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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(5): 101-106, 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851653

RESUMO

Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States (1). Heart attacks (also known as myocardial infarctions) occur when a portion of the heart muscle does not receive adequate blood flow, and they are major contributors to heart disease, with an estimated 750,000 occurring annually (2). Early intervention is critical for preventing mortality in the event of a heart attack (3). Identification of heart attack signs and symptoms by victims or bystanders, and taking immediate action by calling emergency services (9-1-1), are crucial to ensure timely receipt of emergency care and thereby improve the chance for survival (4). A recent report using National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data from 2014 found that 47.2% of U.S. adults could state all five common heart attack symptoms (jaw, neck, or back discomfort; weakness or lightheadedness; chest discomfort; arm or shoulder discomfort; and shortness of breath) and knew to call 9-1-1 if someone had a heart attack (5). To assess changes in awareness and response to an apparent heart attack, CDC analyzed data from NHIS to report awareness of heart attack symptoms and calling 9-1-1 among U.S. adults in 2008, 2014, and 2017. The adjusted percentage of persons who knew all five common heart attack symptoms increased from 39.6% in 2008 to 50.0% in 2014 and to 50.2% in 2017. The adjusted percentage of adults who knew to call 9-1-1 if someone was having a heart attack increased from 91.8% in 2008 to 93.4% in 2014 and to 94.9% in 2017. Persistent disparities in awareness of heart attack symptoms were observed by demographic characteristics and cardiovascular risk group. Public health awareness initiatives and systematic integration of appropriate awareness and action in response to a perceived heart attack should be expanded across the health system continuum of care.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(7): 606-622, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711400

RESUMO

What Causes Future-Related Stress in Immigrant and German Adolescents and how do they Cope with these Stressors? In the present study, the stress perception and coping of German and immigrant adolescents with regard to future stress were compared. The 1,789 adolescents (164 immigrated, 1,625 German adolescents) at the age of fifteen completed questionnaires on the assessment of stress and coping with regard to future stress. Immigrated youth show a higher stress burden in the domain future than German adolescents. The fear of becoming unemployed was a major stressor in both groups, and both groups were also very active in tackling future-related problems. However, German youths show an even more active approach to coping with future stress and involve parents or friends more often. Migrant youth have higher levels of the coping style withdrawal, especially in emotion regulation and resignative withdrawal. The ability to reflect on the solution of future-related stressors is quite high in both groups. Worries about the increasing destruction of the environment are more important for German youth, while migrant youth care more about how they should reconcile work and family life later.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Emoções , Alemanha , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
4.
Anticancer Res ; 39(11): 6339-6346, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate the chronological changes in health-related quality of life and treatment satisfaction after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 196 patients were included, and treatment satisfaction was evaluated using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) score before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after RARP. RESULTS: At 12 months after RARP, 64.8% of patients were satisfied. On the contrary, 4.6% of patients were dissatisfied at 12 months after RARP. In a multivariate analysis, only urinary bother of EPIC was significantly associated with satisfaction at 12 months after RARP (p=0.025, odds ratio=1.029). CONCLUSION: Treatment satisfaction with RARP was generally acceptable from 1 to 12 months after surgery and did not change over time. Urinary bother was associated with satisfaction at 12 months after RARP. Compared with the objective 24-hour pad test, questionnaires answered subjectively were more associated with satisfaction.


Assuntos
Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Prostatectomia/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/psicologia , Idoso , Disfunção Erétil/etiologia , Disfunção Erétil/psicologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/psicologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Prostatectomia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Incontinência Urinária/psicologia
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1119-1123, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683398

