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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238159, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a pandemic disease and questions rise about the coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2) effect on nervous system. This involvement could help explaining the pathogenesis of this condition and lead to novel therapeutic approaches. OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of neurological symptoms in COVID-19 patients during the Italian pandemic outbreak, as reported by physicians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the early days of pandemic emergence we developed an online survey open to all Italian clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 patients. The survey was structured in three sections, with nine different items concerning the presence of different specific clinical abnormalities. Each item was graded from "absent" to "severe" in a 4-point Likert's scale. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Likert's scale data were analyzed by studying the distribution of responses by using medians and bar charts-relative frequencies. Also, in order to analyze differences in symptoms findings depending on the group of specialty, Likert's scale data were combined into two nominal categories ("absent"/"low" and "moderate"/"high"/") and a contingency table chi-square test was used. RESULTS: 126 physicians of 9 different medical specialties, from 10 regions of Italy, filled the online survey. The results show that 87.3% of practitioners reported neurological symptoms. In most cases these were mild and non-specific, but they were severe in a minority of patients. The most common symptoms observed were headache, myalgia and taste and smell abnormalities. Whilst there was no difference between neurologists and non-neurologists, we found that experienced clinicians (defined as clinicians that evaluated more than 30 patients) reported neurological symptoms more frequently than non-expert. CONCLUSIONS: Neurological symptoms have frequently been ported during the Italian COVID-19 pandemic, and thus should be monitored for all affected patients. Whilst some of the disturbances reported may be non-specific and common to other infectious diseases, smell and taste abnormalities might indicate nervous system as entry door for SARS-CoV-2 virus. This interpretation should promote research trials to avoid nervous system involvement.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Humanos , Incidência , Itália , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Olfato , Paladar
3.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 247-253, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The GHQ-12 is one of the most widely used questionnaires in the adult population, but there are not as many studies exploring its applicability in adolescents. The main problem is the diversity of results on its factorial structure, as different studies have shown one, two or three dimensions. The purpose of this study was to explore the GHQ-12 factorial structure for adolescents. METHOD: An observational multicenter cross-sectional descriptive study was designed for schools in the city of Madrid. A random sample of n = 2,171, 14-16-year-olds was stratified by the school's development level and funding (public, private or mixed). Unrestricted factor analysis was applied based on the polychoric or tetrachoric correlations matrix (depending on the test scoring method). RESULTS: The optimized parallel analysis provided an unequivocal one-factor structure, confirmed by unidimensionality assessment. Around 30% of male and 42% of female adolescents were found to be at risk of developing mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS: The GHQ-12 is a one-dimensional test for screening psychological distress, with excellent psychometric properties for its application in an adolescent population. The use of adequate statistical methods can overcome old controversies and promote proper application and interpretation of the results provided by the test


OBJETIVO: El General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) es de los cuestionarios más utilizados en la población adulta, pero hay pocos estudios que exploren su aplicabilidad en adolescentes. El principal problema es la diversidad de resultados en su estructura factorial, ya que diferentes estudios han encontrado una, dos o tres dimensiones. El propósito de este estudio fue explorar la estructura factorial del GHQ-12 en adolescentes. MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo observacional multicéntrico transversal para centros educativos de la ciudad de Madrid. Se estratificó una muestra aleatoria de n = 2171 jóvenes de 14-16 años según el nivel de desarrollo y financiación de la escuela (pública, privada o mixta). Se aplicó un análisis factorial sin restricciones basado en la matriz de correlaciones policóricas o tetracóricas (dependiendo del método de puntuación de la prueba). RESULTADOS: El análisis paralelo optimizado proporcionó una estructura inequívocamente unifactorial. El 30% de los varones y el 42% de las adolescentes presentaban riesgo de mala salud mental. CONCLUSIONES: El GHQ-12 es un test uni-dimensional para el cribado del riesgo de mala salud mental, con excelentes propiedades psicométricas para su aplicación en población adolescente. El uso de métodos estadísticos adecuados puede superar viejas controversias y promover la correcta interpretación de los resultados de la prueba


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicologia do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Fatorial , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce
4.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 1428-1438, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986516

