Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.292
Filtrar
1.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 291-302, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564721

RESUMO

Animals, and the health systems which ensure their protection, play a vital role in the security and economic and social well-being of humanity, and are therefore a key component of the One Health concept. For global and national health security, prevention is better than cure, and targeting 'risk at source' in animal populations is a vital strategy in safeguarding the planet from risks of emerging zoonoses and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Neglected zoonoses - such as rabies and brucellosis - continue to have a significant global impact on human health and are also best managed at their animal source. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has built international consensus on the principles of good governance and the quality of Veterinary Services, which are incorporated within its international standards. The OIE has a proven track record in the provision of Member Country support based on these standards, especially since the advent of its flagship Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Pathway programme in 2006-2007. To date, approximately 140 countries have benefited from the structured and sustainable process of animal health systems evaluation and planning afforded by the PVS Pathway. The PVS Tool, the basic methodology upon which the PVS Pathway is based, addresses One Health by evaluating the Veterinary Authority's ability to coordinate with other Competent Authorities that have a role to play in One Health, most notably public health, food safety, and environmental authorities. Despite the undoubted success of the PVS Pathway, the OIE felt that it was time to consider how the programme might be developed to adapt to new challenges. Consequently, during 2017-2018, the OIE embarked on a process of PVS evolution, during which it carried out extensive consultation and further tailored the PVS Pathway to a changing global context. These improvements, which include both fundamental adaptations to the PVS Pathway methods and the development of new PVS Pathway activities targeting topics such as multisectoral collaboration, rabies and AMR, have further strengthened and embedded the One Health approach within the PVS Pathway.


Assuntos
Saúde Única , Saúde Pública , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Saúde Pública/tendências , Medicina Veterinária/tendências , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 346, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety assessment and control of stacked transgenic crops is increasingly important due to continuous crop development and is urgently needed in China. The genetic stability of foreign genes and unintended effects are the primary problems encountered in safety assessment. Omics techniques are useful for addressing these problems. The stacked transgenic maize variety 12-5 × IE034, which has insect-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant traits, was developed via a breeding stack using 12-5 and IE034 as parents. Using 12-5 × IE034, its parents (12-5 and IE034), and different maize varieties as materials, we performed proteomic profiling, molecular characterization and a genetic stability analysis. RESULTS: Our results showed that the copy number of foreign genes in 12-5 × IE034 is identical to that of its parents 12-5 and IE034. Foreign genes can be stably inherited over different generations. Proteomic profiling analysis found no newly expressed proteins in 12-5 × IE034, and the differences in protein expression between 12 and 5 × IE034 and its parents were within the range of variation of conventional maize varieties. The expression levels of key enzymes participating in the shikimic acid pathway which is related to glyphosate tolerance of 12-5 × IE034 were not significantly different from those of its parents or five conventional maize varieties, which indicated that without selective pressure by glyphosate, the introduced EPSPS synthase is not has a pronounced impact on the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in maize. CONCLUSIONS: Stacked-trait development via conventional breeding did not have an impact on the genetic stability of T-DNA, and the impact of stacked breeding on the maize proteome was less significant than that of genotypic differences. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for the development of a safety assessment approach for stacked-trait transgenic crops in China.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Zea mays/genética , China , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Dosagem de Genes , Instabilidade Genômica , Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle , Proteômica
3.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 75(2): 139-154, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377758

