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1.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1457, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal dietary pattern for reducing the extent of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been well established yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary patterns and adherence to WHO healthy diet in children and adolescents and their associations with MetS. METHODS: Subjects of this cohort study were selected from among children and adolescents of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study participants, aged 6-18 years (n = 424). Dietary measurements were collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined as the existence of at least 3 risk factors according to the Cook criteria. Diet was assessed based on dietary components of the WHO healthy diet. Dietary patterns were defined by principal component analysis. RESULTS: The mean ± SD age of participants (42% boys and 57% girls) was 13.5 ± 3.7 years. The most consistency with the WHO healthy diet was observed for cholesterol, free sugar and protein consumption in both genders, and the least was for n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acid, trans-fatty acid and salt. Intake of SFA up to 12% of energy intake (third quartile) reduced the risk of MetS, compared to the first quartile. Subjects in the third quartile of n-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acid intake (6.2% of energy) showed the lowest odds ratio of MetS compared to the first quartile (OR: 0.18, CI: 0.04-0.66). In the adjusted model, the risk of MetS reduced across quartiles of MUFA intake by 60% (OR: 1, 0.40, 0.40, 0.42; P trend = 0.05). No significant trends were observed in the risk of MetS components across quartiles of the WHO healthy diet components. Three major dietary patterns were identified, the healthy, unhealthy and cereal/meat. An increased risk of MetS was observed in the highest quartile of unhealthy dietary pattern score compared to the lowest quartile (OR: 1, 0.81, 0.93, 2.49; P trend = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that the majority of our population did not meet some components of WHO healthy diet recommendations. The quality and quantity of fatty acid intakes were associated with risk of MetS. Adherence to unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with two-fold increase in MetS risk.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Glicemia/análise , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/métodos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Política Nutricional , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1141-1146, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683402

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the status and food sources of daily dietary intake of sodium and potassium among adult inhabitants in Tianjin city, and to compare the consistence of sodium and potassium intake determined by combination of 3 consecutive 24-hour recalls and weighing family condiments (3 d dietary survey method) with 24 h urine sodium and potassium determination. Methods: Multistage cluster sampling method was applied to select 1 955 adult inhabitants from 840 households of 7 districts in Tianjin in 2015. Questionnaire survey was used to obtain basic information, 3 d dietary method was used to obtain dietary information, and 450 subjects was selected by systematic random sampling method for 24 h urine collection and determination of sodium and potassium, and 153 complete 24 h urine samples were selected by the coefficient of urinary creatinine excretion, then the consistence of the determination was compared with 3 d dietary survey method. Results: 1 828 subjects were enrolled in this study with age of (54.6±14.7) years, among which 858 were male (46.9%). The average standard intake of sodium and potassium per people per day were (5 631.2±3 372.1) mg and (1 662.1±750.5) mg, while the average actual daily intake were (5 315.8±3 196.5) mg and (1 560.7±696.8) mg. 98.7% (1 804/1 828) of the subjects had dietary sodium intake exceeding the recommended adequate intake of China residents(1 300-1 500 mg/d), while 78.5% (1 435/1 828) consumed dietary potassium below the recommended adequate intake(2 000 mg/d). The main resource of sodium was condiments, among which cooking salt accounted for 61.5%, soy sauce accounted for 11.2%. Potassium mainly came from cereals (32.4%) and vegetables (18.1%). Compared with the 24 h urine sodium method, 3 d dietary method overestimated the sodium intake with a gap [median (P(25), P(75))] as 401.7 (-1 130.6, 1 939.5) mg/d with statistical difference (P<0.05). The gap [median (P(25)-P(75))] for potassium between the two methods was 79.1 (-577.5, 565.2) mg/d, without statistical difference (P>0.05). Conclusion: The dietary intake of sodium is high while potassium is low among adults inhabitants in Tianjin city. Compared with the 24 h urine sodium and potassium determination, the 3 d dietary method has a good consistency in evaluating the dietary potassium intake level of the population, but overestimates the dietary sodium intake.


