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1.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 107998, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941889

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of two injectable formulations of doramectin (DRM) against Psoroptes ovis in sheep infested under controlled experimental conditions and to characterize the DRM plasma disposition kinetics in the infested animals. To this end, sheep were experimentally infested with a P. ovis strain from a farm with a history of treatment failure, and then treated either with DRM 1% (traditional preparation) on days 0 and 7 or with DRM 3.15% (long-acting formulation) on day 0. The efficacy of each treatment was calculated by counting live mites in skin scrapings. Plasma samples were obtained from each animal and DRM concentrations were measured by HPLC. After the two doses of DRM 1%, the maximum efficacy (98.8%) was reached on day 28, whereas after the single dose of DRM 3.15%, the maximum efficacy (100%) was reached on day 35 and ratified on day 42. The long-acting formulation allowed obtaining higher exposure and more sustained concentrations of DRM than the traditional preparation. Although both DRM formulations studied were effective according to international protocols, they did not reach 100% effectiveness in the time required for approved pharmaceutical products against sheep scab, according to Argentine regulations.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Psoroptidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/sangue , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/sangue , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Psoroptidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
2.
Exp Parasitol ; 214: 107903, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360142

RESUMO

The aim of this 6-month, randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of aminosidine-allopurinol combination with that of meglumine antimoniate-allopurinol combination for the treatment of leishmaniosis in dogs without stage III or IV chronic kidney disease. Forty client-owned dogs were randomly assigned to group A [n = 20; aminosidine (15 mg/kg, subcutaneously, once daily, for 28 days) and allopurinol (10 mg/kg, per os, twice daily, for 6 months)] or group B [(n = 20; meglumine antimoniate (100 mg/kg SC, once daily, for 28 days) and allopurinol (10 mg/kg, per os, twice daily, for 6 months)]. Clinical and clinicopathological evaluations, parasitic load measurement (lymph node and bone marrow microscopy, bone marrow real-time PCR), specific serology and leishmanin skin test (LST) were performed at baseline (time 1) and after 14 (time 2), 28 (time 3), 60 (time 4) and 180 (time 5) days. Both treatments were safe and resulted in significant clinical and clinicopathological improvement, reduction of parasitic load and of indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) titer and induction of positive LST. There was no significant difference between groups with regards to the primary outcome measures of the trial that included the proportion of dogs that presented severe treatment-related side effects, were cured and were parasitologically negative at time 5. However, some (proportion of dogs that presented no clinical signs, no hyperglobulinemia and negative serology at time 5) secondary outcome measures showed significant differences in favor of the meglumine antimoniate-allopurinol treatment arm. Treatment-related death occurred in one dog in each group, while injection site reactions appeared at a similar frequency in both groups. Due to the differences in some secondary outcome measures in association with the low power of this trial, it cannot be definitively concluded that the two treatments are equally effective. Therefore, the aminisodine-allopurinol combination cannot be proposed as a first-line treatment of CanL but rather as a second-line treatment that may be particularly useful to avoid repeated administration of meglumine antimoniate and in countries where the latter is not available or registered.


Assuntos
Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Antimoniato de Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Paromomicina/uso terapêutico , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cães , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Masculino
3.
J Vet Sci ; 21(2): e32, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233138

RESUMO

Levofloxacin pharmacokinetic profiles were evaluated in 6 healthy female rabbits after intravenous (I/V), intramuscular (I/M), or subcutaneous (S/C) administration routes at a single dose of 5 mg/kg in a 3 × 3 cross-over study. Plasma levofloxacin concentrations were detected using a validated Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography method with a fluorescence detector. Levofloxacin was quantifiable up to 10 h post-drug administration. Mean AUC0-last values of 9.03 ± 2.66, 9.07 ± 1.80, and 9.28 ± 1.56 mg/h*L were obtained via I/V, I/M, and S/C, respectively. Plasma clearance was 0.6 mL/g*h after I/V administration. Peak plasma concentrations using the I/M and S/C routes were 3.33 ± 0.39 and 2.91 ± 0.56 µg/mL. Bioavailability values, after extravascular administration were complete, - 105% ± 27% (I/M) and 118% ± 40% (S/C). Average extraction ratio of levofloxacin after I/V administration was 7%. Additionally, levofloxacin administration effects on tear production and osmolarity were evaluated. Tear osmolarity decreased within 48 h post-drug administration. All 3 levofloxacin administration routes produced similar pharmacokinetic profiles. The studied dose is unlikely to be effective in rabbits; however, it was calculated that a daily dose of 29 mg/kg appears effective for I/V administration for pathogens with MIC < 0.5 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacocinética , Levofloxacino/farmacocinética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Coelhos/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 81, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gamithromycin is a macrolide approved for the treatment of bovine and swine respiratory diseases. Our study aims to establish the clinical breakpoint and optimum dose regimen for gamithromycin against Haemophilus parasuis in piglets. RESULTS: Gamithromycin was well absorbed and fully bioavailable (87.2-101%) after intramuscular and subcutaneous administrations. The MICs of gamithromycin for 192 clinical H. parasuis isolates ranged from 0.008 to 128 mg/L and the epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF) was calculated as 1.0 mg/L. A large potentiation effect of serum on in vitro susceptibility of gamithromycin was observed for H. parasuis, with broth/serum ratios of 8.93 for MICs and 4.46 for MBCs, respectively. The postantibiotic effects were 1.5 h (1 × MIC) and 2.4 h (4 × MIC), and the postantibiotic sub-MIC effects ranged from 2.7 to 4.3 h. Gamithromycin had rapid and concentration-dependent killing against H. parasuis, and the AUC24h/MIC ratio correlated well with ex vivo efficacy (R2 = 0.97). The AUC24h/MIC targets in serum associated with bacteriostatic, bactericidal and eradication activities were 15.8, 30.3 and 41.2, respectively. The PK/PD-based population dose prediction indicated a probability of target attainment (PTA) for the current marketed dose (6 mg/kg) of 88.9% against H. parasuis. The calculated gamithromycin dose for a PTA ≥ 90% was 6.55 mg/kg. Based on Monte Carlo simulations, the PK/PD cutoff (COPD) was determined to be 0.25 mg/L. CONCLUSION: The determined cutoffs and PK/PD-based dose prediction will be of great importance in gamithromycin resistance surveillance and serve as an important step in the establishment of optimum dose regimen and clinical breakpoints.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Haemophilus parasuis/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Área Sob a Curva , Infecções por Haemophilus/tratamento farmacológico , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/farmacocinética , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Sus scrofa , Suínos
5.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 1-10, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105948

RESUMO

On a spring calving, pastoral dairy farm, the first 40 heifer calves born after calving mid-point (50% of the herd calved) were blood sampled within 24 h. Thirty were selected, using stratified randomisation to form two equal groups (treatment and control) with the same distribution of serum total protein, copper, selenium, zinc, and manganese concentrations, age and breed. From the remaining 10 calves, five were randomly selected into a sentinel group to assess field exposure to Salmonella spp. All calves received two injections of a killed vaccine containing Salmonella spp. antigens at 2 and 6 weeks of age. Concurrently, the treatment group were injected with 1 mL/50 kg trace mineral supplement (TMS) containing 40 mg zinc, 10 mg manganese, 5 mg selenium, 15 mg copper per mL. Sentinel animals received no injections. All animals were bled from 2 to 9 weeks for assay of immune function. At three and four weeks, white blood cells from TMS calves had an increased percentage of cells phagocytosing (effect size = 9.36 and 4.35) and increased number of bacteria ingested per cell (effect size = 0.93 and 1.52). No differences were detected in gamma interferon response (effect size <0.15) or Salmonella sp. antibody titres (effect size <0.20).


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/fisiologia , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem
6.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 55(3): 374-383, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930759

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of different doses of buserelin acetate and another GnRH agonist, triptorelin acetate, in saline solution in a single subcutaneous injection, to induce ovulation of growing pre-ovulatory follicle in mare and compare it with the classical treatment of a single injection of hCG. The study is split into 3 experiments over different breeding seasons in the same stud with a random distribution of treatment. The first one was to compare the injection of 6 mg of buserelin with 1,500 IU of hCG; the second one consisted of comparing different doses of buserelin (6 mg and 3 mg); and the third one compared three different doses of buserelin (3, 2 and 1 mg), 0.1 mg of triptorelin with 1,500 IU of hCG as a control group. The results of all experiments showed the same efficacy between all treatments with mares ovulating between 24 and 48 hr after injection: experiment 1: hCG (78% n = 41) and buserelin 6 mg (90% n = 50); experiment 2: buserelin 6 mg (78,1% n = 192) and buserelin 3 mg (78% n = 341); and experiment 3: hCG (87% n = 106), buserelin 3 mg (84,7% n = 137), buserelin 2 mg (82,7% n = 104), buserelin 1 mg (87% n = 54) and triptorelin 0.1 mg (84,7% n = 72). In conclusion, this study contributes to erasing the dogma that has been established since 1975 that a single injection in solution without any long-acting excipient of a GnRH agonist cannot induce ovulation in the mare. This study also shows that a injection of 0.1 mg of triptorelin in solution is a good alternative for ovulation induction and is comparable to small doses of buserelin acetate in solution (1 mg) and 1,500 IU of the gold standard trigger hCG, mainly in countries where human formulation of buserelin is not available.


Assuntos
Busserrelina/farmacologia , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/farmacologia , Cavalos/fisiologia , Indução da Ovulação/veterinária , Pamoato de Triptorrelina/farmacologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Busserrelina/administração & dosagem , Gonadotropina Coriônica/administração & dosagem , Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia , Feminino , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Feminina/administração & dosagem , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Indução da Ovulação/métodos , Pamoato de Triptorrelina/administração & dosagem
7.
Vet Surg ; 49(1): 180-186, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576584

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of subcutaneous iohexol injection into the metatarsal region for thoracic duct lymphangiography in dogs and to determine the minimum effective dose. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study and clinical report. ANIMALS: Five healthy beagle dogs and one dog with chylothorax. METHODS: For the experimental study, iohexol was injected subcutaneously into the metatarsal region of five dogs at three doses (0.5, 0.75, and 1 mL/kg), and the injection sites were massaged gently. Computed tomography (CT) was performed 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after iohexol injection. Subjective quality was assessed, and Hounsfield unit values were measured at several regions of interest (T1, T4, T8, T13, and L3). In the dog with chylothorax, iohexol (1.0 mL/kg) was injected into the right metatarsal region prior to CT. RESULTS: The thoracic duct was visualized and enhanced by contrast in all dogs after injection of 0.75 and 1.0 mL/kg of iohexol, and in two dogs after injection of 0.5 mL/kg at 3, 5, and 7 minutes. The thoracic duct was gradually attenuated with increasing doses of iohexol. In the dog with chylothorax, the entire thoracic duct was well enhanced and dilated, and tortuous cranial mediastinal lymphatics were detected. CONCLUSION: The thoracic duct was visualized when at least 0.75 mL/kg of iohexol was injected subcutaneously into the metatarsal region of dogs. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Subcutaneous injection of iohexol into the metatarsal region offers a simple alternative to conventional thoracic duct lymphangiography.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/uso terapêutico , Iohexol/uso terapêutico , Linfografia/veterinária , Metatarso/diagnóstico por imagem , Ducto Torácico/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Animais , Quilotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Quilotórax/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Feminino , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(2): 881-886, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471881

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of injectable trace minerals (ITM) at the time of weaning on growth, antioxidant, and immune response of Nellore (Bos indicus) calves. Weaned calves (n = 159; 213 ± 32 kg) were stratified by body weight (BW) and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: injection (1 mL/45 kg of BW) of saline or ITM. Saline solution consisted of 0.9% NaCl, whereas ITM had 60, 10, 5, and 15 mg/mL of Zn, Mn, Se, and Cu, respectively. The application of ITM increased (P ≤ 0.04) the plasma concentrations of superoxide dismutase on day 7 and plasma glutathione peroxidase on day 7 and day 21. The ITM calves had greater leukocyte concentration on day 64 (P = 0.04), whereas neutrophil and mast cell concentrations did not differ (P ≥ 0.67) between treatments. The ITM calves tended (P ≤ 0.08) to have greater concentrations of lymphocytes on day 64 and eosinophils on day 21, but not (P ≥ 0.15) monocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin compared to saline calves. The ITM calves had less mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC; P = 0.02) and tended to have increased platelet concentrations on day 21 (P = 0.08). Growth performance did not differ between treatments (P ≥ 0.78). Thus, ITM at weaning did not impact growth performance, but increased plasma concentrations of antioxidant enzymes and blood platelets, improved components of the immune system, and reduced MCHC of Nellore calves.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Minerais/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Desmame
9.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4482-4487, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583406

RESUMO

Remote delivery devices (RDD) are used by some to administer antimicrobials (AM) to cattle when treatment by manual injection is logistically difficult. However, it is not clear that the pharmacokinetics (PK) of AM administered by RDD is comparable to that for AM administered by injection; thus, it is not certain that cattle treated by RDD experience equivalent AM effect. Fifteen crossbred beef steers (body weight [BW] = 302.5 ± 21.7 kg) were used in a three-way crossover study to determine the PK of tulathromycin following administration with RDD in the BQA injection triangle. Cattle were treated by each of three methods at 2.5 mg of tulathromycin per kg of BW with a 60 d washout period between treatments: 1) subcutaneous injection of tulathromycin (SC), 2) treatment by RDD delivered by air pump projector (AIR, Pneudart, Model 178B) at 4.5 m distance, and 3) treatment by RDD delivered by CO2-powered projector at 7.5 m (CO2, Pneudart, Model 176B). Blood was collected prior to injection and at various points up to 552 h post-administration, pharmacokinetic data were analyzed as a mixed model using animal as a random effect and method of administration, order of administration, and their interaction as fixed effects. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) was measured before treatment and at 24 h after treatment to determine the degree of muscle injury resulting from each treatment. Three darts administered by AIR did not discharge (20%; 95% CI = 4% to 48%); and results from these steers were excluded from analysis. Maximum plasma concentration (718, 702.6, and 755.5 µg/mL for SC, AIR, and CO2, respectively) and area under the concentration-time curve (17,885, 17,423, and 18,796 µg • h/mL for SC, AIR and CO, respectively) were similar and not significantly different between methods of administration. There was an effect of time (P = 0.0002), period (P = 0.0001), and interaction between method of administration and study period (P = 0.0210) on plasma concentration of CK. However, method of treatment (P = 0.6091), interaction between method and time (P = 0.6972), interaction between period and time (P = 0.6153), and 3-way interaction between method, period and time (P = 0.6804) were not different. Results suggest that PK of tulathromycin following delivery by RDD can be similar to subcutaneous injection; however, failure of RDD to discharge after delivery by some types of projectors can cause an important proportion of cattle to fail to receive drug as expected.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Dissacarídeos/farmacocinética , Compostos Heterocíclicos/farmacocinética , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Estudos Cross-Over , Dissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Compostos Heterocíclicos/administração & dosagem , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Masculino
10.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634938

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The post partum use of analgesics in cows has increased in consequence to society's increased awareness of animal welfare. However, it is known that the post partum administration of a subset of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to cows may lead to an increased rate of retained placenta. Therefore, the aim of this study was clarify, whether a single administration of meloxicam to cows that experienced dystocia results in an increased rate of this disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 63 Holstein-Friesian cows in 4 farms with random allocation into 2 groups: In animals of the treatment group (n = 27) a single subcutaneous injection of meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg) was administered within 2-8 hours after calving. The animals of the control group (n = 36) received the same volume of a bovine infusion solution (Amynin®, bovine infusion solution, Boehringer Ingelheim) subcutaneously. A clinical examination of the cows was performed on the day of parturition and on the 21st day post partum. Findings on the days in between were obtained by questioning of the farmers. The exact Fisher-test was calculated in order to test for statistical differences between the treatment and control groups. RESULTS: In cows of the treatment group, retained placenta was not observed more frequently than in cows of the control group. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A single administration of meloxicam to cows that experienced dystocia does not increase the incidence of retained placenta.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Distocia/veterinária , Meloxicam/administração & dosagem , Placenta Retida/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Bovinos , Distocia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Incidência , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Meloxicam/efeitos adversos , Placenta Retida/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez
11.
Exp Parasitol ; 206: 107768, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539540

RESUMO

Canine leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum is a widespread zoonotic disease. Although aminosidine can be an effective treatment, current therapeutic recommendations do not advocate its use, mainly due to concerns regarding the potential nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of this drug. The aim of this randomized, blinded, controlled study was to evaluate the nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminosidine-allopurinol combination and compare it with that of meglumine antimonate-allopurinol combination in non-azotemic dogs with leishmaniosis. Forty dogs with leishmaniosis were randomly assigned to be treated with either aminosidine at 15 mg/kg, subcutaneously, once daily for 28 days (group A) or with meglumine antimonate at 100 mg/kg, subcutaneously, once daily for 28 days (group B). In addition to either drug, dogs in both groups were administered allopurinol at 10 mg/kg per os twice daily for 2 months. Kidney function was evaluated through measurement of serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, inorganic phosphorus, and cystatin-c concentrations and complete urinalysis, including protein-to-creatinine ratio, at baseline and after 14, 28, and 60 days from the beginning of the treatment. At the same time points, vestibular and auditory functions were evaluated through neurological examination and brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) recordings of wave I, wave V, inter-wave I-V latencies, and minimum hearing thresholds. None of the dogs developed clinicopathological evidence of kidney disease during the study. Serum creatinine concentration increased >0.3 mg/dl over baseline in 2 dogs in group A and in 5 dogs in group B. Parameters of kidney function were not significantly different or were improved compared to baseline and the only difference between the two groups was the lower concentration of serum creatinine in group A. None of the dogs developed peripheral vestibular syndrome or hearing impairment. At the end of the study, parameters of auditory function were not significantly different or were improved compared to baseline and there were no differences between the two groups. The results of this study show that the nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminosidine, when administered to non-azotemic dogs with leishmaniosis at 15 mg/kg subcutaneously once daily for 28 days along with allopurinol, is minimal and does not differ from that of meglumine antimonate.


Assuntos
Alopurinol/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Audição/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Paromomicina/efeitos adversos , Alopurinol/administração & dosagem , Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cóclea/efeitos dos fármacos , Creatinina/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/induzido quimicamente , Perda Auditiva/veterinária , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Antimoniato de Meglumina/administração & dosagem , Antimoniato de Meglumina/efeitos adversos , Antimoniato de Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Exame Neurológico/veterinária , Paromomicina/administração & dosagem , Paromomicina/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Aleatória , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1227-1235, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038598

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito metafilático de minerais traços e vitaminas A e E injetáveis, em parâmetros do estresse oxidativo e na função de neutrófilos em fêmeas da raça Holandesa no período de transição. Sessenta animais foram divididos em dois grupos: animais que receberam minerais traços e vitaminas A e E injetáveis (GMTV) (n= 30) e grupo controle (GC) (n= 30). Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos nos parâmetros avaliados, porém observou-se diferença significativa entre tratamento e dia para os valores da SOD, com maior atividade dessa enzima em fêmeas GMTV, nas semanas próximas ao parto. Observou-se diferença de dia e para interação tratamento e dia para o TBARS, em que fêmeas GMTV mostraram menores valores de TBARS em todos os momentos, exceto sete dias após o parto. Houve efeito significativo de dia para leucócitos, interação tratamento e dia para neutrófilos e interação tratamento e dia para fagocitose de neutrófilos, em que as fêmeas GMTV apresentaram valores menores de leucócitos e neutrófilos próximo ao parto, além de maior fagocitose de neutrófilos. Pode-se observar que houve melhora no sistema oxidativo e imune de fêmeas GMTV, resposta que provavelmente está relacionada com a administração dos minerais traços e vitaminas A e E.(AU)


This study evaluates the metaphylactic of the subcutaneous administration of a trace minerals and vitamins A and E, on the oxidative stress and neutrophil function in Holsteins cows under the transition period. Sixty females were divided in two groups: group with trace minerals and vitamins (GMTV) (n= 30) and group control (GC) (n= 30). There was no significant difference between those groups; however, we find significant difference between treatment and day for Superoxide dismutase (SOD) values with higher activity of this enzyme in females GMTV on the weeks next to the parturition. Still, there was difference on day and, for interactions between treatment and day for TBARS, were females GMTV showed lower values of TBARS in all moments, except on day seven after the parturition. For leucocytes, there is a significant effect by day, interaction on treatment and day on neutrophils, and interaction treatment and day for neutrophil phagocytosis, were females GMTV showed lower values of leucocytes and neutrophils next to the parturition, and an increase of neutrophils phagocytosis. In summary, cows from the GMTV group had an improvement on the immune and oxidative systems, probably correlated with the administration of this supplement.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Oligoelementos/análise , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Estresse Oxidativo , Neutrófilos , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária
13.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(6): 937-945, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080189

RESUMO

The anesthetic effects of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol were investigated for ICR, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice. Mice were administered a combination of 0.5 or 0.75 mg/kg medetomidine and 5 mg/kg butorphanol with 30 or 40 mg/kg alfaxalone (0.5MBA30, 0.75MBA30 and 0.75MBA40, respectively). The drug combinations were administered subcutaneously and were compared with a widely used combination of 0.3 mg/kg medetomidine, 4 mg/kg midazolam, and 5 mg/kg butorphanol (MMB). All three MBA combinations achieved surgical anesthesia, although the recovery time was longer with 0.75MBA30 and 0.75MBA40 compared with 0.5MBA30. Furthermore, several mice exhibited a considerable jumping reaction immediately after injection with 0.75MBA30 and 0.75MBA40. Therefore, 0.5MBA30 may be suitable for inducing surgical anesthesia in the mouse strains tested. The anesthetic scores for 0.5MBA30 were improved compared with those of MMB in all three mouse strains; however, the body temperature drop in C57BL/6 mice was greater with 0.5MBA30. Our results show that the alfaxalone combination, 0.5MBA30, should allow surgical operations that are more stable in more strains of mice than MMB, although the combination may cause hypothermia, especially in C57BL/6 mice.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Butorfanol/farmacologia , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Pregnanodionas/farmacologia , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Combinados , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Pregnanodionas/administração & dosagem , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
14.
Animal ; 13(11): 2586-2593, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935436

RESUMO

Flystrike costs the Australian industry $173 to 280 M per annum and 70% to 80% of Merino lambs are currently mulesed to reduce the risk of flystrike. To alleviate welfare concerns there has been widespread adoption of analgesics to mitigate the pain associated with mulesing. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effectiveness of Tri-Solfen® and meloxicam (Metacam® 20) at reducing pain-related behavioural responses to mulesing in Merino lambs. One hundred and forty Merino lambs were allocated to one of seven treatment groups: (1) non-mulesed (Control); (2) mulesed with no pain relief; (3) subcutaneous (s.c.) meloxicam administered 15 min before mulesing; (4) Tri-Solfen® administered at time of mulesing; (5) Tri-Solfen® and saline injection (s.c.) 15 min before mulesing; (6) Tri-Solfen® and meloxicam (s.c.) 15 min before mulesing; and (7) meloxicam (s.c.) at time the of mulesing. Behavioural responses such as standing, walking and lying were measured every 15 min for 6 h on the day of marking and for up to 2 h for 4 days thereafter. Standing (hunched v. normal) and walking (stiff v. normal) behaviours were then categorised into pain- and normal-related behaviours while lying remained in its own category. Mulesed lambs with no pain relief displayed significantly more pain-related behaviours than Control lambs during the 6 h post-mulesing (1.22 v. 0.22 out of a total score of 3; RSD=1.15). Lambs that received a combination of pain relief displayed significantly less pain-related behaviour than mulesed lambs with no pain relief on the day of mulesing (0.85 v. 1.22 out of a total score of 3; RSD=1.15). Administration of meloxicam or Tri-Solfen® on their own had minimal if any significant effect on pain-related behaviours on the day of mulesing. The results of this experiment support the use of pain-related behaviours to measure the efficacy of analgesics and the use of multimodal analgesia during mulesing of lambs.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Meloxicam/uso terapêutico , Dor/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Austrália , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Masculino , Meloxicam/administração & dosagem , Orquiectomia/efeitos adversos , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(1): e20171042, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994751

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to investigate whether treatments with zinc edetate (Zn) and diphenyl diselenide ((PhSe)2) enhance performance, immune responses, protein metabolism, and oxidant/antioxidant status in calf serum and muscle. Animals were divided into four groups (n=6 each): control (without supplementation), and groups supplemented on days 50 and 70 of life with (PhSe)2, Zn, and a combination of (PhSe)2 and Zn. Animals treated with (PhSe)2 gained more weight by experimental day 220 than did the control group, but there was no difference by the end of the experiment (day 300). The absolute number of leukocytes and lymphocytes increased in groups Zn and (PhSe)2+Zn on day 20 of experiment, but decreased on day 40 in groups (PhSe)2, and (PhSe)2+Zn. The number of monocytes decreased in all groups compared with control. One of the principal findings was that (PhSe)2+Zn together had beneficial effects on protein metabolism, represented by increases total protein and globulin levels, compared with the control group. The combination of (PhSe)2 and Zn led to low levels of TBARS and ROS in serum and muscle, and stimulated antioxidant enzyme activities. Thus, supplementation with (PhSe)2+Zn may be a compelling approach to augmenting the calf antioxidant system during weaning.


Assuntos
Derivados de Benzeno/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/fisiologia , Ácido Edético/administração & dosagem , Compostos Organosselênicos/administração & dosagem , Desmame , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Peso Corporal , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/sangue , Músculos/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 86(1): e1-e5, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843405

RESUMO

Caprine pediculosis is an ectoparasitic disease of great concern among goat farmers in India. It may be caused by either sucking lice or chewing lice; the latter one results in severe skin lesions, leading to production loss. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the macrocytic lactone drug, ivermectin, administered via subcutaneous injection, against chewing lice Bovicola (Damalinia) caprae infestation in naturally infested goats. The study was conducted on 20 goats with severe B. caprae infestation. Animals of group A (n = 10) were treated using a single dose of ivermectin (200 µg/kg body weight) subcutaneously and animals of group B (n = 10) underwent placebo therapy using normal saline. The animals were examined on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 for lice counts. There was 100% elimination of lice in all animals of group A and effective protection from re-infection remained at least for 21 days. Considerable improvement in haematological parameters was also observed by day 21. Based on this study, ivermectin injected via a subcutaneous route can be used effectively for the therapeutic and prophylactic management of chewing lice infestation in goats maintained under an extensive grazing system.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Iscnóceros/efeitos dos fármacos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Índia , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Infestações por Piolhos/prevenção & controle , Masculino
17.
Aust Vet J ; 97(3): 75-80, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cefovecin has a long duration of antibiotic activity in cats and dogs, somewhat attributable to its high plasma protein binding. AIMS: To determine the cefovecin binding to plasma proteins in vitro in selected Australian marsupials and to quantify the change in cetovecin concentration over time following subcutaneous injection in koalas. METHODS AND RESULTS: Various cefovecin concentrations were incubated with plasma and quantified using HPLC. The median (range) bound percentages when 10 µg/mL of cefovecin was incubated with plasma were 11.1 (4.1-20.4) in the plasma of the Tasmanian devil, 12.7 (5.8-17.3) in the koala, 18.9 (14.6-38.0) in the eastern grey kangaroo, 16.9 (15.7-30.2) in the common brush-tailed possum, 37.6 (25.3-42.3) in the eastern ring-tailed possum and 36.4 (35.0-38.3) in the red kangaroo, suggesting that cefovecin may have a shorter duration of action in these species than in cats and dogs. Cefovecin binding to plasma proteins in thawed, frozen equine plasma was also undertaken for assay quality control and the median (range) plasma protein binding (at 10 µg/mL) was 95.6% (94.9-96.6%). Cefovecin was also administered to six koalas at 8 mg/kg subcutaneously and serial blood samples were collected at 3, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 h thereafter. Cefovecin plasma concentrations were not quantifiable in four koalas and in the other two, the mean plasma concentration at t = 3 h was 1.04 ± 0.01 µg/mL. CONCLUSION: Because of the limited pharmacokinetic data generated, no further pharmacokinetic analysis was performed; however, a single injected bolus of cefovecin is likely to have a short duration of action in koalas (hours, rather than days).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Cefalosporinas/metabolismo , Marsupiais/sangue , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Austrália , Cefalosporinas/administração & dosagem , Cefalosporinas/farmacocinética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Feminino , Técnicas In Vitro , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Masculino , Marsupiais/metabolismo , Phascolarctidae/sangue , Phascolarctidae/metabolismo
18.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(2): 207-213, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474236

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to determine the pharmacokinetics (PKs) and bioavailability of danofloxacin in chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) following intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC), and oral (PO) administrations at a dose of 10 mg/kg. A total of eight clinically healthy chukar partridges weighing 480 ± 45 g were used for the investigation. The study was performed in a crossover design (2 × 2 × 2 × 2) with a 15-day washout period between two administrations in four periods. The plasma concentrations of danofloxacin were determined using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Noncompartmental PK parameters were also estimated. No local or systemic adverse drug effects were observed in any of the chukar partridges. The mean elimination half-life ranged between 8.18 and 12.08 hr and differed statistically among administration routes. The mean peak plasma concentrations of danofloxacin following IM, SC, and PO administrations were 8.05, 9.58, and 3.39 µg/ml at 0.5, 1, and 4 hr, respectively. Following IM, SC, and PO administrations, the mean bioavailability was 86.33%, 134.40%, and 47.62%, respectively. The mean total clearance and volume of distribution at steady-state following IV administration were 0.13 L hr-1  kg-1 and 0.96 L/kg, respectively. These data, including favorable PKs and the absence of adverse drug effects, suggest that danofloxacin is a useful antibiotic in chukar partridges.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Galliformes/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/sangue , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Fluoroquinolonas/administração & dosagem , Fluoroquinolonas/sangue , Galliformes/sangue , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária
19.
Poult Sci ; 98(2): 712-716, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289527

RESUMO

Villus to crypt ratio (VCR) is used to quantify the microanatomical response of the intestine to various treatments. In early age chickens, comparative effects of the in ovo (i.o.) and s.c. methods of administration (moa) of the Marek's disease (MD) vaccine on 2 types of measurement of small intestinal VCR at 0 and 4 h post-hatch (poh) were investigated. The effects of moa and 4 and 18 h pre-placement holding times (pht) on the VCR measurements at 168 h (7 d) poh were also investigated. In the jejunum of the small intestine, a standard method for VCR determination, based on 10 villus and crypt length measurements, was utilized for the calculation of villus to crypt length ratio (VCLR). In that same region, a single histomorphometric determination of the crypt and total mucosa areas using image analysis software was also used. Subtraction of the crypt area from the total mucosa area provided the villus area, allowing for calculation of the villus to crypt area ratio (VCAR). Across 0, 4, and 18 h of poh bird age, the VCLR of birds that received an s.c. vaccination was higher in comparison to that of those that received an i.o. vaccination. The highest and lowest VCAR values were observed in the s.c. treatment at 0 h poh and in the i.o. treatment at 4 h poh, respectively. Furthermore, at 168 h poh, VCLR values in the 18 h pht and s.c. vaccination group were higher than those in the 4 h pht and s.c. vaccination or 18 h and i.o. vaccination groups. In conclusion, the effects of pht and MD vaccine moa on VCR were dependent on the use of either the VCLR or VCAR method of measurement. However, regardless of method, s.c. injection overall led to a higher VCR through 4 h poh in Ross 708 broilers, and the effects of moa on VCLR at 168 h were influenced by pht.


Assuntos
Injeções/veterinária , Vacinas contra Doença de Marek/administração & dosagem , Doença de Marek/prevenção & controle , Animais , Galinhas , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Jejuno/imunologia , Masculino , Óvulo
20.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(2): 171-178, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30302775

RESUMO

The pharmacokinetic properties of the fluoroquinolone levofloxacin (LFX) were investigated in six dogs after single intravenous, oral and subcutaneous administration at a dose of 2.5, 5 and 5 mg/kg, respectively. After intravenous administration, distribution was rapid (T½dist 0.127 ± 0.055 hr) and wide as reflected by the volume of distribution of 1.20 ± 0.13 L/kg. Drug elimination was relatively slow with a total body clearance of 0.11 ± 0.03 L kg-1  hr-1 and a T½ for this process of 7.85 ± 2.30 hr. After oral and subcutaneous administration, absorption half-life and Tmax were 0.35 and 0.80 hr and 1.82 and 2.82 hr, respectively. The bioavailability was significantly higher (p Ë‚ 0.05) after subcutaneous than oral administration (79.90 vs. 60.94%). No statistically significant differences were observed between other pharmacokinetic parameters. Considering the AUC24 hr /MIC and Cmax /MIC ratios obtained, it can be concluded that LFX administered intravenously (2.5 mg/kg), subcutaneously (5 mg/kg) or orally (5 mg/kg) is efficacious against Gram-negative bacteria with MIC values of 0.1 µg/ml. For Gram-positive bacteria with MIC values of 0.5 µg/kg, only SC and PO administration at a dosage of 5 mg/kg showed to be efficacious. MIC-based PK/PD analysis by Monte Carlo simulation indicates that the proposed dose regimens of LFX, 5 and 7.5 mg/kg/24 hr by SC route and 10 mg/kg/24 hr by oral route, in dogs may be adequate to recommend as an empirical therapy against S. aureus strains with MIC ≤ 0.5 µg/ml and E. coli strains with MIC values ≤0.125 µg/ml.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Cães/metabolismo , Levofloxacino/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Cães/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Levofloxacino/administração & dosagem , Levofloxacino/sangue , Masculino , Método de Monte Carlo
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