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1.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 71-83, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997586

RESUMO

This study assessed the farm-level economic and environmental impacts from the use of genetically modified (GM) corn in Vietnam (resistant to Lepidopteran pests of corn and tolerant to the herbicide glyphosate). It was largely based on a farmer survey conducted in 2018-19. The GM varieties out-performed conventional varieties in terms of yield by +30.4% (+15.2% if the yield comparison is with only the nearest performing equivalent conventional varieties) and reduced the cost of production by between US $26.47 per ha and US $31.30 per ha. For every extra US $1 spent on GM seed relative to conventional seed, farmers gained between an additional US $6.84 and US $12.55 in extra income. The GM maize technology also reduced insecticide and herbicide use. The average amount of herbicide active ingredient applied to the GM crop area was 26% lower (1.66 kg per ha) than the average value for the conventional corn area (2.26 kg/ai per ha) and in terms of the associated environmental impact of the herbicide use, as measured by the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) indicator, it was lower by 36% than the average value applicable to the conventional corn area. Insecticides were used on a significantly lower GM crop area and, when used, in smaller amounts. The average amount of insecticide applied to the GM corn crop was significantly lower by 78% (0.08 kg/ai per ha) than the average value for the conventional corn area (0.36 kg/ai per ha) and in terms of the associated environmental impact of the insecticide use, as measured by the EIQ indicator, it was also lower by 77% than the average value for conventional corn (14.06 per ha).


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Fazendas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã
2.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 36-46, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835603

RESUMO

Consumer preference for the mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) foods promotes public support for the implementation of GM food policies. This study analyzes consumers' preference for the traceability of GM soybean oil. Survey data were collected through a self-administered survey covering 804 randomly sampled urban residents in the eastern, central and western regions of China. Using a logit model, this analysis examines the impacts of influential factors on consumers' preference for traceability. The results show that about 56.5% of the respondents have a positive preference for the traceability of GM soybean oil. Factors increasing the preference for traceability include a better perception of the attributes of nutrition benefit and potential health risk, perceived inadequacy of simple mandatory labels, more attention paid to food labels, and distrust in the agencies overseeing GM food safety. Enhancing consumers' perceptions of GM-related attributes and awareness of food labels will help improve the mandatory labeling management of GM foods.


Assuntos
Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Óleo de Soja , China , Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e48522, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1103397

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar a presença de distúrbios osteomusculares relacionados ao trabalho nos trabalhadores de enfermagem de uma unidade de clínica médica e construir juntos aos trabalhadores propostas para reduzir a ocorrência dos distúrbios osteomusculares no ambiente de trabalho. Método: estudo transversal com 31 trabalhadores de enfermagem de uma clínica médica, que responderam uma ficha de dados sóciodemográfico e profissional e do Questionário Nórdico de Sintomas Osteomusculares. Resultados: os trabalhadores exercem suas atividades laborais com dores osteomusculares, sendo as regiões corpóreas mais prevalentes a lombar e a porção superior da coluna e ombros. Apesar disso, nem todos se afastam do trabalho ou procuram assistência terapêutica. As ações de redução dos distúrbios osteomusculares levantadas foram categorizadas em três dimensões: indivíduo, equipe e instituição. Conclusão: os trabalhadores apresentam distúrbios osteomusculares, principalmente, nas costas. As ações de redução de sua ocorrência perpassam pelo comportamento individual às mudanças estruturais e provisão de equipamentos de trabalho.


Objective: to identify the presence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in nursing staff at an internal medicine unit and, jointly with the staff, to build proposals to reduce the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace. Method: in this cross-sectional study, 31 nursing staff of a medical clinic answered a socio-demographic and professional data sheet and the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. Results: staff performed their work activities with musculoskeletal pain, the most prevalent body regions being: lower back and upper spine and shoulders. Nonetheless, not everyone would take time off work or seek therapeutic care. The actions suggested to reduce musculoskeletal disorders were categorized into three dimensions: individual, team and institutional. Conclusion: staff had musculoskeletal disorders, mainly in the back. Actions proposed to reduce pain ranged from individual behavior to structural changes and provision of work equipment.