Assuntos
Potássio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Potássio/urina , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sódio/urina , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
JAMA ; 322(15): 1486-1499, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613346

RESUMO

Importance: High-quality dietary patterns may help prevent chronic disease, but limited data exist from randomized trials about the effects of nutritional and behavioral interventions on dietary changes. Objective: To assess the effect of a nutritional and physical activity education program on dietary quality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Preliminary exploratory interim analysis of an ongoing randomized trial. In 23 research centers in Spain, 6874 men and women aged 55 to 75 years with metabolic syndrome and no cardiovascular disease were enrolled in the trial between September 2013 and December 2016, with final data collection in March 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized to an intervention group that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet, promoted physical activity, and provided behavioral support (n = 3406) or to a control group that encouraged an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet (n = 3468). All participants received allotments of extra-virgin olive oil (1 L/mo) and nuts (125 g/mo) for free. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 12-month change in adherence based on the energy-reduced Mediterranean diet (er-MedDiet) score (range, 0-17; higher scores indicate greater adherence; minimal clinically important difference, 1 point). Results: Among 6874 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 65.0 [4.9] years; 3406 [52%] men), 6583 (96%) completed the 12-month follow-up and were included in the main analysis. The mean (SD) er-MedDiet score was 8.5 (2.6) at baseline and 13.2 (2.7) at 12 months in the intervention group (increase, 4.7 [95% CI, 4.6-4.8]) and 8.6 (2.7) at baseline and 11.1 (2.8) at 12 months in the control group (increase, 2.5 [95% CI, 2.3-2.6]) (between-group difference, 2.2 [95% CI, 2.1-2.4]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary analysis of an ongoing trial, an intervention that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet and physical activity, compared with advice to follow an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet, resulted in a significantly greater increase in diet adherence after 12 months. Further evaluation of long-term cardiovascular effects is needed. Trial Registration: isrctn.com Identifier: ISRCTN89898870.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509998

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic predictors of malnutrition in two urbanized economically active provinces (Gauteng N = 733, Western Cape N = 593) in South Africa. A multistage stratified cluster random sampling design was applied. Fieldworkers visited homes, measured children aged 1-<10-years old (N = 1326) and administered a questionnaire (mother/primary caregiver). In under-five year old children (N = 674) 21.6% were stunted [height-for-age z-score < -2 SD], 5.6 % underweight [weight-for-age z-score < -2 SD], 10.3% overweight (body mass index-for-age z-score) (BAZ)> +2 SD ≤ +3 SD] and 7.0% obese (BAZ > +3 SD). In 5-<10-year olds (N = 626) 6.7% were stunted, 6.8% underweight, 13.4% overweight and 6.8% obese. Stunting and overweight in the same child was present in 5.7% under-five year olds and 1.7% in 5-<10-year olds. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified having a mother with a post-grade 12 qualification (OR = 0.34) and having an obese mother (OR 0.46) as protectors and being in the under-five age group (OR = 3.73) as a risk factor for stunting. Being in the under-five age group was also a risk factor for a BAZ > 1 (OR 2.39), while being in the third wealth quintile was protective (OR = 0.62). Results indicate that stunting and overweight/obesity are still present at concerning levels, especially in the under-five age group.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Urbanização
5.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 63, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the quantity and diversity in the consumption fruits and vegetables, as well as its relationship with the consumer's purchase characteristics and food environment. METHODS: Baseline study stemming from a controlled and randomized community trial investigating a sample representative of Primary Health Care services (Health Academy Program) of Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais. The intake of fruits and vegetables was analyzed in servings/day, whereas diversity was assessed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Users were also questioned on the frequency, purchase location and availability of these foods at their households. To assess the consumer's food environment, commercial establishments within a 1.6 km radius around the program unit sampled were audited. RESULTS: 3,414 adults and older adults (88.1% women) were investigated, as well as 336 commercial establishments, in 18 units of the Health Academy Program. The average consumption of fruits and vegetables was adequate [5.4 (SD = 2.1) servings/day] but monotonous, with average daily intake of two different types. In the establishments audited, a good diversity (77.7% and 85.0%) and variety (74.5% and 81.4%) of fruits and vegetables was observed, although with lower quality of vegetables (60.4%). After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, we identified that knowledge on food crops (p = 0.006), increased monthly availability of fruits at households (p < 0.001), and greater variety of fruits (p = 0.03) and quality of vegetables (p = 0.05) in commercial establishments could improve the quantitative intake of fruits and vegetables, whereas a greater variety of fruits (p = 0.008) would increase consumption diversity. CONCLUSIONS: The intake of fruits and vegetables was quantitatively adequate but monotonous, being influences by the consumer environment. Such results highlight the need for improving educational actions in health services and programs, in addition to acting on the consumer environment, aiming to promote and maintain the adequate and diversified consumption, as recommended by Brazilian guidelines for proper and healthy eating.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Brasil , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Frutas/classificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Verduras/classificação
6.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 82, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests eating home-prepared food (HPF) is associated with increased dietary quality, while dietary quality varies across socio-demographic factors. Although it has been hypothesised that variation in HPF consumption between population sub-groups may contribute to variation in dietary quality, evidence is inconclusive. This study takes a novel approach to quantifying home-prepared food (HPF) consumption, and describes HPF consumption in a population-representative sample, determining variation between socio-demographic groups. It tests the association between HPF consumption and dietary quality, determining whether socio-demographic characteristics moderate this association. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of UK survey data (N = 6364, aged≥19; collected 2008-16, analysed 2018). High dietary quality was defined as 'DASH accordance': the quintile most accordant with the Dietary Approaches to Stopping Hypertension (DASH) diet. HPF consumption was estimated from 4-day food diaries. Linear regressions were used to determine the association between HPF consumption and socio-demographic variables (household income, education, occupation, age, gender, ethnicity and children in the household). Logistic regression was used to determine the association between HPF consumption and DASH accordance. Interaction terms were introduced, testing for moderation of the association between HPF consumption and DASH accordance by socio-demographic variables. RESULTS: HPF consumption was relatively low across the sample (Mean (SD) % of energy consumption = 26.5%(12.1%)), and lower among white participants (25.9% v 37.8 and 34.4% for black and Asian participants respectively, p < 0.01). It did not vary substantially by age, gender, education, income or occupation. Higher consumption of HPF was associated with greater odds of being in the most DASH accordant quintile (OR = 1.2 per 10% increase in % energy from HPF, 95% CI 1.1-1.3). Ethnicity was the only significant moderator of the association between HPF consumption and DASH accordance, but this should be interpreted with caution due to high proportion of white participants. CONCLUSIONS: While an association exists between HPF consumption and higher dietary quality, consumption of HPF or HPF's association with dietary quality does not vary substantially between socio-demographic groups. While HPF may be a part of the puzzle, it appears other factors drive socio-demographic variation in dietary quality.