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the association between the promoter region-938 polymorphism of B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (Bcl-2) gene and the esophageal cancer (EC) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) in Hebei Province. Methods: From 2007 to 2010, 145 esophageal cancer patients and 169 cardiaccancer patientsfrom the outpatient department of the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical Universitywereselected in a case group, and 195 non-tumor patients were selected in a control group during the same period. A questionnaire survey was used to collect information of research subjects. Pathological tissues were collected to extract genomic DNA and detect the genotype of bcl-2 gene -938. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between the bcl-2 gene locus 938 CC genotype and the EC and GCA. The interaction between age, gender, smoking, drinking, upper gastrointestinal family history and the bcl-2 gene locus 938 CC genotype was analyzed by likelihood ratio test. Results: The age of the esophageal and cardiac cancer groups was (56.3±8.3) and (57.1±8.4) years old, and that of the control group was (54.7±7.1) years old. The proportion of the bcl-2 gene locus 938 CC genotype in the esophageal group [48.3% (70/145)] and the cardiac cancer group [48.5% (82/169)] was higher than that in the control group [33.8% (66/195)] (both P values<0.05).Compared with the AA genotype, the risk of esophageal cancer and cardiac cancerin people with the CC genotype was 2.386 (1.20-4.76) and 2.564 (1.27-5.18) respectively. In the population with CC genotype, compared with the positive family history, drinking, and male, the negative family history, non-drinking, and female had a higher risk of esophageal cancer; compared with the non-smoking, negative family history, non-drinking and male, the smoking, positive family history, drinking, and female had a higher risk of cardiac cancer (all the P interaction values were <0.05). Conclusion: People with bcl-2 gene locus 938 CC genotype in Hebei Provincewere more likely to suffer from the esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Cárdia/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Genes bcl-2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(45): 1013-1019, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725711

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States (1). The prevalence of adult cigarette smoking has declined in recent years to 14.0% in 2017 (2). However, an array of new tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, has entered the U.S. market (3). To assess recent national estimates of tobacco product use among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the National Cancer Institute analyzed data from the 2018 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). In 2018, an estimated 49.1 million U.S. adults (19.7%) reported currently using any tobacco product, including cigarettes (13.7%), cigars (3.9%), e-cigarettes (3.2%), smokeless tobacco (2.4%), and pipes* (1.0%). Most tobacco product users (83.8%) reported using combustible products (cigarettes, cigars, or pipes), and 18.8% reported using two or more tobacco products. The prevalence of any current tobacco product use was higher in males; adults aged ≤65 years; non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Natives; those with a General Educational Development certificate (GED); those with an annual household income <$35,000; lesbian, gay, or bisexual adults; uninsured adults; those with a disability or limitation; and those with serious psychological distress. The prevalence of e-cigarette and smokeless tobacco use increased during 2017-2018. During 2009-2018, there were significant increases in all three cigarette cessation indicators (quit attempts, recent cessation, and quit ratio). Implementing comprehensive population-based interventions in coordination with regulation of the manufacturing, marketing, and distribution of all tobacco products can reduce tobacco-related disease and death in the United States (1,4).


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tabagismo/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(41): 928-933, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622286

RESUMO

Each year, tobacco use is responsible for approximately 8 million deaths worldwide, including 7 million deaths among persons who use tobacco and 1.2 million deaths among nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) (1). Approximately 80% of the 1.1 billion persons who smoke tobacco worldwide reside in low- and middle-income countries (2,3). The World Health Organization's (WHO's) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) provides the foundation for countries to implement and manage tobacco control through the MPOWER policy package,* which includes monitoring tobacco use, protecting persons from SHS, warning them about the danger of tobacco, and enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion, or sponsorship (tobacco advertising) (4). CDC analyzed data from 11 countries that completed two or more rounds of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) during 2008-2017. Tobacco use and tobacco-related behaviors that were assessed included current tobacco use, SHS exposure, thinking about quitting because of warning labels, and exposure to tobacco advertising. Across the assessed countries, the estimated percentage change in tobacco use from the first round to the most recent round ranged from -21.5% in Russia to 1.1% in Turkey. Estimated percentage change in SHS exposure ranged from -71.5% in Turkey to 72.9% in Thailand. Estimated percentage change in thinking about quitting because of warning labels ranged from 77.4% in India to -33.0% in Turkey. Estimated percentage change in exposure to tobacco advertising ranged from -66.1% in Russia to 44.2% in Thailand. Continued implementation and enforcement of proven tobacco control interventions and strategies at the country level, as outlined in MPOWER, can help reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality worldwide (3,5,6).


