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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 309: 108328, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518953

RESUMO

Ultrasound (US) has a high capacity to increase food safety. Although high and/or moderate temperature in combination with US has been studied, the knowledge about cooling/low temperatures as well as its combined effect with chemical preservation methods is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the inactivation of Staphylococcus spp. (SA) present in the natural microbiota of sliced Brazilian dry-cured loin (Socol, BDL) using US (40 kHz and 5.40 W/g) at 1.6-17.9 kJ/g, temperature (T) between 6.4 and 73.6 °C and peracetic acid (PA) between 5.5 and 274.5 mg/L employing the Central Composite Rotatable Design. The model fully describes how the combination of US, T, and PA affects SA inactivation. In BDL, an increase in US acoustic energy density (kJ/g) allows the reduction of T necessary to inactivate SA because of the occurrence of synergistic effect. However, US applied at low T was inefficient. On the other hand, PA was more efficient at low T, since high T degraded this compound at different rates according to the holding T. Therefore, the data indicates a relation between the technologies used in the combined decontamination of sliced BDL improving dry-cured meat safety.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/microbiologia , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Brasil , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura Ambiente
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416262

RESUMO

Linguistic preference relations are widely used by decision makers to elicit their preferences over alternatives in the Group Decision Making (GDM) process. Recent studies have shown that self-confidence, as an important human psychological behavior, has an important influence on decision-making results. However, multiple self-confidence levels of decision makers are seldom considered in the linguistic preference relation. Meanwhile many real-word decision-making problems are analyzed in a hierarchical structure, in which a complicated problem can be divided into several easier comprehended sub-problems. Hence, this paper aims at designing a linguistic hierarchy model with self-confidence preference relation (LHM-SCPR) to discuss complex GDM problems in a hierarchical structure. In the SC-LPR, each element contains two components, the first one is the preference value between pairs of alternatives, and the second one that is defined on a linguistic term set represents decision maker's self-confidence level associated to the first component. Meanwhile, a nonlinear programming model is proposed to derive individual preference vector from SC-LPR. Then, we apply LHM-SCPR in co-regulation of food safety to present the validity of this method, and find that improving the participation skills regarding co-regulation of food safety is the most pressing task. Finally, detailed comparative analysis and discussion are presented to verify the validity of the proposal.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Tomada de Decisões , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Linguística , Autoimagem , China , Lógica Fuzzy , Humanos
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 308: 108291, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437692

RESUMO

Biocontrol of Staphylococcus aureus by lactic acid bacteria can be considered as a feasible alternative to the use of chemicals in foods, but the mechanisms underlying this antagonistic interaction remains poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a LAB species (Enterococcus faecalis) over the growth, enterotoxin production and gene expression of S. aureus under experimental conditions. E. faecalis 41FL1 and S. aureus ATCC 29213 were inoculated isolated and together in brain heart infusion (BHI) at 30 °C and in a fresh cheese model at 15 °C: microbial populations were monitored by culture plating, production of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) was verified by an ELISA assay, expression of S. aureus genes (virulence, transcriptional regulation and central carbon metabolism) was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR, and pH and contents of water-soluble metabolites in both matrices were measured. S. aureus growth was inhibited in co-cultures assays, with a 2.02-log reduction in BHI and a 3.39-log reduction in cheese model compared to respective single cultures. Classical SEs were detected in S. aureus single culture assays (BHI and cheese), in BHI inoculated with both strains after 48 h of incubation, but not detected in co-inoculated cheeses. pH in all matrices containing E. faecalis reached lower values than in matrices containing S. aureus alone, due to lactate production by E. faecalis. Expression of genes coding for transcription regulators (ccpA and rex) and enzymes involved in central carbon metabolism (alsD and citZ) was mostly upregulated in co-inoculated cheeses, whereas expression of several virulence determinants (agrC, hld, hla, entA and spa) was strongly downregulated. This study provides relevant data on the behaviour of S. aureus in the presence of competing microbiota and support the use of controlled population dominance by LAB as an effective biopreservation strategy to ensuring food safety.


