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1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190009.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the salt intake in the Brazilian population according to their urinary sodium excretion. METHODS: The National Health Survey (2013) aimed to gather data on the health of adults (≥ 18 years) through a random selection of households. In each household, one adult was selected to have their biological data collected (anthropometry, blood pressure, and blood and urine tests). The urine sample was sent to a central laboratory to determine sodium (ion-selective electrode) and creatinine (Jaffé method) concentrations. Sodium excretion was estimated with the Tanaka equation. RESULTS: Urinary sodium and creatinine concentrations were measured in 8,083individuals (58% women). The mean salt intake was estimated at 9.34 g/day (95% confidence interval - 95%CI 9.27 - 9.41) and was higher in males (9.63 g/day; 95%CI 9.52 - 9.74) than in females (9.08 g/day; 95%CI 8.99 - 9.17). Wefound no significant differences regarding age group, ethnicity, or schooling. Salt intake was higher in the Southeast and South regions and lower in the Northeast and North. Only 2.4% (95%CI 2.0 - 2.8) of the sample consumed less than 5 g/day, and 58.2% (95%CI 56.7 - 59.6) of participants had an estimated intake of 8 to 12 g/day. CONCLUSION: The mean salt intake in the Brazilian population is approximately twice the recommended by the World Health Organization (5g/day).Given the association of high salt intake with hypertension and decreased renal function, these data indicate the need to adopt comprehensive public policies to reduce the consumption in the Brazilian population.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Valores de Referência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/urina , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190011.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596382

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High income concentration prevails in Brazil and socioeconomic status influences living and health conditions, including dietary quality. OBJECTIVE: To measure the magnitude of social inequalities in the food quality profile of the Brazilian population. METHOD: We analyzed data from 60,202 adults who participated in the 2013 National Health Survey. The prevalence of indicators of food quality was estimated according to gender, ethnicity, income, schooling, and health insurance. We calculated prevalence ratios using multiple Poisson regression. RESULTS: Healthy food consumption was more prevalent among females, white people, and individuals with higher socioeconomic status. However, we also found a higher prevalence of some foods considered unhealthy, such as sweets, sandwiches, snacks, and pizzas, among the most favored social segments, in women, and white people, expressing the concomitance of healthy and unhealthy eating habits. The comparison between the consumption of skim and low-fat milk according to income (prevalence ratio - PR = 4.48) presented the most significant difference. CONCLUSION: In addition to the expressive social inequality identified in the Brazilian food profile, mixed patterns were detected, including healthy and unhealthy foods. These results point out the need for monitoring and promoting healthy eating habits, taking into account the social inequalities and contradictions concerning food intake.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Classe Social , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17287, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574848