RESUMO

The Italian food industry is appreciated worldwide and has undoubtedly brought economic advantages, with exports in 2017 having grown by more than six percentage points, for a volume of almost €32 billion. However, some critical issues exist that require the constant presence of Food and Nutrition Hygiene Services (SIAN) of the Local Health Authorities (LHAs) which, together with other key players, including the Veterinary Services (SV), constitute the backbone of integrated competencies for the protection and promotion of community health. In Italy, controls in the food industry are very complex, involving not only the SIAN and the Veterinary Services of the LHAs (as local competent authority for food safety), but also the Central Inspectorate against frauds, specialized "Carabinieri" Command Departments (NAS AND NAC ), State Forestry Corps, Port Authorities and "Guardia di Finanza", Border Inspection Posts (PIF), Frontier Air Transport Offices (USMAF), the Customs and Monopolies Agency, as well as, for analysis of foods samples, the National Health Institute ("Istituto Superiore di Sanità"), Public Health Laboratories and Experimental Zooprophylactic Institutes. Data published by the Italian Ministry of Health show a decreasing trend in the number of checks carried out by the LHAs, probably due to implementation of increasingly targeted controls, based on risk analysis, and by a progressive reduction of staff. We describe data up to the year 2018, obtained from the survey on the "State of the Art" of the SIAN (structures, staff, activities, etc). In view of the existing complex system of official controls, consumers have a need, often unexpressed, to receive clear information on the quality of food, the ingredients contained in food, and on recent updates regarding food and nutritional safety, in order to make more informed choices and have greater awareness of individual responsibilities for one's health. However, many preventive and health promotion activities implemented by these services remain largely unknown to citizens. The authors believe that all SIANs must take an active role in communication to consumers, so that they receive clear and science-based information, in order to promote informed choices for the protection of their health. This has become increasingly important considering the large number of information channels that do not communicate according to ethical and professional criteria.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Saúde Pública , Academias e Institutos , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Itália
4.
Food Chem ; 301: 125261, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377618

RESUMO

Some Eastern Asian countries deem pufferfish - especially its muscle - a culinary delight. Herein, molecular mass fingerprinting of soups prepared by Takifugu flavidus, Takifugu obscurus and Takifugu rubripes was established via matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization - mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). Soup samples were directly analyzed by MALDI MS to collect mass spectra within 0-700 Da in a quick way, followed by principal component analysis to distinguish the different soups and to find out the distinctive compounds among the soups. High performance liquid chromatography - tandem MS (HPLC-MS/MS) was applied to identify the compounds. Nineteen compounds were identified from the HPLC-MS/MS data by using METLIN database. Through literature mining, we found that these compounds are closely related to the flavor, nutrition, and safety of pufferfish soups. This method can also be used as a facile way to distinguish between different pufferfish fillets when morphological characters have been damaged or destroyed.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Metabolômica , Valor Nutritivo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Paladar , Tetraodontiformes/metabolismo , Animais , Culinária , Análise de Componente Principal
6.
Rio de Janeiro; OPAS; 2019-08-23.
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr3-51502

RESUMO

[Apresentação] A tecnologia de alimentos vem mostrando-se uma importante ferramenta na segurança e disponibilidade de alimentos desde a descoberta e comprovação da existência de bactérias na produção de cervejas e vinhos no século XIX por Louis Pasteur, até os dias atuais. Essa ferramenta pode ser empregada tanto em processos simples, como em um tratamento térmico de cozimento, realizado na cozinha de uma casa, durante o preparo, quanto em processos industriais mais complexos como a nanotecnologia aplicada à produção de alimentos. Os atuais sistemas de auditorias baseadas em risco, na área de segurança de alimentos, requerem conhecimento mais avançado de auditores e de inspetores, especialmente no que se refere às tecnologias aplicadas na sua produção e seus impactos no controle de perigos relacionados aos mesmos. São muitas as tecnologias disponíveis para produção de alimentos, com objetivos e resultados muito variados. O objetivo desta publicação é apresentar as principais tecnologias existentes e como elas impactam na segurança dos alimentos. O primeiro capítulo aborda a conservação e os princípios e fatores que determinam a eficiência dos processos. No segundo capítulo, são tratadas as tecnologias convencionais de processamento de alimentos e seu impacto na segurança do produto final. No terceiro capítulo, são apresentadas as tecnologias mais modernas que começam a ser aplicadas em processamento de alimentos. Finalmente, o quarto capítulo trata da combinação de tecnologias aplicadas em processos de produção de alimentos.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Tecnologia de Alimentos
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 305: 108241, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295679

