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1.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1155-1160, out.-dez. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1021976

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analisar as tendências temporais e o perfil epidemiológico das principais causas de mortalidade em residentes do município de Lagarto, Sergipe, entre 2006 a 2015. Métodos: Estudo epidemiológico, descritivo e de série histórica, através de dados secundários dos óbitos notificados no Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade (SIM). A análise das tendências temporais foi realizada pelo Programa Joinpoint Regression obtendo-se a variação percentual anual (APC) das taxas de mortalidade por meio da regressão Possion. Resultados: Foram notificados 5.586 óbitos, com predomínio do sexo masculino e idosos, 58% e 59,61% respectivamente. Observou-se um aumento da taxa de mortalidade geral de 1,58% ao ano (IC95%: 0,5 a 2,6; p=0,01). Somente as taxas de mortalidade infantil (TMI) e de seus componentes apresentaram tendências decrescentes. Conclusão: Apesar da tendência decrescente das TMI, as mesmas requerem ações especializada, bem como para a redução da mortalidade por doenças crônicas


Objective: The study's purpose has been to analyze the temporal trends and the epidemiological profile of the main causes of mortality in residents of the Lagarto City, Sergipe State, between 2006 and 2015. Methods: This is an epidemiological, descriptive and historical series study, through secondary data on deaths reported in Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade (SIM) [Mortality Information System]. The analysis of temporal trends was performed by the Joinpoint Regression Program, obtaining the Annual Percentage Change (APC) of mortality rates through Possion Regression. Results: 5,586 deaths were reported, with men predominating 58% and the elderly people 59.61%. There was an increase in the overall mortality rate of 1.58% per year (95% CI 0.5 to 2.6, p = 0.01). Only Infant Mortality Rates (IMR) and their components showed declining trends. Conclusion: Despite the decreasing tendency of the IMR, they require specialized actions, as well as the reduction of mortality due to chronic diseases


Objetivo: Analizar las tendencias temporales y el perfil epidemiológico de las principales causas de mortalidad en residentes de la ciudad de Lagarto, Sergipe, entre 2006 y 2015. Método: series epidemiológicas, descriptivas e históricas, a través de datos secundarios sobre muertes relatadas en la Mortalidad Información SIM). El análisis fue realizado por el Programa de Regresión del Joinpoint, obteniendo Variaciones de las tasas de mortalidad a través de la Posibilidad de regresión. Resultados: 5.586 muertes fueron reportadas, con predominio de hombres 58% y ancianos 59.61%. Se observó un aumento en la tasa de mortalidad global del 1,58% anual (IC 95%: 0,5 a 2,6, p = 0,01). Sólo las tasas de mortalidad infantil (IMR) y sus componentes presentaron tendencias en declive. Conclusión: A pesar de la tendencia decreciente del IMR, ellos requieren acciones especializadas, así como la reducción de la mortalidad por enfermedades crónicas


Assuntos
Humanos , Perfil de Saúde , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Mortalidade , Brasil , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Planejamento em Saúde
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 839-844, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581163

RESUMO

The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits the inclusion of characterizing flavors (e.g., candy or fruit) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products at the federal level.* Flavored tobacco products can appeal to youths and young adults and influence initiation and establishment of tobacco-use patterns (1). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed data from the 2014-2018 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) to determine prevalence of current (past 30-day) use of flavored tobacco products, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), hookah tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, smokeless tobacco, bidis, and menthol cigarettes among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. In 2018, an estimated 3.15 million (64.1%) youth tobacco product users currently used one or more flavored tobacco products, compared with 3.26 million (70.0%) in 2014. Despite this overall decrease in use of flavored tobacco products, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased among high school students during 2014-2018; among middle school students, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased during 2015-2018, following a decrease during 2014-2015. During 2014-2018, current use of flavored hookah tobacco decreased among middle and high school students; current use of flavored smokeless tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, and menthol cigarettes decreased among high school students. Full implementation of comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies, coupled with regulation of tobacco products by FDA, can help prevent and reduce use of tobacco products, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths (2,3).