Objetivo: identificar la presencia de trastornos musculoesqueléticos relacionados con el trabajo en el personal de enfermería en una unidad de medicina interna y, conjuntamente con el personal, elaborar propuestas para reducir la aparición de trastornos musculoesqueléticos en el lugar de trabajo. Método: en este estudio transversal, 31 miembros del personal de enfermería de una clínica médica respondieron una hoja de datos sociodemográficos y profesionales y el Cuestionario musculoesquelético nórdico. Resultados: el personal realizó sus actividades laborales con dolor musculoesquelético, siendo las regiones corporales más frecuentes: la parte baja de la espalda y la parte superior de la columna y los hombros. Sin embargo, no todos tomarían tiempo libre del trabajo o buscarían atención terapéutica. Las acciones sugeridas para reducir los trastornos musculoesqueléticos se clasificaron en tres dimensiones: individual, de equipo e institucional. Conclusión: el personal tenía trastornos musculoesqueléticos, principalmente en la espalda. Las acciones propuestas para reducir el dolor iban desde el comportamiento individual hasta los cambios estructurales y la provisión de equipos de trabajo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Ambiente de Trabalho , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Prevenção de Doenças , Dor Musculoesquelética/prevenção & controle
4.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: 40392, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1094841

RESUMO

Objetivo: discutir sobre a aplicação do construto da perspectiva temporal e os principais instrumentos de análise utilizados em estudos na área da saúde e da enfermagem. Conteúdo: a perspectiva temporal é uma das forças fundamentais na vida das pessoas e desempenha influência nos comportamentos, atitudes e decisões. Por ter forte influência nos comportamentos, o campo da saúde pode se beneficiar da sua aplicação. As dimensões temporais de passado, presente e futuro são usadas na codificação, armazenamento e recuperação de experiências vividas, inclusive de saúde e doença, fornecendo interpretações, estabelecendo metas e auxiliando a tomada de decisões. Conclusão: destaca-se a importância da influência da perspectiva temporal no comportamento relacionado à saúde, visto que a incorporação da avaliação da perspectiva temporal nas ações de cuidado à saúde também pode contribuir na prática da assistência, tanto para prevenção de comportamentos considerados prejudiciais, quanto para o desenvolvimento de comportamentos protetores para a saúde.


Objective: to discuss the application of the temporal perspective construct and the main analytical tools used in health and nursing studies. Content: the time perspective is one of the fundamental forces in people's lives and influences behavior, attitudes and decisions. Because it has a strong influence on behaviors, the field of health can be benefited with its application. The time dimensions of past, present and future are used in the codification, storage and retrieval of lived experiences, including health and illness, providing interpretations, setting goals and assisting in decision making. Conclusion: the importance of the time perspective's influence on health-related behavior is highlighted, since the incorporation of the temporal perspective evaluation into health care actions can also contribute to the practice of care, both for the prevention of behaviors considered harmful and for the development of protective behaviors for health. Descriptors: Time perception; health behavior; delivery of health care; nursing.


Objetivo: discutir la aplicación del construco de la perspectiva temporal y las principales herramientas analíticas utilizadas en los estudios de salud y enfermería. Contenido: la perspectiva del tiempo es una de las fuerzas fundamentales en la vida de las personas e influye en el comportamiento, las actitudes y las decisiones. Debido a que tiene una fuerte influencia en los comportamientos, el campo de la salud se puede beneficiar con su aplicación. Las dimensiones de tiempo del pasado, presente y futuro se utilizan en la codificación, almacenamiento y recuperación de experiencias vividas, incluida la salud y la enfermedad, proporcionando interpretaciones, estableciendo objetivos y ayudando en la toma de decisiones. Conclusión: se destaca la importancia de la influencia de la perspectiva del tiempo en el comportamiento relacionado con la salud, ya que la incorporación de la evaluación de la perspectiva temporal en las acciones de atención de la salud también puede contribuir a la práctica de la atención, tanto para la prevención de comportamientos considerados perjudiciales como para el desarrollo de comportamientos protectores para la salud.


Assuntos
Humanos , Percepção do Tempo , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Assistência à Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vulnerabilidade em Saúde , Cuidados de Enfermagem
5.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e42793, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1118060

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever a elaboração de protocolo para a identificação do paciente com transtorno mental agudo. Método: estudo exploratório e qualitativo, realizado de maio 2018 a janeiro 2019, por meio das etapas: revisão integrativa da literatura, questionário online respondido por 17 profissionais de saúde vinculados à Sociedade Brasileira para a Qualidade do Cuidado e Segurança do Paciente, e grupo focal com 04 especialistas em Saúde Mental. Para tratamento dos dados, utilizou-se a análise descritiva e comparativa. Resultados: na revisão não se encontraram artigos sobre identificação do paciente com transtorno mental agudo. Na consulta aos especialistas da segurança do paciente identificou-se que 82,3% não possuíam em suas instituições protocolo específico. No grupo focal evidenciou-se dificuldade na identificação deste paciente. Conclusão: acreditase que o protocolo com a inserção da pulseira fotográfica apresenta-se como uma ferramenta inovadora na redução de riscos associados à identificação deste paciente.