Assuntos
Culinária , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Refeições , Valor Nutritivo , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Características da Família , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1098, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early childhood represents a critical period for the establishment of long-lasting healthy dietary habits. Limited knowledge exists on how to successfully increase vegetable consumption among preschool children. The overall aim of the present study was to improve vegetable intake among preschool children in a kindergarten-based randomized controlled trial. METHODS: The target group was preschool children born in 2010 and 2011, attending public or private kindergartens in two counties in Norway. Data about child intake of vegetables were collected by three methods. First, parents filled in a web-based questionnaire of the child's vegetable intake. Second, among a subsample, trained researchers observed children's vegetable intake in the kindergarten. Thirdly, a parental web-based 24-h recall assessing the child's vegetable intake was filled in. For allocation of kindergartens to intervention and control groups, a stratified block randomization was used. Multiple intervention components were implemented from September 2015 to February 2016 and components focused at influencing the four determinants availability, accessibility, encouragement and role modelling. The effect of the intervention from baseline (spring 2015) to follow-up 1 (spring 2016) was assessed by mixed-model analysis taking the clustering effect of kindergartens into account. RESULTS: Parental consent was obtained for 38.8% of the children (633 out of 1631 eligible children). Based on the observational data in the kindergarten setting (n 218 in the control group and n 217 in the intervention group), a tendency to a small positive effect was seen as a mean difference of 13.3 g vegetables/day (95% CI: - 0.2, 26.9) (P = 0.054) was observed. No significant overall effects were found for the total daily vegetable intake or for the parental reported frequency or variety in vegetable intake. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the observational data in the kindergarten setting, a tendency to a small positive effect was seen with a mean difference of about 13 g vegetables/day, while no other effects on child vegetable intake were found. Additionally, further research to understand the best strategies to involve parents in dietary interventions studies is warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials ISRCTN51962956 . Registered 21 June 2016 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Verduras , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Observação , Pais , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas
8.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190046, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the food consumption according to the degree of processing and associations with sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of the Estudo Pró-Saúde (Pro-Health Study), with 520 civil servants of university campuses, Rio de Janeiro, 2012-13. A food frequency questionnaire was used to classify food consumption: 1) in natura, minimally processed, food preparations based on these foods; 2) processed foods; 3) ultra-processed foods. The relative energy contribution of each group was determined, and a seemingly unrelated equations regression (SUR) regression model was used to estimate associations with sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: The in natura food group (1) contributed with 59% of the energy consumption and was directly associated with age [45-49 years (ß = 1.8 confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI -1.2; 4.8); 50-54 (ß = 1.5 95%CI -1.5; 4.5); 55-59 (ß = 2.9 95%CI -0.4; 6.3) and ≥ 60 (ß = 4.6 95%CI 1.1; 8.2)], compared to age ≤ 44. In contrast, the group of ultra-processed foods contributed 27% and were inversely associated with age [45-49 (ß = -1.7 95%CI -4.3; 0.9); 50-54 (ß = -1.8 95%CI -4.3; 0.9); 55-59 (ß = -4.9 95%CI -8.0; -2.0); ≥ 60 (ß = -4.5 95%CI -7.6; -1.5)]. Gender, income and schooling were not associated with food consumption. CONCLUSION: Younger adults had higher consumption of ultra-processed foods, indicating the need for interventions mainly in this age group. The absence of association with other sociodemographic characteristics may be due to the influence of contextual factors.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência
9.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430906