Assuntos
Antibiose/fisiologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico/metabolismo , Queijo/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/metabolismo , Enterotoxinas/biossíntese , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas de Cocultura , Enterotoxinas/genética , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Expressão Gênica , Leite/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
5.
Food Microbiol ; 84: 103239, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421769

RESUMO

Bacteriophage-based biocontrols are one of several tools available to control Listeria monocytogenes in food and food processing environments. The objective of this study was to determine if phage-resistance that has been characterized with a select few Listeria phages would also confer resistance to a diverse collection of over 100 other Listeria phages. We show that some mutations that are likely to emerge in bacteriophage-treated populations of serotype 1/2a L. monocytogenes can lead to cross-resistance against almost all types of characterized Listeria phages. Out of the 120 phages that showed activity against the parental strain, only one could form visible plaques on the mutant strain of L. monocytogenes lacking rhamnose in its wall teichoic acids. An additional two phages showed signs of lytic activity against this mutant strain; although no visible plaques were observed. The findings presented here are consistent with other studies showing mutations conferring phage resistance through loss of rhamnose likely pose the greatest challenge for phage-based biocontrol in serotype 1/2a strains.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/virologia , Mutação , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Sorogrupo
6.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(4): 252-257, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429475

RESUMO

Alfalfa sprouts have been implicated in multiple foodborne disease outbreaks. This study evaluated the growth of Listeria monocytogenes during sprouting of alfalfa seeds and the effectiveness of daily chlorine dioxide & ozone rinsing in controlling the growth. Alfalfa seeds inoculated with L. monocytogenes were sprouted for 5 days (25°C) with a daily aqueous ClO2 (3 ppm, 10 min) or ozone water (2 ppm, 5 min) rinse. Neither treatment significantly reduced the growth of L. monocytogenes on sprouting alfalfa seeds. The initial level of L. monocytogenes was 3·44 ± 0·27, which increased to c. 7·0 log CFU per g following 3 days of sprouting. There was no significant difference in the bacterial population between the treatment schemes. Bacterial distribution in roots (7·63 ± 0·511 log CFU per g), stems (7·51 ± 0·511 log CFU per g) and leaves (7·41 ± 0·511 log CFU per g) were similar after 5 days. Spent sanitizers had significantly lower levels of bacterial populations compared to the spent distilled water control. The results indicated that sprouting process provides a favourable condition for the growth of L. monocytogenes and the sanitizer treatment alone may not be able to reduce food safety risks. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Sprouts are high-risk foods. Consumption of raw sprouts is frequently associated with foodborne disease outbreaks. Optimum sprouting procedure involves soaking seeds in water followed by daily water rinsing to maintain a moist environment that is also favourable for the growth of pathogenic micro-organisms. The present study emphasized the potential food safety risks during sprouting and the effect of applying daily sanitizer rinsing in the place of water rinsing to reduce those risks. The finding of this study may be useful in the development of pre-harvest and post-harvest risk management strategies.


Assuntos
Compostos Clorados/farmacologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicago sativa/microbiologia , Óxidos/farmacologia , Água/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Ozônio/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Sementes/microbiologia , Verduras/microbiologia , Água/química
7.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382354

RESUMO

This study aimed to (i) compare the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practices (KAP) and observed food safety practices of food truck (FT) food handlers, (ii) evaluate the microbiological quality of food and water samples collected from these vehicles, and (iii) establish a score classification for the KAP instrument according to the food contamination probability assessment. This study was conducted in three stages with 40 food truck food handlers conveniently sampled in the Federal District, Brazil, through structured interviews, application of an observational checklist for the assessment of handlers' practices and the collection of food and water samples for determination of microbiological quality. FTs that are likely to exhibit food contamination and are at a high risk of foodborne diseases if at least one of the following situations occur: (1) if a food handler scores ≤6 in the knowledge section; (2) if a food handler scores ≤5 in the attitudes section; or (3) if a food handler scores ≤6 in the self-reported practices section. On the other hand, FTs in which handlers score higher than the cutoff points in all the sections are unlikely to exhibit food contamination and are at a low risk of foodborne diseases. The findings of this study are the first step to understand food handlers' point of view and the initial diagnosis to guide educational strategies in the FT sector.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Serviços de Alimentação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Fatores de Risco , Microbiologia da Água
8.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(23): 6067-6080, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273413