Objective: to describe the development of a protocol for identification of patients with acute mental disorders. Method: this qualitative exploratory study was carried out from May 2018 to January 2019 through an integrative literature review, an online questionnaire answered by 17 health personnel belonging to the Brazilian Society for Quality of Care and Patient Safety, and a focus group of four mental health experts. Results: no articles specifically on identification for patients with acute mental disorders were found in the review. The consultation of patient safety experts found that 82.3% had no specific protocol in their institutions. The focal group highlighted difficulties communicating with these patients. Conclusion: the protocol including the photographic bracelet is believed to constitute an innovative tool for reducing risks associated with identification of these patients.


Objetivo: describir el desarrollo de un protocolo para la identificación de pacientes con trastornos mentales agudos. Método: este estudio exploratorio cualitativo se realizó de mayo de 2018 a enero de 2019 a través de una revisión integradora de la literatura, un cuestionario en línea respondido por 17 miembros del personal de salud pertenecientes a la Sociedad Brasileña de Calidad de Atención y Seguridad del Paciente, y un grupo focal de cuatro personas de salud mental expertos. Resultados: en la revisión no se encontraron artículos específicos sobre identificación de pacientes con trastornos mentales agudos. La consulta de expertos en seguridad del paciente encontró que el 82,3% no tenía un protocolo específico en sus instituciones. El grupo focal destacó las dificultades para comunicarse con estos pacientes. Conclusión: se cree que el protocolo que incluye la pulsera fotográfica constituye una herramienta innovadora para reducir los riesgos asociados a la identificación de estos pacientes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Sistemas de Identificação de Pacientes , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Medidas de Segurança , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes , Segurança do Paciente , Brasil , Inquéritos e Questionários , Grupos Focais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inovação
6.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 61-68, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190650

RESUMO

School coexistence/violence is often the subject of social alarm. There is no consensus on the prevalence of violent behavior in the classroom, but there does seem to be about its differences according to sex, socioeconomic level, or the importance of preventive interventions for its reduction. Models consider attitudes towards violence as an indicator of risk for its expression. The objectives of this study are to explore the psychometric properties of the revised version of Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia [Attitudes towards Violence Questionnaire] (CAHV-25) in primary and secondary education students, proposing a version of four scales and a total of 28 items, along with the exploration of their significance as a function of sex and academic cycle. A qualitative review of CAHV-25 and a psychometric study of the revised version in each of its original dimensions was carried out, obtaining the fit indicators of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, the scale was studied as a function of sex and educational stage se in school children (N = 600) of the Region of Murcia (Spain). The four dimensions show better psychometric properties in their revised version. Attitudes towards violence are more present in males and in secondary school. As conclusions, the proposed version optimizes the detection of attitudes towards violence in schoolchildren and suggests more specific school violence prevention programs


La convivencia/violencia escolar, a menudo, es objeto de alarma social. No parece existir consenso en la prevalencia de conductas violentas en las aulas, pero sí en sus diferencias según sexo, nivel socioeconómico o la importancia de las intervenciones preventivas para su disminución. Los modelos sitúan a las actitudes hacia la violencia como un indicador de riesgo para la manifestación de dichas conductas. Los objetivos del presente estudio son explorar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión ampliada del Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia (CAHV-25) en alumnos de Educación Primaria y Secundaria, proponiendo una versión dividida en cuatro escalas y 28 ítems en total, junto a la exploración de la significación según sexo y etapa académica. Se ha llevado a cabo una revisión cualitativa del cuestionario CAHV-25 y se realizó un estudio psicométrico de la misma para cada una de sus dimensiones originales obteniendo los indicadores de ajuste de Análisis Factorial Exploratorio y Confirmatorio en menores de Educación Primaria y Secundaria (N = 600) de la Región de Murcia (España). Los resultados indican que las cuatro dimensiones tienen mejores propiedades psicométricas en su versión revisada. Las actitudes hacia la violencia son mayores en varones y en Secundaria. Se concluye que la versión propuesta permite maximizar la detección de actitudes hacia la violencia en menores escolarizados, sirviendo de base para el planteamiento de posibles programas de prevención de violencia escolar más específicos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudantes/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Atitude , Análise Fatorial , Comportamento do Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Psicometria
7.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193595