RESUMO

Decreasing the health burden caused by foodborne pathogens is challenging and it depends on the identification of the most significant hazards and food sources causing illnesses, so adequate mitigation strategies can be implemented. In this regard, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has developed the Establishment-based Risk Assessment (ERA) model, so that a more effective and efficient allocation of resources can be assigned to the highest food safety risk areas. To assess risk, the model considers the type of food sub-products being manufactured by establishments and its scope is limited to the 17 most important foodborne pathogens representing the highest level of food safety risk. However, the information on source attribution at the sub-product level based on a structured approach is limited. To overcome this challenge, an expert elicitation was conducted in 2016 to estimate the relative contribution and associated certainty of each sub-product for 31 pathogen-commodity combinations to the total Canadian health burden associated with foodborne illnesses (expressed in DALYs). These DALYs represent 78% of the total Canadian health burden associated with federally-regulated food commodities considered within the model. A total of 49 Canadian experts recruited using a "snow ball" sampling strategy participated in the study by completing an electronic survey. Results of the elicitation displayed variable levels of health burden allocation between the pathogens and the different commodity sub-products. Assessment of the certainty levels showed some combinations being evaluated with more confidence (e.g., Campylobacter and eggs/poultry sub-products) than others, where a bimodal distribution of certainty was observed (e.g., Toxoplasma in pork sub-products). Furthermore, no participant raised concerns on the food classification scheme, suggesting their agreement with the proposed sub-products categorization of the elicitation. Relative contribution estimates will be included in the CFIA ERA model and used to enhance its applicability for risk prioritization and effective resource allocation during food establishment inspections. While substantial uncertainty around the central tendency estimates was found, these estimates provide a good basis for regulatory oversight and public health policy.


Assuntos
Inspeção de Alimentos/normas , Carne/microbiologia , Carne/parasitologia , Animais , Campylobacter/genética , Campylobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Canadá , Galinhas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inspeção de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 863, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With increasing demand for red meat in Tanzania comes heightened potential for zoonotic infections in animals and humans that disproportionately affect poor communities. A range of frontline government employees work to protect public health, providing services for people engaged in animal-based livelihoods (livestock owners and butchers), and enforcing meat safety and food premises standards. In contrast to literature which emphasises the inadequacy of extension support and food safety policy implementation in low- and middle-income countries, this paper foregrounds the 'street-level diplomacy' deployed by frontline actors operating in challenging contexts. METHODS: This research is based on semi-structured interviews with 61 government employees, including livestock extension officers/meat inspectors and health officers, across 10 randomly-selected rural and urban wards. RESULTS: Frontline actors combined formal and informal strategies including the leveraging of formal policy texts and relationships with other state employees, remaining flexible and recognising that poverty constrained people's ability to comply with health regulations. They emphasised the need to work with livestock keepers and butchers to build their knowledge to self-regulate and to work collaboratively to ensure meat safety. Remaining adaptive and being hesitant to act punitively unless absolutely necessary cultivated trust and positive relations, making those engaged in animal-based livelihoods more open to learning from and cooperating with extension officers and inspectors. This may result in higher levels of meat safety than might be the case if frontline actors stringently enforced regulations. CONCLUSION: The current tendency to view frontline actors' partial enforcement of meat safety regulations as a failure obscures the creative and proactive ways in which they seek to ensure meat safety in a context of limited resources. Their application of 'street-level diplomacy' enables them to be sensitive to local socio-economic realities, to respect local social norms and expectations and to build support for health safety interventions when necessary. More explicitly acknowledging the role of trust and positive state-society relations and the diplomatic skills deployed by frontline actors as a formal part of their inspection duties offers new perspectives and enhanced understandings on the complicated nature of their work and what might be done to support them.


Assuntos
Diplomacia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Empregados do Governo/psicologia , Carne/normas , Saúde Pública/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Empregados do Governo/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Gado , Masculino , Pobreza , Saúde Pública/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tanzânia , Confiança , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 306: 108262, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362162