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that mental health is associated with multiple factors such as physical activity, sedentary behavior, and physical function in older adults. The present study used latent profile analysis to identify classes of older adults based on their health profile among a representative sample of Korean older adults with hypertension. Differences in mental health between these classes were also examined.Seven hundred and sixty seven participants (mean age = 70.23, SD = 6.08; men 45.6%) were included in the analysis.There were 3 latent classes (class 1: a physically inactive lifestyle with low physical function and body perception; class 2: a physically moderate lifestyle with moderate physical function and low body perception; class 3: a physically active lifestyle with high physical function and body perception). According to class comparisons, older adults in class 3 had significantly lower anxiety/depression levels than classes 1 and 2. Older adults in class 3 had significantly lower stress levels than class 1.It is possible that among older adults, having a positive attitude of one's body shape may also be important for improving anxiety/depression along with having a physically active lifestyle and maintaining physical function.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Força da Mão , Hipertensão/psicologia , Postura Sentada , Caminhada , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Percepção , República da Coreia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
4.
BMJ ; 367: l5584, 2019 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between weight changes across adulthood and mortality. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-94 and 1999-2014. PARTICIPANTS: 36 051 people aged 40 years or over with measured body weight and height at baseline and recalled weight at young adulthood (25 years old) and middle adulthood (10 years before baseline). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause and cause specific mortality from baseline until 31 December 2015. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 12.3 years, 10 500 deaths occurred. Compared with participants who remained at normal weight, those moving from the non-obese to obese category between young and middle adulthood had a 22% (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.33) and 49% (1.49, 1.21 to 1.83) higher risk of all cause mortality and heart disease mortality, respectively. Changing from obese to non-obese body mass index over this period was not significantly associated with mortality risk. An obese to non-obese weight change pattern from middle to late adulthood was associated with increased risk of all cause mortality (1.30, 1.16 to 1.45) and heart disease mortality (1.48, 1.14 to 1.92), whereas moving from the non-obese to obese category over this period was not significantly associated with mortality risk. Maintaining obesity across adulthood was consistently associated with increased risk of all cause mortality; the hazard ratio was 1.72 (1.52 to 1.95) from young to middle adulthood, 1.61 (1.41 to 1.84) from young to late adulthood, and 1.20 (1.09 to 1.32) from middle to late adulthood. Maximum overweight had a very modest or null association with mortality across adulthood. No significant associations were found between various weight change patterns and cancer mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Stable obesity across adulthood, weight gain from young to middle adulthood, and weight loss from middle to late adulthood were associated with increased risks of mortality. The findings imply that maintaining normal weight across adulthood, especially preventing weight gain in early adulthood, is important for preventing premature deaths in later life.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Causas de Morte , Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Neoplasias , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Razão Cintura-Estatura
5.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(4): 526-530, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine nuts consumption in a sample of Chinese elderly residents. METHODS: Samples from 2015 China Nutritional Transition Cohort Study were used. A total of 5071 participants aged 60 years old and above were included in the final analysis. Three consecutive 24 h recalls were used to collect dietary consumption data. Average daily nuts intake was calculated. Then compared with recommended intake level of Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents(2016). Logistic regression was applied to analyze key factors affecting the consumption of nuts intake. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of nuts consumption among elderly residents in 15 provinces was 17. 8%. The P90 nuts intake was 13. 6 g/d in the whole population and 16. 7 g/d in P50 in the consuming group. There were 81. 1% of the whole population achieved the recommendation of dietary guidelines. The Logistic analysis showed that the group of young age, high education level and urban residents had more nuts consumed. CONCLUSION: Nuts consumption rate was low among Chinese elderly residents. The intake was insufficient in the whole. Age, education level and area were key factors that influenced nuts consumption of the elderly.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Nozes , Idoso , China , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(5): 700-705, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analysis the status and trend of energy and macronutrient intake among elderly aged 60 and older years old in nine provinces( autonomous region) of China. METHODS: The data of China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1991 to 2015 were used, which elderly ≥60 years old were selected as the subjects. The 3-consecutive day 24-hour dietary recall was used to collect information on food intake, the condiment intake was collected by weighting and bookkeeping method. Food consumption was converted into energy and various nutrient intakes by food composition table. RESULTS: The intakes of energy was 1706. 8 kcal/d, protein, fat and carbohydrates was 52. 2 g/d, 61. 4 g/d and 219. 3 g/d respectively in 2015. The percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates was 12. 3%, 33. 3% and 53. 0%respectively. Compared with 1991, the intake of energy, protein, carbohydrate decreased352. 3 kcal/d, 11. 5 g/d and 89. 8 g/d respectively. The percentage of energy from fat increased 9. 0 percentage points, carbohydrates decreased 8. 7 percentage points and protein was not changing. In 2015, the intakes of protein and carbohydrates had urbanrural differences. The elderly at the high income level had high intakes of protein and fat, the carbohydrates intake at low level. The main source of energy, protein and fat is grain, other food and edible oil respectively. CONCLUSION: The elderly of Chinese nine provinces( autonomous region) need to increase energy consumption, reduce the fat intake. We should guide rural and low-income elderly people to choose more economical and accessible food to meet their nutritional needs through food substitution. Focus on changes in blood lipids that may result from excessive intake of animal food in urban and high-income elderly people.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Nutrientes , Idoso , Animais , China , Gorduras na Dieta , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(43): e17699, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651901

