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1.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525602

RESUMO

Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are a serious food safety concern due to their persistence and toxic effects. To promote food safety and protect human health, it is important to understand the sources of POPs and how to minimize human exposure to these contaminants. The POPs Program within the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), manually evaluates congener patterns of POPs-contaminated samples and sometimes compares the finding to other previously analyzed samples with similar patterns. This manual comparison is time consuming and solely depends on human expertise. To improve the efficiency of this evaluation, we developed software to assist in identifying potential sources of POPs contamination by detecting similarities between the congener patterns of a contaminated sample and potential environmental source samples. Similarity scores were computed and used to rank potential source samples. The software has been tested on a diverse set of incurred samples by comparing results from the software with those from human experts. We demonstrated that the software provides results consistent with human expert observation. This software also provided the advantage of reliably evaluating an increased sample lot which increased overall efficiency.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , /química , Animais , Humanos , Software
2.
Food Chem ; 350: 128540, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514480

RESUMO

While analytical methods targeting specific compounds are critical for food safety, analytes excluded from the targeted list will not be identified. Non-targeted analyses (NTA) using LC/HR-MS complement these approaches by producing information-rich data sets where molecular formula can be generated for each detected compound; however, data mining can be labor intensive. Thus, we examined different NTA approaches to reduce the number of compounds needing further investigation, without relying on a suspect list or MS/MS database, both in single ingredient foods (i.e., oats) and more complex, oat-containing samples. We investigated inherent sample variability and utilized this information to build in-house databases for removing food compounds from sample data. While food databases were useful for data reduction, differential analysis was the most promising approach for single ingredient foods because it substantially reduced the number of features while retaining spiked QC compounds; however, a combination of approaches was necessary with greater sample complexity.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Avena/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Grão Comestível , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111676, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396008

RESUMO

The environmental risk assessment (ERA) for genetically modified plants (GMPs) is a prerequisite for commercial approval of these new varieties according to regulatory systems worldwide. The first country to regulate GM crops was the USA and the issue of possible environmental impacts was based on the principles used in risk assessment of pesticides. Two main pillars of this approach are the use of surrogate species for testing effects on non-target organisms using a tiered assessment with clear thresholds to indicate the need to move between tiers. The latest EFSA guidance document on ERA of Genetically Modified Organisms considers specifically the receiving environment in preparation of ERA for commercial cultivation of GMPs. According to existing guidelines in the EU, the receiving environment is defined by three mutually interacting components: the characteristics of the environmental stressor (i.e. the GM plant), the bio-geographical regions where the commercial release of the crop is expected and the agricultural systems therein. Difference in agronomic and ecological conditions (e.g. use of different varieties, vegetation of adjacent areas, non-target species assemblages, sensitivity of local species to the stressors) suggests that explicit considerations of the receiving environments are necessary. Results from field experiments indicate that differences in cultivation practices, e.g. the herbicide regime used on herbicide-tolerant GM crops, may induce direct and indirect effects on wild plant distribution and abundance, with consequent repercussions on food webs based on these plants. Moreover, ecological literature indicates that the concept of surrogate species has clear limitations if applied broadly to any ERA. Starting from case studies regarding GMPs, this paper discusses some ecological and agronomic characteristics of agro-ecosystems, which have implications in the elaboration of both hazard and exposure analyses during ERA. The species selection approach indicated in the EFSA Guidance Document and the consideration of the area(s) of the expected release of the new variety may provide the basis to an ecologically sound ERA for a range of environmental stressors. The quality of the data that become available for risk managers with this approach may support a more transparent and dependable ERA and risk management for GMPs as well as for other potential environmental stressors in agro-ecosystems.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Publicações Governamentais como Assunto , Guias como Assunto , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco/métodos
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 341: 109068, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498009