Assuntos
Aromatizantes , Estudantes/psicologia , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 845-850, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581164

RESUMO

Use of marijuana at an early age can affect memory, school performance, attention, and learning; conclusions have been mixed regarding its impact on mental health conditions, including psychosis, depression, and anxiety (1-3). Medical marijuana has been legal in Washington since 1998, and in 2012, voters approved the retail sale of marijuana for recreational use to persons aged ≥21 years. The first retail stores opened for business in July 2014. As more states legalize marijuana use by adults aged ≥21 years, the effect of legalization on use by youths will be important to monitor. To guide planning of activities aimed at reducing marijuana use by youths and to inform ongoing policy development, Public Health-Seattle & King County assessed trends and characteristics of past 30-day marijuana use among King County, Washington, public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12. This report used biennial data for 2004-2016 from the Washington State Healthy Youth Survey. Among grade 6 students there was a decreasing trend in self-reported past 30-day marijuana use from 2004 to 2016, while the percentage of grade 8 students who had used marijuana during the past 30 days did not change during that period. Among students in grades 10 and 12, self-reported past 30-day use of marijuana increased from 2004 to 2012, then declined from 2012 to 2016. In 2016, the percentage of students with past 30-day marijuana use in King County was 0.6% among grade 6, 4.1% among grade 8, 13.9% among grade 10, and 25.5% among grade 12 students. Among grade 10 students, 24.0% of past 30-day marijuana users also smoked cigarettes, compared with 1.3% of nonusers. From 2004 to 2016 the prevalence of perception of great risk of harm from regular marijuana use decreased across all grades. Continued surveillance using consistent measures is needed to monitor the impact of marijuana legalization and emerging public health issues, given variable legislation approaches among jurisdictions.


Assuntos
Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/tendências , Setor Público , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Washington/epidemiologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17302, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574856

RESUMO

With the deepening population aging process in China, the medical expenses of older adults has become a widespread concerned. Medical insurance is a major source of Chinese medical financing and payment. The study aims to understand the current status of medical expenses for older adults and explore the effect of different types of health insurance on medical expenses in China.The data came from the Chinese Longitudinal Health Longevity Survey (CLHLS) in 2014. The Kruskal-Wallis test and general multivariate linear regression model were applied to analyze the current situation and to explore how medical insurance as the main payment impacts medical expenses.A total of 4376 older participants were included in this study. The median of medical expenses of a total was 1500 Yuan per year. The proportions of participants who had the urban employee-based basic medical insurance (UE-BMI), the urban residents basic medical insurance (UR-BMI), the new rural cooperative medical insurance scheme (NCMS), and the commercial medical insurance were 10.8%, 8.4%, 72.7%, and 0.9%, respectively. 34.8% of older adults paid the health care service via the NCMS and 11.9% paid via the UE-BMI. Participating in the NCMS and UR-BMI are significantly related to the level of the medical fees of older adults. UE-BMI, UR-BMI, and NCMS as main payment eased the pressure of medical expenses.The influence of different types of medical insurances as main payments on the medical expenses of older adults is varied. Implementation of medical insurance should be taken to further relieve the medical expenses of older adults.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Transição Epidemiológica , Humanos , Longevidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190002, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576978

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) has been used in surveys with key populations at risk of HIV infection, such as female sex workers (FSW). This article describes the application of the RDS method among FSW in 12 Brazilian cities, during a survey carried out in 2016. METHODOLOGY: A biological and behavioral surveillance study carried out in 12 Brazilian cities, with a minimum sample of 350 FSW in each city. Tests were performed for HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C infections. A social-behavioral questionnaire was also applied. RESULTS: The sample was comprised of 4,328 FSW. For data analysis, the sample was weighted according to each participant's network size (due consideration to the implications of RDS complex design and to the effects of homophilia are recommended). DISCUSSION: Although RDS methods for obtaining a statistical sample are based on strong statistical assumptions, allowing for an estimation of statistical parameters, with each new application the method has been rethought. In the analysis of whole-sample data, estimators were robust and compatible with those found in 2009. However, there were significant variations according to each city. CONCLUSION: The achieved sample size was of great relevance for assessing progress and identifying problems regarding the prevention and treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections. New RDS studies with more time and operational resources should be envisaged. This could further network development.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Tamanho da Amostra , Amostragem , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529180

