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1.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(9): 708-713, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin following IM administration of a single dose (10 mg/kg) in koi (Cyprinus carpio). ANIMALS: 69 healthy adult koi housed in a 980-L flow-through-system tank. PROCEDURES: 3 fish were kept as untreated controls, and the remaining 66 fish were assigned to 11 treatment groups with 6 fish/group. Fish in the treatment groups were given a single dose of danofloxacin (10 mg/kg) IM in the left epaxial musculature. Fifteen, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 4, 12, 24, 72, 96, 120, and 144 hours after administration of danofloxacin, fish in each treatment group were euthanized, and blood samples and samples of liver, spleen, gill, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, skin and muscle, and scales were collected. Plasma and tissue drug concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were performed. Tissues from the untreated control fish and fish euthanized 144 hours after danofloxacin administration were examined histologically. RESULTS: Maximum plasma concentration (mean, 8,315.7 ng/mL) was reached approximately 45 minutes after danofloxacin administration; plasma elimination half-life was 15 hours. Danofloxacin was detected in all examined tissues from all 6 fish euthanized 15 minutes after drug administration and was detected in some tissues from 3 of the 6 fish euthanized 144 hours after drug administration. For all tissues, results of histologic examination were unremarkable. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: IM administration of a single dose (10 mg/kg) of danofloxacin in koi resulted in rapid absorption, with maximum plasma concentration reached approximately 45 minutes after drug administration; the drug could still be detected in some tissues 144 hours after administration.


Assuntos
Carpas , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida/veterinária , Fluoroquinolonas , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária
2.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(11): 837-877, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107745

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome sulfate in ducklings and goslings after IV or IM administration of a single dose. ANIMALS: 216 healthy Muscovy ducklings (Cairina moschata) and 216 healthy Sichuan white goslings (Anser cygnoides). PROCEDURES: Ducklings and goslings were each randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 72/group) that received a single dose (2 mg/kg) of injectable cefquinome sulfate administered IV or IM or of injectable cefquinome sulfate suspension administered IM. Blood samples were collected at various points after drug administration (n = 6 birds/time point). Plasma cefquinome concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with a 2-compartment model method. RESULTS: After IV injection, mean distribution half-life of cefquinome was longer in goslings (0.446 hours) than in ducklings (0.019 hours), whereas volume of distribution at steady state was greater (0.432 vs 0.042 L/kg) and elimination half-life was slower (1.737 vs 0.972 hours). After IM administration of injectable cefquinome sulfate, bioavailability of the drug was higher in goslings (113.9%) than in ducklings (67.5%). After IM administration of injectable cefquinome sulfate suspension, bioavailability was also higher in goslings (123.1%) than in ducklings (96.8%), whereas elimination half-life was slower (6.917 vs 1.895 hours, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In goslings, IV administration of cefquinome resulted in slower distribution and metabolism of the drug than in ducklings and IM administration resulted in higher bioavailability. The delayed-release effect of the injectable cefquinome sulfate suspension when administered IM was observed only in goslings.


Assuntos
Patos , Gansos , Animais , Antibacterianos , Área Sob a Curva , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cefalosporinas , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Sulfatos
3.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(11): 894-898, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after IM and IV administration to orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). ANIMALS: 8 orange-winged Amazon parrots (4 males and 4 females). PROCEDURES: Hydromorphone (1 mg/kg) was administered once IM. Blood samples were collected 5 minutes and 0.5, 1.5, 2, 3, 6, and 9 hours after drug administration. Plasma hydromorphone concentrations were determined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with a compartmental model. The experiment was repeated 1 month later with the same dose of hydromorphone administered IV. RESULTS: Plasma hydromorphone concentrations were > 1 ng/mL for 6 hours in 8 of 8 and 6 of 7 parrots after IM and IV injection, respectively. After IM administration, mean bioavailability was 97.6%, and mean maximum plasma concentration was 179.1 ng/mL 17 minutes after injection. Mean volume of distribution and plasma drug clearance were 4.24 L/kg and 64.2 mL/min/kg, respectively, after IV administration. Mean elimination half-lives were 1.74 and 1.45 hours after IM and IV administration, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Hydromorphone hydrochloride had high bioavailability and rapid elimination after IM administration, with rapid plasma clearance and a large volume of distribution after IV administration in orange-winged Amazon parrots. Drug elimination half-lives were short. Further pharmacokinetic studies of hydromorphone and its metabolites, including investigation of multiple doses, different routes of administration, and sustained-release formulations, are recommended.


Assuntos
Amazona , Hidromorfona , Administração Intravenosa/veterinária , Analgésicos Opioides , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Masculino
4.
Aust Vet J ; 98(10): 511-516, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643182

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterise intramuscular ketamine-medetomidine-tramadol anaesthesia in hatchling green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial. ANIMALS: Ten hatchling green sea turtles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prior to anaesthesia, cardiopulmonary parameters, cloacal temperature, and venous blood gas and biochemistry were obtained from hatchling green sea turtles while they were being gently restrained. Animals were then anaesthetised with ketamine (5 mg kg-1 ), medetomidine (0.05 mg kg-1 ) and tramadol (5 mg kg-1 ) via intramuscular injection. Turtles were checked for the depth of anaesthesia at five-min intervals by recording reflexes (righting, palpebral, pinch, cloacal) and measuring heart rate, respiratory rate and cloacal temperature. After 20 min, a second venous blood sample was obtained for further blood gas and biochemical analysis and the medetomidine was antagonised using atipamezole (5:1 medetomidine, 0.25 mg kg-1 ). RESULTS: All turtles were successfully anaesthetised with a mean time to induction of 3.4 min (±1). In all animals, a loss of reflexes (except for palpebral reflex) and voluntary movement was observed for the entire 20 min. Anaesthesia resulted in marked apnoea for the duration of the procedure. Venous blood gas and biochemistry analysis indicated that a 20 min period of apnoea had no measurable effects on venous blood gas results. All turtles recovered uneventfully after atipamazole antagonisation, with a mean time to first breath 4.5 min (±3.7), and mean recovery time 15.5 min (±15.4). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Intramuscular ketamine-medetomidine-tramadol, antagonised with atipamazole appears to be an effective anaesthetic protocol in hatchling green sea turtles for short procedures with no deleterious effects on venous blood gases or biochemistry.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Ketamina , Tramadol , Tartarugas , Anestésicos Combinados , Animais , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Medetomidina , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Vet J ; 259-260: 105479, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553236

RESUMO

A randomised controlled trial was carried out in four dairy herds located in the UK to evaluate the effect of pegbovigrastim treatment on the incidence of antimicrobial treatments during the first 30 d of lactation (DIM). Medical treatment records were analysed, and treatments identified where an antibiotic product was used. Records were available for 1865 cows, 933 of which received two injections of pegbovigrastim given approximately 14 d prior to expected calving (IMR) and again within 24 h of calving. 932 cows received no treatment (CON). In total, 11.6% (n = 108/933) IMR cows and 13.2% (n = 123/932) CON cows received at least one antibiotic treatment during the first 30 DIM. Of the IMR cows 2.9% (n = 27/933) were treated with antibiotics for the reason of mastitis along with 3.4% (n = 32/932) of cows from the CON group. 8.9% (n = 83/933) of IMR cows and 10.3% (n = 96/932) of CON cows received antibiotic treatment for a condition other than mastitis, 0.2% (n = 2/933) and 0.8% cows (n = 7/932) from the IMR and CON groups, respectively, received an antibiotic treatment for both mastitis and a reason other than mastitis during the first 30 DIM. Data were analysed with the farm where each cow was located as a random effect and with fixed effects of treatment (IMR or CON), parity (categorised as cows in 1st, 2nd and 3rd or subsequent lactations) and season of calving (autumn [AUT], September through November; winter [WIN], December through February; spring [SPR], March through May; and summer [SUM], June through August), and all 2-way interactions with treatment. Treatment was associated with reduced risk of receiving antibiotic therapy in the first 30 DIM (odds ratio [OR], 0.51; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.28 to 0.94), but a treatment × farm interaction was detected. Compared with IMR, CON cows were more likely to receive an antibiotic treatment on 3/4 farms during the first 30 DIM. However, CON cows on Farm 2 were less likely to do so (12.4% [n = 45/364] vs.15.5% [n = 36/232]). Cows in the third or subsequent lactation were also found to be at increased risk of receiving antibiotic therapy (OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.20) than cows in their first lactation. Pegbovigrastim treatment pre-calving may be useful in some herds for reducing the incidence of antimicrobial treatments during early lactation.


Assuntos
Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Lactação , Mastite Bovina/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/administração & dosagem , Incidência , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Estações do Ano , Reino Unido
6.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(6): 471-478, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate IM injection of oxytetracycline as an experimental model to induce pain and assess the analgesic efficacy of flunixin meglumine (FM) in dairy cows. ANIMALS: 15 healthy nonlactating Jersey (n = 10) and Holstein (5) cows. PROCEDURES: In the first of 2 experiments, 5 Jerseys were administered oxytetracycline (10 mg/kg, IM), divided between the right side of the neck and left hind limb. The left side of the neck and right hind limb received sham injections. Cows were also randomly assigned to receive FM (2.2 mg/kg, IV; n = 3) or an equal volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.044 mL/kg, IV; control; 2) once daily for 5 days. The mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) was measured before oxytetracycline administration and at predetermined times after each injection of the assigned treatment. Experiment 2 was similar to experiment 1 except it involved 5 Jerseys and 5 Holsteins, oxytetracycline was injected only in a hind limb, and the assigned treatment was administered for 10 days. RESULTS: For both experiments, mean MNT for the oxytetracycline injection site was consistently less than that for the sham injection site in the hind limbs, and mean MNT at the hind limb oxytetracycline injection site for FM-treated cows was greater than that for control cows beginning on day 3. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: IM injection of oxytetracycline in a hind limb reliably induced signs of pain in dairy cows and, with validation, might be useful as an experimental model for assessing pain mitigation strategies in cattle.


Assuntos
Oxitetraciclina , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Feminino , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Modelos Teóricos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/veterinária
7.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(4): 361-366, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride after IV and IM administration in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). ANIMALS: 8 healthy adult guinea pigs (4 sexually intact females and 4 sexually intact males). PROCEDURES: In a crossover study, hydromorphone (0.3 mg/kg) was administered once IM (epaxial musculature) or IV (cephalic catheter) to each guinea pig at a 1-week interval (2 treatments/guinea pig). Blood samples were collected before and at predetermined intervals after drug administration via a vascular access port. Plasma hydromorphone concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental analysis of data was used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. RESULTS: Mean ± SD clearance and volume of distribution for hydromorphone administered IV were 52.8 ± 13.5 mL/min/kg and 2.39 ± 0.479 L/kg, respectively. Mean residence time determined for the IV and IM administration routes was 0.77 ± 0.14 hours and 0.99 ± 0.34 hours, respectively. The maximum observed plasma concentration following IM administration of hydromorphone was 171.9 ± 29.4 ng/mL. No sedative effects were observed after drug administration by either route. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Pharmacokinetic data indicated that hydromorphone at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg may be administered IV every 2 to 3 hours or IM every 4 to 5 hours to maintain a target plasma concentration between 2 and 4 ng/mL in guinea pigs. Hydromorphone had high bioavailability after IM administration. Further research is necessary to evaluate the effects of other doses and administration routes and the analgesic effects of hydromorphone in guinea pigs.


Assuntos
Hidromorfona , Administração Intravenosa/veterinária , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida/veterinária , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Cobaias , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Masculino
8.
J Vet Sci ; 21(2): e32, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233138

RESUMO

Levofloxacin pharmacokinetic profiles were evaluated in 6 healthy female rabbits after intravenous (I/V), intramuscular (I/M), or subcutaneous (S/C) administration routes at a single dose of 5 mg/kg in a 3 × 3 cross-over study. Plasma levofloxacin concentrations were detected using a validated Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography method with a fluorescence detector. Levofloxacin was quantifiable up to 10 h post-drug administration. Mean AUC0-last values of 9.03 ± 2.66, 9.07 ± 1.80, and 9.28 ± 1.56 mg/h*L were obtained via I/V, I/M, and S/C, respectively. Plasma clearance was 0.6 mL/g*h after I/V administration. Peak plasma concentrations using the I/M and S/C routes were 3.33 ± 0.39 and 2.91 ± 0.56 µg/mL. Bioavailability values, after extravascular administration were complete, - 105% ± 27% (I/M) and 118% ± 40% (S/C). Average extraction ratio of levofloxacin after I/V administration was 7%. Additionally, levofloxacin administration effects on tear production and osmolarity were evaluated. Tear osmolarity decreased within 48 h post-drug administration. All 3 levofloxacin administration routes produced similar pharmacokinetic profiles. The studied dose is unlikely to be effective in rabbits; however, it was calculated that a daily dose of 29 mg/kg appears effective for I/V administration for pathogens with MIC < 0.5 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacocinética , Levofloxacino/farmacocinética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Coelhos/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária
9.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(1): 46-52, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212545

RESUMO

Enrofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone widely used in animals including fish. Intramuscular (IM) injection of enrofloxacin is a feasible and efficacious option for drug delivery. In many species IM injection has been associated with injection site reactions and increases in serum muscle enzymes. Injection site reactions have not been well characterized in fish. Three groups of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) received an IM injection of enrofloxacin 2.27% in the right epaxial musculature 24, 48, or 96 hr prior to evaluation. Mean dose was 7.69 mg/ kg (6.14-9.69 mg/kg). The 24- and 48-hr groups received an injection of equal-volume 0.9% saline in the left epaxial musculature. A corresponding noninjected tissue sample was designated in the left epaxial musculature from each fish of the 96-hr group. Fish were euthanized and injection sites and noninjection control sites were evaluated grossly and histologically. Grades 1-4 were assigned to samples, with grade 1 corresponding to normal tissue and grades 2, 3, and 4 corresponding to mild, moderate, and severe inflammation and/or necrosis respectively. Externally, all control and injection sites appeared visually unremarkable. On cut surface, epaxial muscle of the enrofloxacin-injected tissue appeared moderately to severely hemorrhagic compared to saline and noninjected tissue, which was normal or mildly hemorrhagic. Histologically, eight of eight noninjected tissues were grade 1. For saline-injected tissues, 14 of 16 tissues were grade 2 and 2 samples were grade 3 when 24- and 48-hr groups were combined. For enrofloxacin-injected tissues, 8 of the 8 24-hr samples were grade 3 and 16 of the 16 48- and 96-hr samples were grade 4. These data show that IM injection of enrofloxacin 2.27% is associated with severe hemorrhage, necrosis, and inflammation in striped bass, and may negatively affect animal welfare.


Assuntos
Bass , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Enrofloxacina/efeitos adversos , Doenças dos Peixes/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Fatores de Tempo
10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(1): 96-101, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212551

RESUMO

Alfaxalone is a neurosteroid anesthetic agent that has been extensively used in both human and veterinary medicine for more than 50 yr. Previous studies involving avian species demonstrated various dose ranges and multiple routes of administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term sedative, cardiorespiratory, and thermoregulatory effects of an intramuscular injection of alfaxalone on budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). A crossover study was performed with a sample size of 10 male budgerigars, previously determined to be healthy based on physical examination. Alfaxalone was administered intramuscularly at two doses: 15 and 20 mg/kg. The lower dose resulted in mild to moderate sedation for 29 ± 5 min, whereas the higher dose resulted in moderate to profound sedation for 29 ± 7 min. A statistically significant decrease in heart rate was observed 2 min after administration of alfaxalone at 15 mg/kg; however, this finding was noted to be transient. A statistically significant decrease in respiratory rate was observed at 6 and 10 min after injection in both groups. Cloacal temperature measurement with a digital thermometer and eye temperature calculated from thermographic images demonstrated a decrease in body temperature over time but was not found to be statistically significant. Intramuscular use of alfaxalone proved to provide short-term sedation in budgerigars, with statistically significant but clinically mild cardiorespiratory effects. Due to a significant decrease in body temperature, active warming is recommended when using alfaxalone in budgerigars.


Assuntos
Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sedação Consciente/veterinária , Melopsittacus/fisiologia , Pregnanodionas/administração & dosagem , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 81, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gamithromycin is a macrolide approved for the treatment of bovine and swine respiratory diseases. Our study aims to establish the clinical breakpoint and optimum dose regimen for gamithromycin against Haemophilus parasuis in piglets. RESULTS: Gamithromycin was well absorbed and fully bioavailable (87.2-101%) after intramuscular and subcutaneous administrations. The MICs of gamithromycin for 192 clinical H. parasuis isolates ranged from 0.008 to 128 mg/L and the epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF) was calculated as 1.0 mg/L. A large potentiation effect of serum on in vitro susceptibility of gamithromycin was observed for H. parasuis, with broth/serum ratios of 8.93 for MICs and 4.46 for MBCs, respectively. The postantibiotic effects were 1.5 h (1 × MIC) and 2.4 h (4 × MIC), and the postantibiotic sub-MIC effects ranged from 2.7 to 4.3 h. Gamithromycin had rapid and concentration-dependent killing against H. parasuis, and the AUC24h/MIC ratio correlated well with ex vivo efficacy (R2 = 0.97). The AUC24h/MIC targets in serum associated with bacteriostatic, bactericidal and eradication activities were 15.8, 30.3 and 41.2, respectively. The PK/PD-based population dose prediction indicated a probability of target attainment (PTA) for the current marketed dose (6 mg/kg) of 88.9% against H. parasuis. The calculated gamithromycin dose for a PTA ≥ 90% was 6.55 mg/kg. Based on Monte Carlo simulations, the PK/PD cutoff (COPD) was determined to be 0.25 mg/L. CONCLUSION: The determined cutoffs and PK/PD-based dose prediction will be of great importance in gamithromycin resistance surveillance and serve as an important step in the establishment of optimum dose regimen and clinical breakpoints.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Haemophilus parasuis/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Área Sob a Curva , Infecções por Haemophilus/tratamento farmacológico , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/farmacocinética , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Sus scrofa , Suínos
12.
Res Vet Sci ; 129: 6-12, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901533

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the specific pharmacokinetic profile and effects of alfaxalone after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration to rabbits and evaluate the potential interaction with dexmedetomidine. The study design was a blinded, randomized crossover with a washout period of 2 weeks. Five New Zealand white rabbits were used. Each animal received single IV and IM injections of alfaxalone at a single dose of 5 mg/kg, and single IV and IM injections of alfaxalone (5 mg/kg) combined with dexmedetomidine (100 µg/kg) administered intramuscularly. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The plasma concentration-time curves were analysed by non-compartmental analysis. Sedation/anaesthesia scores were evaluated by a modified numerical rating scale. At pre-determined time points heart and respiratory rates were measured. Times to sternal recumbency and standing position during the recovery were recorded. Concentrations of alfaxalone alone were very similar (slighty smaller) to concentrations when alfaxalone was combined with dexmedetomidine, after both routes of administration. Dexmedetomidine enhanced and increase the duration of the sedative effects of alfaxalone. In conclusion, alfaxalone administered in rabbits provides rapid and smooth onset of sedation. After IV and IM injections of alfaxalone combined with dexmedetomidine, a longer MRT and a deeper and extended sedation have been obtained compared to alfaxalone alone. Consequently, alfaxalone alone or in combination with dexmedetomidine could be useful to achieve respectively moderate to deep sedation in rabbits.


Assuntos
Anestésicos/farmacocinética , Dexmedetomidina/farmacocinética , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacocinética , Pregnanodionas/farmacocinética , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Pregnanodionas/farmacologia , Coelhos , Distribuição Aleatória
13.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(1): 65-76, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887090

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of IM administration of alfaxalone and butorphanol combined with acepromazine, midazolam, or dexmedetomidine in dogs. ANIMALS: 6 young healthy mixed-breed hounds. PROCEDURES: Dogs received each of 3 treatments (alfaxalone [2 mg/kg] and butorphanol [0.4 mg/kg] combined with acepromazine [0.02 mg/kg; AB-ace], midazolam [0.2 mg/kg; AB-mid], or dexmedetomidine [0.005 mg/kg; AB-dex], IM) in a blinded, randomized crossover-design study with a 1-week washout period between treatments. Sedation scores and cardiorespiratory variables were recorded at predetermined time points. Data were analyzed by use of mixed-model ANOVA and linear generalized estimating equations with post hoc adjustments. RESULTS: All treatments resulted in moderate to deep sedation (median score, ≥ 15/21) ≤ 5 minutes after injection. Sedation scores did not differ among treatments until the 40-minute time point, when the score was higher for AB-dex than for other treatments. Administration of AB-dex resulted in median scores reflecting deep sedation until 130 minutes, versus 80 and 60 minutes for AB-ace and AB-mid, respectively, after injection. Heart rate, cardiac output, and oxygen delivery decreased significantly after AB-dex, but not AB-ace or AB-mid administration. Respiratory variables remained within clinically acceptable ranges after all treatments. Undesirable recovery characteristics were observed in 4 dogs after AB-mid treatment. Four dogs required atipamezole administration 180 minutes after AB-dex injection. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: All protocols produced reliable sedation. The results indicated that in young, healthy dogs, AB-mid may produce undesirable recovery characteristics; AB-dex treatment caused cardiovascular depression and should be used with caution.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sedação Profunda/veterinária , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Acepromazina/administração & dosagem , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Anestesia/normas , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Cães , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Masculino , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Pregnanodionas/administração & dosagem
14.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(3): 1093-1102, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701397

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to determine the influence of dexamethasone (DXM) on pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of enrofloxacin (ENR) for dosage optimization following concurrent administration of ENR and DXM in febrile buffalo calves. A 2 µg/kg intravenous dosage of lipopolysaccharide derived from Escherichia coli was used to induce fever in calves. After inducing fever, ENR was administered at the dose rate of 12 mg/kg, IM followed by IM injection of DXM (0.05 mg/kg) in calves. Minor alterations in PK of ENR were observed following the administration of ENR + DXM. The PK parameters were t1/2K10 = 6.34 h, Cl/F = 0.729 L/kg/h, and MRT0-∞ = 10.5 h. Antibacterial activity (MIC, MBC, ex vivo time-kill kinetics) of ENR for P. multocida was not affected by DXM. But MPC of ENR against P. multocida was lessened in presence of DXM. Using PK-PD-modeled AUC0-24h/MIC values for bactericidal effect against P. multocida, daily dosages of ENR administered in combination with DXM were 4.02 mg/kg and 16.1 mg/kg, respectively, for MIC90s of 0.125 µg/ml and 0.50 µg/ml. A dose of 5.38 mg/kg was determined for ENR for frequently occurring P. multocida infections having ≤ MIC90 of 0.125 µg/ml and PK-PD modeled dose was comparable with the recommended ENR dose of 5 mg/kg for bovines for mild infections. It is suggested that a recommended dosage of 5-12.5 mg/kg of ENR can be used effectively in combination with DXM to treat P. multocida associated infections in buffalo calves without any risk of resistance amplification.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Búfalos , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Enrofloxacina/farmacologia , Febre/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Dexametasona/farmacocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada/veterinária , Enrofloxacina/farmacocinética , Escherichia coli/química , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/microbiologia , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
Res Vet Sci ; 128: 177-182, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812610

RESUMO

The aim of this prospective, randomized, blinded crossover study was compare the cardiopulmonary and sedative effects of ketamine in combination with acepromazine, diazepam, dexmedetomidine, midazolam or xylazine, injected intramuscularly in rabbits, using eight one-year-old male New Zealand rabbits (4.1 ± 0.40 kg). All treatments included ketamine (K; 30 mg/kg) in combination with one of the following: acepromazine 0.5 mg/kg (treatment KA); diazepam 1 mg/kg (KD); dexmedetomidine 0.025 mg/kg (KDex); midazolam 1 mg/kg (KM); or xylazine 3 mg/kg (KX) mixed in the same syringe and injected intramuscularly. Cardiopulmonary variables, blood gases and sedative scores were measured before injection (T0 or baseline) and every 10 min thereafter, over a 60-min period. There were reductions in heart rate, compared with the baseline, at all evaluation times in treatment KX. Treatments KDex, KM and KX presented reductions in respiratory rate at all evaluation times, in comparison with the baseline. There were reductions in mean arterial pressure in KA and KX at times T10-T60 and in PaO2 in KDex, KM and KX at T10-T50. The sedation scores were similar in KA, KDex, KM and KX at T10-T20. Ketamine in combination with acepromazine, dexmedetomidine, midazolam or xylazine promoted similar sedative effects for twenty minutes, but the α2-agonists can promote hypoxemia.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Ketamina/farmacologia , Acepromazina/administração & dosagem , Acepromazina/efeitos adversos , Acepromazina/farmacologia , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Animais , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Dexmedetomidina/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Hipóxia , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Midazolam/efeitos adversos , Midazolam/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Coelhos , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Xilazina/administração & dosagem , Xilazina/efeitos adversos , Xilazina/farmacologia
16.
Avian Pathol ; 49(1): 87-98, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565961

RESUMO

Previous studies have implicated oestrogen as a factor in the induction of fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS). In this study, a refined laying hen model was employed to permit further investigations. Intramuscular (i.m.) injections of exogenous oestrogen as ß-estradiol-17-dipropionate (E2) (5 mg/kg BW) were given every 4 days for 20 days to 30-week-old hens fed either ad libitum or with restricted feed intake. Elevated (P < 0.01) plasma oestrogen concentrations produced significant macroscopic and microscopic hepatic alterations. Hens in the E2-treated ad libitum fed (EAL) group experienced a higher incidence of FLHS than hens in the E2-treated restricted feed intake group, showing that birds with a higher feed intake are more at risk of developing FLHS. Histological examination of livers revealed that hens in the E2-treated ad libitum fed group had consistent and severe fat infiltration in the liver, and fat vacuolization within hepatocytes. Fat accumulation and fat droplets were found not only in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes but also in liver sinusoids. White blood cell counts and fibrinogen concentrations were altered (P < 0.01) in hens treated with E2 when compared with controls. Plasma fibrinogen concentrations were altered over time, and correlated with white blood cell counts (Pearson's correlation r = 0.96; P = 0.001). Hens treated with E2 had increased (P < 0.01) levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, confirming that E2 induced hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia. It was concluded that E2 successfully induced FLHS in hens, with typical systemic and hepatic events resulting from a disturbance in lipid metabolism and chronic low-grade inflammation.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Estrogênios/administração & dosagem , Fígado Gorduroso/veterinária , Hemorragia/veterinária , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/veterinária , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Peso Corporal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ovos/normas , Estrogênios/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/complicações , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Feminino , Fibrinogênio/análise , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/patologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Fígado/química , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/patologia , Oviposição , Síndrome
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 98: 810-818, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743761

RESUMO

Koi herpesvirus (KHV) also named Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is one of the most threatening pathogens affecting common carp production as well as the valued ornamental koi carp. The current commercial vaccines available are costly and potentially cause severe stress caused by live virus. KHV ORF149 gene has been proved encoding one of the main immunogenic proteins for KHV. In this study, we coupled a plasmid expression vector for ORF149 to single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) for an anti-KHV vaccine. The vaccine conferred an 81.9% protection against intraperitoneal challenge with KHV. Importantly, SWCNTs as a promising vehicle can enhanced the protective effects 33.9% over that of the naked DNA vaccine at the same dose. The protection was longer and serum antibody production, enzyme activities and immune-related gene expression were all induced in fish vaccinated with the nanotube-DNA vaccine compared with the DNA alone. Thereby, this study demonstrates that the ORF149 DNA vaccine loaded onto SWCNTs as a novel vaccine might provide an effective method of coping with KHV disease using intra-muscular vaccination.


Assuntos
Carpas , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesviridae/imunologia , Vacinas contra Herpesvirus/administração & dosagem , Nanotubos de Carbono , Animais , Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2743-2755, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882220

RESUMO

Our objectives were to test the efficacy of intravaginal (IVG) administration of PGF2α to induce corpus luteum (CL) regression, compare circulating progesterone (P4) profiles in cows receiving IVG versus intramuscular (IM) treatment with PGF2α, and evaluate reproductive outcomes. Lactating Holstein cows were synchronized using a Double-Ovsynch protocol [GnRH, 7 d later PGF2α, 3 d later GnRH, 7 d later GnRH, 7 d later PGF2α, 1 d later PGF2α, 32 h later GnRH, 16 to 20 h timed artificial insemination (TAI)] to receive TAI at 67 ± 3 d in milk. Seven days after the first GnRH treatment (time 0), cows with at least 1 visible CL ≥15 mm were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to a treatment that consisted of IM injection (IM-PGF; n = 201) or IVG instillation (IVG-PGF; n = 201) of PGF2α. Cows in IM-PGF received a single 25-mg dose of PGF2α (dinoprost tromethamine) intramuscularly. Cows in IVG-PGF received two 25-mg doses of PGF2α 12 h apart delivered through a catheter in the cranial portion of the vagina. Blood samples were collected at 0, 12, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Ovulation to the first GnRH of Double-Ovsynch was determined through transrectal ultrasonography. Only cows with P4 ≥1 ng/mL (functional CL) at time 0 (IM-PGF = 169; IVG-PGF = 179) were included in the analyses. Binary and quantitative data were analyzed by logistic regression and ANOVA with repeated measures, respectively. Results are presented as least squares means. Concentrations of P4 and the proportion of cows with a new CL at time 0 did not differ. Overall, the proportion of cows with CL regression using 1 ng of P4/mL (IM-PGF = 89.0%; IVG-PGF = 86.7%) or 0.5 ng of P4/mL (IM-PGF = 82.2%; IVG-PGF = 82.1%) as the cutoff did not differ. Concentrations of P4 were affected by treatment, time, and treatment × time interaction. Cows in IVG-PGF had greater mean P4 at 12 h than cows in IM-PGF. Mean P4 did not differ at 48 or 72 h after treatment. The proportion of cows with estrus recorded within 3 d of treatment (IM-PGF = 45.4%; IVG-PGF = 48.9%), ovulation risk after treatment (IM-PGF = 88.5%; IVG-PGF = 85.1%), and pregnancies per artificial insemination after TAI (IM-PGF = 51.5%; IVG-PGF = 57.8%) did not differ. We concluded that 2 IVG doses of 25 mg of PGF2α 12 h apart were as effective as a single 25-mg IM dose of PGF2α for inducing luteal regression in lactating dairy cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Luteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Reprodução , Administração Intravaginal , Animais , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Paridade , Gravidez , Progesterona/sangue , Distribuição Aleatória
19.
Acta Vet Hung ; 67(4): 588-601, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842592

RESUMO

The study compares the effect of one-time administration of nonsteroidal and/or steroidal anti-inflammatory combinations by topical or intramuscular (IM) routes to pigeons with monosodium urate (MSU)-induced arthritis. Forty-five adult domestic pigeons were assigned into nine equal groups: NC, negative control; PC, positive control with arthritis; sham, sham control; T1, meloxicam + hydrocortisone; T2, dexamethasone + piroxicam; T3, meloxicam + dexamethasone; T4, hydrocortisone + piroxicam; T5, dexamethasone + hydrocortisone; T6, meloxicam + piroxicam. Arthritis was also induced in T1 to T6 birds. Meloxicam and dexamethasone were administered by IM injection and the other drugs topically right after the induction of arthritis. Different drug combinations significantly decreased one-leg standing time. Induction of arthritis significantly increased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in synovial fluid and serum corticosterone and epinephrine in the PC group. Administration of drugs to birds of Groups T1 and T5 did not significantly change corticosterone concentration, while all different drug combinations decreased epinephrine level. Drug combinations that demonstrated better analgesic effect more strongly reduced serum epinephrine concentration. Meloxicam + hydrocortisone was the most effective combination in reducing inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, one-time combination therapy with anti-inflammatory agents was effective in the acute management of inflammatory pain due to MSU-induced arthritis in pigeons, even by the topical route.


Assuntos
Artrite/veterinária , Doenças das Aves/tratamento farmacológico , Columbidae , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Meloxicam/uso terapêutico , Piroxicam/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Artrite/induzido quimicamente , Artrite/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves/induzido quimicamente , Combinação de Medicamentos , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária
20.
Acta Vet Hung ; 67(4): 602-609, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842594

RESUMO

The plasma pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin was studied in healthy African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following a single intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration of 10 mg/kg at 22 °C. Catfish were divided into two groups (each group containing 78 fish), then danofloxacin mesylate (10 mg/kg) was administered IV (into the caudal vein) in Group 1 and IM (into the right epaxial muscle) in Group 2, and blood was obtained from the caudal vein before (0 h) and after (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h) of drug administration. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for the determination of plasma concentration, and a non-compartmental model was used for the analysis of pharmacokinetic parameters. After IV administration, elimination half-life (t1/2λz, 24.49 h), mean residence time (MRT, 30.14 h), volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss, 1.07 L/kg) and total body clearance (CLT, 0.035 L/h/kg) were determined. After IM administration, t1/2λz, MRT, peak concentration (Cmax), time to reach Cmax and bioavailability were 47.64 h, 61.06 h, 5.22 µg/mL, 1 h and 67.12%, respectively. After IM administration, danofloxacin showed good bioavailability and long t1/2λz. The favourable pharmacokinetic characteristics after IM administration support the use of danofloxacin for the treatment of susceptible bacterial infections in catfish.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Animais , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Masculino
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