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1.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 451-460, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046930

RESUMO

Armed conflict significantly impacts livestock production, animal health, public health, and the delivery of Veterinary Services by limiting resources, eroding border control, disrupting land use, impairing disease surveillance, and reducing food safety and quality. Those seeking to build capacity in animal health in areas of conflict should focus on strengthening resilience in animal production systems and animal health infrastructure to minimise the devastating effects of conflict. Methods for reconstructing Veterinary Service systems should be tailored to each country's specific needs. These can be determined through participatory assessment, with a focus on building sustainable relationships among all stakeholders. Although it is tempting for animal health professionals to focus primarily on improving animal health on individual farms or targeting specific diseases, attention should be centred on entire systems and on developing sustainable agricultural improvements that will enhance livelihoods on a national scale. Aiding economic growth can also help to lower the probability of future conflict.


Assuntos
Gado , Saúde Pública , Agricultura , Animais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237900, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817693

RESUMO

Drawing on a recent online survey combined with city-level data, this paper examines the impact of the COVID-19 on consumers' online food purchase behavior in the short term. To address the potential endogeneity issues, we adopt an instrumental variable (IV) strategy, using the distance from the surveyed city to Wuhan as the instrumental variable. We show that our IV method is effective in minimizing potential bias. It is found that the share of confirmed COVID-19 cases increases the possibility of consumers purchasing food online. This is more likely to be the case for young people having a lower perceived risk of online purchases and living in large cities. Despite some limitations, this paper has policy implications for China and other countries that have been influenced by the COVID-19 epidemic. Specifically, government support and regulation should focus on (i) ensuring the safety of food sold on the internet, (ii) protecting the carrier from becoming infected, and (iii) providing financial support to the poor since they may have difficulties in obtaining access to food living in small cities. Moreover, how to help those who are unable to purchase food online because of their technical skills (e.g., the elderly who are not familiar with smart phones or the internet) also deserves more attention for the government and the public.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Comércio/métodos , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Alimentos/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Apoio Financeiro , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Governo , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Smartphone , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Food Res Int ; 136: 109472, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846557

RESUMO

In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, the commercial restaurant sector is struggling to organize itself. Resilience is crucial for a system to be able to respond adequately to events of this magnitude, and is aimed at the recovery and adaptation of the concerned sector in view of the adversities. In the commercial restaurant sector, resilience efforts are primarily intended to protect the health of both those who consume food and those who produce it. Amid the creative initiatives of individuals within their workplaces, restaurants, even unconsciously, seek to build resilience in the pandemic by applying the food safety practices recommended by the sanitary legislation and remaining economically active. Targeting public health preparedness, in this letter, we present an overview of the stages of resilience and their interaction with the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of commercial restaurants.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Manipulação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública , Restaurantes , Betacoronavirus , Comércio , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Planejamento em Saúde , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235507, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614870

RESUMO

Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) training programs were developed to provide guidance to fruit and vegetable growers on how to reduce food safety risks on the farm. These programs have been enhanced over the years due, in part, to increasing buyer and regulatory requirements. However, the costs of implementing additional food safety practices has been identified as a primary barrier to long-term farm financial feasibility, particularly for smaller scale producers. A survey of past participants in New York State revealed that increasing food safety improvements facilitated by GAPs have not significantly impacted the size of farm operations or the types of crops grown. In terms of farm size, we show that both the financial costs and financial benefits of food safety improvements increase with farm size, but at decreasing rates. In so doing, relatively higher market sales gains per acre by smaller farms from additional food safety investments offset the relatively higher costs to them of their implementation. We also demonstrate that benefits of food safety improvements were significantly higher for farms that had third-party food safety audits and for those that market primarily through wholesale channels. The results should prove welcome by educators as they encourage participation by all scales of producers in GAPs trainings and for growers in understanding that food safety investments can support both reduced microbial risks and sales growth.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Agricultura/educação , Análise Custo-Benefício , Produção Agrícola/economia , Humanos , New York , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235950, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716964

RESUMO

Study on fresh food safety reliability and temperature control has being a research focus in the fresh food cold distribution optimization study field. On this basis, optimization of transportation routing problem with time windows for fresh food in time-varying road network is studied by considering both economic cost and fresh food safety loss. A calculation method for path division strategy is designed. A food safety value loss measurement function, a metric function of energy and heat conversion a measure function of carbon emission rate are employed by considering time-varying vehicle speeds, fuel consumptions, cost of temperature control, the loss of food safety reliability and carbon emissions from transportation and temperature control. The fresh food cold chain distribution vehicle routing problem model with time windows in time-varying road network is formulated based on the objective of the distribution cost and food safety value loss minimization. According to the characteristics of the model, an adaptive improved ant colony algorithm is designed. Finally, the experimental data show that the model can effectively avoid the congestion period, reasonably control the refrigeration temperature, reduce the distribution cost, and improve food safety.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Carbono/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Temperatura , Transportes/normas , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111012, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684522

RESUMO

Planting sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) instead of rice in the area contaminated with heavy metals is one of the measures to ensure people's health and agricultural economy. Therefore, it is important to screen the low accumulation cultivars of sweet potato and to find out the concentration rule of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in edible parts along with the associated health risks to humans. A field experiment was performed with fourteen of three main types (starch, purple, and edible-type) of sweet potato cultivars grown on farmland polluted with Cd and Pb in eastern Hunan Province, China. The Cd and Pb concentrations in the sweet potato tissues as well as the yield were measured. The yield of the shoot and tuberous root of the fourteen sweet potato cultivars ranged from 14.59 to 68.57 and 26.35-50.76 t ha-1 with mean values of 33.09 and 33.46 t ha-1, respectively. Compared with purple and edible-type cultivars, the starch-type cultivar had lower Cd and Pb concentrations in the flesh, but higher in the shoot. The Cd and Pb concentrations in the flesh of cultivars Shangshu 19, Sushu 24, Yushu 98, and Xiangshu 98 were lower than MCL provided in Chinese National Food Safety Standards GB2762-2017. Based on the hazard index (HI), the consumption of sweet potato flesh is lower health risk, while shoots pose a greater health risk to local people and Cd is the main cause of the risk. As a result, sweet potato cultivars Shangshu 19, Sushu 24, Yushu 98 and Xiangshu 98 can be plant in serve Cd and Pb contaminated soils with the advantages of easy cultivation, high yield and economic benefits without stopping agricultural production.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Exposição Dietética/análise , Ipomoea batatas/química , Chumbo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , China , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Exposição Dietética/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Ipomoea batatas/genética , Medição de Risco
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235870, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639978

RESUMO

Factors contributing to foodborne illnesses in Malaysia were identified as insanitary food handling procedures and lack of hygiene in food preparation area. Food safety at home is a critical point as consumers represent the final step in food preparation and prevention of foodborne diseases. This study aims to investigate the food safety knowledge, attitude and self-reported practices among consumers in Malaysia. An online survey was conducted, and data were analysed using descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis. A model linking food safety knowledge and attitude and their direct effects on practices were confirmed using structural equation modelling (SEM). The proposed model fulfilled the goodness of fit indices and is deemed acceptable. Respondents demonstrate good level of food safety knowledge and positive attitudes and self-reported practices. Food safety knowledge has a negative and insignificant relationship with food safety practices (ß1 = -0.284, p>0.05) while attitude significantly affects food safety practices (ß1 = 0.534, p<0.05). The findings clearly indicate that food safety knowledge does not directly affect food safety practices This is also the first study to provide new empirical findings on thermometer usage among consumers in Malaysia. This study establishes an important point of reference where consumers use visual appearances to determine if food is thoroughly cooked and practice washing raw chicken prior to cooking. Food safety practices at home play a critical role in protecting consumers in reducing risks of foodborne illnesses.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Food Chem ; 332: 127397, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645675