RESUMO

Raw vegetables are a key food for a healthy diet, but their increased consumption brings a higher risk for foodborne disease. Contamination of salad greens with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 has caused severe disease and important economic losses almost yearly in the United States over the last 10 years. To curb the risk of infections from contaminated produce, approaches based on bacterial virus - commonly known as bacteriophage or phage - have recently started to draw interest among other antimicrobial strategies. Phages enter bacterial cells to reproduce and cause cellular lysis to release their phage progeny at the end of their infection cycle. This lytic effect is caused by lysins, phage-encoded enzymes that have evolved to degrade the bacterial cell wall resulting in hypotonic lysis. When applied externally in their purified form, such enzymes are able to kill sensitive bacteria on contact in a similar way. Their unique bactericidal properties have made lysins effective antimicrobial agents in a variety of applications, from treating multidrug-resistant infections in humans to controlling bacterial contamination in several areas, including microbiological food safety. Here we describe a novel lysin, namely PlyEc2, with potent bactericidal activity against key gram-negative pathogens including E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas. PlyEc2 displayed high bactericidal activity against STEC to a concentration of 12.5 µg/ml under different pH conditions. This lysin was also able to reduce the bacterial titer of several pathogenic strains in vitro by more than 5 logarithmic units, resulting in complete sterilization. Importantly, PlyEc2 proved to be a powerful produce decontamination agent in its ability to clear 99.7% of contaminating STEC O157:H7 in our Romaine lettuce leaf model. PlyEc2 was also able to eradicate 99.8% of the bacteria contaminating the washing solution, drastically reducing the risk of cross-contamination during the washing process. A sensory evaluation panel found that treatment with PlyEc2 did not alter the visual and tactile quality of lettuce leaves compared to the untreated leaves. Our study is the first to describe a highly effective lysin treatment to control gram-negative pathogenic contamination on fresh lettuce without the addition of membrane destabilizing agents.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriófagos/enzimologia , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Alface/microbiologia , Bacteriófagos/metabolismo , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Descontaminação/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia
5.
J Food Sci ; 86(1): 16-30, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314129

RESUMO

The operating environment for food safety interventions in nations such as Saudi Arabia, with limited local agricultural productivity, high reliance on foreign food imports and observance of Islamic laws, is remarkably challenging for the national control and regulatory institutions, since compliance to the mandatory food safety regulations and the local religious Halal standards must be ensured. This review offers a comprehensive analysis of the recently restructured food safety governance in Saudi Arabia from the perspective of its food imports control. Specifically, the nature of the food imports, the organization of the food safety governance and the current control practices of imported food, in consideration of food safety and Halal requirements, are analyzed through a triangulation of data and information from secondary sources (academic literature review and gray literature search) and primary sources (direct consultation of field experts). Statistical trade data on imported food were also performed. Results revealed that the process of centralizing all the control and regulatory activities under a single agency, which the government started to strengthen the national food safety governance, has not been completed yet. The resulting overlap of legislative and monitoring tasks by multiple entities augments the challenge of ensuring the safety, quality, and authenticity of imported food and their compliance to Halal standards. The vulnerabilities and challenges still to be addressed by the local food industry and the public sector are discussed, with implications for national and international field practitioners and policymakers of countries facing similar challenges.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Governo , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Islamismo , Arábia Saudita
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(12): e23438, 2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With rapid evolution of the internet and web 2.0 apps, online sources have become one of the main channels for most people to seek food risk information. Thus, it would be compelling to analyze the coverage of online information sources related to biological, chemical, and nutritional food risks, and related safety issues, to understand the type of content that online readers are exposed to, possibly influencing their perceptions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the types of online sources that are predominantly covering this theme, and the topics that have received the most attention in terms of coverage and engagement on social media. METHODS: We performed an analysis of big data related to food risks by combining web monitoring techniques, content analysis, and data visualization of a large amount of unstructured text. Using a dictionary-based approach, a web monitoring app was instructed to automatically collect web content referring to the food risk and safety field. Data were retrieved from March 2017 to February 2018. The validated corpus (N=12,163) was subject to automatic and manual content analysis. Results were combined with descriptive statistics extracted from Web-Live and processed with Qlik Sense. RESULTS: Nutritional risks and news about outbreaks, controls, and alerts were the most widely covered topics. Thematic sources devoted major attention to nutritional topics, whereas national sources covered food risks, especially during food emergencies. Regarding engagement on social media, readers' interest was higher for nutritional topics and animal welfare. Although traditional sources still publish a great amount of content related to food risks and safety, new mediators have emerged as alternative sources for food risk information. CONCLUSIONS: This mixed methodological approach was demonstrated to be a useful means for obtaining an accurate characterization of the online discourse on food risks, and can provide insight into how the monitored sources contribute to the process of risk communication.


