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1.
Pediatr Dent ; 43(4): 276-281, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467843

RESUMO

Purpose: Childhood caries is a highly prevalent disease that is intricately connected to diet and other social and behavioral factors. While it has been established that breastfeeding confers many health benefits for children, previous research found no consensus on the relationship between breastfeeding and caries. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between early childhood caries (ECC) and the length of time breastfeeding using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods: Four cycles of NHANES (2011 to 2018) were analyzed, including 3,234 children ages two to five years. The association between breastfeeding duration and incidence of ECC and severe earlychildhood caries (S-ECC) was evaluated using logistic regression, adjusting for age, ethnicity, education, income, last dental visit, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Results: In the study population, 16.9 percent had ECC and 12.2 percent had S-ECC. Breastfeeding six months to one year, one to two years, or over two years was not associated with higher odds of ECC or S-ECC than breastfeeding for zero to six months after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions: There was no statistically significant relationship between breastfeeding and early childhood caries, and breastfeeding duration was not associated with increased caries risk. More research from well-controlled analytical studies is needed to establish or refute a relationship between breastfeeding and ECC.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Cárie Dentária , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
2.
Chemosphere ; 282: 131150, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470175

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies focus on combined effects of multiple metals on bone mineral density (BMD) are scarce. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine associations of multiple metals exposure with BMD. Data of adults aged ≥20 years (n = 2545) from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2011-2016) were collected and analyzed. Concentrations of metals were measured in blood (cadmium [Cd], lead [Pb], mercury [Hg], and manganese [Mn]) and serum (copper [Cu], selenium [Se], and zinc [Zn]) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry, respectively. The weighted quantile sum (WQS) and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) models were performed to determine the joint effects of multiple metals exposure on lumbar and total BMD. The linear regression analyses showed Pb was negatively associated with BMDs. The WQS regression analyses revealed that the WQS index was inversely related to lumbar (ß = -0.022, 95% CI: -0.036, -0.008) and total BMD (ß = -0.015, 95% CI: -0.024, -0.006), and Se, Mn, and Pb were the main contributors for the combined effects. Additionally, nonlinear dose-response relationships between Pb, Mn, and Se and BMD, as well as a synergistic interaction of Pb and Mn, were found in the BKMR analyses. Our findings suggested co-exposure to Cd, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cu, Se, and Zn (above their 50th percentiles) was associated with reduced BMD, and Pb, Mn, and Se were the main contributors driving the overall effects.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Metais , Teorema de Bayes , Cádmio , Inquéritos Nutricionais
3.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00300020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495099

RESUMO

This article aims to present general methodological aspects of the Brazilian National Survey on Child Nutrition (ENANI-2019), from the conception of the study design to details of the data collection. This is a household-based population survey with a sample calculated at 15,000 households to identify children under five years of age, conducted in 123 municipalities in Brazil's 26 states and the Federal District. ENANI-2019 includes data on breastfeeding and dietary intake; anthropometric nutritional status of all children and their biological mothers; and nutritional status concerning the following micronutrients: iron (hemoglobin and ferritin), zinc, selenium, and vitamins A, B1, B6, B12, D, E, and folic acid of children from 6 to 59 months of age. A total of 193,212 households were visited, of which 19,951 were eligible, and 12,524 were included in the study. A total of 14,558 children were studied, of whom 13,990 (96.1%) and 13,921 (95.6%) had their body mass and length/stature measured, respectively, and 14,541 (99.9%) underwent 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR). Of the 12,598 children eligible for blood sample collection, 8,739 (69.3%) had at least one laboratory parameter measured. Data were collected from February 2019 to March 2020, when the survey was interrupted due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The evidence produced by the ENANI-2019 survey can back the formulation, follow-up, and/or reorientation of food and nutrition policies such as the promotion of breastfeeding and healthy eating and the prevention and control of different forms of malnutrition.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coleta de Dados , Dieta , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371827

