Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.130
Filtrar
4.
Kardiologiia ; 60(8): 124-129, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155968

RESUMO

This review analyzes results of a large prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 that compared efficacy and safety of warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, and edoxaban, an oral inhibitor of activated coagulation factor X. The review addresses important practical aspects of using edoxaban in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridinas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Tiazóis , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
5.
JAMA ; 324(17): 1765-1776, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141212

RESUMO

Importance: Incidence rates for lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) range from 88 to 112 per 100 000 person-years and increase with age. Rates of recurrent VTE range from 20% to 36% during the 10 years after an initial event. Observations: PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched for English-language studies published from January 2015 through June 2020 for randomized clinical trials, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and observational studies. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE), such as older age, malignancy (cumulative incidence of 7.4% after a median of 19 months), inflammatory disorders (VTE risk is 4.7% in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 2.5% in those without), and inherited thrombophilia (factor V Leiden carriers with a 10-year cumulative incidence of 10.9%), are associated with higher risk of VTE. Patients with signs or symptoms of lower extremity DVT, such as swelling (71%) or a cramping or pulling discomfort in the thigh or calf (53%), should undergo assessment of pretest probability followed by D-dimer testing and imaging with venous ultrasonography. A normal D-dimer level (ie, D-dimer <500 ng/mL) excludes acute VTE when combined with a low pretest probability (ie, Wells DVT score ≤1). In patients with a high pretest probability, the negative predictive value of a D-dimer less than 500 ng/mL is 92%. Consequently, D-dimer cannot be used to exclude DVT without an assessment of pretest probability. Postthrombotic syndrome, defined as persistent symptoms, signs of chronic venous insufficiency, or both, occurs in 25% to 50% of patients 3 to 6 months after DVT diagnosis. Catheter-directed fibrinolysis with or without mechanical thrombectomy is appropriate in those with iliofemoral obstruction, severe symptoms, and a low risk of bleeding. The efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants-rivaroxaban, apixaban, dabigatran, and edoxaban-is noninferior to warfarin (absolute rate of recurrent VTE or VTE-related death, 2.0% vs 2.2%). Major bleeding occurs in 1.1% of patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants vs 1.8% treated with warfarin. Conclusions and Relevance: Greater recognition of VTE risk factors and advances in anticoagulation have facilitated the clinical evaluation and treatment of patients with DVT. Direct oral anticoagulants are noninferior to warfarin with regard to efficacy and are associated with lower rates of bleeding, but costs limit use for some patients.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Ilustração Médica , Síndrome Pós-Trombótica/etiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Avaliação de Sintomas , Trombectomia/métodos , Trombofilia/complicações , Trombofilia/genética , Ultrassonografia , Filtros de Veia Cava , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD012169, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by arterial or venous thrombosis (or both), and/or pregnancy morbidity in association with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. The prevalence of APS is estimated at 40 to 50 cases per 100,000 people. The most common sites of thrombosis are cerebral arteries and deep veins of the lower limbs. People with a definite APS diagnosis have an increased lifetime risk of recurrent thrombotic events. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antiplatelet (AP) or anticoagulant agents, or both, for the secondary prevention of recurrent thrombosis, particularly ischemic stroke, in people with APS. SEARCH METHODS: We last searched the MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register, and ongoing trials registers on 22 November 2019. We checked reference lists of included studies, systematic reviews, and practice guidelines. We also contacted experts in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated any anticoagulant or AP agent, or both, in the secondary prevention of thrombosis in people with APS, according to the criteria valid when the study took place. We did not include studies specifically addressing women with obstetrical APS. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Pairs of review authors independently worked on each step of the review, following Cochrane methods. We summarized the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We identified eight studies including 811 participants that compared different AP or anticoagulant agents. NOAC (non-VKA oral anticoagulant: rivaroxaban 15 or 20 mg/d) versus standard-dose VKA (vitamin K antagonist: warfarin at moderate International Normalized Ratio [INR] - 2.5) or adjusted [INR 2.0-3.0] dose): In three studies there were no differences in any thromboembolic event (including death) and major bleeding (moderate-certainty evidence), but an increased risk of stroke (risk ratio [RR] 14.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87 to 106.8; moderate-certainty evidence). One of the studies reported a small benefit of rivaroxaban in terms of quality of life at 180 days measured as health state on Visual Analogue Scale (mean difference [MD] 7 mm, 95% CI 2.01 to 11.99; low-certainty evidence), but not measured as health utility on a scale from 0 to 1 (MD 0.04, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.10; low-certainty evidence). High-dose VKA (warfarin with a target INR of 3.1 to 4.0 [mean 3.3] or 3.5 [mean 3.2]) versus standard-dose VKA (warfarin with a target INR of 2.0 to 3.0 [mean 2.3] or 2.5 [mean 2.5]): In two studies there were no differences in the rates of thrombotic events and major bleeding (RR 2.22, 95% CI 0.79 to 6.23, low-certainty evidence), but an increased risk of minor bleeding in one study during a mean of 3.4 years (standard deviation [SD] 1.2) of follow-up (RR 2.55, 95% CI 1.07 to 6.07). In both trials there was evidence of a higher risk of any bleeding (hazard ratio [HR] 2.03 95% CI 1.12 to 3.68; low-certainty evidence) in the high-dose VKA group, and for this outcome (any bleeding) the incidence is not different, only the time to event is showing an effect. Standard-dose VKA plus a single AP agent (warfarin at a target INR of 2.0 to 3.0 plus aspirin 100 mg/d) versus standard-dose VKA (warfarin at a target INR of 2.0 to 3.0): One high-risk-of-bias study showed an increased risk of any thromboembolic event with combined treatment (RR 2.14, 95% CI 1.04 to 4.43; low-certainty evidence) and reported on major bleeding with five cases in the combined treatment group and one case in the standard-dose VKA treatment group, resulting in RR 7.42 (95% CI 0.91 to 60.7; low-certainty evidence) and no differences for secondary outcomes (very low- to low-certainty evidence). Single/dual AP agent and standard-dose VKA (pooled results): Two high-risk-of-bias studies compared a combination of AP and VKA (aspirin 100 mg/d plus warfarin or unspecified VKA at a target INR of 2.0 to 3.0 or 2.0 to 2.5) with a single AP agent (aspirin 100 mg/d), but did not provide any conclusive evidence regarding the effects of those drugs in people with APS (very low-certainty evidence). One of the above-mentioned studies was a three-armed study that compared a combination of AP and VKA (aspirin 100 mg/d plus warfarin at a target INR of 2.0 to 2.5) with dual AP therapy (aspirin 100 mg/d plus cilostazol 200 mg/d) and dual AP therapy (aspirin 100 mg/d plus cilostazol 200 mg/d) versus a single AP treatment (aspirin 100 mg/d). This study reported on stroke (very low-certainty evidence) but did not report on any thromboembolic events, major bleeding, or any secondary outcomes. We identified two ongoing studies and three studies are awaiting classification. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence identified indicates that NOACs compared with standard-dose VKAs may increase the risk of stroke and do not appear to alter the risk of other outcomes (moderate-certainty evidence). Using high-dose VKA versus standard-dose VKA did not alter the risk of any thromboembolic event or major bleeding but may increase the risk of any form of bleeding (low-certainty evidence). Standard-dose VKA combined with an AP agent compared with standard-dose VKA alone may increase the risk of any thromboembolic event and does not appear to alter the risk of major bleeding or other outcomes (low-certainty evidence). The evidence is very uncertain about the benefit or harm of using standard-dose VKA plus AP agents versus single or dual AP therapy, or dual versus single AP therapy, for the secondary prevention of recurrent thrombosis in people with APS (very low-certainty evidence).