Assuntos
Visualização de Dados , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Avaliação Nutricional , Big Data , Comunicação , Humanos , Internet , Itália , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239312, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941534

RESUMO

Contaminated poultry meat is considered to be the main source of human infection with Campylobacter spp., a pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes broiler chickens during fattening and contaminates carcasses during slaughter. To prevent or reduce the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp., applying different organic acids, especially in combinations, via feed or drinking water seems to be a promising approach. However, only very few combinations of organic acids have been tested for their antibacterial efficacy against Campylobacter spp. Therefore, the in vitro susceptibility of 30 Campylobacter spp. isolates (20 C. jejuni and ten C. coli) to ten organic acids and ten combinations was determined. The testing of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values was performed at pH 6.0 and 7.3 by using the broth microdilution method and included the following organic acids: Caprylic acid, sorbic acid, caproic acid, benzoic acid, ascorbic acid, propionic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, fumaric acid and tartaric acid and combinations thereof. The lowest MIC values were seen for caprylic acid (MIC range at pH 7.3: 0.5-2 mmol/L) and sorbic acid (MIC range at pH 7.3: 1-4 mmol/L). One to two dilution steps lower MIC values were determined at the lower pH value of 6.0. Furthermore, ten combinations consisting of three to five organic acids were developed. In addition to the tested antibacterial activity, other criteria were included such as approval as feed additives, reported synergistic effects and chemical properties. For nine of ten combinations, the MIC90 values of the organic acids decreased 1.25- to 241.5-fold compared to the MIC90 values for the individual substances. Furthermore, nine of ten combinations exhibited synergistic activities against two or more of the tested C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A combination of caprylic acid, sorbic acid and caproic acid exhibited synergistic activities against the largest number of Campylobacter spp. isolates (six C. jejuni and four C. coli) with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices (∑FIC) ranging from 0.33 to 1.42. This study shows in vitro synergistic activities of different organic acids in combinations against the major Campylobacter species and could therefore be a promising basis for reducing Campylobacter spp. in vivo.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Caproatos/farmacologia , Caprilatos/farmacologia , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Ácido Sórbico/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Campylobacter/patogenicidade , Caproatos/toxicidade , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Conservantes de Alimentos/toxicidade , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Ácido Sórbico/toxicidade
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235507, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614870

RESUMO

Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) training programs were developed to provide guidance to fruit and vegetable growers on how to reduce food safety risks on the farm. These programs have been enhanced over the years due, in part, to increasing buyer and regulatory requirements. However, the costs of implementing additional food safety practices has been identified as a primary barrier to long-term farm financial feasibility, particularly for smaller scale producers. A survey of past participants in New York State revealed that increasing food safety improvements facilitated by GAPs have not significantly impacted the size of farm operations or the types of crops grown. In terms of farm size, we show that both the financial costs and financial benefits of food safety improvements increase with farm size, but at decreasing rates. In so doing, relatively higher market sales gains per acre by smaller farms from additional food safety investments offset the relatively higher costs to them of their implementation. We also demonstrate that benefits of food safety improvements were significantly higher for farms that had third-party food safety audits and for those that market primarily through wholesale channels. The results should prove welcome by educators as they encourage participation by all scales of producers in GAPs trainings and for growers in understanding that food safety investments can support both reduced microbial risks and sales growth.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Agricultura/educação , Análise Custo-Benefício , Produção Agrícola/economia , Humanos , New York , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 71(2): 187-194, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365403

