates for administration of antiviral agents (lopinavir, ritonavir, or darunavir). Plasma samples for DOAC measurement were collected 2to 4 days after starting antiviral treatment, at 12 hours from the last dose intake in patients on dabigatran and apixaban, and at 24 hours in those on rivaroxaban and edoxaban. For each patient, C-trough DOAC level, expressed as ng/mL, was compared with the one measured before hospitalization. RESULTS: Of the 1039 patients hospitalized between February 22 and March 15, 2020 with COVID-19 pneumonia and candidates for antiviral therapy, 32 were on treatment with a DOAC. DOAC was stopped in 20 and continued in the remaining 12. On average, C-trough levels were 6.14 times higher during hospitalization than in the pre-hospitalization period. CONCLUSION: DOAC patients treated with antiviral drugs show an alarming increase in DOAC plasma levels. In order to prevent bleeding complications, we believe that physicians should consider withholding DOACs from patients with SARS-CoV-2 and replacing them with alternative parenteral antithrombotic strategies for as long as antiviral agents are deemed necessary and until discharge.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/sangue , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Dabigatrana/sangue , Inibidores do Fator Xa/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/sangue , Piridinas/sangue , Piridonas/sangue , Tiazóis/sangue , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Darunavir/efeitos adversos , Interações Medicamentosas , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Itália , Lopinavir/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pandemias , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/efeitos adversos
17.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(6): 1320-1323, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiviral drugs are administered in patients with severe COVID-19 respiratory syndrome, including those treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Concomitant administration of antiviral agents has the potential to increase their plasma concentration. A series of patients managed in the Cremona Thrombosis Center were admitted at Cremona Hospital for SARS-CoV-2 and started antiviral drugs without stopping DOAC therapy. DOAC plasma levels were measured in hospital and results compared with those recorded before hospitalization. METHODS: All consecutive patients on DOACs were candidates for administration of antiviral agents (lopinavir, ritonavir, or darunavir). Plasma samples for DOAC measurement were collected 2to 4 days after starting antiviral treatment, at 12 hours from the last dose intake in patients on dabigatran and apixaban, and at 24 hours in those on rivaroxaban and edoxaban. For each patient, C-trough DOAC level, expressed as ng/mL, was compared with the one measured before hospitalization. RESULTS: Of the 1039 patients hospitalized between February 22 and March 15, 2020 with COVID-19 pneumonia and candidates for antiviral therapy, 32 were on treatment with a DOAC. DOAC was stopped in 20 and continued in the remaining 12. On average, C-trough levels were 6.14 times higher during hospitalization than in the pre-hospitalization period. CONCLUSION: DOAC patients treated with antiviral drugs show an alarming increase in DOAC plasma levels. In order to prevent bleeding complications, we believe that physicians should consider withholding DOACs from patients with SARS-CoV-2 and replacing them with alternative parenteral antithrombotic strategies for as long as antiviral agents are deemed necessary and until discharge.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/sangue , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Dabigatrana/sangue , Inibidores do Fator Xa/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/sangue , Piridinas/sangue , Piridonas/sangue , Tiazóis/sangue , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Darunavir/efeitos adversos , Interações Medicamentosas , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Itália , Lopinavir/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pandemias , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Ritonavir/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/efeitos adversos
18.
