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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 393-399, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892592

RESUMO

AIM: This study was performed to confirm the superior overall survival (OS) after pulmonary oligo-recurrence compared to pulmonary sync-oligometastases in a large nationwide study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients that met the following criteria were included: 1 to 5 lung-only metastases at the beginning of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was performed between January 2004 and June 2015, and the biological effective dose (BED) of SBRT was 75 Gy or more. The parameters included in the analyses were age, gender, ECOG PS, primary lesion, pathology, oligoetastatic state, SBRT date, chemotherapy before SBRT, chemotherapy concurrent SBRT, chemotherapy after SBRT, maximum tumor diameter, number of metastases, field coplanarity, dose prescription, BED10, OTT of SBRT. RESULTS: In total, 1,378 patients with 1,547 tumors were enrolled. Oligo-recurrence occurred in 1,016 patients, sync-oligometastases in 118, and unclassified oligometastases in 121. The three-year OS was 64.0% for oligo-recurrence and 47.5% for sync-oligometastasis (p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) for sync-oligometastases versus oligo-recurrence was 1.601 (p=0.014). Adverse events of Grade 5 were occurred in 3 patients. CONCLUSION: This is the first nationwide to indicate that the OS of patients with pulmonary oligo-recurrence is better than that of patients with sync-oligometastases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Radiocirurgia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMJ ; 368: m1, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900254
5.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 30(1): 010704, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839724

RESUMO

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. The objective of this study was to find out under what preanalytical conditions routine and diagnostic glucose tests are performed across Spanish laboratories; and also what criteria are used for DM diagnosis. Materials and methods: An online survey was performed by the Commission on Quality Assurance in the Extra-Analytical Phase of the Spanish Society of Laboratory Medicine (SEQC-ML). Access to the questionnaire was available on the home page of the SEQC-ML website during the period April-July 2018. Data analysis was conducted with the IBM SPSS© Statistics (version 20.0) program. Results: A total of 96 valid surveys were obtained. Most laboratories were in public ownership, serving hospital and primary care patients, with high and medium workloads, and a predominance of mixed routine-urgent glucose testing. Serum tubes were the most used for routine glucose analysis (92%) and DM diagnosis (54%); followed by lithium-heparin plasma tubes (62%), intended primarily for urgent glucose testing; point-of-care testing devices were used by 37%; and plasma tubes with a glycolysis inhibitor, mainly sodium fluoride, by 19%. Laboratories used the cut-off values and criteria recognized worldwide for DM diagnosis in adults and glucose-impaired tolerance, but diverged in terms of fasting plasma glucose and gestational DM criteria. Conclusion: Preanalytical processing of routine and DM diagnostic glucose testing in Spain does not allow a significant, non-quantified influence of glycolysis on the results to be ruled out. Possible adverse consequences include a delay in diagnosis and possible under-treatment.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/instrumentação , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Laboratórios Hospitalares/normas , Fase Pré-Analítica , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 30(1): 010705, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839725

RESUMO

Introduction: Appropriate iodine intake is important for the entire population, especially in fertile women due to decisive role of thyroid hormones in normal foetal brain development. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge on iodine role among Croatian women of reproductive age. Materials and methods: The survey was conducted among 378 women of reproductive age during May-September 2018. Data on age, education level, salt intake habits, knowledge of the iodine role and possible presence of thyroid disease were collected and results were presented as numbers or percentage of total number of participants. Comparison between groups was performed by Chi square test. Results: Of 378 participants, 178 reported to be familiar with the iodine role in the body (P = 0.115). Significantly higher proportion of the younger woman and woman with lower degree of education weren't familiar with the iodine role (P < 0.001). More woman were introduced to consequences of insufficient than to excessive iodine intake (273 vs 213; P < 0.001). In addition, participants mainly weren't familiar with obligation of salt iodination (P < 0.001). Presence of thyroid disease was recorded in 75 subjects with higher prevalence in subjects 36-49 years (P < 0.001). Presence of thyroid disease was not associated with knowledge on iodine role on health. Conclusion: Women of reproductive age are not completely aware of the consequences of excessive iodine intake. Thus, further education focusing on more sensitive groups such as woman of younger age should be considered in order to preserve their and their children's health.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Croácia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 699: 134404, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678877