RESUMO

There is a significant increase in overweight and obesity in adolescents worldwide. Here, we performed a cross-sectional study to examine the potential association between food consumption profiles and overweight in a large number of adolescents from Brazil. Sampling by clusters and conglomerates was carried out in students of public schools in Salvador, Brazil, between June and December 2009 and 1496 adolescents were evaluated. Data on socio-epidemiological data, anthropometric status and food consumption were captured. Multivariate analyses, such as hierarchical clustering and correlation networks, were used to perform a detailed description of food consumption profiles. There were differences in age and anthropometric status related to sex. Four clusters of food groups were identified based on the intake profile in the study population. No disparities in food intake were observed in individuals stratified by sex or anthropometric status. Furthermore, network analysis revealed that overweight or obesity were hallmarked by a selectivity in the ingestion of food groups that resulted in the appearance of inverse correlations of consumption, which was not present in eutrophic adolescents. Thus, overweight and obesity are associated with preferential choices of ingestion of specific food groups, which result in the appearance of inverse correlations of consumption. Such knowledge may serve as basis for future targeted nutritional interventions in adolescents.


Assuntos
Dieta/classificação , Preferências Alimentares , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Big Data , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Estudantes
10.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430979

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women globally, and the risk of developing breast cancer is associated with inflammation. The present study aimed to examine the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and breast cancer in Korean women and investigate whether the tumor's hormone receptor status affects this association. In this case-control study, we enrolled 364 breast cancer patients and 364 age-matched controls. DII scores were calculated from dietary intake evaluated by a 106-item food frequency questionnaire. The DII score was significantly higher in cases than in controls. After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was higher in the highest DII tertile (OR = 3.68, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.34-5.80, p for trend < 0.0001) than in the lowest tertile. We found that higher DII scores were related to an increased risk of breast cancer for estrogen receptor (ER)+/progesterone receptor (PR)+ tumors regardless of menopausal status (OR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.37-4.88 in the highest DII category, p for trend = 0.01 for premenopausal women; OR = 11.00, 95% CI: 2.93-41.30 in the highest DII category, p for trend = 0.0004 for postmenopausal women), but not for ER-/PR- status. Our results suggested that the DII scores are positively associated with breast cancer risk in Korean women and that this relationship is more robust in ER+/PR+ tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/complicações , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Pré-Menopausa , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190044, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432987

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several factors can lead to changes in dietary practices of the older adults; which contributes with nutritional recommendations not being met. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of inadequate dietary fiber consumption and to identify associated factors. METHODOLOGY: Population-based, cross-sectional study that used data from a health survey in the municipality of Campinas, SP, Brazil, held in 2008/2009, in which 1,509 individuals aged 60 or older were assessed. Food consumption was estimated through a 24-hour recall, and the prevalence of inadequacy was calculated according to the Institute of Medicine's cut-off point for total fiber (30 g/day for men and 21 g/day for women). Associated factors were identified using the hierarchical Poisson regression model to estimate the prevalence, adjusted for block distal (sociodemographic) and proximal variables (health and lifestyle indicators). RESULTS: Inadequate consumption was observed in 90.1% of the population, and after adjustments in the final model, this rate remained significantly higher among males (RP = 1.06), seniors with a partner (RP = 1.05), lower income (RP = 0.95), physically inactive (RP = 1.05) and those who would not like to change body weight (RP = 1.05). CONCLUSION: Considering that inadequacy of dietary fiber was very high, the whole 60-year-old or older population must be targeted for nutritional intervention in order to ensure adequate intake of this nutrient.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fibras na Dieta , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição de Poisson , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190048, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432988