RESUMO

Eating disorders are of high clinical and societal relevance. They are among the most common chronic mental illnesses in adulthood, but show a high incidence rate and peak of disease onset even in adolescence. Eating disorders are associated with far-reaching costs, such as acute or chronic comorbidities and educational or professional attainment.Thus, from a public mental health perspective, it is essential to explore symptoms and risk factors of eating disorders and to monitor prevalence rates across time to evaluate the relevance and effectiveness of prevention measures.In the present study, the recent prevalence of eating disorder symptoms among 11- to 17-year-old children and adolescents living in Germany is reported based on the Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 2, 2014-2017, N = 6599, 51.7% boys) and compared to the prevalence rates 10 years ago (KiGGS Baseline, 2003-2006, N = 6633, 51.5% boys). Moreover, we investigate a selection of risk factors for eating disorder symptoms.In KiGGS Wave 2, 19.8% of the children and adolescents showed eating disorder symptoms, a drop of 2.8 percentage points in the prevalence rate as compared to the KiGGS Baseline. The drop in the prevalence rate pertains to 11- to 13-year-old boys while the risk for 14- to 17-year-old adolescents and particularly among girls remained comparably high. Children and adolescents with emotional problems, low family cohesion, low self-efficacy, or who perceive themselves as too thick or thin, show an increased risk for eating disorder symptoms.Previous approaches and possible supplements for the prevention of eating disorders are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
7.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529181

RESUMO

Trends of frequent chronic diseases and health problems, e.g. allergic diseases, have already been published based on the KiGGS Wave 2 study as part of the health monitoring of children and adolescents in Germany. The present work complements these findings with results on less frequent noncommunicable diseases and the trend of communicable, vaccine-preventable diseases.Information from parents about diagnoses and diseases of their 0­ to 17-year-old children from the representative cross-sectional survey KiGGS Wave 2 (2014-2017) are compared with those from the KiGGS baseline survey (2003-2006) and KiGGS Wave 1 (2009-2012).The current KiGGS results show almost unchanged prevalences for the noncommunicable diseases epilepsy, migraine, and heart disease. However, the data from KiGGS Wave 2 are supportive of an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus, which nevertheless continues to be relatively rare and predominantly type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents.The decline in measles, chicken pox, and whooping cough diseases related to changes in vaccination recommendations shows that preventive measures can effectively benefit children and adolescents.However, the data on vaccine-preventable diseases indicate regionally varying immunity gaps in certain age groups, so the prevention potential of the vaccination recommendations of the Standing Vaccination Commission (STIKO) at the Robert Koch Institute does not seem to have been sufficiently exploited.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Varicela/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/epidemiologia , Convulsões Febris/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529182

RESUMO

In KiGGS Wave 2, data from 3­ to 17-year-olds were collected from a total of 3462 persons using a standardized interview on the current use of AM/NEM in the last seven days. For trends analysis, data from 14,679 study participants in the same age group from the KiGGS baseline study were used.In KiGGS Wave 2, 36.4% (95% CI 34.1-38.8) of the 3­ to 17-year-olds had used at least one AM/NEM in the last seven days. The prevalence was highest at 46.5% in 14- to 17-year-olds and significantly different between girls and boys (56.4% vs. 37.3%). Only among girls were there significant differences by migrant background with a higher prevalence of use among girls without a migrant background.Most frequently, the preparations used were for treatment of the respiratory tract (girls: 14.2%, boys: 14.9%), followed by "Varia" (girls: 8.7%, boys: 9.3%) and preparations for the treatment of the musculoskeletal system (girls: 8.9%, boys: 5.8%). There was a significant decrease in the overall prevalence of medicine use compared to the KiGGS baseline study (46.4% vs. 36.4%). This decrease was mainly due to lower prevalences of use in the ATC main groups "N Nervous System" (7.5% vs. 5.4%), "J Systemic Anti-infectives" (2.5% vs. 1.4%) and "H Systemic Hormones, excl. Sexual Hormones and Insulins" (2.0% vs. 1.1%).The results describe key points in the use of AM/NEM, including self-medication for children and adolescents in Germany. They illustrate the use behaviour and represent a valuable supplement to prescription data.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Automedicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
9.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain not only causes suffering in children and adolescents, but also leads to school absenteeism, medication intake, medical treatment, and an increased risk of recurrent pain in adulthood. OBJECTIVES: Based on data from the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 2, 2014-2017), the 3­month prevalence of recurrent headache, abdominal and back pain in girls and boys is reported, and is compared with the prevalence from the KiGGS baseline survey (2003-2006). The consequences of recurrent headache were also explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from >11,000 participants (KiGGS Wave 2) and from >12,000 (KiGGS baseline) participants aged between 3 and 17 years were analyzed. For 3­ to 10-year-olds, parents/guardians answered the questions, while 11- to 17-year-olds provided information themselves. RESULTS: In 3­ to 10-year-olds, recurrent abdominal pain was most prevalent, affecting one third of girls and one quarter of boys. Headache was the most frequent type of pain in 11- to 17-year-olds, affecting almost every second girl and about every third boy. The 3­month prevalence of recurrent headache, abdominal and back pain has increased in girls and boys, especially in the age groups 7 to 10 years and 11 to 13 years. Among recurrent headache sufferers, adolescents take medication almost twice as often as children. CONCLUSIONS: Headache, abdominal, and back pain are still and with increasing prevalence very common symptoms in children and adolescents in Germany. Their prevention requires a holistic view of children's health in the psychosocial living environment, and healthcare context.