RESUMO

Rapid detection of trace Salmonella is urgently needed to ensure food safety. We present an innovative pretreatment strategy, based on a two-step enrichment culture and immunomagnetic separation, combined with a chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay to detect at least one proliferative Salmonella cell in 25 mL (25 g) food. The capture performance of immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) of sizes for Salmonella was investigated, and the IMBs of size 2.8 µm showed a high capture efficiency of 60.7% in 25 mL milk and 74.5% in 25 mL chicken culture filtrate, which ensured the successful capture of trace Salmonella after 2.5 h in situ enrichment even from only one Salmonella cell. The separated Salmonella cells, reaching an amount of 103 colony-forming units (CFU) by a secondary enrichment for 3 h, were detected by a horseradish peroxidase chemiluminescence reaction with 4-(1-imidazolyl)phenol as an enhancer, which evidenced a linear response for Salmonella concentrations ranging from 2.3 × 102 to 7.8 × 104 CFU/mL. The entire detection process was completed within 8 h, with a very low detection limit of 1 CFU/25 mL (25 g), which was verified by colony counting, and a small degree of interference of 0.17-1.06%. Trace Salmonella from five different serovars in milk and chicken was successfully detected without false negative or false positive results. Furthermore, this study provides a basis to develop a fully automated instrument based on IMBs that includes all steps from sample preparation to chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay for high-throughput screening of foodborne pathogens. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Leite/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Imunoensaio/economia , Imunoensaio/métodos , Separação Imunomagnética/economia , Separação Imunomagnética/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Medições Luminescentes/economia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5971-5980, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309225

RESUMO

Intensive chicken production leads to overuse of antibiotics on poultry farms. For food safety control, there is great need for means to use non-conventional matrices allowing analysis of antibiotics during poultry breeding. The main goal of this study was to demonstrate feathers as suitable material for non-invasive detection of doxycycline treatment in poultry. Transfer to and depletion of doxycycline in chicken feathers were investigated after therapeutic, spray, and subtherapeutic treatment. For the quantitative determination of doxycycline in feathers, a validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry method was used. High concentrations of doxycycline in feathers were detectable for 22 D post treatment in each experimental group, and they were much higher than those in muscle and liver. A washing experiment with the same solvent as for extraction showed different ratios between extractable and non-extractable residues in feathers of chickens treated therapeutically, by spraying and subtherapeutically, which demonstrates the ability of feather analysis to distinguish different forms of treatment. After a segmentation procedure, high amounts of doxycycline were found to be deposited in the upper part of feathers in each treatment group. The obtained results showed that chicken feathers are a suitable material for the detection and non-invasive surveillance of doxycycline.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Galinhas , Doxiciclina/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Plumas/química , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/veterinária , Fatores de Tempo , Distribuição Tecidual
10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(62): 9160-9163, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304937

RESUMO

The rational design of heteroatom-doped C3N4 offers a great opportunity to optimize C3N4 performance. In this communication, we propose a facile method to fabricate layered-stacked B-doped C3N4 (BCN-800) ultrathin nanosheets via a one-step calcination route. The distinctive layered-stacked structure and the presence of B atoms provide an active attachment point for antibodies and antigens. In addition, the presence of C and N might aid stability and increase conductivity. When used for vomitoxin detection, the BCN-800-based electrochemical biosensor exhibits high sensitivity with a detection limit of 0.32 pg mL-1 and superior selectivity to other interfering agents.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Boro/química , Ácidos Borônicos/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Nitrilos/síntese química , Tricotecenos/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Nitrilos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
11.
Chem Asian J ; 14(15): 2751-2758, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210030