RESUMO

The climate change phenomenon has been occurring in every part of the world, including Malaysia. In particular, changes such as rising temperature, sea level rise, and unstable rain pattern are proven to affect the socio-economic routine of the community. Hence, it is necessary to learn how to adapt to it, especially those who heavily rely on nature stability. The present study examined the adaptation towards climate change among islanders in Malaysia. In addition, the current research was performed quantitatively using a developed questionnaire as the main data collection tool. In this case, a total of 400 islanders were selected as the respondents through a multi-stage sampling technique. The results revealed that the respondents recorded a moderate to high mean score for adaptation aspects namely awareness, dependency and structure. Accordingly, a number of recommendations that were highlighted can be utilized as a basis to develop community adaptation policy that is in line with the islanders' need, ability, and interests.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Aclimatação , Adaptação Fisiológica , Malásia , Chuva , Inquéritos e Questionários , Temperatura Ambiente
8.
Int J Prosthodont ; 33(1): 9-13, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860908

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify the prevalence of sleep disorders in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) subjects in a Brazilian population-based, cross-sectional survey (N = 1,643). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were assessed with the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) Axes I and II and the Sleep Assessment Questionnaire. Student t test and Pearson chi-square test were used for continuous and categorical data analyses, respectively. RESULTS: TMD subjects had significantly worse sleep disorders than controls (Graded Chronic Pain Severity categories I through IV vs 0, respectively) in RDC/TMD Axis II variables. Sleep disorders were also worse in the Axis I TMD groups (myofascial pain and arthralgia/osteoarthritis/osteoarthrosis), with the exception of disc displacements. CONCLUSION: TMD subjects had worse sleep disorders, mainly in Axis I TMD groups, with higher pain/disability levels.


Assuntos
Luxações Articulares , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Síndrome da Disfunção da Articulação Temporomandibular , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Dor Facial , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Urol ; 203(1): 164-170, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364922

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lower urinary tract symptoms are common in men and women. Members of the LURN (Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network) sought to create a brief, clinically relevant tool to improve existing measurements of lower urinary tract symptoms in men and women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a modified Delphi methodology during an expert consensus meeting we reduced the LURN CASUS (Comprehensive Assessment of Self-Reported Urinary Symptoms) questionnaire to a brief set of clinically relevant items measuring lower urinary tract symptoms. The sum score of these items was evaluated by comparing it to the AUA SI (American Urological Association Symptom Index), the UDI-6 (Urinary Distress Inventory Short Form) in women only and the CASUS lower urinary tract symptoms screening questions using the Pearson correlation, regression analysis and ROC curves. RESULTS: The LURN SI-10 (10-Item LURN Symptom Index) assesses urinary frequency, nocturia, urgency, incontinence, bladder pain, voiding and post-micturition symptoms (score range 0 to 38). The correlation between LURN SI-10 and AUA SI scores was 0.77 in men and 0.70 in women. The UDI-6 and the LURN SI-10 correlated highly in women (r=0.76). The LURN SI-10 showed good accuracy to predict moderate and severe lower urinary tract symptoms as defined by the AUA SI (ROC AUC range 0.82-0.90). Similar accuracy was shown in predicting different levels of symptom status using the UDI-6 (AUC range 0.84-0.86). CONCLUSIONS: The LURN SI-10 correlates well with the AUA SI and the UDI-6. It includes items related to a broader spectrum of lower urinary tract symptoms, particularly incontinence, bladder pain and post-micturition symptoms, and it applies to men and women.


Assuntos
Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/diagnóstico , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Clin Pathol ; 73(1): 47-50, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439711