RESUMO

The present study shows the results of the microbiological quality and safety of minimally processed vegetables sold in supermarkets and grocery stores located in the city of Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. A total of 100 samples were collected and submitted to enumeration of total coliforms, coliforms at 45°C and generic Escherichia coli using the standard most probable number (MPN) method, in addition to enumeration of total Enterobacteriaceae by plating on MacConkey agar. Moreover, colonies of Enterobacteriaceae were randomly selected and submitted to identification on a MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper™. Samples were also tested for Salmonella spp. according to the ISO 6579:2002 method. The mean count of total coliforms was 2·9 ± 0·5 log MPN per g. For coliforms at 45°C, 20 samples were positive (mean 1·5 ± 1·0 log MPN per g). Generic E. coli was detected in 16 samples (mean 1·4 ± 0·9 log MPN per g) and only one was positive for Salmonella. The mean count of total Enterobacteriaceae was 6·5 ± 1·2 log CFU per g and the most frequent genera identified by MALDI-TOF were Enterobacter (25·9%), Pantoea (9·6%) and Rahnella (9·0%). Overall, results point to poor microbiological quality of a few samples, indicating hygiene failure during their processing. This can pose health risks to consumers, mainly because these products were labelled as sanitized and marketed as ready-to-eat. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: In this study, the microbiological quality and safety of minimally processed vegetables sold in the city of Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, were evaluated through the detection of Salmonella spp., generic Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae. The results obtained point to poor microbiological quality and safety of a few samples, as generic E. coli was detected in 16 out of 100 samples and Salmonella was isolated from one of them. This indicates hygiene failures during their processing and health risk to consumers, since these products are usually sold as ready-to-eat and typically require no further heat treatment before consumption.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/microbiologia , Brasil , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Meios de Cultura , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 197: 110627, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302856

RESUMO

Pesticides are part of a large group of organic compounds with different physicochemical characteristics, designed to control and prevent pests in various crops and plantations, improving productivity. This works provides a perspective on pesticide use in current agriculture with the aim of identifying the influence of pesticides on food production and their impact on the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to highlight the importance of determining pesticide residues in food, aiming to ensure food safety, since these compounds can represent risks to human health and the environment. The effects of pesticides on humans range from headaches, nausea and skin and eye irritation to chronic problems such as cancer and neurological disorders, and extend to other non-target organisms such as birds, fish and bees, contaminating water, soil, and plants, as opposed to the benefits of increased production, consequently other measures for pesticide consumption need to be evaluate to ensure human health, food safety and environmental protection. It is important to note that chromatographic techniques and mass spectrometry assist in the determination of pesticide residues and evaluate the quality of the food that reaches the consumer, and together with the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs), established by the legislation of each country, these instrumentation act to control the exposure of population to pesticides. Although the MRL is used as a parameter for food quality, the global differences in pesticide legislation do not guarantee the consumer safety. In this sense, a brief analysis of MRL inefficiency is also present in this paper.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/normas , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Food Microbiol ; 90: 103486, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336365

RESUMO

The application of Campylobacter specific bacteriophages appears as a promising food safety tool for the biocontrol of this pathogen in the poultry meat production chain. However, their isolation is a complicated challenge since their occurrence appears to be low. This work assessed the efficiency of seven protocols for recovering Campylobacter phages from chicken skin samples inoculated at phage loads from 5.0 × 101 to 5.0 × 106 PFU/g. The enrichment of chicken skin in selective Bolton broth containing target isolates was the most efficient procedure, showing a low detection limit of 5.0 × 101 PFU/g and high recovery rates of up to 560%. This method's effectiveness increased as phage concentration decreased, showing its suitability for phage isolation. When this method was applied to isolate new Campylobacter phages from retail chicken skin, a total of 280 phages were recovered achieving an isolation success rate of 257%. From the 109 samples 68 resulted phage positive (62%). Chicken skin could be, therefore, considered a rich source in Campylobacter phages. This method is a simple, reproducible and efficient approach for the successful isolation of both group II and III Campylobacter specific bacteriophages, which could be helpful for the enhancement of food safety by reducing this pathogen contamination in broiler meat.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/virologia , Galinhas/virologia , Pele/virologia , Virologia/métodos , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Produtos Avícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Avícolas/virologia , Pele/microbiologia
13.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 7421745, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184834