Assuntos
Dor/epidemiologia , Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Dor nas Costas/epidemiologia , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
10.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is increasingly established as an indicator for the subjective health of children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the current HRQoL among children and adolescents in Germany aged between 11 and 17 years taking into account common chronic diseases (bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis, obesity, ADHD) and mental health problems. METHODS: The analysis is based on information obtained from 6,599 children and adolescents (51.9% girls; 48.1% boys) from KiGGS Wave 2 (2014-2017). HRQoL was measured with the multidimensional KIDSCREEN-27. The chronic diseases and mental health problems under investigation were assessed by several indicators. RESULTS: Differences in HRQoL could be found as a function of age and gender. The HRQoL among girls was lower at an older age across all dimensions. These age-related differences are less pronounced among boys. The HRQoL of children and adolescents with chronic diseases and mental health problems was lower compared to their healthy peer groups. The comparison of the investigated chronic diseases and mental health problems revealed significant differences. Particularly, HRQoL was lower for children and adolescents with obesity and mental health problems. DISCUSSION: The distinction of several dimensions of HRQoL allows a comprehensive understanding of age- and gender-related effects and provides a detailed assessment of the impact of chronic diseases and mental health problems. The present findings underline the importance of HRQoL as an indicator for the subjective health of children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unintentional injuries are one of the most common health problems in childhood and adolescence. Information on the distribution and variation of accident prevalence is an important basis for accident prevention. The second follow-up survey of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 2, 2014-17) enables the continuation of non-fatal accident monitoring at the federal level that began with the KiGGS baseline study (2003-06). METHODS: KiGGS Wave 2 is a nationwide cross-sectional survey conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) with participation of 15,023 children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 (response rate: 40.1%). Parents were interviewed about unintentional injuries of their children. Information on accidents is available from 2429 children and adolescents (1-17 years). Twelve-month prevalences with 95% CI were calculated and comparisons were made between KiGGS Wave 2 and the previous KiGGS surveys. RESULTS: Within the last 12 months, 16.5% of 1­ to 17-year-old children and adolescents were medically treated for an accidental injury, with boys (18.6%) requiring treatment significantly more frequently than girls (14.3%). Of the total, 4.8% had three or more accidents. Every eighth injured child (12.4%) stayed in hospital for at least one night. Children and adolescents under 18 years were most likely to have accidents at home, in educational and care facilities, on playgrounds and in sports facilities. CONCLUSION: Injury risks in childhood and adolescence vary primarily according to age and gender, but also, for example, according to personal and environmental factors. Knowledge of such contextual conditions is of great importance for the development of prevention measures. Since the beginning of the KiGGS study, there have been hardly any changes and no decrease in unintentional injuries in childhood and adolescence.


Assuntos
Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
12.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529186

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Differences in the health status and health behavior of children and adolescents are analyzed, taking the income situation of the family into account. METHOD: The data is based on the second wave of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 2, 2014-2017). Health outcomes are the subjective health, chronic health limitations, mental disorders, ADHD, consumption of fresh fruit, consumption of sugary soft drinks, physical activity, sports activity during leisure time, overweight, and obesity. The income situation is recorded using the equivalized household income. RESULTS: Poor children and adolescents are more likely to have health problems than their peers from the middle- and, especially, the high-income group; their health behavior is less favorable. The biggest relative income-related differences are found in subjective health. With statistical control for parental education and occupational status, income-related differences in health status remain consistent while being significantly reduced for health behavior. DISCUSSION: The results confirm that low family income has a significant impact on the health of children and adolescents. Partly, this also applies to their health behavior, whereby the observed differences between the income groups can be attributed mainly to parental education and occupational status. This shows once again that children and adolescents growing up in poverty should be a key target group for prevention and health promotion.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Pobreza , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
13.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529188