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic affected health care systems globally and resulted in the interruption of usual care in many health care facilities, exposing vulnerable patients with cancer to significant risks. Our study aimed to evaluate the impact of this pandemic on cancer care worldwide. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using a validated web-based questionnaire of 51 items. The questionnaire obtained information on the capacity and services offered at these centers, magnitude of disruption of care, reasons for disruption, challenges faced, interventions implemented, and the estimation of patient harm during the pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 356 centers from 54 countries across six continents participated between April 21 and May 8, 2020. These centers serve 716,979 new patients with cancer a year. Most of them (88.2%) reported facing challenges in delivering care during the pandemic. Although 55.34% reduced services as part of a preemptive strategy, other common reasons included an overwhelmed system (19.94%), lack of personal protective equipment (19.10%), staff shortage (17.98%), and restricted access to medications (9.83%). Missing at least one cycle of therapy by > 10% of patients was reported in 46.31% of the centers. Participants reported patient exposure to harm from interruption of cancer-specific care (36.52%) and noncancer-related care (39.04%), with some centers estimating that up to 80% of their patients were exposed to harm. CONCLUSION: The detrimental impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer care is widespread, with varying magnitude among centers worldwide. Additional research to assess this impact at the patient level is required.


Assuntos
Institutos de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Oncologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Institutos de Câncer/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Carga Global da Doença , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Cooperação Internacional , Oncologia/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4503, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908145

RESUMO

Most humans believe in a god, but many do not. Differences in belief have profound societal impacts. Anthropological accounts implicate bottom-up perceptual processes in shaping religious belief, suggesting that individual differences in these processes may help explain variation in belief. Here, in findings replicated across socio-religiously disparate samples studied in the U.S. and Afghanistan, implicit learning of patterns/order within visuospatial sequences (IL-pat) in a strongly bottom-up paradigm predict 1) stronger belief in an intervening/ordering god, and 2) increased strength-of-belief from childhood to adulthood, controlling for explicit learning and parental belief. Consistent with research implicating IL-pat as a basis of intuition, and intuition as a basis of belief, mediation models support a hypothesized effect pathway whereby IL-pat leads to intuitions of order which, in turn, lead to belief in ordering gods. The universality and variability of human IL-pat may thus contribute to the global presence and variability of religious belief.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Intuição/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Religião e Psicologia , Religião , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeganistão , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Work ; 66(4): 767-775, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention is the best way to manage a pandemic like COVID-19. The World Health Organization has issued public advice to create awareness by providing people knowledge to prevent/protect them from COVID-19. Hence, the present study was planned to assess knowledge of prevention and its practical use amongst samples from the Saudi Arabian population. It can be used to bring awareness among the masses not only in expanding their knowledge about COVID-19 but also on how to enforce a practicing behavior in relation to the prevention of COVID-19. The study is among the pioneer studies on the issue related to knowledge and practice of the prevention of COVID-19 among Saudis and foreign nationals residing in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: The prime objective of this study is to examine the existence of knowledge among the Saudi and non-Saudi nationals about COVID-19 and its impact on their behavior to practice the protocols to prevent the disastrous infection of COVID-19. This study has also examined how the residents in Saudi Arabia react to the methods and protection measures adopted by the government for their dominions to eradicate the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: The study used a survey-based methodology and data was collected from Saudi nationals as well as expatriates living and working in five different regions of Saudi Arabia. Non-probability snowball sampling was used to reach and select the population of the current study. A self-designed, structured, and validated questionnaire was electronically distributed among the respondents. SPSS version 21 was used to analyze the data of the current study. RESULTS: Out of the 443 respondents, 356 respondents (84%) knew they had to wash their hands for 20 seconds and did this as well, 303 respondents (75%) knew that sneezing or coughing into the arm/elbow can prevent the spread of COVID-19 and were doing this as well, 357 respondents (82%) knew that COVID-19 can be transferred by shaking hands and avoided this, 333 respondents (79%) knew that they had to maintain a safe distance of at least one meter and kept this distance, 315 respondents (76%) knew that touching one's face can transfer the virus and avoid this, and 414 respondents (95%) knew that staying at home can decrease the chances of getting infected. The relationship between different regions and most of the knowledge-based and practice-based questions was significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Results reveal that there is a significant relationship between knowledge and practice, but the strength of association is weak. It was found that knowledge and practice of COVID-19 was followed differently in the five regions of Saudi Arabia and the level of education of the respondents influenced their choice of practice to protect themselves from the effects of COVID-19. The study has contributed in the body of literature by examining the inter-relationship between knowledge and practice and their use in prevention of COVID-19 among the Saudi population.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Distância Social , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866153