RESUMO

In this study, we show that growth and prolonged storage of Listeria monocytogenes at 4 °C can promote the selection of variants with enhanced cold and heat tolerance. Enhanced cold-tolerance (ECT) variants (n = 12) were successfully isolated from a strain with impaired cold growth abilities following 84 days of storage at 4 °C in brain heart infusion broth (BHIB). Whole genome sequencing, membrane fatty acid analysis, and stress tolerance profiling were performed on the parent strain and two ECT variants: one displaying regular-sized colonies and the other displaying small colonies when grown at 37 °C on BHI agar. Under cold stress conditions, the parent strain exhibited an impaired ability to produce branched-chain fatty acids which are known to be important for cold adaptation in L.monocytogenes. The ECT variants were able to overcome this limitation, a finding which is hypothesized to be associated with the identification of two independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding subunits of acetyl-coA carboxylase, an enzyme critical for fatty acid biosynthesis. While the ECT phenotype was not found to be associated with improved salt (BHIB + 6% NaCl, 25 °C), acid (BHIB pH 5, 25 °C) or desiccation (33% RH, 20 °C) tolerance, the small-colony variant exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced heat tolerance at 52 °C in buffered peptone water compared to the parent strain and the other variant. The results from this study demonstrate that the continuous use of refrigeration along the food-supply chain has the potential to select for L.monocytogenes variants with enhanced cold and heat tolerance, highlighting the impact that microbial intervention strategies can have on the evolution of bacterial strains and likewise, food safety.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Temperatura Baixa , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Meios de Cultura/química , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Refrigeração , Cloreto de Sódio
10.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(23): 6067-6080, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273413

RESUMO

Rapid detection of trace Salmonella is urgently needed to ensure food safety. We present an innovative pretreatment strategy, based on a two-step enrichment culture and immunomagnetic separation, combined with a chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay to detect at least one proliferative Salmonella cell in 25 mL (25 g) food. The capture performance of immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) of sizes for Salmonella was investigated, and the IMBs of size 2.8 µm showed a high capture efficiency of 60.7% in 25 mL milk and 74.5% in 25 mL chicken culture filtrate, which ensured the successful capture of trace Salmonella after 2.5 h in situ enrichment even from only one Salmonella cell. The separated Salmonella cells, reaching an amount of 103 colony-forming units (CFU) by a secondary enrichment for 3 h, were detected by a horseradish peroxidase chemiluminescence reaction with 4-(1-imidazolyl)phenol as an enhancer, which evidenced a linear response for Salmonella concentrations ranging from 2.3 × 102 to 7.8 × 104 CFU/mL. The entire detection process was completed within 8 h, with a very low detection limit of 1 CFU/25 mL (25 g), which was verified by colony counting, and a small degree of interference of 0.17-1.06%. Trace Salmonella from five different serovars in milk and chicken was successfully detected without false negative or false positive results. Furthermore, this study provides a basis to develop a fully automated instrument based on IMBs that includes all steps from sample preparation to chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay for high-throughput screening of foodborne pathogens. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Leite/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Imunoensaio/economia , Imunoensaio/métodos , Separação Imunomagnética/economia , Separação Imunomagnética/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Medições Luminescentes/economia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(62): 9160-9163, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304937

RESUMO

The rational design of heteroatom-doped C3N4 offers a great opportunity to optimize C3N4 performance. In this communication, we propose a facile method to fabricate layered-stacked B-doped C3N4 (BCN-800) ultrathin nanosheets via a one-step calcination route. The distinctive layered-stacked structure and the presence of B atoms provide an active attachment point for antibodies and antigens. In addition, the presence of C and N might aid stability and increase conductivity. When used for vomitoxin detection, the BCN-800-based electrochemical biosensor exhibits high sensitivity with a detection limit of 0.32 pg mL-1 and superior selectivity to other interfering agents.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Boro/química , Ácidos Borônicos/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Nitrilos/síntese química , Tricotecenos/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Nitrilos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(29): 8074-8084, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299152

RESUMO

Consumers often malign conventional curing agents while concomitantly accepting the natural forms of the same constituents in numerous food products. This paradox ostensibly exceeds all other food-related controversies to date and likely contributes to the rapid expansion of meat products that utilize natural nitrate derivatives. While there is high demand for these products, a fundamental lack of understanding regarding the safety and chemical implications of curing agents, whether derived from synthetic or natural sources, continues to persist. This manuscript elucidates the variations among curing preparations with particular emphasis pertaining to the associated safety, chemical, and regulatory ramifications encompassing these product categories.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos da Carne/análise , Nitratos/análise , Nitritos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Plantas/química , Animais , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Nitratos/efeitos adversos , Nitritos/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos
13.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(3): 155-160, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216592