RESUMO

Regular physical activity and good motor performance are the basis for healthy physical development in childhood and are considered a protective factor for various health risks. However, children and adolescents in Germany are not physically active enough because sedentary activities have increased. One consequence is the decline in motor capacity, the totality of structures and functions that are responsible for the performance of motor actions.In the second follow-up survey of the study on the health of children and adolescents in Germany (KiGGS Wave 2, 2014-2017), the motor performance (LF) of 4­ to 10-year-old children was examined with three motor tests: one-leg stand (EIN), stand and reach (RB), and jumping sideways (SHH). The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the tests and to compare them with data from the KiGGS baseline survey (2003-2006). It also analyzes how motor performance differs in terms of different characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, obesity, and physical activity.Compared to the KiGGS baseline survey, the 4­ to 10-year-olds' motor performance in KiGGS Wave 2 has slightly improved in EIN, but RB and SHH are stagnating at low level. The test results indicate that middle and high social status, club sport activity, and "no overweight" are associated with above-average motor performance.Health policy, sports organizations, schools, and kindergartens should work together more closely so that all children have the same chance of good motor performance.


Assuntos
Exercício , Esportes , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Atividade Motora
14.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current results of the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents" (KiGGS Wave 2, 2014-2017) indicate that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Germany has hardly changed during this period. OBJECTIVES: What are the current prevalences for the other categories of the BMI distribution (severe underweight, underweight, and extreme obesity) and what changes have occurred between the KiGGS baseline survey (2003-2006) and KiGGS Wave 2 with regard to the BMI categories and the distribution of BMI values? MATERIALS AND METHODS: KiGGS Wave 2 analyses are based on data from 1762 boys and 1799 girls aged 3 to 17 years with valid measurements of height and weight. The KiGGS baseline survey provides information on 7531 boys and 7215 girls for trend evaluations. RESULTS: For underweight prevalence as well as for the prevalence of extreme obesity no change over time can be observed. The BMI percentiles also show only minor differences between the two survey periods with a marginal shift of the upper BMI percentiles downwards before puberty and a slight increase after puberty. There is no clear shift in the BMI distribution towards lower BMI values. DISCUSSION: There are now many activities at the national, regional, and local level that focus on prevention and intervention to reduce overweight and obesity. The marginal shifts in the upper BMI percentiles in the upper BMI percentiles before puberty observed here suggest that some success may have been achieved in obesity prevention among children in Germany.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
15.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though 36.5% of children and adolescents living in Germany have a migration background (MB), data on the health of this population is scarce. With population-based data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 2, 2014-2017), reliable statements can be given. METHODS: Data from KiGGS Wave 2 is used in order to report on general health status, mental health, and the distribution of allergic diseases among children and adolescents aged 3-17 years (n = 13,568). To determine overweight, standardized measurements of body weight and height (n = 3463) were used. In addition to the MB (none/one-sided/two-sided), the socioeconomic status (SES) is considered. In multivariate analyses among children and adolescents with MB, SES and the parents' duration of stay in Germany were included. RESULTS: Participants with a two-sided MB show lower prevalence of neurodermatitis (3.5% vs. 6.9%) and ADHS (2.0% vs. 5.1%) than those without a migration background and higher prevalence of fair to poor general health status (6.1% vs. 3.9%). Children and adolescents with a two-sided migration background are more often affected by overweight than those without migration background (22.1% vs. 12.2%). After considering SES, the chances of a diagnosed neurodermatitis and ADHS remain higher and the chances for overweight are lower in children and adolescents with a migration background than among those without migration background. If only children with MB are considered, SES and partially the parents' duration of stay in Germany are associated with health outcomes. CONCLUSION: Differences in the general health status of children and adolescents with and without MB vary depending on the observed indicators. The heterogeneity of children and adolescents with MB, e.g. regarding SES and parents' duration of stay, should be considered when planning and implementing measures of health promotion.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Classe Social , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(8): 538-541, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is frequently encountered in people traveling from high-income to low-income countries; however, its epidemiology in those traveling between high-income countries is not known. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of diarrhea in North American students relocating to Israel. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study involving medical students from the United States and Canada relocating to Israel was conducted. Students who relocated to Israel during 2010-2016 were contacted by email to participate in an anonymous survey. Data included demographic information as well as occurrence, timing, duration, and outcome of diarrhea after relocation. RESULTS: Ninety-seven students participated in the survey. Most (93.7%) students relocated from the United States or Canada. The period-prevalence of diarrhea was 69.1%. The incidence of diarrhea declined from 34.8 cases per 100 student-months during the first month after relocation to 1.3 cases per 100 student-months after 1 year. The duration of diarrhea was up to 1 week in 72.7%. Students who reported diarrhea were younger than students who did not (mean age 24.0 ± 2.2 and 28.4 ± 1.8 years, respectively, P < 0.001). No other demographic parameter was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of North American medical students relocating to Israel reported diarrhea with clinical and epidemiological features similar to classic TD. Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative agents of TD in Israel.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Canadá/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diarreia/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Viagem , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1891-1892, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438393