Assuntos
Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
8.
Sr Care Pharm ; 34(9): 604-612, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study is to determine factors associated with health literacy and medication adherence in an urban community. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess factors associated with health literacy and medication adherence. Participants were recruited from October 2012 to April 2013. SETTING: Ambulatory care clinic and senior wellness center. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were eligible if they were older than 18 years of age and had received care at the ambulatory clinic or obtained services at the senior wellness center. INTERVENTIONS: REALM survey and the Morisky 8-Item Medication Adherence Questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The two outcomes evaluated in this study were health literacy and medication adherence. RESULTS: A total of 51 participants were enrolled in the study. Twenty-seven (53%) of the participants were noted to be nonadherent to their medications. Twenty (74%) of these participants read below the high school level, and the remaining 7 (26%) read above a high school level. Study findings showed that both education level and comorbidities status were associated with health literacy. Participants who had a below high school education level had greater odds of having a below high school health literacy level (odds ratio [OR] = 7.500, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.482-37.949). Participants who had two or more comorbidities had greater odds of having a below high school health literacy level (OR = 24.889, 95% CI 2.698-229.610). CONCLUSION: Our study results found associations between both comorbidities and education with health literacy.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde , Adesão à Medicação , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(5): 728-732, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the situations of dietary microelements intakes among elderly people in different areas of Zhejiang Province, and analyze the food sources of microelements. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2010-2012 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in Zhejiang Province. 832 elderly people( 434 male, 398 female, age was( 68. 02±6. 68) years) were from large cities, small-medium cities and rural counties. The 24-hour dietary recall method for 3 consecutive days was used to collect food intake information to analyze dietary intakes among elderly people of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se and their sources in different areas. RESULTS: The elderly people'intakes of Mn was 4. 86( 3. 44, 6. 45) mg/d, Cu was 1. 69( 1. 13, 2. 27) mg/d, and Se was36. 85( 21. 32, 54. 21) µg/d, those were generally low. The intake of Zn was 10. 15( 7. 94, 12. 62) mg/d in males, was low as well. Intakes of Mn, Cu, Se were significantly different in different areas, small-medium cities had highest intakes of Mn( 5. 87 mg/d)and Cu( 1. 88 mg/d), large cities had a highest intake of Se( 45. 47 µg/d). The food sources of microelements were slightly variant. Rural counties had less fungi and algae sources of Fe and Mn than large cities and small-medium cities. The Cu from vegetables were higher than dried legumes and the Se from poultry and poultry products were higher than eggs in rural counties. The Zn from fish, shellfish and mollusk were higher than dried legumes in large cities. CONCLUSION: The insufficient status of microelements intakes among elderly people in Zhejiang Province was serious, and there were differences among elderly people from different areas in intakes and food sources of microelements.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrientes/análise , Estado Nutricional , Oligoelementos/análise , Idoso , Animais , Cidades , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Verduras
10.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): e190002.supl.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596373

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This article aims to estimate reference values for laboratory tests of cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin and creatinine for the Brazilian adult population. METHODS: A descriptive study carried out with laboratory data from the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS). Samples of blood and urine were collected in a PNS subsample of 8,952 individuals aged 18 years old or older. To determine the reference values, exclusion criteria were applied: presence of previous diseases and outliers, defined by values outside the range estimated by the mean ± 1.96 × standard deviation. Subsequently, reference values were calculated according to gender, age group and race/skin color. RESULTS: Differences in reference values according to gender were observed. Women had higher values of total cholesterol, LDL-c and HDL-c. Glycosylated hemoglobin showed similar values in relation to gender, and creatinine was higher among men. The mean reference values were higher in the elderly population, aged 60 years old or older. The mean, lower and upper limits of total cholesterol and fractions of non-white people were slightly lower. There was no difference according to race/skin color for glycosylated hemoglobin and creatinine. CONCLUSION: The establishment of national reference parameters for laboratory tests, adapted to the sociodemographic and geographic characteristics, provides relevant information for evaluation of diagnosis and treatment of chronic diseases in Brazil.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Creatinina/análise , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Brasil , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
11.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190003.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe reference values for blood counts obtained from laboratory tests in the Brazilian adult population according to laboratory results from the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS), by gender, age group and skin color. METHODS: The initial sample consisted of 8,952 adults. To determine the reference values, individuals with prior diseases and outliers were excluded. Mean values, standard deviation and limits were stratified by gender, age group and skin color. RESULTS: For red blood cells, men presented a mean value of 5.0 million per mm3 (limits: 4.3-5.8) and women, 4.5 million per mm3 (limits: 3.9-5.1). Hemoglobin levels were higher among men with a mean of 14.9 g/dL (13.0-16.9), and in women, 13.2 g/dL (11.5-14.9). The mean number of white blood cells among men was 6.142/mm3 (2.843-9.440) and 6.426/mm3 (2.883-9.969) for women. Other parameters showed close values between the genders. Regarding age groups and skin color, mean values, standard deviation and limits of the exams presented small variations. CONCLUSION: Hematological reference values based on the national survey allow for the establishment of specific reference limits for gender, age and skin color. The results presented here may contribute to the establishment of better evidence and criteria for the care, diagnosis and treatment of diseases.