RESUMO

A reliable and sensitive detection of biogenic amines (BAs) is essential to ensure food safety and maintain public health. In this study, two naphthyl end-capped terthiophene derivatives, namely, 5-(naphthalen-1-yl)-2,2':5',2''-terthiophene (NA-3T) and 5,5''-di(naphthalen-1-yl)-2,2':5',2''-terthiophene (NA-3T-NA), were employed to develop chemiresistive sensors for detecting gaseous BAs. In contrast to NA-3T, the NA-3T-NA-based sensor showed a higher sensitivity for trimethylamine (TMA) with an experimental detection limit lower than 22 ppm, and for aromatic BAs, including dopamine, histamine, tryptamine, and tyramine. Additionally, the recovery time for TMA was found to be shorter than 23 s. In addition, both sensors were successfully used for an in situ evaluation of meat freshness by monitoring the concentration of relevant volatile BAs. The difference in the sensing performances of the two chemiresistive sensors was tentatively ascribed to different packing structures of the derivatives and the adlayer structures of the films developed with the compounds.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Carne/análise , Tiofenos/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Dopamina/análise , Conformação Molecular , Espectrofotometria , Temperatura Ambiente , Termogravimetria
12.
Compr Child Adolesc Nurs ; 42(sup1): 97-107, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192717

RESUMO

School-age children who do not practice safe food behavior are at risk of experiencing health problems. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of education with mind map methods on safe food behavior in school-age children. The study design was a quasi-experimental with pre- and posttests design, involving 88 school-age children, and each group consisted of 44 respondents who were divided into intervention group and control group. Multistage random sampling was used to determine the research area and school where the research was conducted, while the research subject was selected using simple random sampling. Measuring instruments used questionnaires from previous researchers regarding food safety behavior in school-age children. The results showed that the mind map method significantly affects knowledge (p-value = 0.000), attitude (p-value = 0.000), and skill (p-value = 0.000) for safe food. This study recommends that the mind map method be applied in an effort to improve clean and healthy living behavior in school-age children.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 88: 1-45, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151722

RESUMO

Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing toolbox that provides solutions to numerous challenges in the food industry and meet public demands for healthier and safer food products. The diversity of nanostructures and their vast, tunable functionality drives their inclusion in food products and packaging materials to improve their nutritional quality through bioactive fortification and probiotics encapsulation, enhance their safety due to their antimicrobial and sensing capabilities and confer novel sensorial properties. In this food nanotechnology state-of-the-art communication, matrix materials with particular focus on food-grade components, existing and novel production techniques, and current and potential applications in the fields of food quality, safety and preservation, nutrient bioaccessibility and digestibility will be detailed. Additionally, a thorough analysis of potential strategies to assess the safety of these novel nanostructures is presented.


Assuntos
Indústria Alimentícia/tendências , Alimentos/normas , Nanoestruturas/classificação , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Biopolímeros , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Marketing/tendências , Nanopartículas
14.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 88: 85-128, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151729

RESUMO

Potential applications of nanotechnology in food and agriculture include: (1) the encapsulation of functional compounds; (2) production of reinforcing materials; (3) delivery of nutraceuticals in foods; (4) food safety, for detection and control of chemical and microbiological risks; (5) active and intelligent food packaging; (6) incorporation of protective substances of seeds; (7) addition of nutrients in the soil; (8) use of controlled release pesticides. Natural polysaccharides and their derivatives are widely used in the production of nano-scale materials. This chapter examines, the use of polysaccharides, such as starch, cellulose, lignin, pectin, gums, and cyclodextrins for the production of nano-scale materials, including nanocrystals, nanoemulsions, nanocomplexes, nanocapsules, and nanofibers.