RESUMO

Pathology is the study of disease and is an important component in medical education. However, with medical curriculum reform, its role and contribution to medical courses is under potential threat. We surveyed the status of pathology in all six Irish medical schools. Information was received from five direct undergraduate and four graduate entry programmes. Pathology was recognisable as a core subject in all but one of the medical schools, was generally taught in years two or three, and the greatest contact hours were for histopathology (44-102 hours). Lectures were the most common teaching modality, and all used single best or extended matching answer multiple-choice questions as part of assessments. Currently, pathology is very visible in Irish medical education but needs to remain relevant with the move to theme and case-based teaching. There is heavy reliance on lectures and on non-academic/full-time hospital staff to deliver teaching, which may not be sustainable.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/métodos , Patologia/educação , Currículo , Humanos , Irlanda , Faculdades de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Oral Rehabil ; 47(1): 42-52, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) by comparing the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) and Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) tests, assessing their dependence with pain, anxiety and depression and, secondly, to analyse the changes in time after treatment with psychotropic drugs. METHODS: Twenty-six patients and 26 controls were included. The GOHAI, OHIP-14, visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression and Anxiety (HAM-D and HAM-A) were performed at baseline (time 0) and after 6 months of treatment (time 1). Descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test for two independent samples and the Wilcoxon non-parametric test for two paired samples were used. RESULTS: The scores from all outcome measurements were statistically significantly different between the cases and controls (P < .001) with a strong correlation between the GOHAI and the OHIP-14 (P < .001). The BMS patients showed a statistically significant improvement in the VAS, HAM-D and HAM-A scores from time 0 to time 1 (P < 0.001), and in the OHIP-14 scores (P < .004**) after the treatment, but no statistically significant difference in the GOHAI score (.464). CONCLUSIONS: Burning mouth syndrome patients showed poorer scores on all scales compared to the healthy subjects with a lower OHRQoL. OHIP-14 gives a greater weight to psychological and behavioural outcomes in evaluating oral health than GOHAI, and therefore, it is a more effective questionnaire in terms of the evaluation of the treatment response. The management of BMS can improve pain, anxiety and depression and the OHRQoL.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Ardência Bucal , Saúde Bucal , Idoso , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Oral Rehabil ; 47(1): 1-8, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oro-facial function is usually impaired by temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Several studies on TMDs have used the Jaw Functional Limitation Scale (JFLS) to assess mandibular dysfunction. However, it was originally created in English and hence needs to be validated for use among Chinese people. OBJECTIVE: To develop a Chinese version of the JFLS for Chinese TMD patients and to investigate the validity and reliability of the scale. METHODS: Content validity and temporal stability were evaluated at two different occasions. The reliability and validity of the JFLS were tested in 483 TMD patients. Cronbach's alpha coefficient and split-half reliability were used to assess internal consistency, while the validity was evaluated by factor analysis. RESULTS: Three factors were extracted during exploratory factor analysis, accounting for 62.39% of the variance. The three-factor model was then measured using confirmatory factor analysis (χ2 /df = 3.6, root mean square error of approximation = 0.091, comparative fit index = 0.896). Internal (coefficient alpha values of .906 for all items and Guttman split-half reliability of 0.756) and test-retest (intra-class correlation coefficient = .851-.897, 95% confidence interval = 0.656-0.950) reliabilities were excellent. CONCLUSION: The Chinese version of the JFLS is reliable and valid for use in Chinese TMD patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Articulação Temporomandibular , Humanos , Arcada Osseodentária , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109807, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733472

RESUMO

This study explored willingness of households to adopt a greywater treatment and reuse system using the theory of planned behaviour in its original form and an extended model including personal norms. The study was conducted among 478 household heads in the central region of Ghana. The results indicate the original theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model explained about 54% of the variance in respondents' intentions to adopt this system and the extended model which includes personal norms explained 59% of the intentions. The extended model turned out to be the better model to predict willingness to adopt this household greywater and treatment system. The findings of this study shed more light on the role of personal norms in households' willingness to adopt a greywater treatment and reuse system and may inform interventions aimed at promoting such systems.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Teoria Psicológica , Características da Família , Gana , Intenção , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109777, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733476