RESUMO

Mycobacterium avium causes atypical mycobacterial infection in humans and animals worldwide. M. avium comprises the subspecies avium (MAA), hominissuis (MAH), silvaticum (MAS) and paratuberculosis (MAP). The M. avium complex (MAC), comprising M. avium and M. intracellulare, causes opportunistic infections of humans. M. avium subsp. avium (MAA) mainly causes avian tuberculosis while subsp. hominissuis (MAH) mainly infects pig. Distinguishing between these two subspecies is essential to the effective control of these atypical mycobacterial infections and minimization of the resulting economic loss. For this purpose, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that rapidly and sensitively detects and differentiates MAA and MAH. This MAA-LAMP assay targeting IS901 correctly detected four MAA isolates but did not detect 27 MAH and 19 non-MAA/non-MAH mycobacterial isolates. The MAAH-LAMP assay targeting IS1245 detected four MAA and 27 MAH isolates but not the other 19 mycobacterial isolates. We believe that implementation of this LAMP assay will significantly improve public health and safety. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Mycobacterium avium, which is pathogenic for humans and animals, represents a continuing threat to public health and safety and to food production. Therefore, improved methods are urgently required to readily and efficiently identify M. avium subspecies. Compared with conventional PCR methods, the LAMP assay herein developed more rapidly detects and better distinguishes between two major M. avium subspecies that cause disease of pig. Importantly, this highly accurate and sensitive LAMP assay detects mycobacterial DNAs using real-time fluorescence or the unaided eye with a colour-change dye, making it ideal for translation to the clinic and slaughterhouse.


Assuntos
Complexo Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Animais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Mycobacterium avium/classificação , Mycobacterium avium/genética , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/classificação , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/genética , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 687: 642-653, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220718

RESUMO

Soil pollution severely threatens agro-ecosystem stability. It is important to accurately understand the status of farmland pollution in order to protect national food safety and human health. However, information of the combined pollution level of Chinese farmland soil and associated human health risk at the national scale is relatively lacking. In this study, 5597 samples from 1781 farmland soil sites were obtained from 553 reports and combined into pollution databases of heavy metals, organochlorines, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Based on the data obtained, this paper demonstrated the current pollution status of farmland soil, and assessed the subsequent human health risk. Results showed that the combined pollution ratio of Chinese farmland soil was 22.10%, with 1.23% of severe pollution level. Moreover, the total non-carcinogenic hazard quotients of farmland soil pollution were within the safety threshold for adults, but there was a slight non-carcinogenic risk for children. For adults, the ratio of total farmland area to total carcinogenic risk quotients above the safety threshold of 1 × 10-5 was only 1.02%, but for children, the ratio was as high as 20.75%. On the other side, food crop and vegetable plantations were the priority control farmland soil compared to other types. Meanwhile, Yunnan, Hunan, Anhui, Henan, and Liaoning were selected as the priority control provinces due to their severe pollutions and high human health risks. This study has provided a comprehensive pollution and health risk assessment. Furthermore, the spatial distribution might provide as the scientific support for accelerating the mapping of soil pollution in China, as well as developing the policy for the contaminated farmland soil management.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendas , Poluentes do Solo/análise , China , Ecossistema , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Medição de Risco
15.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(3): 288-294, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003706

RESUMO

RESUMEN El queso artesanal se ha convertido en un vehículo transmisor de microorganismos causantes de infecciones alimentarias. Este estudio busca identificar la carga microbiana presente en este producto y determinar el riesgo potencial para la salud pública con la Norma Técnica Colombiana 750. Se analizaron 31 muestras adquiridas en las tiendas comercializadores de queso artesanal con Registro de Cámara y Comercio de la ciudad de Tunja. Se determinó concentración microbiana de aerobios mesófilos, mohos y levaduras, Staphylococcus aureus, coliformes totales y fecales, Listeria monocytogenes y Salmonella spp., mediante técnicas microbiológicos convencionales. Los valores promedios obtenidos para aerobios mesófilos fue de 6x106 UFC/g; coliformes totales de 6,29x105 UFC/g; coliformes fecales de 3,99x105 UFC/g, Staphylococcus aureus de 1,6x105 UFC/g y para mohos y levaduras de 4.1x105 UFC/g. Se realizó BBL Crystal ® a las colonias de agar nutritivo encontrándose una variedad de microorganismos, principalmente Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus durans, entre otros. La prevalencia de Listeria monocytogenes fue de 3,6% y en Salmonella sp de 3,1%. Todos los parámetros analizados presentaron recuentos superiores a los establecidos por la norma, indicando que las muestras no contaban con las condiciones higiénicas adecuadas para su consumo, debido principalmente a los procesos de elaboración artesanal del producto.