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Causas de Morte , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
7.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 76(4): 369-371, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027192

RESUMO

The use of heparin has been shown to decrease the mortality in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical impact of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis with fondaparinux versus enoxaparin among 100 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The incidence of pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, major bleeding (MB), clinically relevant non-MB, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and in-hospital mortality was compared between patients on fondaparinux versus enoxaparin therapy. The 2 groups were homogeneous for demographic, laboratory, and clinical characteristics. In a median follow-up of 28 (IQR: 12-45) days, no statistically significant difference in venous thromboembolism (14.5% vs. 5.3%; P = 0.20), MB and clinically relevant non-MB (3.2% vs. 5.3%, P = 0.76), ARDS (17.7% vs. 15.8%; P = 0.83), and in-hospital mortality (9.7% vs. 10.5%; P = 0.97) has been shown between the enoxaparin group versus the fondaparinux group. Our preliminary results support the hypothesis of a safe and effective use of fondaparinux among patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in internal medicine units.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Fondaparinux/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Enoxaparina/efeitos adversos , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fondaparinux/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia
8.
Stroke ; 51(10): 2901-2909, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Covert brain infarcts are associated with cognitive decline. It is not known whether therapies that prevent symptomatic stroke prevent covert infarcts. COMPASS compared rivaroxaban with and without aspirin with aspirin for the prevention of stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death in participants with stable vascular disease and was terminated early because of benefits of rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily plus aspirin over aspirin. We obtained serial magnetic resonance imagings and cognitive tests in a consenting subgroup of COMPASS patients to examine treatment effects on infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities. METHODS: Baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imagings were completed in 1445 participants with a mean (SD) interval of 2.0 (0.7) years. Whole-brain T1, T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, T2* sequences were centrally interpreted by blinded, trained readers. Participants had serial measurements of cognition and function. The primary end point was the proportion of participants with incident covert infarcts. Secondary end points were the composite of clinical stroke and covert brain infarcts, cerebral microbleeds, and white matter hyperintensities. RESULTS: At baseline, 493 (34.1%) participants had infarcts. Incident covert infarcts occurred in 55 (3.8%) participants. In the overall trial rivaroxaban plus aspirin reduced ischemic stroke by 49% (0.7% versus 1.4%; hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.51 [0.38-0.68]). In the magnetic resonance imaging substudy the effects of rivaroxaban+aspirin versus aspirin were: covert infarcts: 2.7% versus 3.5% (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.77 [0.37-1.60]); Covert infarcts or ischemic stroke: 2.9% versus 5.3% (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.53 [0.27-1.03]). Incident microbleeds occurred in 6.6% of participants and 65.7% of participants had an increase in white matter hyperintensities volume with no effect of treatment for either end point. There was no effect on cognitive tests. CONCLUSIONS: Covert infarcts were not significantly reduced by treatment with rivaroxaban and aspirin but estimates for the combination of ischemic stroke and covert infarcts were consistent with the effect on ischemic stroke in the overall trial. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Infarto Encefálico/prevenção & controle , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Infarto Encefálico/complicações , Infarto Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Vnitr Lek ; 66(3): 197-198, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972175

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are still at the first place in the case of mortality in European countries. Consistent secondary prevention for CVD is very important aspect in the fight with this negative statistics. We consider antithrombotic treatment as a gold standard in secondary prevention for CVD . There are a lot of latest trials about this problematics. COMPASS trial targets the effectiveness of rivaroxaban in patients with CVD as a secondary prevention. The results of this trial are very positive about using rivaroxaban and acetylsalicylic acid together in effort to avoid progression or relapse of CVD.


Assuntos
Aspirina , Rivaroxabana , Quimioterapia Combinada , Europa (Continente) , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Secundária
10.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(9): 712-716, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969260

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Portal and mesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare but potentially serious complication after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. There are no consistent studies that prove the safety and effectiveness of oral anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis with rivaroxaban after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. The objective was to evaluate the effect of rivaroxaban on the frequency of portal and mesenteric venous thrombosis and its safety profile after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data includes all laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomies performed by a single surgeon at Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Hospital between January 2009 and June 2019. All patients received low molecular weight heparin thromboprophylaxis during the whole hospital stay. Between July 2012 and June 2019, patients received additional post-discharge thromboprophylaxis with rivaroxaban. Patient demographics, impaired renal, post-surgical portal and mesenteric venous thrombosis, and bleeding episodes were registered. RESULTS: A total of 516 patients were identified; 95 patients were excluded. Results for 421 patients were analysed: 198 received only intrahospital thromboprophylaxis (group 1) and 223 received additional post-discharge thromboprophylaxis with rivaroxaban (group 2). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups concerning age, sex and body mass index. In group 1, four cases of portal and mesenteric venous thrombosis were registered and no cases were reported in group 2 (p < 0.05). All cases occurred before 30 days after surgery. No bleeding episodes and no adverse reactions were detected in group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Thromboprophylaxis during the whole hospital stay (two to three days), followed by rivaroxaban 10mg once daily for 10 days after discharge (completing in total 13-14 days of prophylaxis), could reduce cases of post-surgical portal and mesenteric venous thrombosis without an increase in bleeding complications.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Mesentérica/prevenção & controle , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Feminino , Gastrectomia/métodos , Humanos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21025, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the huge burden of atrial fibrillation (AF) and AF-related stroke in Asia, stroke prevention represents an urgent issue in this region. We herein performed a network meta-analysis to examine the role of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in Asian patients with AF. METHODS: A systematic search of the publications was conducted in PubMed and Embase databases for eligible studies until July 2019. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were regarded as the effect estimates. The surface under the cumulative ranking area (SUCRA) for the ranking probabilities was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 17 studies were included. For comparisons of NOACs vs warfarin, dabigatran (OR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.68-0.86), rivaroxaban (OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.65-0.81), apixaban (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.49-0.65), but not edoxaban reduced the risk of stroke or systemic embolism, wheres dabigatran (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.41-0.76), rivaroxaban (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.50-0.86), apixaban (OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.36-0.66), and edoxaban (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.24-0.49) decreased the risk of major bleeding. In reducing the risk of stroke or systemic embolism, apixaban and rivaroxaban ranked the best and second best (SUCRA 0.2% and 31.4%, respectively), followed by dabigatran (50.2%), edoxaban (75.2%), and warfarin (93.0%). In reducing the risk of major bleeding, edoxaban, and apixaban ranked the best and second best (1.5% and 30.8%, respectively), followed by dabigatran (48.4%), rivaroxaban (69.2%), and warfarin (100%). CONCLUSION: NOACs were at least as effective as warfarin, but more safer in Asians with AF. Apixaban was superior to other NOACs for reducing stroke or systemic embolism, while edoxaban showed a better safety profile than other NOACs.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Ásia/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise em Rede , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Segurança , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 129: 71-78, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605717

RESUMO

Controversy persists regarding the advisability of anticoagulation for the early period after biological surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). We aim to examine the impact of various antithrombotic regimens on outcomes in a large cohort of biological AVR patients. Records of 1,111 consecutive adult patients who underwent surgical biological AVR at our institution between 2013 and 2017 were reviewed. Outcomes included stroke, bleeding, and death at 3 and 12 months. Treatment regimens included (1) no therapy, (2) anticoagulants (warfarin or Factor Xa inhibitors), (2) antiplateles (various), and (4) anticoagulants + antiplatelets. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to track outcomes, and Cox-proportional hazards regression models were conducted to analyze effects of different therapies on adverse events. At 3 months, thromboembolic events were low and not significantly different between the no therapy group (2.2%) and anticoagulation (2.8%) or anticoagulation + antiplatelet (3.6%) or all groups (3.7%). The antiplatelet group was just significantly lower, at 2.2%. However, this was driven by non-stroke cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. The incidence of death at 3 months was low and not significantly different between all groups. At 12 months, there were no thromboembolic benefits between groups, but bleeding events were significantly higher in the anticoagulation group (no therapy (1.4%), anticoagulation (8.4%), antiplatelet (4.5%), anticoagulation + antiplatelet (7.9%)). In conclusion, none of the antithrombotic regimens showed benefits in stroke or survival at 3 or 12 months after biological AVR. Anticoagulation increased bleeding events. Routine anticoagulation after biological AVR appears to be unnecessary and potentially harmful.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Bioprótese , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/complicações , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
16.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 35: 20-24, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653469

RESUMO

Since the initial description in 2019, the novel coronavirus SARS-Cov-2 infection (COVID-19) pandemic has swept the globe. The most severe form of the disease presents with fever and shortness of breath, which rapidly deteriorates to respiratory failure and acute lung injury (ALI). COVID-19 also presents with a severe coagulopathy with a high rate of venous thromboembiolism. In addition, autopsy studies have revealed co-localized thrombosis and inflammation, which is the signature of thromboinflammation, within the pulmonary capillary vasculature. While the majority of published data is on adult patients, there are parallels to pediatric patients. In our experience as a COVID-19 epicenter, children and young adults do develop both the coagulopathy and the ALI of COVID-19. This review will discuss COVID-19 ALI from a hematological perspective with discussion of the distinct aspects of coagulation that are apparent in COVID-19. Current and potential interventions targeting the multiple thromboinflammatory mechanisms will be discussed.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Trombose/sangue , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/imunologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/fisiopatologia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/imunologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiopatologia , Capilares/imunologia , Capilares/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Ativação Plaquetária , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/sangue , Embolia Pulmonar/imunologia , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Trombina/imunologia , Trombina/metabolismo , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/imunologia , Trombose/fisiopatologia
17.
Int Heart J ; 61(4): 787-794, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684602

RESUMO

Advanced age, obesity, and muscle weakness are independent factors in the onset of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Recently, an association between sarcopenia and DVT has been reported. We hypothesized that sarcopenia related factors, observed by ultrasonography, are associated with the regression effect on the thrombus following anticoagulation therapy. The present study focused on gastrocnemius muscle (GCM) thickness and the GCM's internal echogenic brightness. We examined the association with DVT regression following direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) treatment.The prospective cohort study period was between October 2017 and August 2018. We enrolled 46 patients diagnosed with DVT by ultrasonography, who were aged >60 years old and treated with DOACs. Sarcopenia was evaluated using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia flowchart. The average DOACs treatment period was 94 days, and 29 patients exhibited thrombus regression. On univariate logistic regression analysis, sarcopenia, average GCM diameter index, and gastrocnemius integrated backscatter index were significantly associated with thrombus regression. In a multivariate model, only the average GCM diameter index correlated with thrombus regression.The average GCM diameter index is associated with DVT regression treated with DOACs. Considering the GCM diameter during DVT treatment can be a marker to make a decision for the treatment of DVT.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Int Heart J ; 61(4): 695-704, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684604

RESUMO

The "on-therapy range" of direct oral anticoagulants is the 90% interval of drug concentration. Previously, we reported the on-therapy range of rivaroxaban in a single-center cohort. The present study aimed to confirm the range and intraindividual reproducibility in a multicenter cohort.Eligible patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation under rivaroxaban treatment for prevention of ischemic stroke were enrolled from nine institutes in Tokyo, Japan, between June 2016 and May 2017 (n = 324). The first and second (three months later) blood samples both taken within 1-5 hours after rivaroxaban intake were analyzed (n = 219). Plasma concentration of rivaroxaban (PC-Riv) and prothrombin time (PT) with five reagents were measured.The 90% interval of PC-Riv was 47.3-532.9 ng/mL. The 90% interval of PT measured with RecombiPlasTin 2G was 11.8-22.3 seconds, the widest range among the five reagents examined. PC-Riv reproducibility within a 90% interval was evaluated bidirectionally (first-to-second and second-to-first), and 92.4% of samples were reproducible. The change rate (CR) of PC-Riv between two samplings ranged widely, and high CR (≥54.3%, cutoff for predicting non-reproducibility) was predicted by concomitant drugs (non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonist and thiazide) and mitral regurgitation.We reported the on-therapy range of rivaroxaban in a multicenter cohort. This range was consistent with that of a single-center cohort and was highly reproducible within three months in daily clinical practice. However, caution is necessary regarding several factors that may affect the intraindividual variation of PC-Riv.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacocinética , Rivaroxabana/farmacocinética , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Inibidores do Fator Xa/sangue , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rivaroxabana/sangue , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
19.
Am Heart J ; 227: 91-99, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693197

RESUMO

Vitamin K antagonists are the only approved oral anticoagulants for long-term prophylaxis against valve thrombosis and thromboembolism in patients with a mechanical heart valve. Despite the proven efficacy and safety of anticoagulation with the oral direct factor Xa inhibitor apixaban compared with warfarin in high-risk populations including subjects with atrial fibrillation or with venous thromboembolism, it remains unknown whether patients with a mechanical heart valve can be safely managed with apixaban. The On-X Aortic Heart Valve and On-X Ascending Aortic Prosthesis with the Vascutek Gelweave Valsalva Graft may have lower rates of valve thrombosis and thromboembolism than conventional bileaflet and tilting disc valves due its unique pyrolytic carbon composition and flared inlet design. DESIGN: PROACT Xa is a randomized, multicenter, open-label, active-controlled trial comparing apixaban with warfarin in patients with an On-X Aortic Heart Valve or On-X Ascending Aortic Prosthesis with the Vascutek Gelweave Valsalva Graft. The study will randomize approximately 1,000 patients from approximately 60 sites in North America who underwent aortic valve replacement at least 3 months prior. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to receiving apixaban 5 mg twice daily or warfarin with a target international normalized ratio of 2.0-3.0. The last randomized participant will be followed for at least 2 years. The primary efficacy outcome is the composite of valve thrombosis and valve-related thromboembolism, and the primary safety outcome is major bleeding. Assuming the primary outcome occurs in warfarin-anticoagulated patients at a rate of 1.75%/patient-year, the study has more than 90% power to assess noninferiority of apixaban treatment with an absolute noninferiority margin of 1.75%/patient-year. A second co-primary analysis is to compare the hazard rate for the apixaban arm to twice the objective performance criterion for thromboembolism and valve thrombosis, that is, 3.4%/patient-year. SUMMARY: PROACT Xa will determine whether patients with an On-X Aortic Heart Valve can be anticoagulated with apixaban as an alternative to warfarin.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Desenho de Prótese , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA