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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4448, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895370

RESUMO

Substance abuse disorders are linked to alteration of circadian rhythms, although the molecular and neuronal pathways implicated have not been fully elucidated. Addictive drugs, such as cocaine, induce a rapid increase of dopamine levels in the brain. Here, we show that acute administration of cocaine triggers reprogramming in circadian gene expression in the striatum, an area involved in psychomotor and rewarding effects of drugs. This process involves the activation of peroxisome protein activator receptor gamma (PPARγ), a nuclear receptor involved in inflammatory responses. PPARγ reprogramming is altered in mice with cell-specific ablation of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) in the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) (iMSN-D2RKO). Administration of a specific PPARγ agonist in iMSN-D2RKO mice elicits substantial rescue of cocaine-dependent control of circadian genes. These findings have potential implications for development of strategies to treat substance abuse disorders.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/fisiopatologia , Cocaína/efeitos adversos , Núcleo Accumbens/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Cocaína/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/tratamento farmacológico , Dopamina/metabolismo , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiopatologia , PPAR gama/agonistas , Pioglitazona/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Recompensa , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(6): 1491-1509, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924531

RESUMO

Astragalus membranaceus is the most popular traditional Chinese medicine for managing vital energy deficiency. Its injectable polysaccharide PG2 has been used for relieving cancer-related fatigue, and PG2 has immune-modulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we explored the effects of PG2 in lung adenocarcinoma A549 and CL1-2 cells and investigated its anticancer activity, and the results were validated in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Although PG2 did not inhibit the growth of these cells, it dose-dependently suppressed their migration and invasion, accompanied by reduced vimentin and AXL and induced epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) expression. Regarding the underlying molecular mechanism, PG2 treatment reduced the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine that promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and aggressiveness of cancer cells. Consistent with the previous finding that MIF regulates matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), treatment with PG2 reduced MMP-13 and activated AMPK in A549 and CL1-2 cells in this study. In SCID mice injected with A549 cells through the tail vein, intraperitoneal injection with PG2 reduced lung and abdominal metastases in parallel with decreased immunohistochemical staining of AXL, vimentin, MMP-13, and MIF in the tumor. Collectively, data revealed a potential application of PG2 in integrative cancer treatment through the suppression of MIF in cancer cells and their aggressiveness.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Astragalus propinquus/química , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Camundongos SCID , Invasividade Neoplásica , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 331: 188-199, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569805

RESUMO

Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug whose abuse can cause many health complications. Our previous studies have shown that METH exposure increases α-synuclein (α-syn) expression. Recently, it was shown that α-syn could be transferred from neurons to astrocytes via exosomes. However, the specific role of astrocytes in α-syn pathology involved in METH neurotoxicity remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether exosomes derived from METH-treated neurons contain pathological α-syn and test the hypothesis that exosomes can transfer pathological α-syn from neurons to astrocytes. To this end, using animal and cell line coculture models, we show that exosomes isolated from METH-treated SH-SY5Y cells contained pathological α-syn. Furthermore, the addition of METH exosomes to the medium of primary cultured astrocytes induced α-syn aggregation and inflammatory responses in astrocytes. Then, we evaluated changes in nuclear receptor related 1 protein (Nurr1) expression and the levels of inflammatory cytokines in primary cultured astrocytes exposed to METH or α-syn. We found that METH or α-syn exposure decreased Nurr1 expression and increased proinflammatory cytokine expression in astrocytes. Our results indicate that α-syn can be transferred from neuronal cells to astrocytes through exosomes. When internalized α-syn accumulated in astrocytes, the cells produced inflammatory responses. Nurr1 may play a crucial role in this process and could be a therapeutic target for inflammatory damage caused by METH.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/toxicidade , Exossomos/metabolismo , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , Animais , Astrócitos/imunologia , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Hipocampo/citologia , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/imunologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/imunologia , Membro 2 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Cultura Primária de Células , Sinucleinopatias/imunologia , Sinucleinopatias/metabolismo
4.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(2): e166204, mai. 2020. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122176

RESUMO

Medical management of abdominal abscesses in horses requires prolonged antibiotic therapy and presents varied success rates. A 6-year-old male horse with a history of colic and multiple abdominal punctures to relieve gas was attended. At admission, tachycardia, tachypnea, hyperthermia, mucosal congestion, dehydration, and rigid gait were observed. The association of physical examination, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings allowed the diagnoses of peritonitis and abdominal abscess. Supporting treatment plus broad spectrum antibiotic therapy was performed: daily intraperitoneal ceftriaxone (25 mg/kg, 7 days); daily intravenous gentamicin (6.6 mg/kg, 7 days); per os metronidazole three times a day (15 mg/kg 12 days), followed by the same dose twice a day (15 mg/kg 33 days), totaling 45 days of treatment. Plasma fibrinogen and ultrasonographic examination were the most effective tools to evaluate abscess evolution. There was normalization of the physical examination 24 h after beginning the treatment, consecutive regression of the nucleated cell count in the peritoneal fluid, and regression of plasma fibrinogen and size of the abscess. On the 10th treatment day, the animal was discharged from the hospital, maintaining oral therapy with metronidazole every 12 h (15 mg / kg). When the animal returned on the 30th day, an abscess size regression was observed. However, there was no resolution, and therapy with metronidazole was maintained. On the 45th day of treatment, a new hospital evaluation was performed, where the abscess resolved, and metronidazole was suspended. It is highlighted that the therapeutic association used in the treatment of abdominal infection and abscess resulted in a rapid clinical response.(AU)


O tratamento conservativo dos abscessos abdominais em equinos requer antibioticoterapia prolongada e apresenta variadas taxas de sucesso. Foi atendido um cavalo de seis anos de idade, com histórico de cólica e múltiplas punções abdominais por agulha para esvaziamento de gás. Na admissão, foram observados taquicardia, taquipnéia, hipertermia, congestão mucosa, desidratação e marcha rígida. A associação do exame físico, achados laboratoriais e ultrassonográficos permitiu o diagnóstico de peritonite e abscesso abdominal. Foi realizado tratamento suporte e antibioticoterapia de amplo espectro: ceftriaxona intraperitoneal diária (25 mg/kg, 7 dias); gentamicina intravenosa diária (6,6 mg/kg, 7 dias); metronidazol oral três vezes ao dia (15 mg/kg, 12 dias), seguido de mesma dose duas vezes ao dia, por mais 33 dias, totalizando 45 dias de tratamento. O fibrinogênio plasmático e o exame ultrassonográfico foram os recursos mais eficazes para a avaliação da evolução do abscesso. Após 24 horas do início do tratamento foi constatada a normalização do exame fisico, regressão progressiva da contagem de células nucleadas no líquido peritoneal, do fibrinogênio plasmático e do tamanho do abscesso. No 10° dia de tratamento o animal recebeu alta hospitalar, mantendo-se a terapia oral com metronidazol a cada 12 horas (15 mg/Kg). Em retorno, ao 30° dia, observou-se regressão do tamanho do abscesso, entretanto, não houve resolução, tendo sido mantida a terapia com metronidazol. No 45º dia de tratamento, realizou-se nova avaliação hospitalar, onde foi observada a resolução do abscesso e a admnistração do metronidazol foi suspensa. Destaca-se, que a associação terapêutica utilizada no tratamento de infecção abdominal e abscesso resultou em rápida resposta clínica.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Peritonite/veterinária , Ceftriaxona/administração & dosagem , Gentamicinas/administração & dosagem , Abscesso Abdominal/veterinária , Cavalos , Metronidazol/administração & dosagem , Ultrassom , Fibrinogênio , Injeções Intraperitoneais/veterinária
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231633, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353864

RESUMO

Arginine deprivation cancer therapy targets certain types of malignancies with positive result in many studies and clinical trials. NEI-01 was designed as a novel arginine-depleting enzyme comprising an albumin binding domain capable of binding to human serum albumin to lengthen its half-life. In the present work, NEI-01 is shown to bind to serum albumin from various species, including mice, rat and human. Single intraperitoneal administration of NEI-01 to mice reduced plasma arginine to undetectable level for at least 9 days. Treatment of NEI-01 specifically inhibited cell viability of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cancer cell lines, which were ASS1 negative. Using a human pancreatic mouse xenograft model, NEI-01 treatment significantly reduced tumor volume and weight. Our data provides proof of principle for a cancer treatment strategy using NEI-01.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Arginina/metabolismo , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Desiminases de Arginina em Proteínas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Arginina/sangue , Arginina/deficiência , Argininossuccinato Sintase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Ligação Proteica , Desiminases de Arginina em Proteínas/administração & dosagem , Desiminases de Arginina em Proteínas/metabolismo , Ratos , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 735: 139461, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470671

RESUMO

Nanoplastics (1-100 nm) are potentially the most hazardous litter in the environment. Recent scientific studies have documented their toxic effects at the cellular and molecular levels, but knowledge underlying mechanisms of their toxicity is still scarce. Nanoplastics are known for their ability to induce immune and inflammatory responses as well as generating reactive oxygen species. While some studies have addressed the immunotoxicity of nanoplastics in vitro and on in vivo in fish after intraperitoneal injection, no information is available on adult fish after ingestion of a contaminated prey. The present study is the first to attempt to address the immunotoxicity of nanoplastics in adult fish after trophic transfer. Pimephales promelas is a well-established bioindicator species to study the immunotoxicity of nanoparticles and the innate immune responses of fish. This study aims to assess the in vivo innate immune response of adult P. promelas following exposure to polystyrene nanoplastics by measuring the gene expression of ncf, nox2, mst1 and c3; these genes are related with the immune function of neutrophils, macrophages and complement in fish. Two target organs (liver and head kidney) and two routes of exposure (IP- injection and ingestion) were analyzed. After 48 h of exposure, polystyrene nanoplastics were encountered in the liver and kidney of both IP-injection and ingestion exposed fish, and significantly affected the innate immune system of P. promelas by downregulating the gene expression ncf, mst1, and c3 in liver and kidney. Significant difference between treatments was only observed for the gene expression of nfc in liver. Results of this study indicate that polystyrene nanoplastics can exhibit immunotoxicity in fish through an environmentally relevant route of exposure, interfering with the synthesis and function of neutrophils, macrophages, and complement of P. promelas in their principal hematopoietic tissues, which may potentially compromise its ability to survive in nature.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Imunidade Inata , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Neutrófilos , Poliestirenos
7.
Toxicol Lett ; 331: 130-142, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417428

RESUMO

Increasing production of corannulene (COR), a non-planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with promising applications in many fields, has raised a concern about its potential toxic effects. However, no study has been undertaken to evaluate its metabolism and toxicity in mammals. In this study, the acute toxicities of COR in mice were compared with benzo[apyrene (BaP), a typical planar PAH with almost the same molecular weight. After 3-day exposures, the concentrations of COR in both plasma and tissues of mice were higher than that of BaP. However, blood chemistry and tissue weight monitoring showed no observable toxicities in COR-exposed mice. Compared to BaP, exposure to COR resulted in less activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and thus less induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A(CYP1A) enzymes, which play a critical role in metabolism of both COR and BaP. Additionally, COR also elicited less oxidative stress and microbiota alteration in the intestine than did BaP. RNA-seq analysis revealed that liver transcriptomes are responsive to COR and BaP, with less alterations observed in COR-exposed mice. Unlike BaP, exposure to COR had no effects on hepatic lipid and xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Nonetheless, COR appeared to alter the mRNA expressions of genes involved in carcinogenicity, oxidative stress, and immune-suppression. To conclude, this study for the first time unveils a comparative understanding of the acute toxic effects of COR to BaP in mice, and provides crucial insights into the future safety assessment of COR.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Benzo(a)pireno/farmacocinética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/biossíntese , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/biossíntese , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Intestinos/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/farmacocinética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Distribuição Tecidual
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0227463, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469979

RESUMO

Disruption of blood-brain barrier integrity and dramatic failure of brain ion homeostasis including fluctuations of pH occurs during cortical spreading depression (CSD) events associated with several neurological disorders, including migraine with aura, traumatic brain injury and stroke. NHE1 is the primary regulator of pH in the central nervous system. The goal of the current study was to investigate the role of sodium-hydrogen exchanger type 1 (NHE1) in blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity during CSD events and the contributions of this antiporter on xenobiotic uptake. Using immortalized cell lines, pharmacologic inhibition and genetic knockdown of NHE1 mitigated the paracellular uptake of radiolabeled sucrose implicating functional NHE1 in BBB maintenance. In contrast, loss of functional NHE1 in endothelial cells facilitated uptake of the anti-migraine therapeutic, sumatriptan. In female rats, cortical KCl but not aCSF selectively reduced total expression of NHE1 in cortex and PAG but increased expression in trigeminal ganglia; no changes were seen in trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Thus, in vitro observations may have a significance in vivo to increase brain sumatriptan levels. Pharmacological inhibition of NHE1 prior to cortical manipulations enhanced the efficacy of sumatriptan at early time-points but induced facial sensitivity alone. Overall, our results suggest that dysregulation of NHE1 contributes to breaches in BBB integrity, drug penetrance, and the behavioral sensitivity to the antimigraine agent, sumatriptan.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Depressão Alastrante da Atividade Elétrica Cortical/genética , Trocador 1 de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética , Sumatriptana/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Depressão Alastrante da Atividade Elétrica Cortical/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Enxaqueca com Aura/tratamento farmacológico , Enxaqueca com Aura/genética , Enxaqueca com Aura/patologia , Ratos , Trocador 1 de Sódio-Hidrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Gânglio Trigeminal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gânglio Trigeminal/patologia
9.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(4): 987-1003, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431181

RESUMO

Our previous report revealed that Gardenia jasminoides (GJ) has protective effects against acute pancreatitis. So, we examined whether aqueous extract of GJ has anti-inflammation and antifibrotic effects even against cerulein-induced chronic pancreatitis (CP). CP was induced in mice by an intraperitoneal injection of a stable cholecystokinin (CCK) analogue, cerulein, six times a day, four days per week for three weeks. GJ extract (0.1 or 1[Formula: see text]g/kg) or saline (control group) were intraperitoneally injected 1[Formula: see text]h before first cerulein injection. After three weeks of stimulation, the pancreas was harvested for the examination of several fibrotic parameters. In addition, pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) were isolated using gradient methods to examine the antifibrogenic effects of GJ. In the cerulein-induced CP mice, the histological features of the pancreas showed severe tissue damage such as enlarged interstitial spaces, inflammatory cell infiltrate and glandular atrophy, and tissue fibrosis. However, treatment of GJ reduced the severity of CP such as pancreatic edema and inflammatory cell infiltration. Furthermore, treatment of GJ increased pancreatic acinar cell survival, and reduced pancreatic fibrosis and activation of PSC in vivo and in vitro. In addition, GJ treatment inhibited the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) in the PSCs. These results suggest that GJ attenuated the severity of CP and the pancreatic fibrosis by inhibiting JNK and ERK activation during CP.


Assuntos
Ceruletídeo/efeitos adversos , Gardenia/química , Pancreatite Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Pancreatite Crônica/prevenção & controle , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibrose , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pâncreas/patologia , Células Estreladas do Pâncreas/patologia , Pancreatite Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Pancreatite Crônica/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
10.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200016, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348434

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sepsis is an important cause of mortality and morbidity, and inflammatory response and oxidative stress play major roles underlying its pathophysiology. Here, we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal etanercept administration on oxidative stress and inflammation indicators in the kidney and blood of experimental sepsis-induced rats. METHODS: Twenty-eight adult Sprague Dawley rats were classified into Control (Group 1), Sepsis (Group 2), Sepsis+Cefazolin (Group 3), and Sepsis+Cefazolin+Etanercept (Group 4) groups. Kidney tissue and serum samples were obtained for biochemical and histopathological investigations and examined for the C reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. RESULTS: The levels of TNF-α, TREM, and MDA in serum and kidney samples were significantly higher in rats from sepsis group than in rats from control group (p < 0.05). Group 3 showed a significant reduction in serum levels of TNF-α, CRP, and TREM as compared with Group 2 (p < 0.05). Serum TNF-α, CRP, TREM, and MDA levels and kidney TNF-α and TREM levels were significantly lower in Group 4 than in Group 2 (p < 0.05). Serum TNF-α and TREM levels in Group 4 were significantly lower than those in Group 3, and histopathological scores were significantly lower in Group 3 and Group 4 than in Group 2 (p < 0.05). Histopathological scores of Group 4 were significantly lower than those of Group 3 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Etanercept, a TNF-α inhibitor, may ameliorate sepsis-induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and histopathological damage.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Etanercepte/administração & dosagem , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepse/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanercepte/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sepse/sangue
11.
Mol Immunol ; 121: 186-194, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244067

RESUMO

NLRP3 (NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain- containing protein 3) inflammasome is involved in diverse inflammatory diseases, so the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome needs to be tightly regulated to prevent excessive inflammation. However, the endogenous regulatory mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome are still less defined. Here, we report that ß-catenin, which is the central mediator of the canonical Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, promotes NLRP3 inflammasome activation. When we suppressed the expression of ß-catenin by siRNA or pharmacological inhibitor, the NLRP3 inflammasome activation was impaired. Accordingly, ß-catenin inhibitor attenuated LPS-induced systemic inflammation in vivo. Mechanistically, we found ß-catenin interacted with NLRP3 and promoted the association between NLRP3 and ASC. Thus, our study revealed a novel role of ß-catenin in NLRP3 inflammasome activation and suggest an endogenous crosstalk between Wnt/ß-catenin signal and NLRP3 inflammasome.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células HEK293 , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inflamassomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/imunologia , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Via de Sinalização Wnt/imunologia , beta Catenina/antagonistas & inibidores , beta Catenina/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231139, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are several reports describing allergy to hydrolyzed wheat products. After a large outbreak in Japan it was established that sensitization was caused by skin contact with acid hydrolyzed gluten in soap. It is still not clear if other forms of hydrolyzed gluten may sensitize, and if the skin is the only relevant route of sensitization in humans and to what extent oral tolerance to wheat play a role. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine if wheat-tolerant rats may be sensitized via the oral or i.p. route when exposed to gluten, enzymatic or acid hydrolyzed gluten. METHODS: Brown Norway rats, tolerant to wheat, were dosed by three i.p. injections without adjuvant or by oral gavage daily for 35 days with the three gluten products, respectively. Sera were analyzed by ELISA for specific IgG1 and IgE. In addition inhibition and avidity ELISAs were performed. Results were compared to a similar study in rats naïve to wheat. RESULTS: More than half the animals had measurable IgG1 at the start of the dosing period. I.p. immunization resulted in significant specific IgG1 and IgE to the antigen used for immunization but significantly lower than in naïve rats. The results of inhibition and avidity ELISA's indicate that the underlying tolerance to epitopes common to the three products influences the immune response. Oral dosing did not induce significant changes in response to either gluten or the hydrolyzed gluten product used for dosing. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that i.p. immunization with the three products can break the underlying tolerance to wheat. Exposure by the oral route to enzymatic or acid hydrolyzed gluten is very unlikely to break an already established tolerance to gluten and induce sensitization.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Alérgenos/imunologia , Glutens/administração & dosagem , Glutens/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica , Imunização/métodos , Triticum/química , Hipersensibilidade a Trigo/imunologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos BN
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(16): 9054-9063, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295878

RESUMO

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells serve as early rapid responders in the innate immune response to self-derived autoantigens and pathogen-derived danger signals and antigens. iNKT cells can serve both as helpers for effector B cells and negatively regulate autoreactive B cells. Specifically, iNKT cells drive B cell proliferation, class switch, and antibody production to induce primary antigen-specific immune responses. On the other hand, inflammasome-mediated activation drives accumulation of neutrophils, which license iNKT cells to negatively regulate autoreactive B cells via Fas ligand (FasL). This positions iNKT cells at an apex to support or inhibit B cell responses in inflammation. However, it is unknown which effector mechanism dominates in the face of cognate glycolipid activation during chronic inflammation, as might result from glycolipid vaccination or infection during chronic autoimmune disease. We stimulated iNKT cells by cognate glycolipid antigen α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) and measured B cell activation during interleukin 18 (IL-18)-induced chronic inflammation. Moreover, glycolipid-activated iNKT cells increased the serum concentration of autoantibodies, frequency of germinal center (GC) B cells, and antigen-specific plasma cells induced during chronic IL-18-mediated inflammation, as compared with IL-18 alone. Further, activation of iNKT cells via cognate glycolipid during IL-18-mediated inflammation overrides the licensing function of neutrophils, instead inducing iNKT follicular helper (iNKTfh) cells that in turn promote autoimmunity. Thus, our data demonstrate that glycolipids which engage iNKT cells support antigen-specific B cell help during inflammasome-mediated inflammation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Autoimunidade , Galactosilceramidas/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Interleucina-18/administração & dosagem , Interleucina-18/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia
14.
Arch Razi Inst ; 75(1): 83-91, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292006

RESUMO

This study aimed at investigating the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) on testicular ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in rats. In total, 50 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. Group 1 received no injection (control); however, group 2 was subjected to 2 h of I and 24 h of R. Subsequently, group 3 was subjected to 2 h of 1, and after 1 h of I, 125 mg/kg MgSO4 was injected intraperitoneally followed by 24 h of R. Groups 4 and 5 were subjected to the same process as group 3, whereas the rats were injected with 250 and 500 mg/kg of MgSO4, respectively. After 24 h, the left testes of all rats were removed for histological analysis and antioxidant activities. According to the results, there was a significant increase in tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) among I/R rats (P&lt;0.05), whereas MgSO4 decreased I/R-induced MDA (P&lt;0.05). Furthermore, experimental I/R diminished glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels significantly (P&lt;0.05). Moreover, MgSO4 (250 and 500 mg/kg) increased GPx and SOD activity significantly in I/R rats (P&lt;0.05). Furthermore, seminiferous tubules degenerated, and few spermatocytes were observed in the testis tubules of the I/R rats. Regarding pathological parameters, seminiferous tubules and spermatocyte were normal in the testes of MgSO4 (250 and 500 mg/kg)-treated experimental I/R-induced rats. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the beneficial effects of MgSO4 on testicular IR injury in rats.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Magnésio/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Sulfato de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
15.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(3): 559-577, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345030

RESUMO

Depression is partially caused by inflammation in the central nervous system. Early study demonstrated that musk, glandular secretion from male musk deer, exerted an antidepressant-like effect. The aim of this study was to investigate if muscone, a bioactive ingredient in musk, could ameliorate neuroinflammation and depressive-like behaviors as well as explore the potential action mechanism. Mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with muscone for 2 weeks prior to administration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS, 1mg/kg, i.p.). Pre-treatment with muscone reversed the LPS-induced decrease in body weight within 24h and ameliorated depressive-like behaviors shown by sucrose preference, tail suspension test, and forced swimming test. LPS-induced activation of microglial cells and elevation in expression of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1ß, RANTES, and MCP-1 in the prefrontal cortex of mice were effectively abrogated by muscone, which significantly down-regulated expression of TLR4, MyD88, Caspase-1, NLRP3, renin, and Ang II. In addition, treatment of BV2 microglia cells with muscone markedly attenuated the LPS-induced rise in protein expression of TLR4, Ang II, and IL-1ß. This study revealed that muscone could ameliorate LPS-induced depressive-like behaviors by repressing neuroinflammation in the prefrontal cortex of mice caused by its suppression on microglia activation and production of inflammatory cytokines via acting on TLR4 pathway and RAS cascade.


Assuntos
Cicloparafinas/administração & dosagem , Cicloparafinas/farmacologia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Cervos , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Camundongos , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
16.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(4): 15, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298438

RESUMO

Purpose: Pathological neovascularization and fibrosis are common pathological changes of many retinal diseases, such as proliferative retinopathy (PR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Treatment modalities for these pathological changes are limited. The purpose of the present study was to test the effects of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endocannabinoid mimetic amide, on retinal neovascularization and fibrosis and to determine its molecular mechanism of action. Methods: A rat Müller cell line (rMC-1), a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), and the very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) knockout mouse model were used. PEA was intraperitoneally injected or orally administrated in animal models. Inflammation and profibrotic changes were evaluated by western blot analysis. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) were measured by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Results: Profibrotic changes were present in OIR and Vldlr-/- retinas. PEA significantly alleviated inflammation and inhibited neovascularization in OIR and Vldlr-/- retinas and suppressed profibrotic changes in OIR and Vldlr-/- retinas. Moreover, PEA potently suppressed Müller gliosis in these retinas. In rMC-1 cells, PEA suppressed Müller gliosis, reduced inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated profibrotic changes. Further, both mRNA and protein levels of PPARα were elevated in the retina under PEA treatment, and the effects of PEA were abolished in Pparα-/- OIR mice. Conclusions: PEA reduced retinal neovascularization and fibrotic changes and suppressed Müller gliosis in experimental PR and neovascular AMD by activating PPARα. PEA may be a potential treatment for retinopathies with pathological neovascularization and fibrosis.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Etanolaminas/uso terapêutico , Gliose/tratamento farmacológico , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Ácidos Palmíticos/uso terapêutico , Retina/patologia , Neovascularização Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Ependimogliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/genética , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Gliose/metabolismo , Gliose/patologia , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Oxigênio/toxicidade , PPAR alfa/genética , Ratos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores de LDL/genética , Retina/metabolismo , Neovascularização Retiniana/induzido quimicamente , Neovascularização Retiniana/metabolismo , Neovascularização Retiniana/patologia
17.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(5): 562-570, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced-stage ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis; surgical resection with the intent to leave no residual tumour followed by adjuvant chemotherapy is the standard treatment. Local anaesthetics (LA) have anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. We hypothesised that intraperitoneal LA (IPLA) would lead to improved postoperative recovery, better pain relief, and earlier start of chemotherapy. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study in 40 women undergoing open abdominal cytoreductive surgery. Patients were randomised to receive either intraperitoneal ropivacaine (Group IPLA) or saline (Group Placebo) perioperatively. Except for study drug, patients were treated similarly. Intraoperatively, ropivacaine 2 mg ml-1 or 0.9% saline was injected thrice intraperitoneally, and after operation via a catheter and analgesic pump into the peritoneal cavity for 72 h. Postoperative pain, time to recovery, home discharge, time to start of chemotherapy, and postoperative complications were recorded. RESULTS: No complications from LA administration were recorded. Pain intensity and rescue analgesic consumption were similar between groups. Time to initiation of chemotherapy was significantly shorter in Group IPLA (median 21 [inter-quartile range 21-29] vs 29 [inter-quartile range 21-40] days; P=0.021). Other parameters including time to home readiness, home discharge and incidence, and complexity of postoperative complications were similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Intraperitoneal ropivacaine during and for 72 h after operation after cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer is safe and reduces the time interval to initiation of chemotherapy. Larger studies are warranted to confirm these initial findings. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02256228.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Período Pós-Operatório
18.
Life Sci ; 249: 117476, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119962

RESUMO

Mangiferin is a well-known xanthone extracted from mango leaves (Mangifera indica Linn). Mangiferin is widely distributed in the bark, peel, leaf, seed, stalk, and kernel of mango and higher plants. The pharmacological properties of mangiferin, including its antioxidant, anticancer, antiaging, antiviral, hepatoprotective, analgesic, and immunomodulatory activities, have been described in several studies. We investigated the effect of mangiferin on isoproterenol-induced apoptosis. Experimental heart failure was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of isoproterenol (5 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days. Rats were divided into five groups: group I (sham rats), group II (isoproterenol alone control), group III (isoproterenol + 25 mg/kg mangiferin), group IV (isoproterenol + 50 mg/kg mangiferin), and group V (isoproterenol + 0.0225 mg/kg digitalis as a positive control). Hemodynamic parameters and body weight, heart weight and liver weight, apoptosis induction, and caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 protein levels were measured, and a histopathological analysis of cardiomyocytes was performed. In addition, apoptosis and protein expression of caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 were measured in cardiac H9c2 cells. Mangiferin supplementation significantly increased heart rate and improved the maximum rate of decrease in left ventricular (LV) pressure, the maximum rate of increase in LV pressure, and LV systolic pressure. Mangiferin reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and the number of broken myocardial fibers, and decreased apoptosis in cardiomyocytes by reducing proteins levels of caspase-3 and Bax and increasing those of Bcl-2. Our findings suggest that mangiferin has a cardioprotective effect against isoproterenol-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantonas/farmacologia , Animais , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Isoproterenol/administração & dosagem , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Ratos
19.
Gene ; 742: 144601, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198124

RESUMO

Morphine is a natural alkaloid which derived from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. Many studies have reported the effect of morphine on learning, memory and gene expression. CART (cocaine-amphetamine regulated transcript)is an important neuropeptide which has a critical role in physiological processes including drug dependence and antioxidant activity. ΔfosB is a transcription factor which modulates synaptic plasticity and affects learning and memory. TFAM (the mitochondrial transcription factor A) and PGC-1α (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α) are critically involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant pathways. NeuroAid is a Chinese medicine that induces neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic effects. In this research, we aimed to investigate the effect of NeuroAid on morphine-induced amnesia with respect to the expression of TFAM, PGC-1α, ΔfosB and CART in the rat's hippocampus. In this study, Morphine sulfate (at increasing doses), Naloxone hydrochloride (2.5 mg/kg) and NeuroAid (2.5 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneal and real-time PCR reactions were done to assess gene expression. The results showed, morphine impaired memory of step-through passive avoidance, while NeuroAid had no effect. NeuroAid attenuated (but not reversed) morphine-induced memory impairment in morphine-addicted rats. Morphine increased the expression of PGC-1α and decreased the expression of CART. However, NeuroAid increased the expression of TFAM, PGC-1α, ΔfosB and CART. NeuroAid restored the effect of morphine on the expression of CART and PGC-1α. In conclusion, morphine impaired memory of step-through passive avoidance and NeuroAid attenuated this effect. The effect of NeuroAid on morphine-induced memory impairment/gene expression may be related to its anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective effects.


Assuntos
Amnésia/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Hipocampo/patologia , Morfina/toxicidade , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Amnésia/induzido quimicamente , Amnésia/diagnóstico , Amnésia/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 7286958, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215177

RESUMO

Hyperlipidemia is considered one of the most important risk factors for erectile dysfunction (ED). To determine the effect of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) as an antioxidant agent on ED in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced hyperlipidemia in rats and to investigate if STS administration could improve erectile function via hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production by inhibition of oxidative stress. Hyperlipidemia was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding HFD for 16 weeks. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control, HFD, and HFD treated with STS (10 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks, intraperitoneal injection). Erectile function including intracavernosal pressure (ICP), H2S production, and antioxidant capacity was assessed. In addition, cavernosal smooth muscle cells (CSMC) isolated from SD rats were pretreated with STS in vitro and exposed to H2O2. Expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), activity of antioxidant enzymes, and H2S-generating enzymes within CSMC were examined. ICP was significantly decreased in HFD rats compared with control. In addition, decreased H2S production and expression of cystathionine É£-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) associated with increased oxidative stress were observed in the penile tissue of HFD rats. However, all these changes were reversed by 16 weeks after STS administration. STS also increased antioxidant defense as evidenced by increased expression of Nrf2/HO-1 in the penile tissue of HFD rats. In CSMC, pretreatment with STS attenuated the decreased expression of CSE and CBS and H2S production by H2O2. STS exerted similar protective antioxidative effect as shown in the in vivo hyperlipidemia model. The present study demonstrated the redox effect of STS treatment on ED via increased H2S production in HFD-induced hyperlipidemia rat model by increased antioxidant capacity via activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, which provides STS potential clinical application in the treatment of hyperlipidemia-related ED.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Fenantrenos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pênis/efeitos dos fármacos , Pênis/metabolismo , Pênis/patologia , Pênis/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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