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: describir conocimientos y percepciones de profesionales de Atención Primaria sobre el acceso al Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS) y la atención sanitaria de la población inmigrante, así como analizar diferencias entre categorías profesionales. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal mediante una encuesta a 352 profesionales sanitarios y no sanitarios en centros de salud de la Comunidad de Madrid, y residentes de Medicina y Enfermería de la Unidad Docente Multiprofesional de Atención Familiar y Comunitaria Sur de Madrid (UDMAFyC Sur) entre febrero y marzo de 2019. RESULTADOS: respondieron 179 profesionales (50,9%). El 50,3% opinó que los inmigrantes tienen frecuentes dificultades de acceso y el 65,9% que el estatus migratorio condiciona su salud, señalando el idioma como barrera relevante el 80,4%. El 72,7% de los sanitarios afirmó que no consumen más recursos. Expresaron nulo/escaso conocimiento del Real Decreto-Ley (RDL) 16/2012 el 72%, y del RDL 7/2018, un 66,7%. Un 30,7% consideró que el RDL 16/2012 tuvo efectos negativos en salud, y el 28,5%, que el RDL 7/2018 recuperó la universalidad. Un 54,9% de sanitarios apoyó la universalidad del SNS, contrastando con el 19,1% de personal no sanitario. CONCLUSIONES: la mitad de profesionales percibe frecuentes dificultades de la población inmigrante en su acceso al SNS, aunque el conocimiento de las normativas es limitado. Una ajustada mayoría respalda la universalidad, existiendo posicionamientos restrictivos con relativa frecuencia, especialmente entre el personal no sanitario. Se reproducen ciertos mitos sobre la atención a población inmigrante, no así acerca del consumo de recursos sanitarios


OBJECTIVES: To report the knowledge and perceptions of Primary Care professionals regarding access to the Spanish National Healthcare System and healthcare assistance provided to the immigrant population, as well as to analyse differences by professional categories. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by sending a questionnaire to 352 professionals: healthcare workers (HCWs) and non-healthcare workers (non-HCWs) from primary health care centres in the southern region of the Community of Madrid and resident doctors and nurses assigned to this primary healthcare area, from February to March 2019. RESULTS: Overall, 179 professionals (50.9%) replied. Of these, 50.3% thought that migrants face frequent difficulties in access, whereas 65.9% considered that migrants' health is conditioned by their migratory status. Moreover, 80.4% identified language as a relevant barrier and 72.7% of HCWs believed that migrants do not consume more resources. Regarding the Spanish Royal Decree-laws (RDL), 72% admitted having no or little knowledge of Spanish RDL 16/2012, and 66.7% of Spanish RDL 7/2018. However, 30.7% considered that Spanish RDL 16/2012 had negative effects on health, 28.5% agreed that Spanish RDL 7/2018 recovered universal healthcare coverage (UHC). Overall, 54.9% of HCWs support UHC in comparison to 19.1% of non-HCW. CONCLUSIONS: Half the professionals perceive that immigrants encounter frequent difficulties when accessing the Spanish Healthcare System, although their knowledge of legislation is limited. A slight majority supports UHC and finds a large number of restrictive stances, especially among non-HCWs. Certain misconceptions regarding care provided to immigrants persist, but not those related to health resources consumption


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Equidade no Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde , Percepção Social , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1541, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growing incidence of coronavirus (COVID-19) continues to cause fear, anxiety, and panic amongst the community, especially for healthcare providers (HCPs), as the most vulnerable group at risk of contracting this new SARS-CoV-2 infection. To protect and enhance the ability of HCPs to perform their role in responding to COVID-19, healthcare authorities must help to alleviate the level of stress and anxiety amongst HCPs and the community. This will improve the knowledge, attitude and practice towards COVID-19, especially for HCPs. In addition, authorities need to comply in treating this virus by implementing control measures and other precautions. This study explores the knowledge, attitude, anxiety, and preventive behaviours among Yemeni HCPs towards COVID-19. METHODS: A descriptive, web-based-cross-sectional study was conducted among 1231 Yemeni HCPs. The COVID-19 related questionnaire was designed using Google forms where the responses were coded and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software package (IBM SPSS), version 22.0. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation coefficient test were also employed in this study. A p-value of < 0.05 with a 95% confidence interval was considered as statistically significant. The data collection phase commenced on 22nd April 2020, at 6 pm and finished on 26th April 2020 at 11 am. RESULTS: The results indicated that from the 1231 HCPs participating in this study, 61.6% were male, and 67% were aged between 20 and 30 years with a mean age of 29.29 ± 6.75. Most (86%) held a bachelor's degree or above having at least 10 years of work experience or less (88.1%). However, while 57.1% of the respondents obtained their information via social networks and news media, a further 60.0% had never attended lectures/discussions about COVID-19. The results further revealed that the majority of respondents had adequate knowledge, optimistic attitude, moderate level of anxiety, and high-performance in preventive behaviours, 69.8, 85.10%, 51.0 and 87.70%, respectively, towards COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Although the Yemeni HCPs exhibited an adequate level of knowledge, optimistic attitude, moderate level of anxiety, and high-performance in preventive behaviours toward COVID-19, the results highlighted gaps, particularly in their knowledge and attitude towards COVID-19.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Iêmen/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053701