RESUMO

Introduction. Animal sources of foods (ASF), including meat, are a source of high-quality nutrients. However, meat composition makes it an ideal medium for the growth of a good number of microorganisms. Around 600 million foodborne illnesses and 420000 deaths occur each year due to poor food handling practice. Thus, probing into meat handling practice will be an insatiable input for the intervention. This study aims to investigate the level of meat handling practice and associated factors among meat handlers in butcheries in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Method: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study among butcher shops in Gondar town from April 20 to 30, 2019. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire by trained data collectors among 214 meat handlers from butcher shops. Multivariable logistic regression analysis with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to identify the factors significantly associated with a good level of meat handling practice. Result: More than half of the meat handlers 66.4% (95% CI: (59.8, 72.4)) in butcher shops had a good level of meat handling practice. Level of attitude (AOR = 4.45; 95% CI, 2.09-9.43) and knowledge (AOR = 2.04; 95% CI, 1.09-3.82) were significantly associated with a good level of meat handling practice. The majority of respondents wash their hands after disposing garbage (91.6%) with less vigilance after smoking, sneezing, or coughing (64.0%). Conclusion: The study revealed that the level of food handling practice was unsatisfactory among meat handlers. This result is a testimony to the prevailing potential risk faced by consumers due to the disregarding of hygienic behaviors by food handlers. Considering attitude and knowledge are associated with the outcome variable, investing time on behavioral change activities that will contribute to the improvement of meat handler's attitude & practice, primarily focusing on reducing working while ill is essential. Therefore, much supervisory and coaching work will be expected from local health departments & regulatory bodies.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Carne , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1606-1614, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111327

RESUMO

Salmonella screening is a key to ensure food safety in poultry supply chains. Currently available Salmonella detection methods including culture, polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay could not achieve rapid, sensitive, and in-field detection. In this study, different strategies for separation and detection of Salmonella were proposed, compared, and improved based on our previous studies on immunomagnetic separation and impedance biosensor. First, the coaxial capillary for immunomagnetic separation of target bacteria was improved with less contamination, and 3 strategies based on the improved capillary and immunomagnetic nanoparticles were compared to separate the target bacteria from sample and form the magnetic bacteria. The experimental results showed that the strategy of capture in tube and separation in capillary was the most suitable with separation efficiency of approximately 88%. Then, the immune gold nanoparticles coated with urease were used to label the magnetic bacteria, resulting in the formation of enzymatic bacteria, which were injected into the capillary. After the urea was catalyzed by the urease on the enzymatic bacteria in the capillary, different electrodes were compared to measure the impedance of the catalysate and the screen-printed electrode with higher sensitivity and better stability was the most suitable. This impedance biosensor-based bacterial detection strategy was able to detect Salmonella as low as 102 CFU/mL in 2 h without complex operations. Compared to the gold standard culture method for practical screening of Salmonella in poultry supply chains, this proposed strategy had an accuracy of approximately 90% for 75 real poultry samples.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Galinhas , Patos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Separação Imunomagnética , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Impedância Elétrica , Microbiologia de Alimentos/instrumentação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(3): 805-816, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159651

RESUMO

The study aimed to develop a Quantitative Health Inspection Instrument (IQIS) large-sized Brazilian food and nutrition services. The inspection technology based on the Potential Risk Assessment Model (MARP) and the Brazilian Health Legislation was used. Twelve dimensions, 41 modules, and 57 risk control (critical/non-critical) indicators were structured on a scale of 0-5, totalling 1,512 indices with closed-ended response coding. The IQIS was validated with the Kappa Coefficient, with excellent agreement for the attributes of clarity and relevance (k = 0.82 and k = 0.92) and good agreement for applicability (k = 0.78). The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no statistically significant difference between the assessments (p = 0.423), the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient was satisfactory (ICC = 0.53), and Cronbach's Alpha (α = 0.71) was acceptable. The final result made it possible to classify the service as having an unacceptable health risk. IQIS is considered to have validated content, be reliable and reproducible to assess the hygienic-sanitary conditions, being a technological innovation for food and nutrition services and sanitary, allowing a detailed and rigorous inspection.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Serviços de Alimentação/normas , Brasil , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Humanos , Medição de Risco
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(3): 805-816, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089485