RESUMO

Psychosocial factors determine individual and collective behaviours, and there is growing evidence of their influence on land management behaviours. Native vegetation management encompasses biophysical, economic, political, and cultural dimensions that are immensely complex, and a more thorough understanding of the personal and cultural dimensions of deforestation activity is required. We emphasise this interdisciplinary imperative using Queensland, Australia, as an exemplar case study, where the controversial Vegetation Management Act1999 has been met with significant scrutiny over its effects on private landholders and its ability to curb deforestation behaviours. We surveyed landholders across Queensland in order to identify different landholder typologies based upon (1) their recent tree clearing behaviours and (2) their psychosocial characteristics, mapped their distribution in the landscape, and determined the unique demographic and psychosocial factors associated with typology membership. We identified a heterogeneous mosaic of landholders in the clearing landscape, composed of four clearing typologies and five psychosocial typologies. Social norms, identity, trust, and security played crucial roles in distinguishing different types of landholders. The two most contrasting clearing typologies-active and inactive clearers-were primarily located in hot- and cold-spots of deforestation, respectively; in contrast, most psychosocial typologies could be found throughout the landscape, highlighting the potential benefit of complementing generalised state-wide psychosocial targets with localised behavioural targets. We discuss how conservation policy instruments can be regionally tailored, and relevant strategies for effective communication and engagement can be developed to create behaviour change by understanding the characteristics and distribution of these types of landholders. If modified top-down efforts (e.g. strategic messages, community-based communication) can be supplemented with more bottom-up approaches (e.g. collective learning, building network support), sustainable land management in deforestation hotspots around the world may be achievable.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Mudança Social , Austrália , Queensland , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 129(1): 55-62, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe typical anesthesia practices for children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). STUDY DESIGN: Online survey. METHOD: A sample of pediatric anesthesiologists received the survey by email. RESULTS: 110 respondents were included. 46.4% worked in a free-standing children's hospital and 32.7% worked in a children's facility within a general hospital. 73.6% taught residents. 44.4% saw at least one child with OSA per week, 25.5% saw them daily. On a 100-mm visual analog scale, respondents rated their comfort with managing these children as 84.94 (SD 17.59). For children with severe OSA, 53.6% gave oral midazolam preoperatively, but 24.5% typically withheld premedication and had the parent present for induction. 68.2% would typically use nitrous oxide for inhalational induction. 68.2% used fentanyl intraoperatively, while 20.0% used morphine. 61.5% reduced their intraop narcotic dose for children with OSA. 98.2% used intraoperative dexamethasone, 58.2% used 0.5 mg/kg for the dose. 98.2% used ondansetron, 62.7% used IV acetaminophen, and 8.2% used IV NSAIDs. 83.6% extubated awake. 27.3% of respondents stated that their institution had standardized guidelines for perioperative management of children with OSA undergoing adenotonsillectomy. People who worked in children's hospitals, who had >10 years of experience, or who saw children with OSA frequently were significantly more comfortable dealing with children with OSA (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Apart from using intraoperative dexamethasone and ondansetron, management varied. These children would likely benefit from best practices perioperative management guidelines.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anestesiologia , Anestésicos/uso terapêutico , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Pediatria , Padrões de Prática Médica , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/cirurgia , Tonsilectomia , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Adenoidectomia , Extubação/métodos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Fentanila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Midazolam/uso terapêutico , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Óxido Nitroso/uso terapêutico , Ondansetron/uso terapêutico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Nurs Adm ; 50(1): 52-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of the implementation of interprofessional shared governance and a caring professional practice model (Relationship-Based Care [RBC]) on the staff's self-report of caring, work engagement, and workplace empowerment over a 4-year time frame. BACKGROUND: Shared or interprofessional governance has moved mainstream within healthcare settings, particularly within agencies seeking to sustain high reliability in the offering of quality patient care services and/or interest in meeting Magnet standards or embarking upon the Pathway to Excellence. Nurse leaders report that organizations having implemented shared governance thrive, citing professional governance as key to workplace engagement and empowerment, particularly related to quality care initiatives. Transition to interprofessional shared governance structures typically takes 2 to 3 years. It is unknown whether related outcome variables are sustainable over time. METHODS: Utilizing Watson's theory of human caring and appreciative inquiry as underlying frameworks, a longitudinal, quantitative study design was employed. Interprofessional focus groups and introductory sessions were offered to inform and engage all personnel within the medical center. Motivated units were identified, professional shared governance council members elected, and unit-specific education provided. Quality improvement initiatives were facilitated within unit councils, and formal leadership programs to enhance project guidance and to support staff empowerment skills for the managers of the units that were up-and-running were provided. Preimplementation and postimplementation measurements of staff's caring, workplace engagement and work empowerment were assessed, compared, and trended across units over time. RESULTS: Only work empowerment scores among staff working within RBC units were sustainable and increased progressively and significantly over time. Work engagement levels initially rose and then stabilized over time. Caring levels remained stable despite the implementation of a caring professional practice model. Statistically significant correlations were noted between work engagement and empowerment, followed by the relationship between work engagement and caring, followed by the relationship between empowerment and caring. CONCLUSIONS: The sustainability of work empowerment is likely related to the periodic provision of education for leaders regarding leading within an empowered work environment. A stronger focus on staff caring, particularly within quality improvement initiatives, with leadership guidance, will be paramount moving forward.


Assuntos
Empatia , Padrões de Prática em Enfermagem/normas , Governança Compartilhada de Enfermagem , Local de Trabalho , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
17.
J Homosex ; 67(1): 58-78, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307840

RESUMO

Masculine overcompensation-a phenomenon where men react to masculinity threats by endorsing hypermasculine ideals-has been demonstrated among straight men but has yet to be examined among gay men. The current study therefore proposed to examine whether gay men overcompensate similarly to their straight counterparts by providing participants with randomized feedback that threatened their masculinity. Overcompensation was measured in 867 online respondents by administering a series of questionnaires regarding views of pornography, rape, sex roles, and political orientation. Although our hypothesis was not confirmed, results revealed the intersectionality of both sexual orientation and self-reported gender expression regarding the formation of different views and beliefs. Specifically, masculinity was differentially related to homophobic attitudes, more callous views toward victims of sexual assault, and various components of attitudes toward pornography in gay and straight men. Masculine gay males held stereotypically masculine views less strongly than their masculine straight counterparts, providing evidence that gay males adopt a different type of masculinity than straight males-something of a "masculinity lite." Such findings point to the converging influence of sexual orientation and gender expression as contributors relevant to the attitudes of gay and straight men. This information adds to a growing body of literature on differences between gay and straight men and can be used to inform theory, education, and clinical practice, particularly in settings where men grapple with the implications of their masculinity.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Masculinidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estereotipagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Spec Care Dentist ; 40(1): 71-78, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858622

RESUMO

AIMS: The dental activities test (DAT), designed to assess individuals' ability to perform oral health-related activities, was initially tested among 90 assisted living residents with normal to severely impaired cognition. This study aimed to examine the reliability (internal consistency), convergent validity, and structural validity of DAT among individuals with stroke. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was a secondary analysis of data collected for a cross-sectional study that aimed to understand oral disease patterns among 207 individuals with stroke from three hospitals in China. Convergent validity was examined using Spearman's Correlation coefficient (rs ) for correlation between DAT scores and the assessments of physical function and cognition. Structural validity was examined using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The DAT demonstrated good estimates for internal consistency (Kuder Richardson-20 = 0.85, 95% confidence of interval [CI] = 0.82, 0.88), convergent validity (rs range: 0.43-0.61, all P < .001), and good structural validity with a one-factor structure. CONCLUSION: Findings supported the reliability and validity of DAT as a unidimensional construct in measuring the ability to perform oral health-related activities in persons with stroke. Further testing among different patient populations and care settings is needed to accumulate evidence and expand the use of the test.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral , China , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal ; 25(1): e89-e95, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral cancer is considered a public health problem worldwide. Dental schools may play an important role in educating patients about oral cancer. This study aimed at evaluating the knowledge of patients attending clinics at two dental schools in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From March 2017 to April 2017, 251 patients who were attending clinics at two dental schools in Recife, Brazil, were included in the study. Patients were contacted in the waiting rooms of the clinic. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire, which consists of 21 questions, including socio-demographic and specific information on the disease. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and a chi-square test (with a 5% significance level) was used to assess the correlation between the variables, education and family income and other variables. RESULTS: Most participants were women (64.9%) with a mean age of 42.72 years. Most participants were knowledgeable about oral cancer and identified tobacco use (48.6%), alcohol consumption (25.1%), and solar radiation (12%) as the primary risk factors for the disease. Only 36.7% of the participants reported having received counselling on oral cancer, of which 18.3% received the information from a dentist. All patients with an income higher than six minimum wages were aware about oral cancer (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the importance of educational programs in dental schools as well providing integrated services for patients seeking care at school clinics, including population's awareness on oral cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais , Faculdades de Odontologia , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124528, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425869

RESUMO

A dendrochemical study of cottonwood trees (Populus deltoides) was conducted across a childhood cancer cluster in eastern Sandusky County (Ohio, USA). The justification for this study was that no satisfactory explanation has yet been put forward, despite extensive local surveys of aerosols, groundwater, and soil. Concentrations of eight trace metals were measured by ICP-MS in microwave-digested 5-year sections of increment cores, collected during 2012 and 2013. To determine whether the onset of the first cancer cases could be connected to an emergence of any of these contaminants, cores spanning the period 1970-2009 were taken from 51 trees of similar age, inside the cluster and in a control area to the west. The abundance of metals in cottonwood tree annual rings served as a proxy for their long-term, low-level accumulation from the same sources whereby exposure of the children may have occurred. A spatial analysis of cumulative metal burdens (lifetime accumulation in the tree) was performed to search for significant 'hotspots', employing a scan statistic with a mask of variable radius and center. For Cd, Cr, and Ni, circular hotspots were found that nearly coincide with the cancer cluster and are similar in size. No hotspots were found for Co, Cu, and Pb, while As and V were largely below method detection limits. Whereas our results do not implicate exposure to metals as a causative factor, we conclude that, after 1970, cottonwood trees have accumulated more Cd, Cr, and Ni, inside the childhood cancer cluster than elsewhere in Sandusky County.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Populus/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Criança , Humanos , Ohio/epidemiologia , Solo/química , Análise Espacial , Inquéritos e Questionários , Árvores/química
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