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the association between coffee and prostate cancer. Firstly, we conducted an observational study using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010. Coffee intake was derived from 24 h dietary recalls. Weighted multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was applied to evaluate the association. Then, we performed Mendelian randomization (MR) to explore the possible causal effect of coffee on prostate cancer risk. Primary and secondary genetic instruments were obtained from genome-wide association studies among 375,833 and 91,462 individuals separately. Prostate cancer summary statistics were extracted from Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer-Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) (79,194 cases and 61,112 controls) and FinnGen project (4754 cases and 63,465 controls). Inverse variance weighted (IVW) was the primary analytical method. Through selection, we enrolled 8336 individuals (weighted number = 58,796,070) for our observational study in NHANES. Results suggested that there was no association between coffee and prostate cancer. MR analyses with primary genetic instruments also did not support a causal association between coffee intake and prostate cancer risk, whether using summary data from PRACTICAL (IVW: OR 1.001, 95% CI 0.997-1.005) or FinnGen (IVW: OR 1.005, 95% CI 0.998-1.012). Similar results were observed when using secondary genetic instruments. Therefore, our study did not support a causal association between coffee intake and prostate cancer risk. Further studies with a larger sample size are needed to examine if an association exists by different coffee bean types, roasting procedures, and brewing methods.


Assuntos
Café/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Causalidade , Estudos Transversais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371980

RESUMO

Food manufacturers are increasingly substituting potassium chloride (KCl) in food products so as to reduce the sodium chloride content. Bread and bread products are common staple foods in many Western households and are a target for recipe reformulation using KCl. Given that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a medical condition of global importance that requires dietary potassium restriction in the later stages, we sought to evaluate the impact and safety of varying levels of KCl substitution in bread products. We undertook a secondary analysis of dietary data from the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011-2012 for 12,152 participants (154 participants with CKD). The sodium chloride content in bread and bread-based products was substituted with 20%, 30%, and 40% of KCl. The contribution of these alterations in the dietary potassium intake to the total daily potassium intake were then examined. The replacement of sodium in bread with varying amounts of KCl (20%, 30%, and 40%) resulted in one third of people with CKD exceeding the safe limits for dietary potassium consumption (31.8%, 32.6%, and 33%, respectively). KCl substitution in staple foods such as bread and bread products have serious and potentially fatal consequences for people who need to restrict dietary potassium. Improved food labelling is required for consumers to avoid excessive consumption.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Estado Nutricional/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloreto de Potássio/análise , Potássio na Dieta/análise , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Austrália , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444616

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little is known on the nutritional and lifestyle variables of preschool children in Oman. This study analyzed data of the 2017 Oman National Nutrition Survey to assess the prevalence and interrelationships between dietary and movement variables among preschool children, aged 2-5 years. METHODS: Household visits of a nationally representative sample evaluated mothers and children's dietary, sleep and physical activity practices; media exposure; and anthropometric and sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Dyads of mothers and pre-school children aged 2-5 years (n = 1771) were assessed. Childhood overweight/obesity was prevalent in 2% of the sample. Over 54% of children consumed sweetened items and/or French fries or chips at least once daily. Over 65% of children had fruits and/or vegetables once daily or less. Mothers had healthier dietary and movement habits compared to their offspring. Compliance with media exposure was the lowest among mothers and children. Multivariate regression revealed children's increased sweet intake was the only significant predictor of excess weight in children. CONCLUSION: This study revealed a low prevalence of overweight/obesity among preschool children in Oman. Children had an acceptable compliance with sleeping recommendations, yet limited adherence to media exposure, activity, added sugar and fruits and vegetables guidelines.


Assuntos
Mães , Obesidade Pediátrica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Omã/epidemiologia
7.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444892

RESUMO

A nutrient profiling model (NPM) was developed in 2005 in the UK to regulate the marketing of foods to children. It was revised in 2018, but the new version has not been finalised. The Eatwell Guide (EWG) is the UK's official food-based dietary guidelines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement between the 2005 and 2018 versions of the NPM and the EWG. Using recent National Diet and Nutrition Surveys, we estimated the healthiness of individual diets based on an EWG dietary score and a NPM dietary index. We then compared the percentage of agreement and Cohen's kappa for each combination of the EWG score and NPM index across the range of observed values for the 2005 and 2018 versions. A total of 3028 individual diets were assessed. Individuals with a higher (i.e., healthier) EWG score consumed a diet with, on average, a lower (i.e., healthier) NPM index both for the 2005 and 2018 versions. Overall, there was good agreement between the EWG score and the NPM dietary index at assessing the healthiness of representative diets of the UK population, when a low cut-off for the NPM dietary index was used, irrespective of the version. This suggests that dietary advice to the public is broadly aligned with NPM-based food policies and vice-versa.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Criança , Dieta Saudável/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Reino Unido
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444894