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dietary patterns are based on the concept that food consumed together or by itself is as important as food or nutrient intake. OBJECTIVES: To identify dietary patterns in a sample of nursing professionals and to explore the differences between the patterns found using two techniques: principal components (PC) and principal factorial axis (PAF). METHOD: The current report was based on data from 309 participants on a nursing team at a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. A 24-hour dietary recall was used, resulting in 24 food groups. To identify the dietary patterns, we applied a multivariate analysis, specifically the PC and the PAF, followed by a Varimax orthogonal rotation. RESULTS: The Cattell graphic test indicated three factors to be extracted. The communality varied between 0.41 and 0.76. Higher loads than 0.30 were considered in the pattern composition. The two methods identified similar dietary patterns, called traditional patterns. The other two patterns were nominated as healthy and snacks, having inverted position of factors in the applied techniques. CONCLUSION: The observed differences refer to: the number of food groups that enter the composition of components and factors; the size of the smaller loads in the PAF and the order of the alimentary patterns, especially those derived from loads of a smaller magnitude. However, these differences do not seem to impact the interpretability of dietary patterns in this population.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Ingestão de Energia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Valores de Referência , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(3): 148-153, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465181

RESUMO

Introduction: It is recommended to limit the consumption of sodium to 2 g / day and consume 25 g / 2000 kcal of fiber. Baked and cookies are the key food-vehicle to achieve these recommendations. x Objective: To evaluate the acceptability of the optimal healthy bread with nutritional information in a breakfast, teatime or snack (DMC) in real consumption situation. Methodology: In the offices of the Faculty of Medicine, a tray was delivered with: infusions, sweeteners, milk powder, jams, healthy bread, commercial orange juice and nutritional information to be consumed by participants as DMC. 100 students, teachers and non-teachers performed the acceptance test of different components of the tray using a scale of 1 (dislike very much) to 10 (like very much), they answered demographic data, what was your DM C, amount of bread consumed and the price they would pay for it. Results: 43.4% consumed the tray for teatime. Most consumed infusion: coffee. 100% consumed the bread and 91% accompanied it with jam. The average value of acceptability was 8.57 ± 1.44 without significant differences by age, sex or Body Mass Index. 76% consumed at least 3/4. The average price they were willing to pay was $ 54.65 / kilo ±12.32 (reference French bread $ 50 / kilo). The average scores of acceptability were: 8.82±1.27 for presentation of the tray, 8.53±1.43 of the DMC consumed and 8.17±2 of the commercial orange juice. Conclusions: The acceptability of the bread in real situation of consumption was very good, being an effective strategy to reduce the ingestion of NaCl and increase the fiber.


Assuntos
/métodos , Dieta Hipossódica/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pão , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento do Consumidor , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Fibras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374893

RESUMO

The main aim of this study was to identify the dairy sources of energy and 44 nutrients in the average Polish diet. Our research included: carbohydrates, protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), cholesterol, 18 amino acids, 9 minerals, and 10 vitamins. The analysis was conducted based on the data from the 2016 Household Budget Survey, a representative sample of the Polish population (i.e., 36,886 households). The category of milk and dairy products was divided into three main groups (i.e., milk, cheeses, and yoghurts, milk drinks and other dairy products) and seven sub-groups (i.e., whole milk, reduced fat milk, condensed and powdered milk, ripened and melted cheese, cottage cheese, yoghurts, milk drinks and other dairy products). Milk and dairy products provided 9.1% of the total energy supply. A high share (above 20%) in the supply of nutrients was noted in the case of calcium (54.7%), riboflavin (28.1%), vitamin B12 (26.1%), and phosphorus (24.6%). Supply at the level of 10-20% was observed for protein, SFA, zinc, total fat, cholesterol, potassium, magnesium, and vitamin A. Of the amino acids, the share above 20% from dairy category was recorded in the case of 6 amino acids (proline, tyrosine, serine, lysine, valine, and leucine) and at the level of 10-20% for 10 amino acids (isoleucine, histidine, threonine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, methionine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, and arginine).


Assuntos
Laticínios/análise , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Leite , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Animais , Queijo/análise , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Humanos , Polônia , Iogurte/análise
15.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 61, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a short, self-administered questionnaire to assess diet quality in clinical settings, using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) as reference. METHODS: A total of 1040 men and women (aged 44.6 ± 14.4 y) completed a validated web-based food frequency questionnaire (webFFQ) and had their height and weight measured (development sample). Participants were categorized arbitrarily according to diet quality (high: AHEI score ≥ 65/110, low: AHEI score < 65/110) based on dietary intake data from the webFFQ. The Brief Diet Quality Assessment Tool was developed using a classification and regression tree (CART) approach and individual answers to the webFFQ among participants considered to have a plausible energy intake (ratio of reported energy intake to basal metabolic rate ≥ 1.2 and < 2.4; n = 1040). A second sample of 3344 older adults (aged 66.5 ± 6.4 y) was used to test the external validity of the Brief Diet Quality Assessment Tool (external validation sample). RESULTS: The decision tree included sequences of 3 to 6 binary questions, yielding 21 different pathways classifying diet quality as being high or low. In the development sample, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the predictive model was 0.92, with sensitivity, specificity and agreement values of 89.5, 83.9 and 87.2%. Compared with individuals having a low-quality diet according to the Brief Diet Quality Assessment Tool (mean AHEI 56.7 ± 11.4), individuals classified as having a high-quality diet (mean AHEI 71.3 ± 11.0) were significantly older, and had lower BMI, percent body fat and waist circumference, and had lower blood pressure, triglycerides, cholesterol/HDL ratio and fasting insulin as well as higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations (all P < 0.05). Similar results were observed in the external validation sample, although overall performance of the Brief Diet Quality Assessment Tool was slightly lower than in the development sample, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.79 and sensitivity, specificity and agreement values of 73.0, 69.0 and 71.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The CART approach yielded a simple and rapid Brief Diet Quality Assessment Tool that identifies individuals at risk of having a low-quality diet. Further studies are needed to test the performance of this tool in primary care settings.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/normas , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Valor Nutritivo/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quebeque
16.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382399

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the status of usual dietary micronutrient intakes among Chinese elderly living at home. The data was based on China National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS) 2010-2012. We analyzed data from the participants aged 60-year-old and more (n = 16,612) living at home, who provided dietary data on three days 24 h dietary survey combining with the household weighing method. The means and distribution percentiles for usual intakes of dietary micronutrients were estimated using the Multiple Source Method (MSM). The prevalence of inadequacy for the selected micronutrients was expressed using the proportion of individuals with usual intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). For vitamin E, sodium and potassium, the means and the distribution of intakes were compared to the Adequate Intake (AI) level. Usual dietary intakes of most micronutrients were inadequate in the participants, especially folate, calcium, vitamin B6 and vitamin B2, with the prevalence of inadequacy more than 90%. However, dietary sodium intake was extremely high with an average usual intake of 4702 mg/day. The usual dietary intakes of all selected micronutrients in old males were higher than females, and the prevalence of inadequacy of most micronutrients was higher in old women (p < 0.01). The subjects aged 60-74 years tended to have higher usual dietary micronutrient intakes and lower prevalence of inadequate micronutrients than those aged 75 years and over (p < 0.01). Higher usual dietary intakes and lower prevalence of inadequacy of most micronutrients were found in the elderly living in the southern region (p < 0.01). The average usual intakes of most micronutrients declined with socioeconomic status. The prevalence of inadequate vitamin A, B2, C, calcium and selenium below EAR increased with socioeconomic status (p < 0.01, p for trend < 0.01). Thus, essential micronutrients insufficient intake is a public health concern among Chinese community-dwelling old population, especially the females, older people, the elderly in undeveloped areas or living in northern regions. Nutrition education and appropriate approach should be undertaken to address these problems.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Classe Social
17.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337138

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to identify key elements from the 2007 Canada's Food Guide that should be included in a diet quality score aiming to reflect the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Dietary intakes of 998 adults (mean age: 43.2 years, 50% women) were used to obtain the Canadian Healthy Eating Index 2007 (C-HEI 2007) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI) scores, as well as a dietary pattern (DP) generated by the reduced rank regression (RRR) method. Based on these three scores, a modified version of the C-HEI 2007 (Modified C-HEI) was then proposed. The prevalence ratio (PR) of MetS was examined across diet quality scores using multivariate binomial regression analysis. A higher AHEI, Modified C-HEI, and a lower score for DP were all associated with a significantly lower prevalence of MetS (PR = 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28, 0.64; PR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.23, 0.63; and PR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.31, 0.74, respectively), whereas C-HEI 2007 was not (PR = 0.68; 95% CI 0.47, 1.00). Results suggest that a Modified C-HEI that considers key elements from the C-HEI 2007 and the AHEI, as well the DP, shows that participants with a higher score are less likely to have MetS.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Comportamento Alimentar , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Prevalência
18.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337152

RESUMO

There is scarce information regarding the dietary intake of adults living in Puerto Rico (PR). We aimed to assess intake of nutrients and foods, adherence to recommended intake of nutrients and diet quality, and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors correlated with diet quality among adults in the San Juan metropolitan area of PR. Data were obtained from participants of the cross-sectional convenience-sample Puerto Rico Assessment of Diet, Lifestyle, and Diseases (n = 248; ages 30-75 years). Diet quality was defined using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI; range 0-110 indicating lower-higher quality). Linear regression models were used to relate AHEI to sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Most participants met the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for iron, folate, and vitamins B12 and B6; 61% met the EAR for magnesium and 56% for calcium. Only 4% met the EAR for vitamin D, and 7% met the adequate intake for potassium. The main contributors to total energy intake were sugary beverages (11.8%), sweets/desserts (10.2%), dairy (8.5%), mixed dishes (7.6%), starches (6.3%), fast foods (5.5%), and rice (4.9%). The mean (SD) AHEI score was 59.8 (11.0). The lowest AHEI components for which recommended servings were met were red/processed meats, fruit, sodium, sugary beverages, and polyunsaturated fats, and the highest were nuts/legumes, omega-3 fats, and whole grains. Significantly higher AHEI scores were noted for older adults, other ethnicities (vs. Puerto Rican), being single, having some college or higher education, and never/formerly smoking. Adults living in PR report healthy and unhealthy dietary intakes, providing an opportunity to improve diet at the population level.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Gorduras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Porto Rico , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(7): 2411-2418, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340260

RESUMO

It was assessed the intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake according to weight status among Brazilian adults from urban areas (n=16,198) evaluated in the Brazilian National Dietary Survey (NDS - 2008-2009), that obtained food records from two non-consecutive days. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake according to weight status was estimated based on Brazilian and international recommendations, in which usual intake was estimated applying the National Cancer Institute method. From 14 nutrients evaluated, six differed according to weight status in men, and only two among women. For men, the mean proportion of energy derived from lipids and saturated fat and mean intake of cholesterol, zinc, and vitamin B12 were greater among those with excess weight compared to those with normal weight; the inverse was observed for dietary fiber. Mean sodium intake was greater and proportion of energy from added sugar intake was lower among obese women compared to overweight ones. Strategies to encourage food consumption with high micronutrient density should be targeted to adult population regardless of their weight status.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Fatores Sexuais , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295831

RESUMO

Promoting a more balanced animal/plant dietary protein ratio by changing portion sizes or introducing new foods is a promising means to improve diet quality, but little is known about the willingness of individuals to adopt such changes. Our objective was to assess the willingness to adopt dietary changes by these means. In a French cross-sectional study in 2018 (n = 2055), we analyzed the association between the willingness to eat smaller or larger portions or to introduce non-consumed protein foods and the current dietary patterns of individuals and their socio-demographic characteristics. These modifications had previously been identified as improving the nutrient adequacy of diets. Participants were more willing to eat smaller portion sizes than to introduce new foods and to eat larger portion sizes. The willingness for any modification varied depending on the food groups concerned. Participants were also more willing to eat larger portions and less willing to eat smaller portions when they were the most frequent consumers of the foods concerned. Participants were more willing to eat a new food if it was consumed in large quantities by individuals with a similar dietary pattern. This study underlines the importance of accounting for individual food habits when issuing nutritional recommendations.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteínas na Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Tamanho da Porção , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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