RESUMO

The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effects of confinement due to COVID-19 isolation on visual function, considering insufficient convergence as one of the possible effects of living the whole day in a reduced space. We pass a Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) among 235 people to detect their habits before and after 25 confinement days. The data collection protocol consisted on a Google forms questionnaire included two parts: the first with current data (isolation period) and a second with pre-isolation period data. Differences between the pre-isolation and isolation period were calculated using the related paired T-tests. When statistically significant differences were found, the effect size was estimated using the Cohen's d index (d). The reduction in physical activity levels during confinement were related to the increase in total number of minutes of screen consumption from 433.49 min to 623.97 min per day (d = 0.67; 44.01%). The CISS scores were increased by more than 43% during confinement. The increase in convergence insufficiency was 100% after the studied isolation period of 25 days. The 92.19% increase in television use during 25 days of confinement is not responsible for the increase in convergence insufficiency. However, due to the increase in the use of PCs in this period, there is a notable increase in convergence insufficiency. Therefore, we can conclude that not all increases in tasks with electronic devices are responsible for the increase in convergence insufficiency.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Hábitos , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053759

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has emerged as a pandemic. The updated knowledge and a positive attitude of health care professionals (HCPs) towards fighting any pandemic is the key to success. Thus, the present study aims to assess the knowledge and attitude of HCPs towards COVID-19 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A cross-sectional study was conducted across the KSA, covering its five geographical regions with a non-probability quota sample. Twenty-nine, close-ended questions evaluating the knowledge and attitude domain were included in the questionnaire. It was developed with the help of Qualtrics software and circulated among the HCPs through the electronic mode. We analyzed data from about 1040 HCPs using the statistical package of social sciences (SPSS) v.21. All variables were presented in number and percentages. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to explore the odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of independent variables for inadequate knowledge and attitude. Considering the "good" level of the respective domain, the HCPs have displayed better knowledge (48.2%) over attitude (33.8%). Female (aOR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.15-2.09; p = 0.004), Diploma degree (aOR: 2.51; 95% CI: 1.64-3.83; p < 0.001), 7-10 years' experience (aOR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.01-2.15; p = 0.045) were at higher risk of having inadequate knowledge compared to their contemporaries. Among the sources, the Ministry of Health (MOH) website was the most popular source of information (76%). The knowledge and attitude of HCPs regarding COVID-19 was similar across all the regions of KSA. However, the continuing education program is warranted to fill the potential gap in knowledge for HCPs in higher-risk groups.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1563, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of research on patterns of cyber-victimization in minority groups, including immigrants. This study aimed to identify individual, interpersonal and contextual characteristics associated with cyber-victimization among immigrants and non-immigrants. METHODS: We drew on nationally representative data from adolescents and adults in the Canadian General Social Survey on victimization (2014). We used multivariable logistic regression to identify potential factors associated with cyber-victimization in the last 12 months, stratified by immigrant status and sex. RESULTS: Among 27,425 survey respondents, the weighted prevalence of cyber-victimization in the last 12 months was 2.1% among immigrants and 2.3% among non-immigrants. Cyber-victimization rates differed significantly by sex among immigrants (2.8% for males vs. 1.4% for females), but not among non-immigrants (2.1% for males vs. 2.4% for females). While most other factors associated with cyber-victimization were similar for immigrants and non-immigrants, there were pronounced associations of past child maltreatment (adjusted prevalence odds ratio [aPOR] 4.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.76, 8.52) and residence in an unwelcoming neighbourhood (aPOR 5.08, 95% CI 2.44, 10.55) with cyber-victimization among immigrants that were diminished or absent among non-immigrants. Additionally, sex-stratified analyses among immigrants showed cyber-victimization to be strongly associated with having a mental health condition (aPOR 3.50, 95% CI 1.36, 8.97) among immigrant males only, and with perceived discrimination (aPOR 4.08, 95% CI 1.65, 10.08), as well as being under 24 years old (aPOR 3.24, 95% CI 1.09, 9.60) among immigrant females. CONCLUSIONS: Immigration status and sex were differentially associated with cyber-victimization. Findings support the salience of a social-ecological perspective and gender-stratified analyses to better elucidate complex pathways linking cyber-victimization to potential gender-based health inequities among immigrants.