ABSTRACT Artisanal cheese has become a vehicle that transmits microorganisms that cause food borne infections. This study identified the microbial load present in this product and determined the potential risk to public health using the Colombian Technical Standard 750. Thirty-one samples from artisanal cheese trading stores registered in the Chamber and Commerce of the city of Tunja, Colombia were acquired and analyzed. Microbial concentration of mesophilic aerobes, molds and yeasts, Staphylococcus aureus, total and fecal coliforms, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were determined using conventional microbiological techniques. The average values obtained for aerobic mesophiles were 6x106 CFU/g; total coliforms 6.29x105 CFU/g; fecal coliforms of 3.99x105 CFU/g, Staphylococcus aureus of 1.6x105 CFU/g and for molds and yeasts of 4.1x105 CFU/g. BBL Crystal® was performed on nutritive agar colonies, and a variety of microorganisms were found, mainly Streptococcus uberis, and Enterococcus durans, among others. The prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes was 3.6% and in Salmonella sp 3.1 %. All the analyzed parameters had higher counts than those established by the norm, indicating that the samples did not have the adequate hygienic conditions for their consumption, mainly due to the processes of artisanal elaboration of the product.


Assuntos
Controle de Qualidade , Bactérias Aeróbias , Queijo , Enterobacteriaceae , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Microbiota , Colômbia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161892

RESUMO

Insects are promising sources of protein and lipid in feeds for farmed animals. In the European Union, the use of insect meal (IM) and insect oil is permitted in fish feed. However, the European Food Safety Authority has highlighted the lack of data regarding the chemical safety of insects and products thereof. In this study, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed diets in which fish meal (FM) was partially or fully substituted with IM, resulting in four diets with an FM replacement of 0%, 33%, 66% and 100% by IM. The IM was produced from Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae fed media containing 60% seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum). After 16 weeks of feeding, fish fillet samples were collected. The concentrations of undesirable substances, e.g., heavy metals, arsenic, dioxins, mycotoxins, pesticides, in the IM, the diets and fillets were determined. The concentrations of the analysed compounds in the IM were all below EU maximum levels for feed ingredients, except for arsenic. However, for complete feeds the concentrations of these compounds in the feeds, including arsenic, were all below EU MLs. Arsenic was transferred from seaweed to IM, resulting in arsenic levels in IM similar to what has been documented for FM. Transfer of arsenic from feed to fillet was observed; however, total arsenic concentrations in the fillet significantly decreased when fish were fed diets with more IM and less FM. Arsenic speciation analysis of the diets showed that although total arsenic levels were similar, the arsenic species were different. Arsenobetaine was the major organoarsenic species in the diets containing FM, while in diets containing IM several unidentified arsenic species were detected. The results suggest that the lower feed-to-fillet transfer of arsenic when FM is replaced by IM may be due to the presence of arsenic species with low bioavailability in the IM.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Arsênico/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Insetos/química , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Animais , Análise de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(26): 7466-7474, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184886

RESUMO

The ZMM28 protein encoded by the zmm28 gene is endogenous to maize. DP202216 maize was genetically modified to increase and extend expression of the zmm28 gene relative to native zmm28 gene expression, resulting in plants with enhanced grain yield potential. Evaluation of the history of safe use (HOSU) is one component of the safety assessment framework for a newly expressed protein in a GM crop. The deduced amino acid sequence of the introduced ZMM28 protein in DP202216 maize is identical to the ZMM28 protein in nonmodified conventional maize. The ZMM28 protein has also been found in selected varieties of sweet corn kernels, and closely related proteins are found in other commonly consumed food crops. Concentrations of the ZMM28 protein in event DP202216 maize, conventional maize, and sweet corn are reported. This information supports, in part, the evaluation of HOSU, which can be leveraged in the safety assessment of the ZMM28 protein. Additional studies will be considered in the food and feed safety assessment of the DP202216 maize event.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Zea mays/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
18.
Food Chem ; 293: 187-196, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151600