RESUMO

The decision to allocate time and energy to find multiple sexual partners or raise children is a fundamental reproductive trade-off. The Strategic Pluralism Hypothesis argues that human reproductive strategies are facultatively calibrated towards either investing in mating or parenting (or a mixture), according to the expression of features dependent on the individual's condition. This study seeks to test predictions derived from this hypothesis in a sample of 242 young men (M ± SD = 22.12 ± 3.08) from Chile's 5th Region (33Ö¯ south latitude). Specifically, two predictions were considered that raise questions about the relationship between traits related to physical and psychological attractiveness (fluctuating facial asymmetry and self-perception of attractiveness) and competitive skills (baseline testosterone and self-perception of fighting ability) with short-term reproductive strategies. Our results indicate that psychological features related to the self-perception of physical attractiveness are related to short-term reproductive strategies. However, no evidence was found that fluctuating facial asymmetry, basal levels of testosterone and self-perception of fighting ability were related to short-term reproductive strategies. These results support the existing evidence of the importance of physical attractiveness in calibrating men's reproductive strategies but cast doubts about the role of fluctuating facial asymmetry. They also suggest that traits related to physical attractiveness, in comparison to competitive capabilities, play a more important role in calibrating men's short-term reproductive strategies.


Assuntos
Beleza , Comportamento de Escolha , Reprodução/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Chile , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Humanos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232030, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745104

RESUMO

The Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) assesses Thwarted Belongingness (TB) and Perceived Burdensomeness (PB), two predictors of suicidal thoughts. Up to now, the use of item response theory (IRT) for the evaluation of the INQ has been restricted to a single study with clinically depressed and suicidal youth. Therefore, the psychometric properties of the two INQ-15-subscales TB and PB were now evaluated in a general population sample (N = 2508) and a clinical adult population sample (N = 185) using IRT, specifically the Rasch model (RM) and the graphical log-linear Rasch model (GLLRM). Of special interest was whether the INQ-subscales displayed differential item functioning (DIF) across the two different samples and how well the subscales were targeted to the two sample populations. For the clinical sample, fit to a GLLRM could be established for the PB-subscale and fit to a RM was established for a five-item version of the TB-subscale. In contrast, for the general population sample fit to a GLLRM could only be achieved for the PB-subscale. Overall, there was strong evidence of local dependence (LD) across items and of some age- and gender-related DIF. Both subscales exhibited massive DIF related to the sample, indicating that they don't work the same across the general population and clinical sample. As expected, targeting of both INQ-subscales was much better for the clinical population. Further investigations of the INQ-15 under the Rasch approach in a large clinical population are recommended to determine and optimize the scale performance.


Assuntos
Psicometria/métodos , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3820, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732919

RESUMO

Supercentenarians (those aged ≥110 years) are approaching the current human longevity limit by preventing or surviving major illness. Identifying specific biomarkers conducive to exceptional survival might provide insights into counter-regulatory mechanisms against aging-related disease. Here, we report associations between cardiovascular disease-related biomarkers and survival to the highest ages using a unique dataset of 1,427 oldest individuals from three longitudinal cohort studies, including 36 supercentenarians, 572 semi-supercentenarians (105-109 years), 288 centenarians (100-104 years), and 531 very old people (85-99 years). During follow-up, 1,000 participants (70.1%) died. Overall, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), interleukin-6, cystatin C and cholinesterase are associated with all-cause mortality independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and plasma albumin. Of these, low NT-proBNP levels are statistically associated with a survival advantage to supercentenarian age. Only low albumin is associated with high mortality across age groups. These findings expand our knowledge on the biology of human longevity.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Albumina Sérica/análise , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
11.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 1248-1257, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755479

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To understand readiness measures taken by oncologists to protect patients and health care workers from the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and how their clinical decision making was influenced by the pandemic. METHODS: An online survey was conducted between March 24 and April 29, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 343 oncologists from 28 countries participated. The median age was 43 years (range, 29-68 years), and the majority were male (62%). At the time of the survey, nearly all participants self-reported an outbreak in their country (99.7%). Personal protective equipment was available to all participants, of which surgical mask was the most common (n = 308; 90%). Telemedicine, in the form of phone or video encounters, was common and implemented by 80% (n = 273). Testing patients with cancer for COVID-19 via reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction before systemic treatment was not routinely implemented: 58% reported no routine testing, 39% performed testing in selected patients, and 3% performed systematic testing in all patients. The most significant factors influencing an oncologist's decision making regarding choice of systemic therapy included patient age and comorbidities (81% and 92%, respectively). Although hormonal treatments and tyrosine kinase inhibitors were considered to be relatively safe, cytotoxic chemotherapy and immune therapies were perceived as being less safe or unsafe by participants. The vast majority of participants stated that during the pandemic they would use less chemotherapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and steroids. Although treatment in neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and first-line metastatic disease was less affected, most of the participants stated that they would be more hesitant to recommend second- or third-line therapies in metastatic disease. CONCLUSION: Decision making by oncologists has been significantly influenced by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Oncologia/métodos , Oncologia/normas , Oncologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Oncologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237772, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substance use is common among people living with HIV and has been associated with suboptimal HIV treatment outcomes. Integrating substance use services into HIV care is a promising strategy to improve patient outcomes. METHODS: We report on substance use education, screening, and referral practices from two surveys of HIV care and treatment sites participating in the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) consortium. HIV care and treatment sites participating in IeDEA are primarily public-sector health facilities and include both academic and community-based hospitals and health facilities. A total of 286 sites in 45 countries participated in the 2014-2015 survey and 237 sites in 44 countries participated in the 2017 survey. We compared changes over time for 147 sites that participated in both surveys. RESULTS: In 2014-2015, most sites (75%) reported providing substance use-related education on-site (i.e., at the HIV clinic or the same health facility). Approximately half reported on-site screening for substance use (52%) or referrals for substance use treatment (51%). In 2017, the proportion of sites providing on-site substance use-related education, screening, or referrals increased by 9%, 16%, and 8%, respectively. In 2017, on-site substance use screening and referral were most commonly reported at sites serving only adults (compared to only children/adolescents or adults and children/adolescents; screening: 86%, 37%, and 59%, respectively; referral: 76%, 47%, and 46%, respectively) and at sites in high-income countries (compared to upper middle income, lower middle income or low-income countries; screening: 89%, 76%, 68%, and 45%, respectively; referral: 82%, 71%, 57%, and 34%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although there have been increases in the proportion of sites reporting substance use education, screening, and referral services across IeDEA sites, gaps persist in the integration of substance use services into HIV care, particularly in relation to screening and referral practices, with reduced availability for children/adolescents and those receiving care within resource-constrained settings.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias/organização & administração , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Lacunas da Prática Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta/organização & administração , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237735, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804937

RESUMO

Obsession with the physique and appearance is a by-product of consumer societies. As such, fitness and slimming have now become major concerns of Iranian females. This study endeavors to elaborate on information-seeking behaviors among female students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences concerning fitness. This study conducted in 2018, employs a qualitative approach using conventional content analysis. The research population includes female students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 16 of whom were selected with use of purposive sampling. Data were collected through face-to-face semi-structured interviews and their trustworthiness was confirmed by the criteria of 'credibility', 'confirmability', 'dependability', and 'transferability' proposed by Guba and Lincoln. Results reveal four sub-categories and nineteen codes on information-seeking behavior. Sub-categories and codes including information-seeking motivations (achieving physical health, physical appearance, social acceptability, self-confidence, family and friends' pressure) information resources (electronic information resources, social media, printed information resources, doctors and nutritionists, family and friends, traditional & Islamic medicine, radio and TV), information validation (asking the doctors and specialists, matching the information with scientific references, consulting with friends and relatives) and obstacles to seeking information (lack of time, high costs, distrust, access limitation). by increasing the students' informational and media literacy, providing authentic and low-cost online resources of information and specialized TV programs, the damages rooted in using invalid information resources concerning fitness can be substantially diminished.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Motivação , Aptidão Física/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237771, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804940

RESUMO

It is widely believed that conspiracy theory beliefs are the product of perceived lack of control. However, to date there is mixed evidence, at best, to support this claim. We consider the reasons why conspiracy theory beliefs do not appear to be based in any straightforward way on control beliefs, interrogating existing findings and presenting new data that call the relationship into question. Across six studies conducted online using MTurk samples, we observed no effect of control manipulations on conspiracy theory beliefs, while replicating previously reported correlational evidence of their association. The results suggest that conspiracy beliefs are not suitable for compensating for threats to control. We discuss possible reasons for the discrepancy between experimental and correlational effects and examine the limitations of the studies.


Assuntos
Controle Comportamental/psicologia , Cultura , Opinião Pública , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237781, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug therapy problems (DTPs) are major concerns of healthcare and have been identified to contribute to negative clinical outcomes. The occurrence of DTPs in heart failure patients is associated with worsening of outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess DTPs, associated factors and patient satisfaction among ambulatory heart failure patients at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH). METHODS: A hospital based prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 423 heart failure patients on follow up at TASH. Data was collected through patient interview and chart review. Descriptive statistics, binary and multiple logistic regressions were used for analyses and P < 0.05 was used to declare association. RESULTS: Majority of the patients were in NYHA class III (55.6%) and 66% of them had preserved systolic function. DTPs were identified in 291(68.8%) patients, with an average number of 2.51±1.07.per patient. The most common DTPs were drug interaction (27.3%) followed by noncompliance (26.2%), and ineffective drug use (13.7%). ß blockers were the most frequent drug class involved in DTPs followed by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. The global satisfaction was 78% and the overall mean score of treatment satisfaction was 60.5% (SD, 10.5). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of DTPs as well as non-adherence among heart failure patients on follow up is relatively high. Detection and prevention of DTPs along with identifying patients at risk can save lives, help to adopt efficient strategies to closely monitor patients at risk, enhance patient's quality of life and optimize healthcare costs.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacocinética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacocinética , Estudos Transversais , Interações Medicamentosas , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/psicologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ambulatório Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237166, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745148

RESUMO

This study aims to clarify the factors associated with the gradual withdrawal from society in older adults. We defined the stages of follow-up difficulty based on four follow-up surveys on non-respondents of longitudinal mail surveys in community-dwelling older adults to examine the main factors associated with the stages of follow-up difficulty. We conducted a follow-up mail survey (FL1) with respondents of a baseline survey, and three more follow-up surveys with the non-respondents of each previous survey: simplified mail (FL2), postcard (FL3), and home visit surveys (FL4). The respondents of each follow-up survey were defined as a stage of follow-up difficulty; their characteristics concerning social participation and interaction at baseline in each stage were analyzed. The number of respondents in the FL1, FL2, FL3, and FL4 stages and non-respondents (NR) were as follows: 2,361; 462; 234; 84; and 101, respectively. Participation in hobby groups in FL2 and FL3, sports groups in FL4, and neighborhood association and social isolation in NR were significantly associated with the stage of follow-up difficulty. Based on these results, we conclude that the following factors are associated with each stage of follow-up difficulty: 1) a decline in instrumental activities of daily living in the FL2 and FL3 stages, 2) dislike for participating in physical activity such as sports in the FL4 stage, and 3) social isolation, not even belonging to a neighborhood association due to low social interaction in the NR group.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Perda de Seguimento , Comportamento Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Participação da Comunidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760163

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore how to integrate the "best" practice into nursing of venous thromboembolism (VTE) based on the integrated-Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (i-PARIHS) framework. METHODS: A mixed-methods design was used. A steering group for clinical evidence implementation (EI) was established to conduct pre-implementation baseline surveys, a thorough analysis of the evidence, and an analysis of the survey results. The hindering and enabling factors associated with the clinical implementation of the evidence were analysed based on the three core elements of i-PARIHS, to formulate the clinical implementation plan for VTE nursing evidence. On-site expert reviews and focus group interviews were used to evaluate the feasibility of the draft plan, make adjustments, and finalize the evidence-based practice plan, which was then put into practice and evaluated. RESULTS: A new nursing process, a health education manual and a nursing quality checklist on VTE has been established and proved to be appropriate through the implementation. Compliance with evidence related to VTE nursing increased significantly in the two units, with better compliance in unit B than unit A. The knowledge, attitude and behaviour scores for VTE nursing increased substantially in both nurses and patients. CONCLUSION: The EI programme of incorporating the "best" evidence on VTE nursing into clinical practice using the i-PARIHS framework demonstrated feasibility, appropriateness and effectiveness and could serve as a reference.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Adulto , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Médicos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237338, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed to explore patient safety culture of community pharmacists working in Dessie and Gondar towns, Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1st to 31st March 2018. In this cross-sectional survey, the Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture (PSOPSC), developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), was used to collect data. PSOPSC is a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed among staffs who work in community pharmacies of Dessie and Gondar towns. All staffs available on data collection period in the pharmacy were included. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software version 25 was used to enter and analyze the data. RESULTS: A total of 120 participants were approached and completed the questionnaire. Results from the study showed that high positive response rate was demonstrated in the domains of "Teamwork" (90.2%) followed by physical space and environment (83.1%). On the other hand, the result also identified that there is an enormous problem related to mistake communication (44.8%) and work pressure (45%). In addition, significant difference of percent positive responses were obtained across towns and staff working hours. CONCLUSIONS: The patient safety culture of community pharmacists is appreciable especially with respect to their teamwork. Besides, urgent attention should be given to areas of weakness, mainly in the domain of "mistake communication" and "staffing and work pressure".


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Segurança do Paciente , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Gestão da Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237339, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive ability refers to the ability to receive, process, store, and extract information. It is the most important psychological condition for people to successfully complete activities. Previous studies have shown that the design of the human-computer interface of the command and control system cannot exceed the cognitive ability of the operator of the command and control system, and it must match the cognitive ability of the operator in order to reduce the mental load intensity, and improve the accuracy, timeliness and work efficiency. However, previous researchers in the field of cognitive science have not put forward a core index system that can represent the cognitive ability of ship command and control system operators and the importance of each index, and there are few achievements that can be used for reference. OBJECTIVE: To explore the core index system of cognitive ability that affecting the cognitive process of command and control system operators, and to verify the index system. METHODS: Based on the classic O*NET questionnaire, two indexes of O*NET were revised, three indexes of response ability were added, and then a questionnaire on the importance evaluation of cognitive abilities index was formed. The questionnaire includes 24 indexes in six aspects: verbal abilities, idea generation and reasoning abilities, quantitative abilities, visual perception abilities, mnemonic and attentive abilities, and response abilities. The cognitive ability importance evaluation data of 202 people from different positions in the ship command and control system were collected. These data reflect the overall level of cognitive ability of operators in the whole ship command and control field. RESULTS: The data analysis results show that: firstly, the most important cognitive abilities affecting command and control system operators were visual perception abilities, mnemonic and attentive abilities, and response abilities. Secondly, the results of confirmatory factor analysis show that CMIN/DF, GFI, CFI, TLI, RMSEA, RMR and other indicators used in the model test all meet the requirements. The model has a good fitting degree, and the overall index extraction method is feasible. Thirdly, the independence T test results show that for beginners and experienced experts, there is a significant difference in the important evaluation of mnemonic and attentive abilities, while there is no significant difference in the important evaluation of response and visual perception abilities. Fourthly, the results of Bi-group confirmatory factor analysis experiment show that the structural model has good stability and factor invariance. CONCLUSIONS: Through the research of this paper, the index system which can express the core cognitive ability of the commander of command and control system is successfully constructed, and the index system has been fully verified by mathematics. The 3 abilities and 10 indexes in the index system are closely related to the work tasks of operators, which also reflects the correctness of our construction results to a certain extent. According to the results of data analysis, there are differences between assistant commanders and professional commanders in the evaluation of the importance of some indexes, which reflects the importance of working age and experience to the promotion of position skills. The results of this research are of great significance for the subsequent acquisition of cognitive ability data and assessment of post cognitive ability of command and control system operators.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Militares/psicologia , Navios/instrumentação , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Análise Fatorial , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Psicológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
20.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(6): 553-557, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ENT presentations are prevalent in clinical practice but feature little in undergraduate curricula. Consequently, most medical graduates are not confident managing common ENT conditions. In 2014, the first evidence-based ENT undergraduate curriculum was published to guide medical schools. OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent that current UK medical school learning outcomes correlate with the syllabus of the ENT undergraduate curriculum. METHOD: Two students from each participating medical school independently reviewed all ENT-related curriculum documents to determine whether learning outcomes from the suggested curriculum were met. RESULTS: Sixteen of 34 curricula were reviewed. Only a minority of medical schools delivered teaching on laryngectomy or tracheostomy, nasal packing or cautery, and ENT medications or surgical procedures. CONCLUSION: There is wide variability in ENT undergraduate education in UK medical schools. Careful consideration of which topics are prioritised, and the teaching modalities utilised, is essential. In addition, ENT learning opportunities for undergraduates outside of the medical school curriculum should be augmented.


Assuntos
Currículo/normas , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Otolaringologia/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/educação , Cauterização/métodos , Cauterização/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Clínica , Currículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Laringectomia/educação , Laringectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Otorrinolaringológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/normas , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/normas , Traqueostomia/educação , Traqueostomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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