Assuntos
Nanoestruturas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Suplementos Nutricionais , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Nutrientes/química , Praguicidas/química , Sementes/química , Solo/química
15.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 141: 111447, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238279

RESUMO

With increasing economic globalization, food safety is becoming the most serious concern in the food production and distribution system. Food safety hazard factors (FSHFs) can be categorized into chemical hazards, biological hazards and physical hazards, with the detection of the former two having fascinated interdisciplinary research areas spanning chemistry, material science and biological science. Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) -based sensors overcome many limitations of traditional detection methods and provide opportunities for efficient, sensitive and low-cost detection using smart miniaturized equipment. With highly specific molecular recognition capacity and high stability in harsh chemical and physical conditions, MIPs have been used in sensing platforms such as electrochemical, optical and mass-sensitive sensors as promising alternatives to bio-receptors for food analysis. In this systemic review, we summarize recent advances of MIPs and MIP-based sensors, such as popular monomers, usual polymerization strategies, fresh modification materials and advanced sensing mechanisms. The applications of MIP-based sensors in FSHF detection are discussed according to sensing mechanisms, including electrochemistry, optics and mass-sensitivity. Finally, future perspectives and challenges are discussed.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Polímeros/química , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Impressão Molecular/instrumentação
16.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(3): 155-160, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216592

RESUMO

Mycobacterium avium causes atypical mycobacterial infection in humans and animals worldwide. M. avium comprises the subspecies avium (MAA), hominissuis (MAH), silvaticum (MAS) and paratuberculosis (MAP). The M. avium complex (MAC), comprising M. avium and M. intracellulare, causes opportunistic infections of humans. M. avium subsp. avium (MAA) mainly causes avian tuberculosis while subsp. hominissuis (MAH) mainly infects pig. Distinguishing between these two subspecies is essential to the effective control of these atypical mycobacterial infections and minimization of the resulting economic loss. For this purpose, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that rapidly and sensitively detects and differentiates MAA and MAH. This MAA-LAMP assay targeting IS901 correctly detected four MAA isolates but did not detect 27 MAH and 19 non-MAA/non-MAH mycobacterial isolates. The MAAH-LAMP assay targeting IS1245 detected four MAA and 27 MAH isolates but not the other 19 mycobacterial isolates. We believe that implementation of this LAMP assay will significantly improve public health and safety. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Mycobacterium avium, which is pathogenic for humans and animals, represents a continuing threat to public health and safety and to food production. Therefore, improved methods are urgently required to readily and efficiently identify M. avium subspecies. Compared with conventional PCR methods, the LAMP assay herein developed more rapidly detects and better distinguishes between two major M. avium subspecies that cause disease of pig. Importantly, this highly accurate and sensitive LAMP assay detects mycobacterial DNAs using real-time fluorescence or the unaided eye with a colour-change dye, making it ideal for translation to the clinic and slaughterhouse.


Assuntos
Complexo Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Animais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Mycobacterium avium/classificação , Mycobacterium avium/genética , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/classificação , Complexo Mycobacterium avium/genética , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
17.
J Food Sci ; 84(6): 1494-1500, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059142

RESUMO

Strawberry is a healthy fruit with numerous health-benefit compounds. Unfortunately, it is highly perishable and occasionally can be contaminated with foodborne pathogens. The overall goal of this study is to evaluate pulsed light (PL) processing for disinfection of strawberries, extension of shelf life, and preservation of quality attributes and compounds that are beneficial to health. Preliminary screening of PL conditions based on visual appearance of strawberries was conducted, and 3 PL treatments were identified for full evaluation. Salmonella inoculum was artificially deposited onto the skin of strawberries via spot-inoculation or dip-inoculation. The 3 PL treatments slightly reduced the level of inoculated Salmonella on strawberries, ranging from approximately 0.4 to 0.8 log reduction. They also slowed down the visible mold development on strawberries by 2 to 4 days compared with the untreated control. Regarding the natural yeasts and molds, the quality attributes (weight loss and firmness), and the bioactive compounds (total anthocyanin, total phenolics, and total antioxidant activity). The 3 PL treatment showed no significant or negligible difference comparing to the control group. Overall, the 3 PL treatments demonstrated potential in extending the shelf life of strawberries. The quality attributes or the bioactive compounds of strawberries showed no significant or minimal change after these PL treatments. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Pulsed light (PL) processing for strawberry decontamination and shelf life extension was evaluated. Results demonstrated that PL processing could have the potency to improve strawberry shelf life without significantly affecting the quality and bioactive compounds of strawberries.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Fragaria , Frutas/microbiologia , Luz , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Descontaminação/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenóis/análise , Salmonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 59(13): 2144-2157, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084362