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Cyberbullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1562, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a consequence of 'Western' acculturation, eating disorders and body image disturbances, such as fatness phobia and body dysmorphic disorders towards musculature and body shape, are emerging in Africa, with young people the most affected. It is therefore important to accurately assess perceptions of body shape. However, the existing body image assessment scales lack sufficient accuracy and validity testing to compare body shape perception across different African populations. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Body Shape Scale (BOSHAS) to evaluate body shape perceptions related body image disorders in African populations. METHODS: To develop the BOSHAS, anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese (both sexes included; 40.1% females overall) were taken for three body shape criteria: somatotype components, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio. Subjects were selected to cover a wide variability in body shape and were photographed in full face and profile positions. To validate the BOSHAS, the scale was administered twice (2 weeks apart) to 106 participants (aged 31.2 ± 12.6 years) to assess its reliability. In addition, a questionnaire measuring different aspects of body shape (e.g. musculature) was also administered (n = 597; aged 36.7 ± 15.6 years) to assess its convergent validity. RESULTS: The BOSHAS includes two sex-specific subscales of 10 photographs each. Most participants were able to repeat their BOSHAS preference order. Test-retest reliability was also consistent in estimating Current Body Shape (CBS), Desired Body Shape and Ideal Body Shape for participants and their partners. CBS was correlated with BMI, and different BOSHAS indices were consistent with declarations obtained by questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The BOSHAS is the first sex-specific scale of real African models photographed in face and profile, including large body shape variability. The validation protocol showed good validity and reliability for evaluating body shape perceptions and dissatisfaction of Africans.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , África , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Somatotipos/psicologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1560, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship between social capital and depression among community-dwelling older adults in Anhui Province, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among older people selected from three cities of Anhui Province, China using a multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method. Data were collected through questionnaire interviews and information on demographic characteristics, social capital, and depression was collected. The generalized linear model and classification and regression tree model were employed to assess the association between social capital and depression. RESULTS: Totally, 1810 older people aged ≥60 years were included in the final analysis. Overall, all of the social capital dimensions were positively associated with depression: social participation (coefficient: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.22-0.48), social support (coefficient:0.18, 95% CI:0.07-0.28), social connection (coefficient: 0.76, 95% CI:0.53-1.00), trust (coefficient:0.62, 95% CI:0.33-0.92), cohesion (coefficient:0.31, 95% CI:0.17-0.44) and reciprocity (coefficient:0.30, 95% CI:0.11-0.48), which suggested that older people with higher social capital had a smaller chance to develop depression. A complex joint effect of certain social capital dimensions on depression was also observed. The association with depression and the combinative effect of social capital varied among older adults across the cities. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that improving social capital could aid in the prevention of depression among older adults.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Capital Social , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1443-1449, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842498

RESUMO

Washing hands often, especially during times when one is likely to acquire and spread pathogens,* is one important measure to help prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as well as other pathogens spread by respiratory or fecal-oral transmission (1,2). Studies have reported moderate to high levels of self-reported handwashing among adults worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic (3-5)†; however, little is known about how handwashing behavior among U.S. adults has changed since the start of the pandemic. For this study, survey data from October 2019 (prepandemic) and June 2020 (during pandemic) were compared to assess changes in adults' remembering to wash their hands in six situations.§ Statistically significant increases in reported handwashing were seen in June 2020 compared with October 2019 in four of the six situations; the odds of remembering to wash hands was 2.3 times higher among respondents after coughing, sneezing, or blowing their nose, 2.0 times higher before eating at a restaurant, and 1.7 times higher before eating at home. Men, young adults aged 18-24 years, and non-Hispanic White (White) adults were less likely to remember to wash hands in multiple situations. Strategies to help persons remember to wash their hands frequently and at important times should be identified and implemented, especially among groups reporting low prevalence of remembering to wash their hands.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção das Mãos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Behav Neurosci ; 134(5): 369-383, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-811615

RESUMO

This study investigated whether the application of high definition transcranial DC stimulation (HD-tDCS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reduces cue-induced food craving when combined with food-specific inhibitory control training. Using a within-subjects design, participants (N = 55) received both active and sham HD-tDCS across 2 sessions while completing a Go/No-Go task in which foods were either associated with response inhibition or response execution. Food craving was measured pre and post stimulation using a standardized questionnaire as well as desire to eat ratings for foods associated with both response inhibition and response execution in the training task. Results revealed no effect of HD-tDCS on reducing state food craving or desire to eat. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we were unable to achieve our maximum preplanned sample size or our minimum desired Bayesian evidence strength across all a priori hypotheses; however 6 of the 7 hypotheses converged with moderate or stronger evidence in favor of the null hypothesis over the alternative hypothesis. We discuss the importance of individual differences and provide recommendations for future studies with an emphasis on the importance of cognitive interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Fissura/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos Cross-Over , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos
16.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(8): 812-816, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-811265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidance aiming at limiting the entry and spread of the COVID-19 have been widely communicated to Long-term Care Facilities (LTCFs). However, no clinical research has investigated their relevance. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare the guidance applied for the prevention of the COVID-19 epidemic between the LTCFs having been contaminated by COVID-19 and LTCFs having not been contaminated. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent and systematically accompanied by phone call to the 132 LTCFs of Haute-Garonne (Occitania region, South-West of France). The questionnaire focused on the preventive measures implemented before March 23, 2020 (first LTCFs contaminated in this area). The questionnaire focused on physician support, implementation of usual guidance (eg, masks, hydro-alcoholic solute used), training on hygiene, containment in residents' rooms and other distancing measures, use of temporary workers, compartmentalization within zones of residents and staff and a self-assessment analogic scale on the quality of the application of the preventive measures. We compared implementation of the guidance between the LTCFs with at least one case of COVID-19 among residents and/or health care professionals and LTCFs without COVID-19 case (between March 23rd and May 6th). RESULTS: 124 LTCFs participated (93.9%). 30 LTCFs (24.19%) were contaminated with COVID-19. Large heterogeneity of the application of the guidance was observed. Public LTCFs (OR= 0.39 (0.20-0.73), LTCFs which organized staff compartmentalization within zones (OR= 0.19 (0.07-0.48)), and LTCF with a staff who self-assessed a higher quality implementation of the preventive measures (OR= 0.65 (0.43-0.98)) were significantly more likely to avoid contamination by the COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the relevance of guidance to prevent the entry of COVID-19, in particular the staff compartmentalization within zones, as well as the perception of the staff regarding the quality of implementation of those measures in LTCFs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Administração de Instituições de Saúde/métodos , Assistência de Longa Duração/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Betacoronavirus , França , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 738-743, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070816

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the status of health literacy and its influencing factors among the residents in Haidian District of Beijing, and to provide references for targeted health education intervention. METHODS: A multi-staged probability proportionate to size sampling(PPS) sampling method was used to collect 7034 residents that aged 15-69 years old in Haidian District in 2018. RESULTS: The standardized rate of health literacy among the residents of Haidian District was 28. 56%. The standardized health literacy rate of basic health knowledge and concept literacy, health lifestyle and behavior literacy, basic health skill were 35. 79%, 30. 90% and 36. 39%, respectively. The standardized health literacy rate of 6 health literacy issues from high to low were safety and first aid(66. 39%), scientific health perspectives(51. 24%), infectious diseases prevention and treatment(39. 78%), health information(30. 25%), chronic disease control and prevention(13. 33%), and basic medical care(11. 23%), respectively. The result of multiple logistic regression showed that aged between 30-39 years old, female, high school education and above, the teacher, medical and government staff, staff of other institutions, staff of other enterprises, other employees and the annual income of the family>45000 RMB were protective factors for health literacy. Aged between 50-69 years old was risk factor for health literacy. CONCLUSION: The level of health literacy in Haidian District was low. Various forms of intervention activities should be carried out to improve the residents' health literacy, especially focused on health lifestyle and behavior literacy, chronic disease control and prevention and basic medical care.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Pequim , Cidades , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 744-754, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the knowledge, attitude and practice(KAP) of nutrition label for community residents in Shanghai and the effects of health education interventions, and to explore the factors affecting the knowledge, attitude and practice(KAP), and to provide theoretical bases for relevant policies. METHODS: Using stratified random sampling to randomly select at least 20 residents before and after the intervention in each community in Shanghai. A baseline survey was carried out in early March 2016. The survey included basic information and the knowledge、attitude and practice of nutrition label. Using a combination of online and offline method such as issuing posters, folding pages, conducting lectures on knowledge, tweeting on WeChat public accounts, etc. , for a 4-month intervention, and an assessment survey was conducted in June. The same questionnaire was used before and after the intervention. RESULTS: The awareness rate of nutrition labels among community residents in Shanghai increased from 63. 0% before the intervention to 87. 4% after the intervention. The proportion of those who felt it necessary to label nutrition labels increased from 77. 7% before the intervention to 88. 3%. When purchasing prepackaged food, the proportion of people who often read nutrition labels increased from 32. 2% before intervention to 51. 8%, and the above differences were statistically significant(P<0. 05). After the intervention, the mastery of nutrition labeling knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of men were positively changed(P<0. 05). After the intervention, residents in the suburban areas have significantly improved their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to nutrition labeling(P<0. 05). The improvement effects of residents in the suburbs was lower than that in the other two types of areas(P<0. 05). Logistic regression analysis showed that intervention, female, high education, living in the central city, knowing the nutrition label, and thinking that it is necessary to label the nutrition label are the protective factors of looking at the nutrition label when buying foods. CONCLUSION: Health education can effectively improve the awareness rate of prepackaged food nutrition labels, relevant attitudes and behavior changes of residents in Shanghai communities. After intervention, the knowledge and behavior of nutrition labels in Shanghai communities are at a high level. Men, low-education low-income and residents in remote areas are the key population for future health education related to nutrition labels.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , China , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 749-754, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070818