Assuntos
Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/normas , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190004.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596375

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This article aims at describing the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde- PNS) methodology of collecting laboratory exams data. METHODOLOGY: A subsample of 25% of the census tracts was selected, according to the stratification of the PNS sample, with a probability inversely proportional to the difficulty of collection. The collection of blood and urine was done in the households by a laboratory agent, among residents selected for individual interview. Due to the difficulties found in the field work, the sample did not reach the minimum expected number in some strata, and a post-stratification procedure was proposed for the data analysis. RESULTS: The collection of biospecimens was performed in 8,952 individuals. Laboratory tests were: glycated hemoglobin; total cholesterol; LDL cholesterol; HDL cholesterol; serology for dengue; red blood cell count (erythrogram) and white series count (leukogram); high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies; creatinine. Theexcretion of potassium, salt and sodium and creatinine was estimated in the urine. The database of laboratory exams was weighed and made publicly available on the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation's PNS website and can be accessed without prior authorization. CONCLUSION: The total subsample of laboratory exams is of great value, since it allowed us to establish national reference parameters adequate to sociodemographic and geographic characteristics of the Brazilian population, providing relevant and complementary information for the analysis of the health situation of Brazil.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Brasil , Colesterol/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dengue/sangue , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coleta de Urina/métodos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190005.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of altered total cholesterol and fractions levels in the Brazilian population, according to biochemical data from the National Health Survey. METHODS: A descriptive study, using data from the National Health Survey, collected between 2014 and 2015. Total cholesterol and fractions were analyzed and population prevalences of altered values according to socio-demographic variables were calculated. The cutoff points considered were: total cholesterol ≥ 200mg/dl; low-density lipoprotein LDL ≥ 130mg/dL and high-density lipoprotein HDL < 40mg/dL. RESULTS: The prevalence of total cholesterol ≥200mg/dL in the population was 32.7%, and higher in women (35.1%). The prevalence of altered HDL was 31.8%, 22.0% in females and 42.8% in males. LDL ≥ 130mg/dL was found in 18.6% and was higher in women (19.9%). The population aged 45 years old and older and those with low levels of education presented a higher prevalence of altered cholesterol. CONCLUSION: Altered values of total cholesterol and fractions were frequent in the Brazilian population, especially among women, the elderly and people with low levels of education. These results may guide control and preventative actions such as healthy eating, physical activity and treatment, all of which aim to prevent coronary diseases.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190006.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) according to different diagnostic criteria, in the Brazilian adult population, according to laboratory results from the Brazilian National Health Survey. METHODS: Analysis of laboratory data from the National Health Survey, collected between 2014 and 2015. The prevalence of diabetes was calculated according to different diagnostic criteria. The prevalence of diabetes was calculated according to the criterion of glycosylated hemoglobin ≥ 6.5% or using medication, using Poisson regression and calculating crude and adjusted PR and 95%CI. RESULTS: The prevalence of diabetes according to different criteria varies from 6.6 to 9.4%. Intermediate or pre-diabetes hyperglycemia ranged from 6.8 to 16.9%. Considering laboratory criteria or medication use, the prevalence of DM was 8.4 (95%CI 7.65-9.11). The adjusted PR for gender, age, educational level and region was lower for males (PR 0.75; 95%CI 0.63 - 0.89), increased with age: 30 to 34 years (PR 2.32; 95% CI 1.33 - 4.07), 40 to 59 years PR 8.1; 95%CI 4.86 - 13.46), 60 years old or older (PR 12.6; 95%CI 7.1 - 21.0), and higher educational levels was protective (PR 0.8; 95%CI 0.6 - 0.9). Therewas a higher PR in the Central West Region (PR 1.3; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.7), in overweight people (PR 1.8; 95%CI 1.4 - 2.1), and in obese people (PR 3.3; 95%CI 2.6 - 4.1). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of diabetes was higher in females, people over 30 years of age, in populations with low educational levels, and people who were overweight and obese. The study advances in determining the diabetes situation in the country through laboratory criteria.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190007.