RESUMO

A generic extraction and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap™-HRMS method was developed for four insect species (mealworm, grasshopper, house cricket and black soldier fly) analyzing a large spectrum of organic chemical contaminants, including pesticides (n = 25), (veterinary) drugs (n = 29), and mycotoxins (n = 23). To prove the method as 'fit-for-purpose', a successful validation was performed, both qualitatively, by determining the screening detection limit (SDL), selectivity and specificity, as well as semi-quantitatively, by assessing the within-day precision (relative standard deviation (RSD)) and recovery. For both the mealworm, grasshopper, house cricket and black soldier fly, 64, 61, 59 and 62 compounds were detected at the respective SDL levels (1-100 µg kg-1), predominantly below existing maximum residue limits for other edible matrices. Mean recoveries ranged between 70% and 120% and RSD-values were in line with European regulations (CD 2002/657/EC; SANCO). Finally, the potential of the screening methodology was demonstrated on real insect samples, revealing minor to no contamination.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Insetos/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Micotoxinas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Drogas Veterinárias/análise , Animais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Insetos/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , Micotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida , Drogas Veterinárias/isolamento & purificação
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 417, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172293

RESUMO

Ingestion of leafy vegetables is an important dietary component of most Africans due to its health benefits. High levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the leafy vegetables may pose a significant health hazard to the consumers. Rose/Hibiscus, Chinese cabbage, lettuce, and garden egg leaves from farms along the Nima Creek, Accra, were selected. At each sampling site, the vegetable was uprooted and cut into leaves, stem, and root and analyzed differently. The GC-MS method was employed in the identification and quantification of 16 PAHs in the samples. The analysis was done at CSIR - Water Research Institute Organic Laboratory. The results obtained show concentrations of acenapththylene, acenapthene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene (except chrysene and pyrene which were found in garden egg leaves and Chinese cabbage respectively), while naphthalene was detected in all the vegetables. The mean concentration of phenanthrene in leaves, stem, and roots of Chinese cabbage vegetable varies according to the following order: roots (0.744 ± 0.16 µg/kg) ≥ leaves (0.598 ± 1.21 µg/kg) ≥ stem (0.327 ± 1.01 µg/kg). From the results of the isomeric ratios, the source of the PAHs in the leafy vegetables are from mixed sources, i.e., either pyrogenic and petrogenic origins. This calls for the formulation of stringent policies on the importation of over-age vehicles into the countries as well as on the indiscriminate burning of materials containing PAHs.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hibiscus/química , Alface/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Verduras/química , Acenaftenos/análise , Benzo(a)Antracenos/análise , Benzo(a)pireno/análise , Dieta , Fazendas , Fluorenos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Gana , Naftalenos/análise , Fenantrenos/análise
20.
Chem Asian J ; 14(15): 2751-2758, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210030

RESUMO

A reliable and sensitive detection of biogenic amines (BAs) is essential to ensure food safety and maintain public health. In this study, two naphthyl end-capped terthiophene derivatives, namely, 5-(naphthalen-1-yl)-2,2':5',2''-terthiophene (NA-3T) and 5,5''-di(naphthalen-1-yl)-2,2':5',2''-terthiophene (NA-3T-NA), were employed to develop chemiresistive sensors for detecting gaseous BAs. In contrast to NA-3T, the NA-3T-NA-based sensor showed a higher sensitivity for trimethylamine (TMA) with an experimental detection limit lower than 22 ppm, and for aromatic BAs, including dopamine, histamine, tryptamine, and tyramine. Additionally, the recovery time for TMA was found to be shorter than 23 s. In addition, both sensors were successfully used for an in situ evaluation of meat freshness by monitoring the concentration of relevant volatile BAs. The difference in the sensing performances of the two chemiresistive sensors was tentatively ascribed to different packing structures of the derivatives and the adlayer structures of the films developed with the compounds.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Carne/análise , Tiofenos/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Dopamina/análise , Conformação Molecular , Espectrofotometria , Temperatura Ambiente , Termogravimetria
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA