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1.
San Salvador; Guillermo Alfonso Aguirre Escobar; Primera Edición; 08.10.2020. 70 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122047

RESUMO

Introducción: Considerando la revisión bibliográfica realizada y los datos oficiales disponibles, se podría afirmar que El Salvador sufre un analfabetismo epidemiológico en lo referente a las principales afecciones del Sistema Estomatognático, debido entre otras múltiples causas a la carencia o limitado número de estudios con rigor científico-metodológico, que reflejen la situación global de las principales afecciones del Sistema Estomatognático en diferentes grupos etarios. Ante ello, se realiza la primera encuesta de salud bucal a nivel nacional, apegada a lo establecido metodológicamente por la OMS, criterios actualizados y considerando muestras representativas de diferentes edades, zonas geográficas del país y condiciones sociodemográficas. Objetivos: Determinar la condición de salud bucal y las necesidades de tratamiento de la población salvadoreña a través de la aplicación de diferentes indicadores epidemiológicos, caracterizar la población según condición sociodemográfica, identificar sus conocimientos y prácticas en salud bucal. Metodología: El diseño corresponde a un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, característico de una encuesta de salud oral y metodología Pathfinder según OMS. El trabajo de campo se efectuó en 24 municipios de El Salvador, entre 2016 y 2017. La muestra total fue de 3881 salvadoreños, de ambos sexos, distribuidos en seis grupos etarios (2-5, 5-6, 6-12, 13-17,18-30, 31-45 y 60 a más), siguiendo la técnica de muestreo estratificado por conglomerados sugerida por el Manual de Encuestas de Salud Bucodental de la OMS, 2013. Los datos fueron analizados en SPSS V25, donde fueron calculadas las medias, desviaciones estándar y porcentajes de las variables analizadas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal , Saúde Bucal , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Índice de Higiene Oral , Índice Periodontal , Cárie Dentária , Fluorose Dentária
7.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200098, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between the impact of oral health on daily life and sociodemographic variables with oral parameters in adolescents living in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with data from 5,409 adolescents who participated in the "State Oral Health Survey of São Paulo - OH", 2015. The impact of oral health on daily life was assessed by the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) index, prevalence (presence or absence of impact) and severity of impact (OIDP scores). The negative binomial regression model (zeros-inflated) was used, considering the complex sampling and the sample weights. Prevalence ratio (PR), ratio of means (ROM) and confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of impact was 37.4%. After adjusting for the model, the impact was more prevalent (PR = 1.59; 95%CI 1.22 ‒ 1.81) and more severe (RR = 1.49; 95%CI 1.22 ‒ 1.81) among females. Compared to white-skin people, all remaining groups had a higher prevalence of impact. Among socioeconomic characteristics, family income higher than R$ 2,501 (RR = 0.79; 95%CI 0.64 ‒ 0.98) and household crowding (RR = 1.18; 95%CI 1.00 ‒ 1.39) were associated with the severity of impact. In the oral health conditions, untreated caries (PR = 1.46; 95%CI 1.23 ‒ 1.74) and gingival bleeding (PR = 1.35; 95%CI 1.14 ‒ 1.60) were associated with higher prevalence of impact. CONCLUSION: Females, non-whites, with untreated caries and gingival bleeding were associated with higher impact of oral health on daily life. Family income higher than R$ 2,500 and living in less crowded households were factors associated with less impact.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Doenças da Boca/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200101, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in Brazil and the associated factors. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional household-based epidemiological survey. Data were collected from the National Health Survey (PNS), conducted in 2013, by carrying out creatinine blood test and GFR calculation (n = 7,457). The groups of explanatory variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyles, chronic diseases, anthropometry, and health assessment. The prevalence of GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and the respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated using the Poisson regression to calculate the crude and adjusted prevalence ratio (PR and adjPR) by age, sex, education level, and region. RESULTS: The prevalence of GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was 6.48% (95%CI 5.88 - 7.09). After the adjustment, the following aspects remained associated: women (PR = 1.40; 95%CI 1.16 - 1.68), age of 45-59 years (adjPR = 7.27; 95%CI 3.8 - 14.1), 60 years or older (adjPR = 33.55; 95%CI 17.8 - 63.4), obesity (PR = 1.32 (95%CI 1.1 - 1.7), diabetes (PR = 1.44; 95%CI 1.2 - 1.8), poor/very poor self-rated health (PR = 1.50; 95%CI 1.2 - 1.9); and the lowest adjPR was found for the Northeast and Southeast regions, among smokers with high salt intake. CONCLUSION: GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was higher in women, increased with age, in addition to being associated with obesity, diabetes, and poor self-rated health. Knowing the prevalence of chronic kidney disease through biochemical tests and risk and protective factors are paramount to support public health policies.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
9.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 90, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors associated with diarrheal disease in the rural Caribbean region of Colombia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study conducted in the rural area of the Cesar Department, Colombia, between November 2017 and June 2018. Self-reported cases of diarrheal disease were surveyed, and water samples from 42 households were collected and analyzed. Descriptive statistics were employed in the analysis of socioeconomic status, environmental and sanitary conditions, and we evaluated their association with the diarrheal disease using the Poisson regression models. Each model was adjusted with variables suggested by specific directed acyclic graphs. RESULTS: Poor water supply conditions, hygiene and basic sanitation were reported in the study area. All water samples were classified either as high risk for health problems or unfit for human consumption. The diarrheal disease had a prevalence of 7.5% across all ages and of 23.5% in children under five years old. The variables rainy season (PR = 0.24; 95%CI 0.07-0.85), children under five years old (PR = 4.05; 95%CI 1.70-9.68), water from deep wells (PR = 16.90; 95%CI 2.45-116.67), water from artificial ponds (PR = 11.47; 95%CI 1.27-103.29), toilets availability (PRA = 0.23; 95%CI 0.06-0.96), and swine presence (PR = 0.20; 95%CI 0.05-0.74) were significantly associated with the occurrence of diarrheal disease. CONCLUSION: Water supply, hygiene and basic sanitation conditions have been associated with the diarrheal disease, affecting almost a quarter of the population under five years old. There is an urge for the design of effective policies that improve environmental and sanitation conditions in rural areas.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Global Health ; 16(1): 93, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak, called coronavirus disease - 2019 (COVID-19), has affected more than 200 countries across the globe with a higher fatality rate among the elderly population. Aim of the study is to highlight the vulnerability of the aged amidst the current COVID-19 pandemic, and in the light of the recent international evidence, suggests what government could do to mitigate their vulnerability. METHODS: Data from the recently released (November 2019) 75th Round National Sample Survey (NSS), which was conducted from July 2017 to June 2018, across 8077 rural villages and 6181 urban wards was used for this study. Data collected from 555,115 individuals (rural: 325,232; urban: 229,232) included 42,762 elderly individuals (60 years or above). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used for the calculation. RESULTS: Of the total sample of elderly individuals, 27.7% reported suffering from an ailment in the last 15 days, whereas 8.5% had been hospitalized during the last 365 days. Among the elderly, hospitalization rate was higher in the urban areas (OR: 1.23), general social category (OR: 1.18), richest economic quintile (OR: 1.69), and among those living alone (OR: 2.40). Also, among the elderly, 64% of those in the scheduled tribe (social group) and 51% in the poorest economic quintile utilized public facilities for hospitalization. Cardiovascular ailments were the major cause for hospitalization (18.1%) and outpatient visit (32%) among the elderly. Ailments related to diabetes and hypertension constituted 55% of outpatient visit for the elderly. Only 18.9% of the elderly had health insurance though chances of facing catastrophic health expenditures were high among the elderly. 6.6% of elderly female and 1.6% male live alone, and 27.5% of age 80 years and above are immobile. 50% of male and 90% of female are financially dependent on others and more so in poorer economic quintiles. CONCLUSIONS: The vulnerability of India's elderly increases across economic levels, and other dimensions such as the place of residence, gender, social group (caste), marital status, living arrangements, surviving children, and economic dependence. The current COVID-19 pandemic poses a greater risk of social isolation among the elderly, which may cause detrimental health impact. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable since the study is based on secondary data.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Equidade em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 66(3): 272-286, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876561

RESUMO

Validation of the Short-Form-Health-Survey-12 (SF-12 Version 2.0) assessing health-related quality of life in a normative German sample Objectives: Convergent and divergent validation of the Short-Form-Health-Survey-12 assessing HRQoL by analyzing its associations with depressiveness (PHQ-9), social support (OSS-3) and satisfaction with life (SWLS). Methods: A normative German sample (N = 2.524) was analyzed using correlation, regression as well as confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling for ordinal data. Results: The SF-12-scale Mental Health is associated most strongly with the validation criteria (PHQ: r[scales/constructs] = -.73/-.88, OSS-3: r = .35/.55, SWLS: r = .47/.62). Mental Health (ß = .36) and Social Support (OSS-3; ß = .25) allow to explain a significant amount of variance of the SWLS (R2 = .28). On construct level Emotional Role Functioning (ß = .28) proved to be significant additionally. Conclusions: The SF-12 scales are associated with the validation criteria as expected. The SF- 12 proved to be suitable for modelling core components of HRQoL within a biopsychosocial framework aiming at predicting satisfaction with life.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/normas , Qualidade de Vida , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22817, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has generally increased levels of stress and depression among the public. However, the impact on college students in the United States has not been well-documented. OBJECTIVE: This paper surveys the mental health status and severity of depression and anxiety of college students in a large university system in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An online survey was conducted among undergraduate and graduate students recruited from Texas A&M University via email. The survey consisted of two standardized scales-the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the General Anxiety Disorder-7-for depression and anxiety, and additional multiple-choice and open-ended questions regarding stressors and coping mechanisms specific to COVID-19. RESULTS: Among the 2031 participants, 48.14% (n=960) showed a moderate-to-severe level of depression, 38.48% (n=775) showed a moderate-to-severe level of anxiety, and 18.04% (n=366) had suicidal thoughts. A majority of participants (n=1443, 71.26%) indicated that their stress/anxiety levels had increased during the pandemic. Less than half of the participants (n=882, 43.25%) indicated that they were able to cope adequately with the stress related to the current situation. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of respondents showing depression, anxiety, and/or suicidal thoughts is alarming. Respondents reported academic-, health-, and lifestyle-related concerns caused by the pandemic. Given the unexpected length and severity of the outbreak, these concerns need to be further understood and addressed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e19716, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most people who experience a potentially traumatic event (PTE) recover on their own. A small group of individuals develops psychological complaints, but this is often not detected in time or guidance to care is suboptimal. To identify these individuals and encourage them to seek help, a web-based self-help test called Mobile Insight in Risk, Resilience, and Online Referral (MIRROR) was developed. MIRROR takes an innovative approach since it integrates both negative and positive outcomes of PTEs and time since the event and provides direct feedback to the user. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess MIRROR's use, examine its psychometric properties (factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent and divergent validity), and evaluate how well it classifies respondents into different outcome categories compared with reference measures. METHODS: MIRROR was embedded in the website of Victim Support Netherlands so visitors could use it. We compared MIRROR's outcomes to reference measures of PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist for DSM-5), depression, anxiety, stress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21), psychological resilience (Resilience Evaluation Scale), and positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum Short Form). RESULTS: In 6 months, 1112 respondents completed MIRROR, of whom 663 also completed the reference measures. Results showed good internal consistency (interitem correlations range .24 to .55, corrected item-total correlations range .30 to .54, and Cronbach alpha coefficient range .62 to .68), and convergent and divergent validity (Pearson correlations range -.259 to .665). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA+CFA) yielded a 2-factor model with good model fit (CFA model fit indices: χ219=107.8, P<.001, CFI=.965, TLI=.948, RMSEA=.065), conceptual meaning, and parsimony. MIRROR correctly classified respondents into different outcome categories compared with the reference measures. CONCLUSIONS: MIRROR is a valid and reliable self-help test to identify negative (PTSD complaints) and positive outcomes (psychosocial functioning and resilience) of PTEs. MIRROR is an easily accessible online tool that can help people who have experienced a PTE to timely identify psychological complaints and find appropriate support, a tool that might be highly needed in times like the coronavirus pandemic.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Aplicativos Móveis , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Resiliência Psicológica , Autocuidado/métodos , Autocuidado/normas , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Lista de Checagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1362, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An estimate of 2-3 million children under 5 die in the world annually due to vaccine-preventable disease. In Ethiopia, incomplete immunization accounts for nearly 16% of under-five mortality, and there is spatial variation for vaccination of children in Ethiopia. Spatial variation of vaccination can create hotspot of under vaccination and delay control and elimination of vaccine preventable disease. Thus, this study aims to assess the spatial distribution of incomplete immunization among children in Ethiopia from the three consecutive Ethiopia demographic and health survey data. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was employed from Ethiopia demographic and health survey (2005, 2011and 2016) data. In total, 7901mothers who have children aged (12-35) months were included in this study. ArcGIS 10.5 Software was used for global and local statistics analysis and mapping. In addition, a Bernoulli model was used to analyze the purely spatial cluster detection of incomplete immunization. GWR version 4 Software was used to model spatial relationships. RESULT: The proportion of incomplete immunization was 74.6% in 2005, 71.4% in 2011, and 55.1% in 2016. The spatial distribution of incomplete immunization was clustered in all the study periods (2005, 2011, and 2016) with global Moran's I of 0.3629, 1.0700, and 0.8796 respectively. Getis-Ord analysis pointed out high-risk regions for incomplete immunization: In 2005, hot spot (high risk) regions were detected in Kefa, Gamogofa, KembataTemibaro, and Hadya zones of SNNPR region, Jimma zone of Oromiya region. Similarly, Kefa, Gamogofa, Kembatatemibaro, Dawuro, and Hadya zones of SNNPR region; Jimma and West Arsi zones of Oromiya region were hot spot regions. In 2016, Afder, Gode, Korahe, Warder Zones of Somali region were hot spot regions. Geographically weighted regression identified different significant variables; being not educated and poor wealth index were the two common for incomplete immunization in different parts of the country in all the three surveys. CONCLUSION: Incomplete immunization was reduced overtime across the study periods. The spatial distribution of incomplete immunization was clustered and High-risk areas were identified in all the study periods. Predictors of incomplete immunization were identified in the three consecutive surveys.


Assuntos
Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Escolaridade , Etiópia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Análise Espacial , Regressão Espacial , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cobertura Vacinal
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e21884, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957309

RESUMO

The Dulong nationality is one of the 5 smallest ethnic minorities in China. The suicide rate among people of the Dulong nationality is very serious. To address this issue, we conducted cross-sectional epidemiological studies on the prevalence of mental disorders in ethnic groups. Studying the unique situation of ethnic minorities can help us better understand their mental state and improve their quality of life.We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey on a minority group in Southwest China. We used the cluster sampling method, and 2129 people were included in the study.The highest 1-month disorder prevalence was for alcohol dependence/abuse (4.16%), and the prevalence of lifelong mood disorders was 9.82%. The results of multivariate analysis showed that women faced a higher risk of mood disorders and anxiety disorders.This epidemiological survey of the prevalence of mental disorders in ethnic minorities in Southwest China provides a significant reference for mental health interventions for other ethnic minorities around the world.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alcoolismo/etnologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(4): e2020407, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe lifestyle changes with regard to consumption of tobacco and alcohol, food intake and physical activity, in the period of social restriction resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Brazil with data from the ConVid online health behavior survey. The data were collected via an online questionnaire answered by the survey participants. Post-stratification procedures were used to calculate prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: 45,161 individuals aged 18 years or more participated. During the period of social restriction participants reported a decrease in practicing physical activity and an increase in time spent using computers or tablets or watching TV, intake of ultra-processed foods, number of cigarettes smoked and alcoholic beverage consumption. Differences were observed according to sex and age group. CONCLUSION: The results indicate a worsening of lifestyles and an increase in health risk behaviors.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Lanches , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957702

RESUMO

Mental health effects secondary to the COVID-19 pandemic were till recently considered less important or were neglected. Portugal and Brazil are facing the pandemic in quite different ways. This study aimed to describe the mental health status of the general adult population in Portugal and Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic and analyze the differences between the two countries. A cross-sectional quantitative study was based on an online questionnaire. Socio-demographic data were collected in addition to four validated scales: CAGE (acronym cut-annoyed-guilty-eye) Questionnaire, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 and Patient Health Questionnaire-2. For each outcome, a multiple linear regression was performed. Five hundred and fifty people answered the questionnaire (435 women). The median age was 38 (Q1, Q3: 30, 47) years, 52.5% resided in Brazil and 47.5% in Portugal. The prevalence of anxiety was 71.3% (mild anxiety was present in 43.1%), the prevalence of depression was 24.7% and 23.8% of the sample had both depression and anxiety. Isolation was a significant factor for depression but not for anxiety. Well-being was below average. Mental illness was considerably higher than pre-COVID-19 levels. Portugal and Brazil will have to be prepared for future consequences of poor mental health and contribute immediate psychological support to their adult populations.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Portugal/epidemiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The confinement recommended during COVID-19 pandemic could affect behavior and health. METHODS: We conducted a self-reported survey in northern Italy to observe the lockdown effects on lifestyle changes and to assess their determinants. Prevalence Odds Ratio and Prevalence Risk Ratio were determined. RESULTS: 490 adults (84% female) completed the survey: 13% and 43% reported improved and unchanged sleep quality, respectively, while 43% had insomnia symptoms. Among the 272 active subjects in pre-lockdown, 14% continued habitual exercising, 18% increased it and 68% reduced it; 27% of sedentary subjects started physical exercise; 34% reported an improvement in diet quality; 42% increased food intake and 13% decreased it; and 38% of the smokers increased cigarette consumption. Age and the pre-lockdown habit of regular physical exercising were the mainly determinants of lifestyle changes whereas BMI, gender, and the presence of chronic diseases did not. Living with other people increased the likelihood of increasing the food intake (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: More than a third of people were able to positively reorganize their lives during the forced home confinement. It is worth to disseminate information to preserve a healthy lifestyle even when confined at home.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22227, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has recently spread dramatically worldwide, raising considerable concerns and resulting in detrimental effects on the psychological health of people who are vulnerable to the disease. Therefore, assessment of depression in members of the general public and their psychological and behavioral responses is essential for the maintenance of health. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression and the associated factors among the general public during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted from February 11 to 16, 2020, in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. A self-administrated smartphone questionnaire based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and psychological and behavioral responses was distributed to the general public. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to explore the associated factors of depression.aA cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted from February 11 to 16, 2020, in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. A self-administrated smartphone questionnaire based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and psychological and behavioral responses was distributed to the general public. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to explore the associated factors of depression. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10) among the general public during the COVID-19 pandemic was 182/1342 (13.6%). Regression analysis indicated that feeling stressed, feeling helpless, persistently being worried even with support, never feeling clean after disinfecting, scrubbing hands and items repeatedly, hoarding food, medicine, or daily supplies, and being distracted from work or study were positively associated with depression, while social support and being calm were negatively associated with depression. CONCLUSIONS: The general public suffered from high levels of depression during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, COVID-19-related mood management and social support should be provided to attenuate depression in the general public.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Smartphone
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e21319, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spain has been one of the countries most impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Since the first confirmed case was reported on January 31, 2020, there have been over 405,000 cases and 28,000 deaths in Spain. The economic and social impact is without precedent. Thus, it is important to quickly assess the situation and perception of the population. Large-scale online surveys have been shown to be an effective tool for this purpose. OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the situation and perception of the Spanish population in four key areas related to the COVID-19 pandemic: social contact behavior during confinement, personal economic impact, labor situation, and health status. METHODS: We obtained a large sample using an online survey with 24 questions related to COVID-19 in the week of March 28-April 2, 2020, during the peak of the first wave of COVID-19 in Spain. The self-selection online survey method of nonprobability sampling was used to recruit 156,614 participants via social media posts that targeted the general adult population (age >18 years). Given such a large sample, the 95% CI was ±0.843 for all reported proportions. RESULTS: Regarding social behavior during confinement, participants mainly left their homes to satisfy basic needs. We found several statistically significant differences in social behavior across genders and age groups. The population's willingness to comply with the confinement measures is evident. From the survey answers, we identified a significant adverse economic impact of the pandemic on those working in small businesses and a negative correlation between economic damage and willingness to stay in confinement. The survey revealed that close contacts play an important role in the transmission of the disease, and 28% of the participants lacked the necessary resources to properly isolate themselves. We also identified a significant lack of testing, with only 1% of the population tested and 6% of respondents unable to be tested despite their doctor's recommendation. We developed a generalized linear model to identify the variables that were correlated with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result. Using this model, we estimated an average of 5% for SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in the Spanish population during the time of the study. A seroprevalence study carried out later by the Spanish Ministry of Health reported a similar level of disease prevalence (5%). CONCLUSIONS: Large-scale online population surveys, distributed via social media and online messaging platforms, can be an effective, cheap, and fast tool to assess the impact and prevalence of an infectious disease in the context of a pandemic, particularly when there is a scarcity of official data and limited testing capacity.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Comportamento Social , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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