Hosp Pract (1995) ; 48(3): 123-127, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite the availability of FDA-labeled anticoagulant reversal agents, there is considerable variability in clinical practice as to the regimen and agent used for reversal. The objective of this study was to characterize the current practices of pharmacists surrounding the reversal of anticoagulant-associated life-threatening hemorrhage. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of critical care and emergency medicine pharmacists. Current practice was compared for the type of hospital, country region, and type of ordering physician. In addition, pharmacists were asked to rank their involvement with activities involved with the reversal of anticoagulants. Respondents ranked their involvement with these activities as either never involved, rarely involved, occasionally involved, frequently involved, or always involved. Results:281 respondents were included. The majority used 4-factor PCC for warfarin reversal (92.9%) and factor Xa inhibitor reversal (79.7%). However, only 58.7% used the labeled dose of 4-PCC for warfarin reversal. Of the 30.6% that utilized a fixed-dose regimen, the most common regimen was 1500 units once. A higher proportion of respondents practicing in a teaching hospital reported that they used activated prothrombin complex concentrates for reversal of factor Xa inhibitor (22 [12.2%] vs. 5 [5%]; p < 0.05) or coagulation factor Xa (recombinant)-inactivated-zhzo (31 [17.2%] vs. 5 [5%]; p < 0.05). In addition, the majority of respondents utilized idarucizumab for dabigatran reversal. The only involvement activity in which <50% of respondents said they were frequently involved or always involved was 'administration of reversal agent.' Conclusions: There is considerable variability in which agents were utilized for anticoagulant-associated bleeding reversal.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Hemostáticos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/administração & dosagem , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Estudos Transversais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Metilmetacrilatos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Características de Residência
19.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 25(4): 316-323, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe major events at follow up in octogenarian patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) according to anticoagulant treatment: direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) versus vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). METHODS: A total of 578 anticoagulated patients aged ≥80 years with AF were included in a prospective, observational, multicenter study. Basal features, embolic events (stroke and systemic embolism), severe bleedings, and all-cause mortality at follow up were investigated according to the anticoagulant treatment received. RESULTS: Mean age was 84.0 ± 3.4 years, 56% were women. Direct oral anticoagulants were prescribed to 123 (21.3%) patients. Compared with 455 (78.7%) patients treated with VKAs, those treated with DOACs presented a lower frequency of permanent AF (52.9% vs 61.6%, P = .01), cancer history (4.9% vs 10.9%, P = .046), renal failure (21.1% vs 32.2%, P = .02), and left ventricular dysfunction (2.4% vs 8.0%, P = .03); and higher frequency of previous stroke (26.0% vs 16.6%, P = .02) and previous major bleeding (8.1% vs 3.6%, P = .03). There were no significant differences in Charlson, CHA2DS2VASc, nor HAS-BLED scores. At 3-year follow up, rates of embolic events, severe bleedings, and all-cause death (per 100 patients-year) were similar in both groups (DOACs vs VKAs): 0.34 vs 1.35 (P = .15), 3.45 vs 4.41 (P = .48), and 8.2 vs 11.0 (P = .18), respectively, without significant differences after multivariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03-1.93, P = .19; HR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.44-1.76, P = .72 and HR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.53-1.33, P = .46, respectively). CONCLUSION: In this "real-world" registry, the differences in major events rates in octogenarians with AF were not statistically significant in those treated with DOACs versus VKAs.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 25(4): 332-337, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266832

RESUMO

AIM: Oral anticoagulants are the first-line drugs for treating thrombotic disorders related to nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and for treating deep vein thrombosis, diseases that increase in prevalence with age. Older patients have a greater risk of thrombotic and hemorrhagic events and are more prone to drug interactions. Given this backdrop, we wanted to determine the factors associated with the prescription of direct oral anticoagulants and vitamin K antagonists in older patients. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional observational study using a hospital prescription database. The study population consists of 405 older patients who were given oral anticoagulants. The 2 variables of interest were the prescription of 1 of the 2 classes of oral anticoagulants (direct oral anticoagulants vs vitamin K antagonists) and appropriateness of oral anticoagulant prescribing according to Summary of Product Characteristics (potentially inappropriate vs appropriate). RESULTS: The factors associated with direct oral anticoagulant prescribing were the female gender (odds ratio [OR]: 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.88) and initiation during hospital stay (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: [1.52-4.32]). Stage 4 and 5 chronic kidney diseases (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: [0.19-0.79] and OR: 0.07, 95% CI: [0.01-0.53]) were factors favoring vitamin K antagonist prescription. Being 90 years of age or more (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: [1.06-3.98]) was a factor for potentially inappropriate anticoagulant prescribing. The gastroenterology department (OR: 2.91, 95% CI: [1.05-8.11]) was associated with potentially inappropriate anticoagulant prescribing. CONCLUSIONS: Direct oral anticoagulants are the drugs of choice for anticoagulant treatment, including in older adults. The female gender and the initiation during hospital stay increased the chances of being prescribed a direct oral anticoagulant in older adults. Stage 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease increased the likelihood of having a vitamin K antagonist prescribed. Our study also revealed a persistence of potentially inappropriate oral anticoagulant prescriptions in older patients.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/classificação , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Interações Medicamentosas , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/classificação , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada , Masculino , Prevalência , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia
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