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of comprehensive intervention measures mainly consisting of salt reduction health education and labeling less salt foods among catering units. METHODS: The total of 36 catering units were selected randomly and divided into intervention group A, B and control group in August of 2015. Health education was initiated in the intervention group A, including the training of knowledge on salt reduction for managers, cooks and service personnel of catering units every month; distribution of special salt control spoon for cooks; the arrangement of environment of salt reduction in catering units. And health education and labeling less salt foods was provided to the intervention group B, The control group C did not actively provide any intervention. The cook records the quantity of low-salt dishes sold, salt collection and the number of persons per meal in according to the requirements. Questionnaire survey and physical examination were performed to evaluate the effects of comprehensive intervention measures among catering units in the three groups of staffs in the catering units in a baseline study and an evaluation survey six months after the intervention. RESULTS: Compared with group C, the knowledge, attitude and behavior of salt reduction was significantly improved in intervention group A and B(P<0. 05). The behavior towards salt reduction improved much better in group B than in group A(P<0. 05), and using salt spoon when cooking and recommending less salt food to customer improved 32. 1%(χ~2=51. 72, P<0. 05)and 24. 2%(χ~2=30. 01, P<0. 05)separately. The proportion of sales of low salt dishes in the unit canteen has increased steadily, reaching 16. 8% while the proportion of sales has dropped to 9. 2% in the hotel by the end of the intervention period(χ~2=44. 66, P<0. 05). CONCLUSION: The level of knowledge of reducing salt was improved by health education, and labeling less salt foods can promote reducing salt related behavior. The effect of comprehensive intervention measures for salt reduction in unit canteen is better than in the hotel. It was suggested that comprehensive intervention measures mainly consisting of salt reduction health education and labeling less salt foods should be used together in the catering units.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Humanos , Refeições , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1485-1491, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874994

RESUMO

Frequent hand hygiene, including handwashing with soap and water or using a hand sanitizer containing ≥60% alcohol when soap and water are not readily available, is one of several critical prevention measures recommended to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).* Previous studies identified demographic factors associated with handwashing among U.S. adults during the COVID-19 pandemic (1,2); however, demographic factors associated with hand sanitizing and experiences and beliefs associated with hand hygiene have not been well characterized. To evaluate these factors, an Internet-based survey was conducted among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years during June 24-30, 2020. Overall, 85.2% of respondents reported always or often engaging in hand hygiene following contact with high-touch public surfaces such as shopping carts, gas pumps, and automatic teller machines (ATMs).† Respondents who were male (versus female) and of younger age reported lower handwashing and hand sanitizing rates, as did respondents who reported lower concern about their own infection with SARS-CoV-2§ and respondents without personal experience with COVID-19. Focused health promotion efforts to increase hand hygiene adherence should include increasing visibility and accessibility of handwashing and hand sanitizing materials in public settings, along with targeted communication to males and younger adults with focused messages that address COVID-19 risk perception.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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