RESUMO

Resumo O estudo visou desenvolver um Instrumento Quantitativo para Inspeção Sanitária (IQIS) em serviços de alimentação e nutrição de grande porte no Brasil. Utilizou-se a tecnologia de inspeção, no Modelo de Avaliação do Risco Potencial (MARP) e legislação sanitária brasileira. Estruturaram-se 12 dimensões, 41 módulos, 57 indicadores de controle de riscos (críticos/não críticos), numa escala de 0-5, totalizando 1.512 índices com codificação de respostas fechadas. O IQIS foi validado com o Coeficiente de Kappa, com excelente concordância para atributos de clareza e relevância (k = 0,82 e k = 0,92) e boa concordância para o atributo aplicabilidade (k = 0,78). O teste de Kruskal-Wallis mostrou inexistir diferença significativa entre as avaliações (p = 0,423), o Coeficiente de Correlação Intraclasse foi satisfatório (CCI = 0,53), o Alpha de Cronbach (α = 0,71) aceitável. O resultado final possibilitou classificar o serviço como tendo risco sanitário inaceitável. Considera-se o IQIS com conteúdo validado, tendo confiabilidade e reprodutibilidade para avaliação higiênico-sanitária, sendo uma inovação tecnológica para serviços de alimentação e nutrição e vigilância sanitária, possibilitando inspeção detalhada e rigorosa.


Abstract The study aimed to develop a Quantitative Health Inspection Instrument (IQIS) large-sized Brazilian food and nutrition services. The inspection technology based on the Potential Risk Assessment Model (MARP) and the Brazilian Health Legislation was used. Twelve dimensions, 41 modules, and 57 risk control (critical/non-critical) indicators were structured on a scale of 0-5, totalling 1,512 indices with closed-ended response coding. The IQIS was validated with the Kappa Coefficient, with excellent agreement for the attributes of clarity and relevance (k = 0.82 and k = 0.92) and good agreement for applicability (k = 0.78). The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no statistically significant difference between the assessments (p = 0.423), the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient was satisfactory (ICC = 0.53), and Cronbach's Alpha (α = 0.71) was acceptable. The final result made it possible to classify the service as having an unacceptable health risk. IQIS is considered to have validated content, be reliable and reproducible to assess the hygienic-sanitary conditions, being a technological innovation for food and nutrition services and sanitary, allowing a detailed and rigorous inspection.


Assuntos
Humanos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Serviços de Alimentação/normas , Brasil , Medição de Risco , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto
17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 154: 112036, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056955

RESUMO

Biosensors contribute a lot to the reliable and sensitive detection in various fields, especially emerging trends of in-field and real-time detection for point-of-care diagnosis, food safety and environmental monitoring. The signal amplification that improves the analytical performance and the compact integration of various biosensing components with/in miniaturized and portable devices are essential but still challenging. Integrating the merits of bio-active proteins (enzyme, antibody, etc.) and nanomaterials (nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanosheets, nanoflowers etc.) with abundant physicochemical properties, numerous protein-nanomaterial hybrids (PN hybrids) have been designed and applied for biosensing in recent years. PN hybrids can serve as not only sensitive probes for analyte recognition and signal generation/amplification thereby enhancing analytical performance, but also miniaturized and full-functional sensing components that are easily combined with other devices, greatly simplifying the construction and assay procedures. In this review, the state-of-art strategies of PN hybrids for biosensing are summarized from the view of the role of nanomaterial components, i.e. immobilization matrix, catalyst, and label. Recent advances for the emerging in-field detection applications of PN hybrids with the incorporation of portable hand-held readers and miniaturized devices are then surveyed. The features of PN hybrids for the construction of these miniaturized biosensors are focused. The integration and synergy between proteins and nanomaterials for biosensing is emphasized and discussed.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Proteínas/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/tendências
18.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e14, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000877