RESUMO

Pollution of endocrine disrupting chemicals has become a global issue. As one of the hormonally active compounds, 17ß-estradiol produces the strongest estrogenic effect when it enters the organism exogenously including food intakes, bringing potential harmfulness such as malfunction of the endocrine system. Therefore, in order to assure food safety and avoid potential risks of 17ß-estradiol to humans, it is of great significance to develop rapid, sensitive and selective approaches for the detection of 17ß-estradiol in food matrices. In this review, the harmfulness and main sources of 17ß-estradiol are firstly introduced, followed by the description of the principles and applications of different approaches for 17ß-estradiol detection including high performance liquid chromatography, electrochemistry, Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence and colorimetry. Particularly, applications in detecting 17ß-estradiol in food matrices over the years of 2010-2018 are discussed. Finally, advantages and limitations of these detection methods are highlighted and perspectives on future developments in the detection methods for 17ß-estradiol are also proposed. Although many detection approaches can achieve trace or ultratrace detection of 17ß-estradiol, further studies should be focused on the development of in-situ and real-time methods to monitor and evaluate 17ß-estradiol for food safety.


Assuntos
Estradiol/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Colorimetria/métodos , Laticínios , Eletroquímica/métodos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Estradiol/toxicidade , Estrogênios/toxicidade , Fluorescência , Alimentos , Humanos , Carne , Análise Espectral Raman
19.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(6): 395-398, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145682

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Switzerland, just over 700 veterinary medicinal products are authorized. Nevertheless, in practice veterinarians are often confronted with extraordinary situations in which a suitable veterinary medicinal product is not authorized, unavailable or otherwise not applicable. For livestock and horses in particular, this poses a challenge for pharmacotherapy due to food safety regulations. In these cases, the reclassification assistant can be used to determine whether and how a medicinal product containing the appropriate drug can be reclassified and correctly applied in food-producing animals. The users will be guided step by step with selectable options through the online assistant. If the desired reclassification is permitted in the legal framework, information on the withdrawal periods to be observed for the chosen medicinal product will be provided. This online assistant follows an algorithm based on the reclassification cascade and applicable food safety regulations.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Gado , Software , Drogas Veterinárias/classificação , Drogas Veterinárias/normas , Algoritmos , Animais , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cavalos , Suíça
20.
Toxicol Lett ; 311: 125-132, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063830

RESUMO

Toxicological data used for risk assessments must undergo an evaluation of reliability. Nevertheless, a reliability evaluation scheme for such data has yet to be established in China. A method termed TRAM (Toxicological data Reliability Assessment Method) was developed to evaluate toxicological data reliability. A questionnaire survey was performed to identify the most important criteria for reliability, and was divided into three parts: laboratory animal data (LAD), in vitro data (IVD), and human data (HD). The criteria selected from the questionnaire survey and numerical score categorization finally reached a consensus after two conferences. TRAM comprises 22 criteria for LAD, 15 for IVD, and 12 for HD. Furthermore, a combination of a quick and detailed evaluation of approaches for LAD and IVD were proposed to improve evaluation efficiency. Different weights (1-4) were assigned to each criterion, and 0-4 points were allocated according to how well each criterion was met, then a Quality score was calculated. TRAM uses three reliability categories: high (Quality score: 81-100 or met a quick evaluation approach), moderate (60-80) and low(<60). TRAM provides a transparent, easy-to-use, and quantitative method for evaluating toxicological data reliability.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Animais , Consenso , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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