RESUMO

Nutritional intake has important impacts on human health. A sufficient supply of nutrients is required to ensure high-level nutrition in a population. Assessment of nutrient supply adequacy can help to develop evidence-based policies and thereby promote public health. This study estimates the supply adequacy of nutrients in China's food system from 1965 to 2018 at the national level, aiming to reveal whether the supply of nutrients meets the demand. The results show that the nutrient supply in China's food system has experienced a sharp increase in the past five decades, and the deficiency in nutrient supply has been greatly mitigated. Although most nutrients such as potassium are already sufficiently supplied in China's current food system, some nutrients, especially calcium and zinc, still need a further enlarged supply to improve the nutrition condition of the Chinese population. Besides encouraging a healthy diet, supply-side regulation, e.g., fortification and enrichment, is also needed to improve nutrient availability. This study helps people better understand the development and current situation of nutrient adequacy in China's food supply, thereby providing information and implications for policymakers.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/tendências , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrientes/análise , China , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais
9.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444957

RESUMO

The association between the consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF) with overweight/obesity in Chinese adults has not been investigated. This study included a cohort of 12,451 adults aged >20 years who participated at least twice in the China Nutrition and Health Survey (CNHS) during 1997-2011. Food intake at each survey was assessed using a 3-day 24-h dietary recall. Body weight (kg), height (m), and waist circumference (WC) were measured during the survey. UPF was defined by the NOVA classification. Mixed effect logistic regression analyses were used. The mean UPF consumption of the study population (baseline mean age 43.7 years) increased from 12.0 g in 1997 to 41.5 g in 2011 with the corresponding proportion of UPF in daily diet from 1.0% to 3.6%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 for those with mean UPF consumption of 1-19 g/d, 20-49 g/d, and ≥50 g/d were 1.45 (1.26-1.65), 1.34 (1.15-1.57), and 1.45 (1.21-1.74), respectively (p-trend = 0.015), compared with the non-consumers. Similarly, the corresponding adjusted ORs (95% CI) for central obesity were 1.54 (1.38-1.72), 1.35 (1.19-1.54), and 1.50 (1.29-1.74). Higher long-term UPF consumption was associated with increased risk of overweight/obesity among Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a result of tumor location and treatment that is aggressive, head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors experience an array of symptoms impacting the ability and desire to eat termed nutrition impact symptoms (NISs). Despite increasing cancer survival time, the majority of research studies examining the impact of NISs have been based on clinical samples of HNC patients during the acute phase of treatment. NISs are often chronic and persist beyond the completion of treatment or may develop as late side effects. Therefore, our research team examined chronic NIS complications on HNC survivors' functional status, quality of life, and diet quality. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 42 HNC survivors who were at least 6 months post-radiation. Self-reported data on demographics, NISs, quality of life, and usual diet over the past year were obtained. Objective measures of functional status included the short physical performance battery and InBody© 270 body composition testing. NISs were coded so a lower score indicated lower symptom burden, (range 4-17) and dichotomized as ≤10 vs. >10, the median in the dataset. Wilcoxon rank sum tests were performed between the dichotomized NIS summary score and continuous quality of life and functional status outcomes. Diet quality for HNC survivors was calculated using the Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI-2015). Wilcoxon rank sum tests examined the difference between the HNC HEI-2015 as compared to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data calculated using the population ratio method. RESULTS: A lower NIS score was statistically associated with higher posttreatment lean muscle mass (p = 0.002). A lower NIS score was associated with higher functional (p = 0.0006), physical (p = 0.0007), emotional (p = 0.007), and total (p < 0.0001) quality of life. Compared to NHANES controls, HNC survivors reported a significantly lower HEI-2015 diet quality score (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Lower NIS burden was associated with higher lean muscle mass and functional, physical, emotional, and total quality of life in post-radiation HNC survivors. HNC survivors reported a significantly lower total HEI-2015 as compared to healthy NHANES controls, providing support for the hypothesis that chronic NIS burden impacts the desire and ability to eat. The effects of this pilot study were strong enough to be detected by straight forward statistical approaches and warrant a larger longitudinal study. For survivors most impacted by NIS burden, multidisciplinary post-radiation exercise and nutrition-based interventions to manage NISs and improve functional status, quality of life, and diet quality in this survivor population are needed.


Assuntos
Estado Funcional , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/complicações , Transtornos Nutricionais/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Lesões por Radiação/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Nutricionais/etiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Projetos Piloto , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia
11.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445048

RESUMO

This study evaluates the prevalence of autistic behaviors in fragile X syndrome as a function of infant diet. Retrospective survey data from the Fragile X Syndrome Nutrition Study, which included data on infant feeding and caregiver-reported developmental milestones for 190 children with fragile X syndrome enrolled in the Fragile X Online Registry with Accessible Database (FORWARD), were analyzed. Exploratory, sex-specific associations were found linking the use of soy-based infant formula with worse autistic behaviors related to language in females and self-injurious behavior in males. These findings prompt prospective evaluation of the effects of soy-based infant formula on disease comorbidities in fragile X syndrome, a rare disorder for which newborn screening could be implemented if there was an intervention. Gastrointestinal problems were the most common reason cited for switching to soy-based infant formula. Thus, these findings also support the study of early gastrointestinal problems in fragile X syndrome, which may underly the development and severity of disease comorbidities. In conjunction with comorbidity data from the previous analyses of the Fragile X Syndrome Nutrition Study, the findings indicate that premutation fragile X mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/psicologia , Fórmulas Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Comorbidade , Feminino , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/fisiopatologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Pais , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444223

RESUMO

Among U.S. adolescents, foods/beverages that are store-bought (i.e., from grocery and convenience stores) are significant contributors of energy intake. However, it remains unclear (1) what foods/beverages are consumed by U.S. adolescents from grocery and convenience stores and (2) if there are differences in foods/beverages consumed by store type. Therefore, we analyzed 29,216 eating occasions from adolescents (12-19 years; n = 4065) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2018 to report food/beverage groups and nutrients consumed from grocery and convenience stores. Differences in food/beverage groups and nutrient densities by store type were calculated using multiple logistic and linear regressions. Adolescents were more likely to consume "Beverages" and "Snacks and Sweets" and less likely to consume "Grains", "Protein", "Milk and Dairy", "Condiments and Sauces", and "Fruits" from convenience compared to grocery stores (all p < 0.0025). Foods/beverages from convenience stores were higher in carbohydrates, total sugar, and added sugar and lower in protein, fat, saturated fat, sodium, and fiber than those from grocery stores (all p < 0.0025). In conclusion, while foods/beverages from convenience stores are more energy-dense and nutrient-poor, there is a critical need to increase the availability, accessibility, and affordability of healthier foods/beverages in both store types to encourage healthier dietary behaviors among U.S. adolescents.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Ingestão de Energia , Adolescente , Comércio , Dieta , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Lanches
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444343

RESUMO

Depression is a highly prevalent, often underrecognized and undertreated comorbidity of Parkinson's disease closely correlated to health-related quality of life. National trends in depression care for patients with Parkinson's disease are not well documented. This paper identifies a cohort of patients with Parkinson's disease from nationally representative survey data and analyzes trends in depression care. Using data from the 2005-2006 through 2015-2016 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), individuals were classified as Parkinson's patients by reported medication use. PHQ-9 scores were used to identify individuals screening positive for depression. A composite treatment variable examined the reported use of mental health services and antidepressant medication. Survey participants with probable PD screened positive for depression, reported the use of antidepressant medication, and reported visits to mental health services more frequently than the control group. Survey participants with PD who screened positive for depression were more likely to report limitations in physical functioning due to an emotional problem than controls. While depression is highly prevalent among individuals with Parkinson's disease, they are more likely to receive any treatment. Further research is required to investigate differences in patterns of treatment, contributing factors of emotions to limitations in physical functioning, and appropriate interventions.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444368

RESUMO

In this study, we developed machine learning-based prediction models for early childhood caries and compared their performances with the traditional regression model. We analyzed the data of 4195 children aged 1-5 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2007-2018). Moreover, we developed prediction models using the XGBoost (version 1.3.1), random forest, and LightGBM (version 3.1.1) algorithms in addition to logistic regression. Two different methods were applied for variable selection, including a regression-based backward elimination and a random forest-based permutation importance classifier. We compared the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) values and misclassification rates of the different models and observed that all four prediction models had AUROC values ranging between 0.774 and 0.785. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed between the AUROC values of the four models. Based on the results, we can confirm that both traditional logistic regression and ML-based models can show favorable performance and can be used to predict early childhood caries, identify ECC high-risk groups, and implement active preventive treatments. However, further research is essential to improving the performance of the prediction model using recent methods, such as deep learning.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Aprendizado de Máquina , Algoritmos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Inquéritos Nutricionais
15.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 53, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between dietary patterns, stunting, and overweight among Mexican preschoolers. METHODS: This study was conducted with anthropometric (weight, height/length), sociodemographic (age, gender, education level of household head, socioeconomic status, country region and area, ethnicity, and beneficiary of social programs), and dietary data (Semiquantitative-food frequency questionnaire) on children aged from 1 to 4 years collected from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey-2012. Dietary patterns were derived by principal components analysis. The association between dietary patterns, stunting, and overweight was assessed by prevalence ratios (PR), estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: In total, 1,112 preschoolers (mean age 3.06 years, SD = 1.08 years; 48.8% females) were included in the study; 11.9% of whom presented stunting, and 6.7% overweight. We identified four dietary patterns: Fruits and Vegetables [F&V], Western [W], Traditional [T], and Milk and Liquids [M&L]. Considering the lowest tertile of each dietary pattern as reference, the prevalence of stunting was 2.04 times higher [95%CI: 1.17-3.56] among children in the highest tertile of the "F&V" pattern. The prevalence of stunting was lower among children in the highest tertile of the "W" pattern [PR = 0.48; 95%CI: 0.27-0.85]. Overweight was negatively associated with the "F&V" dietary pattern [PR = 0.37; 95%CI: 0.16-0.85 for its highest tertile], and children whose consumption was mostly equivalent to the "T" pattern showed higher prevalence of stunting [PR = 1.74; 95%CI: 1.01-3.00]. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of stunting and overweight in a nationwide sample of Mexican preschoolers was associated with dietary patterns.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento , Sobrepeso , Brasil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353879

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sleep disorders and short sleep duration are common symptoms among people with diabetes. However, the evidence is limited about the associations of post-challenge hyperglycemia and sleep quality or quantity with all-cause mortality in the US general population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Our study included 8795 adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2014. Mortality data were ascertained through 2015. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate adjusted HRs (aHRs) for all-cause mortality according to 2-hour plasma glucose levels during the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test-normal glucose tolerance (NGT), <140 mg/dL; impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 140-199 mg/dL; and diabetes, ≥200 mg/dL. We then examined the associations of glucose tolerance status and self-reported physician-diagnosed sleep disorders (yes vs no) or sleep duration (<7 vs ≥7 hours) with all-cause mortality. RESULTS: During follow-up (median, 5.6 years), the diabetes group had a higher risk of all-cause mortality compared with the NGT group (aHR (95% CI)=1.93 (1.41 to 2.64)), but not the IGT group (aHR (95% CI)=1.19 (0.90 to 1.59)). When we categorized participants according to glucose tolerance status and sleep disorders, the IGT group with sleep disorders had a higher risk of all-cause mortality (aHR (95% CI)=2.03 (1.24 to 3.34)) compared with the NGT group without sleep disorders. Both diabetes groups with and without sleep disorders also showed high mortality risks. The results were consistent when we used sleep duration instead of sleep disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Using the most updated US national data, we found a high risk of all-cause mortality among individuals with IGT having sleep disorders or short sleep duration as well as those with diabetes. Future investigations are needed to identify whether and what kind of sleep management is beneficial for people with impaired glucose metabolism to prevent early death.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Intolerância à Glucose , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Adulto , Glicemia , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
17.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 195, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although several studies have reported an association between tuberculosis and health-related quality of life, the change in health-related quality of life after pulmonary tuberculosis has been rarely studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of past history of pulmonary tuberculosis on health-related quality of life using a nationwide, cross-sectional, observational study in Korea. METHODS: Among 72,751 people selected using a stratified multi-stage sampling method, 7260 Korean participants were included using propensity score matching. Past history of pulmonary tuberculosis was defined as a previous diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis excluding patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. The primary outcome, health-related quality of life, was assessed by EQ-5D disutility. RESULTS: Before matching, the mean EQ-5D of individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis history was lower (0.066 vs. 0.056, p: 0.009). However, the difference was nullified after matching (0.066 vs. 0.062, p = 0.354). In multivariable Poisson regression analysis, EQ-5D disutility score was not associated with past pulmonary tuberculosis history. In subgroup analysis, past pulmonary tuberculosis history increased odds of low health-related quality of life in young (odds ratio [OR] 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-2.11, p = 0.003), unmarried (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.05-3.73, p = 0.036), or separated patients (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.66, p = 0.032). Age and marital status were modulating factors on the effect of past pulmonary tuberculosis history on health-related quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in health-related quality of life between individuals with and without past pulmonary tuberculosis history. Young and unmarried groups had increased odds for low health-related quality of life after pulmonary tuberculosis due to modulating effects of age and marital status.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Tuberculose Pulmonar/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
18.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371974

RESUMO

The consumption of capsaicinoids, the active components in chili peppers, has been associated with both positive and negative health effects, and the level of capsaicinoid exposure may be an important determinant. Dietary capsaicinoid exposure was estimated using a previously developed database for capsaicinoid content and a 24-h dietary recall dataset obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The estimated consumption level was evaluated to determine its potential effects on weight reduction and gastrointestinal distress. The estimated daily mean capsaicinoid intake was 3.25 mg (2.17 mg capsaicin), and most Koreans consumed 1-30 mg of capsaicinoids (0.67-20 mg capsaicin) in a day. No adverse effect of capsaicin consumption was reported other than abdominal pain. For long-term repeated consumption, 30 mg may be the maximum tolerable dose. However, the effects on body weight or energy balance were inconsistent in 4-12 week clinical studies conducted with various capsaicin doses (2-135 mg), which was likely due to the complex interplay between capsaicin dose, study length, and participant characteristics. Therefore, the capsaicin consumption of most Koreans was below the levels that may cause adverse effects. However, more long-term studies for the dose range of 2-20 mg are required to further characterize capsaicin's health benefits in Koreans.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/administração & dosagem , Capsaicina/efeitos adversos , Dieta , Dor Abdominal/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1603966, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335140

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the associations between lifestyle factors and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels in older adults by analyzing the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (1999-2016). Methods: A total of 10,052 eligible participants were divided into two groups: reduced eGFR group (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2) and normal group (eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2). The primary factors were physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, and comorbidities. Results: Multivariable analysis revealed that older age, proteinuria, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hyperuricemia, and hypertension were significantly associated with higher odds of reduced kidney function. Sufficient physical activity, current alcohol consumption, and being a current smoker were significantly associated with lower odds of reduced kidney function. However, subgroup analysis by sex revealed that the effects of proteinuria, current alcohol consumption, and sufficient physical activity were sex-specific. Conclusion: Several risk and beneficial factors for reduced kidney function in adults aged 65 and above in the United States were identified, but some of them might be sex-specific. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings in other populations and countries.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Nefropatias , Estilo de Vida , Idoso , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371849

RESUMO

The double burden of malnutrition (DBM) affects many low- and middle-income countries. However, few studies have examined DBM at the individual level, or undernutrition and overnutrition co-occurring within the same person. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and determinants of DBM among adults in the Philippines. Data from the 2013 National Nutrition Survey were used. The sample size in the analysis was 17,010 adults aged ≥20 years old, after excluding pregnant and lactating women. DBM was defined as the co-occurrence of overweight/obesity and anemia (definition #1), overweight/obesity and anemia or vitamin A deficiency (definition #2), and overweight/obesity and anemia or vitamin A deficiency or iodine insufficiency (definition #3). Anthropometric measurements and biochemical markers were used for DBM assessment. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, and logistic regression by R software. Results showed that definition #3 is the predominant type of DBM (7.0%) in the general population, whereas the prevalence of DBM has increased to 23.7% in overweight/obese persons. Sex, age, educational attainment, marital status, household size, wealth quintile, and smoking status were the determinants of DBM. This study revealed that Filipino adults experience malnutrition critically and must be addressed through food and nutrition interventions.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/etnologia , Antropometria , Comorbidade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Iodo/deficiência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Desnutrição/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/etnologia , Hipernutrição/epidemiologia , Hipernutrição/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Filipinas/etnologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Deficiência de Vitamina A/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina A/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
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