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in the Brazilian adult population, according to laboratory tests from the National Health Survey. METHODS: A descriptive study was carried out with National Health Survey laboratory data collected between 2014 and 2015. The hemoglobinopathies test was performed using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography method. The results of the individual tests were interpreted as providing normal, homozygous or heterozygous results for S, C and D hemoglobin, in addition to other possible hemoglobinopathies. Prevalence of hemoglobinopathies according to gender, skin color, region, age and schooling was estimated. RESULTS: Hemoglobinopathies were present in 3.7% of the population. The main ones were the sickle cell trait (2.49%), thalassemia minor (0.30%) and suspected thalassemia major (0.80%). In relation to the sickle cell trait and suspected thalassemia major, there was a statistically significant difference for the skin color variable (p<0.05). The prevalences found for sickle cell trait according to skin color was: 4.1% among dark-skinned blacks, 3.6% among light-skinned blacks, 1.2% among whites, and 1.7% among others. CONCLUSION: The most prevalent hemoglobinopathies were the sickle cell trait and minor thalassemia, and were predominate among light- and dark-skinned black people. The study helps in identifying hemoglobinopathies and in genetic counseling in pre-conception.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Traço Falciforme/epidemiologia , Talassemia beta/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190008.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence of anemia in Brazilian adults and elderly. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study consisted of 8,060 subjects aged over 18 years old in all Brazilian states. We used data from laboratory tests of the Brazilian National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS). The following indicators obtained by erythrogram were used: hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and red cell distribution width (RDW). Reference values of the World Health Organization (WHO) were used to determine anemia, which considers hemoglobin levels below 13.0 g/dL for men and less than 12.0 g/dL for women. Sociodemographic information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia among Brazilian adults and elderly was 9.9%. Higher prevalence of anemia and more severe cases were found among women, elderly, people with low schooling, black skin color and residents of the North and Northeast regions. Normocytic normochromic anemia was the most common type of anemia (56.0%). CONCLUSION: The anemia prevalence found in the study was in agreement with the literature. It must be stressed that higher anemia prevalence was found in disadvantaged and older population. Considering the increase of the population over 60 years of age, interventions to prevent and treat anemia among adults and elderly is imperative in the health service network.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Índices de Eritrócitos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190009.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the salt intake in the Brazilian population according to their urinary sodium excretion. METHODS: The National Health Survey (2013) aimed to gather data on the health of adults (≥ 18 years) through a random selection of households. In each household, one adult was selected to have their biological data collected (anthropometry, blood pressure, and blood and urine tests). The urine sample was sent to a central laboratory to determine sodium (ion-selective electrode) and creatinine (Jaffé method) concentrations. Sodium excretion was estimated with the Tanaka equation. RESULTS: Urinary sodium and creatinine concentrations were measured in 8,083individuals (58% women). The mean salt intake was estimated at 9.34 g/day (95% confidence interval - 95%CI 9.27 - 9.41) and was higher in males (9.63 g/day; 95%CI 9.52 - 9.74) than in females (9.08 g/day; 95%CI 8.99 - 9.17). Wefound no significant differences regarding age group, ethnicity, or schooling. Salt intake was higher in the Southeast and South regions and lower in the Northeast and North. Only 2.4% (95%CI 2.0 - 2.8) of the sample consumed less than 5 g/day, and 58.2% (95%CI 56.7 - 59.6) of participants had an estimated intake of 8 to 12 g/day. CONCLUSION: The mean salt intake in the Brazilian population is approximately twice the recommended by the World Health Organization (5g/day).Given the association of high salt intake with hypertension and decreased renal function, these data indicate the need to adopt comprehensive public policies to reduce the consumption in the Brazilian population.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Valores de Referência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/urina , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190010.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the renal function of the Brazilian adult population, according to laboratory criteria of the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS). METHODOLOGY: A descriptive study was carried out with laboratory data from the PNS, which was collected between the years 2014 and 2015. Population prevalence of the serum creatinine (CR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) according to sociodemographic variables, were analyzed from the PNS laboratory data. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 8,535 individuals aged 18 years old or older for the study of CR and 7,457 for the study of GFR. The GFR prevalence < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was 6.7% (95%CI 6.0 - 7.4), higher in women (8.2% 95%CI 7.2 - 9.2) than in men (5.0% 95%CI 4.2 - 6.0) p < 0.001, and in elderly > 60 years old it was 21.4%. For the values of CR ≥ 1.3 mg/dL in men were 5.5% (95%CI 4.6 - 6.5), and in women values of CR ≥ 1.1 mg/dL were 4.6% (95%CI 4.0 - 5.4), with no diference between the genders, p = 0.140. CONCLUSION: Results from the PNS laboratory identified a higher prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the Brazilian population than that estimated in self-reported studies, with higher GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in women, and reaching one fifth of the elderly. These tests may be useful for the purpose of identifying the disease early on and thus preventing the progression of renal damage and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Creatinina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190011.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596382

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High income concentration prevails in Brazil and socioeconomic status influences living and health conditions, including dietary quality. OBJECTIVE: To measure the magnitude of social inequalities in the food quality profile of the Brazilian population. METHOD: We analyzed data from 60,202 adults who participated in the 2013 National Health Survey. The prevalence of indicators of food quality was estimated according to gender, ethnicity, income, schooling, and health insurance. We calculated prevalence ratios using multiple Poisson regression. RESULTS: Healthy food consumption was more prevalent among females, white people, and individuals with higher socioeconomic status. However, we also found a higher prevalence of some foods considered unhealthy, such as sweets, sandwiches, snacks, and pizzas, among the most favored social segments, in women, and white people, expressing the concomitance of healthy and unhealthy eating habits. The comparison between the consumption of skim and low-fat milk according to income (prevalence ratio - PR = 4.48) presented the most significant difference. CONCLUSION: In addition to the expressive social inequality identified in the Brazilian food profile, mixed patterns were detected, including healthy and unhealthy foods. These results point out the need for monitoring and promoting healthy eating habits, taking into account the social inequalities and contradictions concerning food intake.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Classe Social , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190012.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of noncommunicable disease (NCD) indicators, including laboratory tests, in the population of Brazilian women of reproductive age, according to whether or not they receive the Bolsa Família (BF) benefit. METHODS: A total of 3,131 women aged 18 to 49 years old who participated in the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde ) laboratory examination sub-sample were considered. We compared indicators among women of reproductive age (18 to 49 years old) who reported receiving BF or not, and calculated prevalence and confidence intervals, using Pearson's χ2. RESULTS: Women of reproductive age who were beneficiaries of BF had worse health outcomes, such as a greater occurrence of being overweight (33.5%) and obese (26.9%) (p < 0.001), having hypertension (13.4% versus 4.4%, p < 0.001), used more tobacco (11.2% versus 8.2%, p = 0.029), and perceived their health as worse (6.2% versus 2.4%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Several NCD indicators were worse among women of childbearing age who were beneficiaries of BF. It should be emphasized that this is not a causal relationship, with BF being a marker of inequalities among women. The benefit has been directed to the population with greater health needs, and seeks to reduce inequities.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Assistência Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Reprodução/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
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