RESUMO

We piloted a Spanish and English survey on data privacy. Thirty-one Latino behavioral health patients completed the survey in person with a preference for paper (78%) over electronic questionnaire. Dialect variations across Latino countries and the lack of tools to assess reading level in Spanish affected comprehension. Our experience will help others address similar tasks more effectively and encourage inclusion of Latino populations in future research.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hispano-Americanos , Privacidade , Humanos , Linguagem , Projetos Piloto
19.
N Engl J Med ; 381(7): 668-676, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412182

RESUMO

Knowledge gained from observational cohort studies has dramatically advanced the prevention and treatment of diseases. Many of these cohorts, however, are small, lack diversity, or do not provide comprehensive phenotype data. The All of Us Research Program plans to enroll a diverse group of at least 1 million persons in the United States in order to accelerate biomedical research and improve health. The program aims to make the research results accessible to participants, and it is developing new approaches to generate, access, and make data broadly available to approved researchers. All of Us opened for enrollment in May 2018 and currently enrolls participants 18 years of age or older from a network of more than 340 recruitment sites. Elements of the program protocol include health questionnaires, electronic health records (EHRs), physical measurements, the use of digital health technology, and the collection and analysis of biospecimens. As of July 2019, more than 175,000 participants had contributed biospecimens. More than 80% of these participants are from groups that have been historically underrepresented in biomedical research. EHR data on more than 112,000 participants from 34 sites have been collected. The All of Us data repository should permit researchers to take into account individual differences in lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, environment, and biologic characteristics in order to advance precision diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Pesquisa Biomédica , Estudos de Coortes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Medicina de Precisão , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estados Unidos
20.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 99(31): 2429-2434, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434422

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the prevalence, demographic characteristics and social life function of mental disorders in the rural left behind elderly aged 60 years and older in Gansu. Methods: Between November 2017 and June 2018, a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to randomly select the rural left behind elderly aged 60 years and older in Gansu, and totally 6 000 elderly were enrolled. By using the extended general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the American Handbook for Diagnosis and Statistics of Mental Disorders (DSM-Ⅳ) Axis Ⅰ Disorders Formal Clinical Examination Patient Edition, all the included subjects were screened and diagnosed. Functional status was assessed by the Global Assessment Function scale (GAF). Statistical analysis of the prevalence of various mental illnesses, as well as the differences in the prevalence of different gender, marital status and age groups was performed. Results: Totally, 6 000 subjects completed the survey. The adjusted current prevalence of any mental disorder was 20.11% (95%CI 17.70%-22.85%). The six most prevalent specific disorders were major depressive disorder (9.20%), pain disorder (2.71%), mood disorder due to the body condition (2.08%), generalized anxiety disorder (1.99%), anxiety disorder not otherwise specified (1.15%) and dysthymic disorder (0.84%). The lifetime prevalence of mental disorders was 20.54% (95%CI 18.40%-23.39%). The overall current prevalence of mental disorders was higher in women (242.89‰) than in men (119.55‰), and the unmarried (248.37‰) was higher than those married (187.53‰). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of mental disorders among different age groups (P>0.05). The GAF score of mental disorders was 56±11, and 71.82% was moderate to severe functional impairment. Conclusions: The prevalence of mental disorders is high in rural left-behind population aged 60 years and over in Gansu Province. Major depression is a condition that deserves special attention.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos Mentais , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor , Prevalência , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
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