RESUMO

Polyphosphates are permitted as food additives (Regulation EC No 1129/2011) but their undeclared utilisation is considered fraudulent. They improve water holding capacity of the seafood, preventing biochemical/physical changes during commercialization. The key objective of this study was the detection of polyphosphate in various seafood categories, by means of high-performance ion-exchange chromatography with suppressed conductometry (HPIEC-SCD) coupled to Q-Exactive Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS-Orbitrap). Ten frozen cuttlefish samples did not reveal any treatment, while in ten frigate tunas, high concentration of orthophospate was found. Unambiguous hexametaphosphate presence was demonstrated in four prawn samples, while triphosphate was quantified (11.2 ± 4 ug/g) in another four prawn samples that contained orthophosphate (10225 ± 1102 ug/g), as well. Other samples sporadically encompassed polyphosphates profiles that varied according species and processing type. This analytical approach provided sustenance in better understanding regarding utilization of polyphosphates through HRMS fingerprinting of anionic species that would be specific in food safety control.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Polifosfatos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Decapodiformes , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645941

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the food safety conditions in home kitchens from the Brazilian Federal District. A previously validated instrument composed of 77 items (in four blocks) was used to evaluate the safety conditions in home kitchens. A survey was carried out with on-site application with 226 home kitchens' food handlers in the Federal District, Brazil to evaluate Brazilian home kitchens' good practices. Of the home kitchen food handlers, most of them were female (64.6%), had completed undergraduate education (29.2%), and were 45-59 years old (23.5%). The visited households had an average of 3.38 ± 1.48 residents that ate some of their meals at home, and 40% declared the monthly family income to be between 5 and 15 Brazilian minimum wages (MW). Regarding the reliability of the instrument, from the KR-20 test, it was verified that the instrument presents good internal consistency (α = 0.758). According to the instrument classification, the home kitchens' sample was considered as at a medium risk of food contamination (46.5% of them presented from 51 to 75% of conformities to the instrument). There was a statistical difference between house-kitchens with a family income from zero to one minimum wage (MW) and those receiving from 5 to 15 MW (p = 0.017), as well as between those from zero to one MW and who earn above 15 MW (p = 0.009). The result of the on-site evaluation shows that the instrument was able to measure food safety conditions in Brazilian Federal District domestic kitchens. Such findings can contribute positively to the development of actions in health education that help in the adoption of good practices of food manipulation and, consequently, in the reduction in foodborne disease outbreaks in residences.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Família , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 245-252, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729563

RESUMO

Establishing trust in national systems for assurance of animal health and food safety is a key step in any importing country's consideration of whether a potential trading partner can meet its appropriate level of protection. Private veterinarians, veterinary para-professionals (VPPs) and aquatic animal health professionals (AAHPs) play a crucial role in national Veterinary Services, formally or informally, and across the whole spectrum of national animal and public health activities. Private veterinarians, AAHPs or VPPs are engaged as part of the national Veterinary Services and in various forms of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in many countries worldwide. In many cases, authorised private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs enable the national Veterinary or Aquatic Animal Health Services as a whole to do more work over a wider geographical area and thus have a greater impact than publicly employed professionals working alone. The deployment of private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs directly or in PPP arrangements strengthens national services and enhances their ability to deliver reliable animal health and food safety assurance. To ensure that private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs deliver to their full potential, effective and efficient systems for training, accreditation, monitoring and audit are essential. This article draws on data from published OIE Performance of Veterinary Services evaluations (from 2007 to the present) and unpublished responses to the OIE 2017 questionnaire on PPPs, to draw insights into the use and accreditation of private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs globally.


Assuntos
Médicos Veterinários , Medicina Veterinária , Acreditação , Animais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Setor Privado , Saúde Pública
11.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 235-244, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729564

RESUMO

Sound animal traceability systems and supply chain management rely on data and information to respond to outcomes that will both protect animal and human health and facilitate trade. Digital technologies present opportunities and new methods for identifying and tracking animals, collecting more data, integrating communication flows, sharing data securely in supply chains, and analysing data to inform decisions and predict outcomes. Together, these technologies drive more efficient, productive and traceable supply chains, which can help to build more effective animal traceability systems. In addition, they can improve monitoring of, and response to, animal disease, food safety risks and food fraud risks; ensure compliance with animal health and food safety standards; simplify border procedures; facilitate trade with less friction; and raise consumer awareness. As the cost of these technologies decline and they become more accessible, the implementation of a digitally enabled animal traceability system will require an increase in supply chain capacity, improvements in digital infrastructure, and the development of a regulatory framework of standards and policies. Ensuring that these requirements are met will require strong commitment from governments, intergovernmental organisations and the wider animal health community.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Animais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Tecnologia
12.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 223-233, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729565

RESUMO

In recent decades, animal welfare in livestock production has been elevated to a topic of global interest. To meet growing requirements from consumers and society, governments have emphasised animal welfare in legislation. Retailers have integrated this topic into their quality assurance systems for the management of their supply chains. The challenge is to avoid conflicts between applicable national legislation and industry standards for quality assurance of livestock production with regard to animal welfare requirements. Where possible and applicable, private schemes refer to local animal welfare legislation, and offer the possibility to integrate animal welfare criteria that go beyond the legislation. Where animal welfare legislation is not in place, the private schemes set the rules. One of the main purposes of private schemes is to grant international market access to certified livestock producers. This paper presents the GLOBALG.A.P. integrated farm assurance (IFA) standard for livestock production and the GLOBALG.A.P. livestock transport standard as examples of private and globally acting quality assurance systems. Both standards integrate food safety, traceability, sustainability and animal welfare criteria. Animal welfare criteria are a fundamental part of IFA and, on average, account for 35% of the control points applicable to livestock. In the livestock transport standard, this accounts for 61% of the control points. Defined processes for accreditation and standard setting safeguard the reliability, feasibility and integrity of accredited third-party certification schemes. The GLOBALG.A.P. system also includes voluntary animal welfare add-on standards to demonstrate compliance with higher animal welfare requirements than those contained in the basic IFA standard. The possibility to customise products to the demands and requirements from specific markets and supply chains increases market access. Market access for producers irrespective of size is possible via single producer or group certification. Group certification offers the best opportunities for smallholders. For local supply chains the Primary Farm Assurance standard, based on parts of the GLOBALG.A.P. IFA standard, is a capacity-building tool. It is preferred by customers who do not require the full IFA standard because of local conditions, or because they source from producers who cannot immediately achieve full GLOBALG.A.P. certification.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Gado , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Fazendas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 140795, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-cholera Vibrio bacteria are a major cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Raw oysters are commonly implicated in gastroenteritis caused by pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In response to outbreaks in 1997-1998, the US Food and Drug Administration developed a nation-wide quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of V. parahaemolyticus in raw oysters in 2005. The QMRA identified information gaps that new research may address. Incidence of sporadic V. parahaemolyticus illness has recently increased and, as oyster consumption increases and sea temperatures rise, V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks may become more frequent, posing health concerns. Updated and region-specific QMRAs will improve the accuracy and precision of risk of infection estimates. OBJECTIVES: We identify research to support an updated QMRA of V. parahaemolyticus from oysters harvested in Chesapeake Bay and Puget Sound, focusing on observational and experimental research on post-harvest practices (PHPs) published from 2004 to 2019. METHODS: A predefined search strategy was applied to PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Science.gov, NAL Agricola, and Google Scholar. Study eligibility criteria were defined using a population, intervention, comparator, and outcome statement. Reviewers independently coded abstracts for inclusion/exclusion using predefined criteria. Data were extracted and study quality and relevance evaluated based on published guidance for food safety risk assessments. Findings were synthesized using a weight of evidence approach. RESULTS: Of 12,174 articles retrieved, 93 were included for full-text review. Twenty-seven studies were found to be high quality and high relevance, including studies on cold storage, high hydrostatic pressure, depuration, and disinfectant, and other PHPs. High hydrostatic pressure consistently emerged as the most effective PHP in reducing abundance of V. parahaemolyticus. DISCUSSION: Limitations of the knowledge base and review approach involve the type and quantity of data reported. Future research should focus on PHPs for which few or no high quality and high relevance studies exist, such as irradiation and relaying.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Ostreidae , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233745, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542029

RESUMO

The susceptibility of newly expressed proteins to digestion by gastrointestinal proteases (e.g., pepsin) has long been regarded as one of the important endpoints in the weight-of-evidence (WOE) approach to assess the allergenic risk of genetically modified (GM) crops. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has suggested that current digestion study protocols used for this assessment should be modified to more accurately reflect the diverse physiological conditions encountered in human populations and that the post-digestion analysis should include analytical methods to detect small peptide digestion products.The susceptibility of two allergens (beta-lactoglobin (ß-Lg) and alpha-lactalbumin (α-La)) and two non-allergens (hemoglobin (Hb) and phosphofructokinase (PFK)) to proteolytic degradation was investigated under two pepsin digestion conditions (optimal pepsin digestion condition: pH 1.2, 10 U pepsin/µg test protein; sub-optimal pepsin digestion condition: pH 5.0, 1 U pepsin/10 mg test protein), followed by 34.5 U trypsin/mg test protein and 0.4 U chymotrypsin/mg test protein digestion in the absence or presence of bile salts. All samples were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in conjunction with Coomassie Blue staining and, in parallel, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) detection. The results provide following insights: 1) LC-MS methodology does provide the detection of small peptides; 2) Peptides are detected in both allergens and non-allergens from all digestion conditions; 3) No clear differences among the peptides detected from allergen and non-allergens; 4) The differences observed in SDS-PAGE between the optimal and sub-optimal pepsin digestion conditions are expected and align with kinetics and properties of the specific enzymes; 5) The new methodology with new digestion conditions and LC-MS detection does not provide any differentiating information for prediction whether a protein is an allergen. The classic pepsin resistance assay remains the most useful assessment of the potential exposure of an intact newly expressed protein as part of product safety assessment within a WOE approach.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Peptídeos/química , Proteólise , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Hemoglobinas/química , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Lactalbumina/química , Lactalbumina/metabolismo , Lactoglobulinas/química , Lactoglobulinas/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fosfofrutoquinases/química , Fosfofrutoquinases/metabolismo , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tripsina/metabolismo
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110866, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554205

RESUMO

The phytoavailability of heavy metals in soils is important for both food safety and environmental management. Hence soil metal phytoavailability threshold values need to be established based on a firm scientific basis. In this study, optimal Cd phytoavailability threshold values, were determined for bean, rice and sesame cultivated in 100 soils varying widely in soil chemical characteristics by comparing the soil Cd phytoavailability obtained using three commonly used extraction procedures. Subsequently, the transfer functions derived in this study, were used to establish soil Cd phytoavailability threshold value standard limits for each specific crop. In addition, independent experimental data were used to supplement the obtained soil phytoavailable Cd threshold value for rice. Soil phytoavailable Cd concentrations extracted by 1 M NH4NO3, 0.05 M EDTA and Mehlich3 solutions were each more significantly correlated with plant Cd concentrations than total soil Cd concentrations. Thus, the soil Cd phytoavailability threshold values proposed in this study provide a more effective means of ensuring safer agricultural food production. Therefore, it is recommended that current agricultural soil heavy metal management policy; which is based on total concentrations; should be changed to embrace soil metal phytoavailability for safer agricultural food production.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Cádmio/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Oryza/metabolismo , Sesamum/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233853, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502212

RESUMO

Rapid detection of bacterial pathogens is a critical unmet need for both food and environmental samples such as irrigation water. As a part of the Food safety Modernization Act (FSMA), The Produce Safety rule has established several requirements for testing for the presence of generic Escherichia coli in water, but the current method available for testing (EPA M1603) demands specified multiple colony verification and highly trained personnel to perform these tests. The purpose of the study was to assess a phage induced bacterial lysis using quantitative image analysis to achieve rapid detection of E. coli at low concentrations within 8 hours. This study aimed to develop a simple yet highly sensitive and specific approach to detect target bacteria in complex matrices. In the study, E. coli cells were first enriched in tryptic soy broth (TSB), followed by T7 phage induced lysis, concentration, staining and fluorescent imaging. Image analysis was conducted including image pre-processing, image segmentation and quantitatively analysis of cellular morphological features (area, eccentricity and full width at half maximum). Challenge experiments using realistic matrices, including simulated fresh produce wash water, coconut water and spinach wash water, demonstrated the method can be applied for use in situations that occur in food processing facilities. The results indicated E. coli cells that are lysed by T7 phages demonstrated significantly (P < 0.05) higher extracellular DNA release, altered cellular shape (from rod to circular) and diffused fluorescent signal intensity. Using this biosensing strategy, a sensitivity to detect Escherichia coli at 10 CFU/ml within 8 hours was achieved, both in laboratory medium and in complex matrices. The proposed phage based biosensing strategy enables rapid detection of bacteria and is applicable to analysis of food systems. Furthermore, the steps involved in this assay can be automated to enable detection of target bacteria in food facilities without extensive resources.


Assuntos
Bacteriófago T7 , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , DNA Ambiental/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/virologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Microbiologia da Água/normas
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545449

RESUMO

Food risk and the safety of foodstuffs in the aftermath of contamination are highly sensitive issues to communicate. Food risks receive extensive attention from the news media, which requires messages to be carefully drafted to minimize harm and avoid unnecessary boycotts. Once a food risk is deemed eliminated, communication efforts must rebuild trust among consumers. The latter is a particularly difficult task after radiological contamination. This study tests whether numerical messages, narrative messages, or messages combining both elements are more effective in persuading the public to consume foodstuffs from Fukushima, a region that continues to battle stigma since the nuclear accident in 2011. We employ a survey-embedded experiment on a sample of the general Belgian population (N = 1085), during which respondents are presented with a mock news article presenting either a (1) numerical, (2) narrative, or (3) a combined message and test their subsequent evaluation of the article. We find that the numerical message leads to significantly higher perceived credibility and message acceptance than both the combined and the narrative message. Furthermore, we find that attitudes towards nuclear energy have a strong independent effect on message acceptance and evaluation, with those respondents who report a more positive stance towards nuclear energy more readily accepting the message. Food risk and safety communication may thus benefit from adopting a more detached, numerical approach for sensitive issues.


Assuntos
Contaminação Radioativa de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Narração , Comunicação , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Radiografia
18.
Food Chem ; 330: 127044, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563930

RESUMO

A complex legal and institutional framework exists in the EU to ensure the safety of the feed-food chain, while such an integrated system for combating food fraud is under development. The European Commission (EC) Knowledge Centre for Food Fraud and Quality is charged with the provision of scientific insight for the policy making of EC services dealing with food fraud, and the creation of expert networks with the competent authorities of the EU Member States. To flag gaps in the existing infrastructure needed for effectively and efficiently fighting food fraud, the Centre together with the competent authorities and several EC services undertook a stocktaking exercise of what works well and which areas will need improvement. Out of several focus areas, (i) the development of early warning systems, (ii) the availability of compositional databases of vulnerable foods, and (iii) the creation of centres of competence were prioritised for further action.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Fraude , Bases de Dados Factuais , Alimentos
19.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(10): 3333-3339, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515135

RESUMO

Genetically modified crops have been grown commercially for more than two decades. Some of these crops have been modified with genetic constructs that induce gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi). The targets for this silencing action are genes, either specific endogenous ones of the host plant or those of particular pests or pathogens infesting these plants. Recently emerging new genetic tools enable precise DNA edits with the same silencing effect and have also increased our knowledge and insights into the mechanisms of RNAi. For the assessment of the safety of foodstuffs from crops modified with RNAi, internationally harmonized principles for risk assessment of foods derived from genetically modified crops can be followed. Special considerations may apply to the newly expressed silencing RNA molecules, such as their possible uptake by consumers and interference with expression of host genes, which, however, would need to overcome many barriers. Bioinformatics tools aid the prediction of possible interference by a given RNA molecule with the expression of genes with homologous sequences in the host crop and in other organisms, or possible off-target edits in gene-edited crops. © 2020 The Author. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Interferência de RNA
20.
Food Chem ; 330: 127268, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540519

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) are natural, volatile and aromatic liquids extracted from special plants. EOs are complex mixture of secondary metabolites (terpenes, phenolic compounds, alcohol). EOs possess a wide range of biological activities including antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory ones. Particularly, EOs exhibit pronounced antibacterial and food preservative properties that represent a real potential for the food industry. Numerous EOs have the potential to be used as a food preservative for meat and meat products, vegetables and fruits as well as for dairy products. The main obstacles for using EOs as food preservatives are their safety limits, marked organoleptic effects and possible contamination by chemical products such as pesticides. This review aims to provide an overview of current knowledge about EOs food preservative properties with special emphasis on their antibacterial activities and to support their uses as natural, eco-friendly, safe and easily biodegradable agents for food preservation.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Carne , Produtos da Carne , Metabolismo Secundário , Terpenos/análise , Verduras
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