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to verify the usefulness of machine learning (ML) for selection of risk factors and development of predictive models for patients with sarcopenia.We collected medical records from Korean postmenopausal women based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. A training data set compiled from simple survey data was used to construct models based on popular ML algorithms (e.g., support vector machine, random forest [RF], and logistic regression).A total of 4020 patients ≥65 years of age were enrolled in this study. The study population consisted of 1698 (42.2%) male and 2322 (57.8%) female patients. The 10 most important risk factors in men were body mass index (BMI), red blood cell (RBC) count, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), vitamin D, ferritin, fiber intake (g/d), primary diastolic blood pressure, white blood cell (WBC) count, fat intake (g/d), age, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, niacin intake (mg/d), protein intake (g/d), fasting blood sugar, and water intake (g/d). The 10 most important risk factors in women were BMI, water intake (g/d), WBC, RBC count, iron intake (mg/d), BUN, high-density lipoprotein, protein intake (g/d), fiber consumption (g/d), vitamin C intake (mg/d), parathyroid hormone, niacin intake (mg/d), carotene intake (µg/d), potassium intake (mg/d), calcium intake (mg/d), sodium intake (mg/d), retinol intake (µg/d), and age. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis found that the area under the ROC curve for each ML model was not significantly different within a gender.The most cost-effective method in clinical practice is to make feature selection using RF models and expert knowledge and to make disease prediction using verification by several ML models. However, the developed prediction model should be validated using additional studies.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Medição de Risco/métodos , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Pós-Menopausa , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
8.
JAMA ; 322(12): 1178-1187, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550032

RESUMO

Importance: Changes in the economy, nutrition policies, and food processing methods can affect dietary macronutrient intake and diet quality. It is essential to evaluate trends in dietary intake, food sources, and diet quality to inform policy makers. Objective: To investigate trends in dietary macronutrient intake, food sources, and diet quality among US adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: Serial cross-sectional analysis of the US nationally representative 24-hour dietary recall data from 9 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles (1999-2016) among adults aged 20 years or older. Exposure: Survey cycle. Main Outcomes and Measures: Dietary intake of macronutrients and their subtypes, food sources, and the Healthy Eating Index 2015 (range, 0-100; higher scores indicate better diet quality; a minimal clinically important difference has not been defined). Results: There were 43 996 respondents (weighted mean age, 46.9 years; 51.9% women). From 1999 to 2016, the estimated energy from total carbohydrates declined from 52.5% to 50.5% (difference, -2.02%; 95% CI, -2.41% to -1.63%), whereas that of total protein and total fat increased from 15.5% to 16.4% (difference, 0.82%; 95% CI, 0.67%-0.97%) and from 32.0% to 33.2% (difference, 1.20%; 95% CI, 0.84%-1.55%), respectively (all P < .001 for trend). Estimated energy from low-quality carbohydrates decreased by 3.25% (95% CI, 2.74%-3.75%; P < .001 for trend) from 45.1% to 41.8%. Increases were observed in estimated energy from high-quality carbohydrates (by 1.23% [95% CI, 0.84%-1.61%] from 7.42% to 8.65%), plant protein (by 0.38% [95% CI, 0.28%-0.49%] from 5.38% to 5.76%), saturated fatty acids (by 0.36% [95% CI, 0.20%-0.51%] from 11.5% to 11.9%), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (by 0.65% [95% CI, 0.56%-0.74%] from 7.58% to 8.23%) (all P < .001 for trend). The estimated overall Healthy Eating Index 2015 increased from 55.7 to 57.7 (difference, 2.01; 95% CI, 0.86-3.16; P < .001 for trend). Trends in high- and low-quality carbohydrates primarily reflected higher estimated energy from whole grains (0.65%) and reduced estimated energy from added sugars (-2.00%), respectively. Trends in plant protein were predominantly due to higher estimated intake of whole grains (0.12%) and nuts (0.09%). Conclusions and Relevance: From 1999 to 2016, US adults experienced a significant decrease in percentage of energy intake from low-quality carbohydrates and significant increases in percentage of energy intake from high-quality carbohydrates, plant protein, and polyunsaturated fat. Despite improvements in macronutrient composition and diet quality, continued high intake of low-quality carbohydrates and saturated fat remained.


Assuntos
Dieta/tendências , Carboidratos da Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Dieta Saudável/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190041, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365598

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Statistical methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Factor Analysis (FA) are increasingly popular in Nutritional Epidemiology studies. However, misunderstandings regarding the choice and application of these methods have been observed. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare and present the main differences and similarities between FA and PCA, focusing on their applicability to nutritional studies. METHODS: PCA and FA were applied on a matrix of 34 variables expressing the mean food intake of 1,102 individuals from a population-based study. RESULTS: Two factors were extracted and, together, they explained 57.66% of the common variance of food group variables, while five components were extracted, explaining 26.25% of the total variance of food group variables. Among the main differences of these two methods are: normality assumption, matrices of variance-covariance/correlation and its explained variance, factorial scores, and associated error. The similarities are: both analyses are used for data reduction, the sample size usually needs to be big, correlated data, and they are based on matrices of variance-covariance. CONCLUSION: PCA and FA should not be treated as equal statistical methods, given that the theoretical rationale and assumptions for using these methods as well as the interpretation of results are different.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Análise Fatorial , Preferências Alimentares , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Análise de Componente Principal , Humanos
11.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1474-1475, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438188

RESUMO

Dietary supplements (DSs) have gained increased popularity for weight loss due to its availability without prescription, relatively low price, and ease of use. Consumers with limited health literacy may not adequately know the benefits and risks associated with DSs. In this project, we found a knowledge gap between reported benefits of major DSs by adults with obesity in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2014 and those reported in existing DS knowledge databases.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Perda de Peso
12.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 113061, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454574

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent in the environment, highly bio-accumulative in the body, and likely hepatotoxic in humans. There is evidence of sex-specific physiological responses to PFAA exposure. However, epidemiological studies seldom stratify the analyses by sex. Given the high prevalence of liver disease in general population adolescents, this study was designed to determine whether or not there is association between exposure to PFAAs and biomarkers of liver function in adolescent participants of the 2013-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and whether or not such association is sex-specific. Multivariate linear regressions were performed to examine the association between single PFAAs [perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS); linear form of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA); perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS); perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA)], and biomarkers of liver function - gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to estimate adjusted odd ratios (aOR) of elevated ALT, AST and GGT. The study results show that, in females, there was a positive association of the highest PFOA quartile with increased ALT, AST and GGT, and the highest PFNA quartile with increased ALT and AST. Conversely, in male adolescents there was an association of the highest linear PFOA quartile with decreased ALT, and the highest PFNA quartile with ALT and AST. Females had higher odds of clinically-defined elevated ALT with increased PFOA (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.04) or PFNA (aOR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.28), whereas males had decreased odds of clinically-defined elevated ALT with increased n-PFOA (aOR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.93) or PFNA (aOR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.89). In conclusion, there were sex differences in the association between serum PFAA levels and biomarkers of liver function. These results may provide support for analyzing sex-based adverse effects of PFAAs.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Fígado/fisiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adolescente , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Caprilatos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Ácidos Sulfônicos/sangue
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 223-230, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468401

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate the dietary taurine intake and its food sources in Korean's aged between 19 and 29 years. The study included 619 participants (292 males and 327 females) who had provided data via a 24-h recall method to the 2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Dietary taurine intake and the sources of dietary taurine were estimated by using CAN-Pro 4.0 software. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 20.0. Average height and weight of the subjects was 174 cm and 73.5 kg in males and 161 cm and 56.4 kg in females, respectively. The prevalence of obesity in males was significantly higher compared to females (p < 0.001). Overall, the nutrient intakes of subjects were higher than the dietary reference intakes for Korean's (KDRIs). In particular, phosphorus and sodium intakes of males and females were higher, whereas, potassium and calcium intakes of males and females were lower than the KDRIs. The average intake of taurine 327.3 mg by males was significantly higher compared to 245.1 mg by females (p < 0.05). With regard to dietary taurine intake from the main food groups, meat (p < 0.001), vegetable (p < 0.001), beverages and alcohol (p < 0.05), and cereal (p < 0.001), in males was significantly higher compared to females. This study showed that 19-29 years old Korean young adults had a high intake of taurine due to high intake of protein. However, since high intake of meat can lead to chronic disease, it is necessary to provide nutrition education to increase the intake of fishes and shellfishes as a taurine source food.


Assuntos
Dieta , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Taurina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 301-311, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468409

RESUMO

Taurine can suppress the creation of lipid hydroperoxide and decrease the level of total cholesterol and triglyceride in the blood. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between biochemical indicators associated with cardiometabolic disease and taurine intake in elderly people. Subjects of this study were those participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2016, aged over 75 years old. Data of dietary intake were collected through 24-h dietary recall method, and for nutrient analysis, the taurine intake was divided into quadrants. Mean values of taurine intake were 237.8 ± 17.5 mg/day in men and 157.5 ± 12.4 mg/day in women. Both men and women in the quadrants with the higher level of taurine intake appeared to show high intake levels of energy, protein, fat, total cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, riboflavin, and niacin. As a result of relationship analysis between taurine intake and cardiometabolic risk markers (total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, blood glucose, and atherogenic index), taurine intake showed a significantly negative relation with AI in men but showed a positive relation in women with DBP.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Taurina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(4): 451-459, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013810

RESUMO

RESUMEN Evaluar el consumo de bebidas y la cantidad ingerida durante el día, reviste importancia para los profesionales de la salud, quienes participan en la educación y diseño de políticas en alimentación y nutrición, relacionadas con el bienestar de la comunidad. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar entre sexos, el gusto por el consumo de diferentes tipos de bebidas y la cantidad consumida por día. El estudio se realizó en una muestra representativa de los habitantes de la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia, entre los 18 y 50 años de edad. Se utilizó análisis multivariado de la varianza (MANOVA) con contraste canónico de tipo ortogonal, análisis de correspondencia múltiple con clasificación jerárquica indexada, análisis de frecuencias unidimensional y bidimensional. Se detectó diferencia significativa entre sexos en el gusto por consumir bebidas aromáticas y gaseosas dietéticas (p< 0.05), no se detectó diferencia (p> 0.05) en la cantidad de líquido consumido al día según sexo. La principal conclusión radica en que a más del 80% de los indagados les gusta consumir agua de manera frecuente, afirman conocer las recomendaciones de consumo de este líquido al día y los beneficios que aportan para el mantenimiento de la salud. El tamaño de la muestra utilizado fue de 322 personas.


ABSTRACT Evaluating daily beverage consumption is important for health professionals who participate in education and policy design related to food, nutrition, and community welfare. The objective of the study was to compare, between sexes, the preference for the consumption of different types of drinks and daily consumption. A study with a representative sample of the inhabitants of the city of Medellín, Colombia, between 18 and 50 years of age, was conducted. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with orthogonal canonical contrast, multiple correspondence analysis with hierarchical indexed classification, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional frequency analysis was used. A significant difference between sexes was detected in the taste for consuming aromatic beverages and diet sodas (p<0.05), no difference was detected (p>0.05) in daily consumption of liquid according to sex. The main conclusion was that more than 80% of respondents liked to consume water on a frequent basis, reported knowing the recommendations for daily consumption of this liquid and the benefits it provided for maintaining health. The sample size was 322 persons.


Assuntos
Humanos , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Colômbia , Ingestão de Líquidos , Comportamento Alimentar , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável
16.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(4): 477-484, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013813

RESUMO

RESUMEN Validar instrumentos de medición de datos es fundamental para constituir conocimiento certero y objetivo respecto a los hábitos en ingesta alimentaria. El artículo pretende adaptar y validar para el contexto de educación superior un cuestionario que originalmente es de atención primaria, y que se transforme en un insumo válido para medir hábitos alimentarios en estudiantes universitarios. Basados en un cuestionario validado por Pino, Díaz y López en el 2011, se ajustaron las preguntas para un contexto de educación terciaria. El instrumento se aplicó a una muestra estratificada de 405 estudiantes de pregrado de una universidad perteneciente al Consejo de Rectores de Chile (CRUCH) de la región del Maule. Los datos fueron procesados mediante el paquete estadístico SPSS 20, y contó con los respectivos resguardos éticos mediante consentimiento informado firmado. Siguiendo los pertinentes análisis estadísticos para la validación del instrumento, podemos dar cuenta de un cuestionario confiable y aceptable (α= 0,815), estableciéndose 10 dimensiones con 35 preguntas. Se concluye un instrumento válido y adaptado para ser aplicado en estudiantes con el fin de identificar sus hábitos alimentarios en educación superior.


ABSTRACT Validating data measurement instruments is essential to establish accurate and objective knowledge regarding dietary habits. This article aims to adapt and validate a questionnaire to measure dietary habits originally designed for the primary care setting for use in the context of higher education. Based on a questionnaire validated by Pino, Díaz and López in 2011, the questions were adjusted for a tertiary education context. The instrument was applied to a sample of 405 undergraduate students of a university belonging to the Council of Rectors of Chile (CRUCH) of the Maule region, stratified by college year. Data were analysed using SPSS 20; signed informed consent was obtained. Following the relevant statistical analysis for the validation of an instrument, 10 dimensions with 35 questions were established. Results indicated that the instrument is trustworthy and acceptable (α= 0.815). We conclude that the instrument is a valid adaptation and can be applied to higher education students in order to identify their eating habits.


Assuntos
Humanos , Chile , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Educação Superior , Estudos de Validação como Assunto , Comportamento Alimentar , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 131, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research on the effects of sedentary behavior on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of the elderly is limited. The present study aimed to determine the association between sedentary behavior and the HRQoL of the young-old (aged 65-74 years) people and old-old (aged ≥75 years) people. METHODS: This study used the raw data of the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2016. The study subjects were 1,415 people aged over 65 years. The association between HRQoL and average daily sitting time was analyzed using the point biserial correlation coefficient. The effect of sedentary behavior on HRQoL was analyzed by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall, elderly people aged ≥65 years spent 7.9 h in sedentary pursuits: the young-old spent 7.7 h and the old-old spent 9.0 h. Longer sitting time was found to be associated with lower HROoL while shorter sitting time was associated with higher HROoL, with the relationship stronger among the old-old than among the young-old. This means that the effects of either having longer time sitting per day and low quality of life or shorter time sitting per day and high quality of life are more pronounced in the old-old in comparison to the young-old. CONCLUSIONS: Sedentary behavior is significantly associated with people's HRQoL. Interventions towards improving the HRQoL by reducing sedentary behavior based on the respective characteristics of young-old and old-old people are needed.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , República da Coreia
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(28): e16355, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305428

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) has a multifactorial etiology that includes oxidative stress. Oxidative balance score (OBS) is a well-known indicator of oxidative stress. However, the association between OBS and OA has not been assessed. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the associations of OBS with OA and quality of life (QOL) in patients with OA.By using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI, patients previously diagnosed and/or treated by a physician were considered to have OA regardless of the affected joints. The control group was defined as participants without any form of chronic arthritis. OBS was calculated by combining 10 pro-oxidant and antioxidant factors through a baseline nutritional and lifestyle assessment. Higher OBS scores indicated a predominance of antioxidant exposure. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for OA, and the EuroQoL five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ5D) was used in patients with OA after adjusting for demographic factors and comorbidities.Among the 14,930 participants, 296 patients with OA, and 1,309 controls were included in the analysis. In the age- and sex-adjusted model, the OR of the total OBS for OA was significant. In the full model adjusted for age, sex, education, income, and comorbidities, the total OBS for OA was not significant. Only the non-dietary pro-oxidant OBS had a significant inverse association with OA. The patients with OA who had a high EQ5D score had a higher total OBS than those with a low EQ5D score. The OR of the total OBS for a high EQ5D score was 1.14 in the multivariable logistic regression model. As we analyzed the OBS as a categorical variable (reference = Q1), the ORs of the Q2, Q3, and Q4 (highest) total OBS were 1.43, 2.71, and 2.22, respectively.In the fully adjusted model, the total OBS was not associated with OA. However, a positive association was observed between the total OBS and QOL in the patients with OA, indicating that antioxidative status was associated with better QOL in patients with OA.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Dieta , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Osteoartrite/epidemiologia , República da Coreia
19.
Epidemiol Health ; 41: e2019029, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2017 to assess trends in the prevalence, treatment, and control of diabetes in Korean adults ≥30 years of age. METHODS: Prevalent diabetes was defined as a fasting plasma glucose level ≥126 mg/dL, self-reported use of anti-diabetic treatment (insulin or oral anti-diabetic drugs), or diabetes diagnosis by a physician. Target levels were defined as glycosylated hemoglobin <6.5% or <7.0%, blood pressure <130/80 mmHg, and total cholesterol <200 mg/dL. All survey waves were age-standardized to the 2005 Korean census population. RESULTS: Diabetes prevalence increased from 9.6% in 2007-2009 to 10.8% in 2016-2017 (p<0.001). Impaired fasting glucose prevalence significantly increased in both genders and almost every age group. Diabetes awareness and glycemic control did not show an increasing trend; however, the treatment rate and proportion of people diagnosed with diabetes achieving target blood pressure and total cholesterol levels improved from 57.2% to 63.5% (p=0.008), from 41.1% to 53.2% (p<0.001), and from 65.0% to 78.0% (p<0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: From 2007 to 2017, the prevalence of diabetes increased moderately in Korea, whereas the diabetes treatment rate and the proportion of people diagnosed with diabetes achieving target blood pressure and total cholesterol levels improved. However, awareness of diabetes and glycemic control require significant improvements. A national-level action plan is required to raise awareness about diabetes and prediabetes, with the goal of improving glycemic control and minimizing the occurrence of adverse health outcomes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
20.
Gerodontology ; 36(4): 395-404, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274221

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to utilise machine learning methods in artificial intelligence to select the most relevant variables in classifying the presence and absence of root caries and to evaluate the model performance. BACKGROUND: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent oral health problems. Artificial intelligence can be used to develop models for identification of root caries risk and to gain valuable insights, but it has not been applied in dentistry. Accurately identifying root caries may guide treatment decisions, leading to better oral health outcomes. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2015-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and were randomly divided into training and test sets. Several supervised machine learning methods were applied to construct a tool that was capable of classifying variables into the presence and absence of root caries. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating curve were computed. RESULTS: Of the machine learning algorithms developed, support vector machine demonstrated the best performance with an accuracy of 97.1%, precision of 95.1%, sensitivity of 99.6% and specificity of 94.3% for identifying root caries. The area under the curve was 0.997. Age was the feature most strongly associated with root caries. CONCLUSION: The machine learning algorithms developed in this study perform well and allow for clinical implementation and utilisation by dental and nondental professionals. Clinicians are encouraged to adopt the algorithms from this study for early intervention and treatment of root caries for the ageing population of the United States, and for attaining precision dental medicine.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Cárie Radicular , Algoritmos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Inquéritos Nutricionais
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