RESUMO

There is world-wide increasing interest in the consumption of unprocessed, natural food commodities including fresh (unpasteurised) milk and milk products. Consumers are actively seeking out raw milk, partly due to health reasons, but also for taste, freshness, closeness to the producer and to support local agriculture. The need for high levels of hygiene and safety in farms producing raw milk for direct consumption has long been recognised and has led to federal and industry-initiated systems for safe raw milk production. Raw milk producers in North America and Europe have demonstrated that raw milk, intended for direct consumption, can be produced safe and hygienic. The aim of this paper is to describe practices that have been developed for safe raw milk production. The German Vorzugsmilch is a federally regulated programme for legal raw milk production that was established already in the 1930s to provide raw milk with high hygienic standards controlled for zoonotic diseases to consumers. The Raw Milk Institute is a non-profit organisation established in California that has developed a voluntary safe raw milk programme in North America. RAWMI has developed a risk analysis and management system for raw milk dairy farmers to assist farmers in making individually tailored solutions for various production systems. In British Colombia, Canada, small herd share farms have employed good manufacturing practices, a risk management approach and performed monthly samples for pathogens and indicator bacteria to demonstrate safety and consistency. The major components of the raw milk systems applied, and the results of regular milk microbial indicator bacteria are presented. For the German system, the results from standard monthly pathogen tests are compared to zoonotic pathogen tests from other milk sources. The overall results indicate that raw milk can be produced with a high level of hygiene and safety in various systems.


Assuntos
Indústria Alimentícia/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/normas , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Leite/microbiologia , Animais , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Humanos
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 319: 108496, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911209

RESUMO

Cassiae Semen (CS) has been widely used as roasted tea and traditional Chinese medicine for decades. However, CS is easily contaminated by fungi and mycotoxins during pre-harvest and post-harvest process, thus posing a potential threat to consumer health. In this study, we used the Illumina MiSeq PE300 platform and targeted the internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences to survey the occurrence of fungi in raw and roasted CS samples. Results showed the fungal contamination in all 12 test samples. Ascomycota was the prevailing fungus at the phylum level, with the relative abundance of 66.50%-99.42%. At the genus level, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Penicillium were the most dominant genera, accounting for 0.66%-85.51%, 0.20%-29.11%, and 0.11%-32.92% of the fungal reads, respectively. A total of 68 species were identified, among which six potential toxigenic fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Candida, and Schizophyllum genera were detected. Moreover, differences in fungal communities were observed in raw and roasted CS samples. In conclusion, amplicon sequencing is feasible for analyzing fungal communities in CS samples, which provides a new approach to investigate the fungal contamination in edible-medicinal herb, thereby ensuring food safety and drug efficacy.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum aromaticum/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Pólen/microbiologia , Aspergillus/genética , Candida/genética , Cladosporium/genética , DNA Intergênico/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Micobioma , Micotoxinas/análise , Penicillium/genética , Chá/microbiologia
20.
J Helminthol ; 94: e117, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948494

RESUMO

Metacercariae of various species within the genus Holostephanus Szidat, 1936 (Trematoda: Digenea: Cyathocotylidae) occur in muscles of both farmed and wild fish, including common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758). The life cycle includes a snail as first intermediate host, fish as second intermediate host and birds or mammals as final hosts. We studied the zoonotic potential and the viability of Holostephanus metacercariae from common carp following exposure to various physical and chemical treatments. Muscle tissue samples of common carp specimens from a fish farm in the north-eastern part of Hungary were examined and metacercariae recovered. The zoonotic potential was evaluated experimentally by using small mammals as models (albino mice, n = 2; and Syrian hamsters, n = 4) infected per os with Holostephanus cysts. Parallelly, Metagonimus metacercariae were used as positive controls. We could not confirm the zoonotic potential of Holostephanus metacercariae as they did not survive in the mammalian intestine whereas Metagonimus metacercariae developed to the adult stage. We assessed the viability of metacercariae isolated from common carp specimens during exposure to different physical treatments (temperatures of -18°C, +20°C, +40°C and +60°C) and chemical agents (5% and 10% acetic acid and 10% sodium chloride (NaCl)). Metacercariae lost viability by freezing at -18°C (2 h), heating at 60°C (20 min), incubation in 5% and 10% acetic acid (5 min) and 10% NaCl (2 h). These methods served as models to investigate the effectiveness of food preparation techniques (such as cold and hot smoking, freezing, salting and pickling) on the survival of metacercariae.


Assuntos
Carpas/parasitologia , Produtos Pesqueiros/parasitologia , Metacercárias/isolamento & purificação , Trematódeos , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Animais , Bioensaio/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Congelamento , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Mesocricetus/parasitologia , Metacercárias/patogenicidade , Camundongos , Músculos/parasitologia , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Temperatura , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Trematódeos/transmissão , Zoonoses/parasitologia
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