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1.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E119, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006541

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the social needs of low-income households with children during the coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Our objective was to conduct a cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative descriptive analysis of a rapid-response survey among low-income households with children on social needs, COVID-19-related concerns, and diet-related behaviors. METHODS: We distributed an electronic survey in April 2020 to 16,435 families in 4 geographic areas, and 1,048 responded. The survey asked families enrolled in a coordinated school-based nutrition program about their social needs, COVID-19-related concerns, food insecurity, and diet-related behaviors during the pandemic. An open-ended question asked about their greatest concern. We calculated descriptive statistics stratified by location and race/ethnicity. We used thematic analysis and an inductive approach to examine the open-ended comments. RESULTS: More than 80% of survey respondents were familiar with COVID-19 and were concerned about infection. Overall, 76.3% reported concerns about financial stability, 42.5% about employment, 69.4% about food availability, 31.0% about housing stability, and 35.9% about health care access. Overall, 93.5% of respondents reported being food insecure, a 22-percentage-point increase since fall 2019. Also, 41.4% reported a decrease in fruit and vegetable intake because of COVID-19. Frequency of grocery shopping decreased and food pantry usage increased. Qualitative assessment identified 4 main themes: 1) fear of contracting COVID-19, 2) disruption of employment status, 3) financial hardship, and 4) exacerbated food insecurity. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the compounding effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on households with children across the spectrum of social needs.


Assuntos
Economia/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pobreza , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pobreza/economia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872577

RESUMO

During the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the lockdown, various changes of dietary habits are observed, including both positive and negative ones. However, the food choice determinants in this period were not studied so far for children and adolescents. The study aimed to analyze the changes in the food choice determinants of secondary school students in a national sample of Polish adolescents within the Polish Adolescents' COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study population. The study was conducted in May 2020, based on the random quota sampling of schools (for voivodeships and counties) and a number of 2448 students from all the regions of Poland participated. The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) (36 items) was applied twice-to analyze separately current choices (during the period of COVID-19 pandemic) and general choices (when there was no COVID-19 pandemic). For both the period before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, sensory appeal and price were indicated as the most important factors (with the highest scores). However, differences were observed between the scores of specific factors, while health (p < 0.0001) and weight control (p < 0.0001) were declared as more important during the period of COVID-19 pandemic, compared with the period before, but mood (p < 0.0001) and sensory appeal (p < 0.0001) as less important. The observations were confirmed for sub-groups, while female and male respondents were analyzed separately. It can be concluded that the COVID-19 pandemic may have changed the food choice determinants of Polish adolescents, as it may have increased the importance of health and weight control, but reduced the role of mood and sensory appeal. This may be interpreted as positive changes promoting the uptake of a better diet than in the period before the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia
3.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987773

RESUMO

Emotional eating (EE) is prevalent among women and is associated with obesity. The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and mandatory quarantine increased the risk of mental symptoms and, inferentially, emotional eating (EE). We investigated the EE prevalence and predictors during this pandemic. Overall, 638 women, ages 18-39, completed an online survey incorporating the Emotional Eating Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. We asked about nutrition and collected data on weight, height, and pandemic responses. Most respondents (47.2%) reported low EE; 40.4% were "moderate" and 12.4% "high" emotional eaters; 42.8% reported depression, 27% anxiety, 71% moderate stress, and 12.5% severe stress. The main EE indicators/predictors were fat intake (ß = 0.192, p = 0.004), number of meals (ß = 0.187, p < 0.001), sugar consumption (ß = 0.150, p < 0.001), body mass index (ß = 0.149, p < 0.001), stress (ß = 0.143, p = 0.004), energy intake (ß = 0.134, p = 0.04), and fast food intake frequency (ß = 0.111, p < 0.01). EE score correlated negatively with increased family income (ß = -0.081, p = 0.049). Higher stress correlated with worse sleep, less sleep, and less physical activity. Emotional eating is common among young Saudi women during the pandemic. We recommend healthy food choices and increased physical activity to improve sleep and mitigate stress.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Emoções , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(10): 1673-1678, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The present study analyzes the relation between diet and all-cause mortality in a cohort of Italian men residing in different regions of Italy. METHODS AND RESULTS: The cohort was established using the members of the Associazione Nazionale Alpini, a voluntary organization that enlists individuals who have served in the Alpine troup; a mountain warfare infantry corps of the Italian Army. For the purpose of these analyses a total of 5049 participants were followed for an average of seven years. At baseline information was collected regarding age, education, life style habits, with special emphasis on diet (with the use of a validated dietary questionnaire), smoking and alcohol use. A total of 190 deaths were ascertained. In multivariate analyses the consumption of a Mediterranean type diet was inversely associated with mortality. Additional findings of relevance include: an inverse association between mortality and intake of vegetable fats and proteins, monounsaturated (MUFA) fats of vegetable origins, starch and folic acid. Positive association were evident between mortality and intake of animal fats, MUFA of animal origins and sugar. CONCLUSIONS: This study, focusing on a homogenous cohort characterized by a varied intake and high intake of monounsaturated fats, confirms the inverse association between a Mediterranean type diet and mortality and points out that the nature of the MUFA may be relevant for their effects on health. In addition, the study confirms that fats of animal origins and dietary sugar are associated with an overall deleterious effect on mortality.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Comportamento Alimentar , Adulto , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Militar , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(6): 662-667, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842283

RESUMO

Objective: To establish Chinese diet balance index for preschool children(DBI_C), and evaluate the dietary quality of Chinese preschool children. Methods: DBI_C was established according to the methods establishing DBI_16 and the recommended intake of different kinds of food for preschool children. Three scoring methods [low bound score (LBS), high bound score (HBS), diet quality distance (DQD)] were used to evaluate the dietary quality of preschool children selected from the 2010-2012 China National Nutrition and Health Surveillance. Scores [P50(P25, P75)] were compared to reflect the diet quality of preschool children in different regions. Results: DBI_C scores for cereals of preschool children from big city, middle and small city, normal rural area, and poor rural area were 0.0 (-2.0, 6.0), 0.0 (0.0, 6.0), 4.0 (0.0, 10.0), and 10.0 (2.0, 12.0), respectively (P<0.001), indicating that the intakes of cereals of preschool children were adequate. Scores for animal food of preschool children from four types of location were 0.0 (-2.0, 2.0), 0.0 (-6.0, 2.0), -4.0 (-6.0, 0.0), and -6.0 (-8.0,-2.0), respectively (P<0.001), indicating that the intakes of animal food of rural preschool children were inadequate. Scores for vegetable and fruit, milk and soybean were both less than 0 (P<0.001), indicating that the intakes of these food were insufficient in both urban and rural area. Scores of LBS, HBS and DQD were 24.0 (18.0, 30.0), 8.0 (3.0, 13.0) and 33.0(26.0, 39.0). Children without diet insufficient problem in four type of location accounted for 30.8%, 7.8%, 4.3% and 1.1%, respectively (P<0.001). Children without diet excessive problem accounted for 54.0%, 57.3%, 52.9% and 32.6%, respectively (P<0.001). Children without diet imbalance problem were 10.6%, 1.1%, 1.3% and 0.3%, respectively (P<0.001). Conclusion: Diet quality of urban preschool children is better than that of rural preschool children. Dietary imbalance is the main problem among Chinese preschool children.


Assuntos
Dieta , Verduras , Animais , Pré-Escolar , China , Cidades , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Humanos
6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(7): 1145-1150, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741185

RESUMO

Minimizing the burden on study subjects and assessing the general dietary nutritional status as accurately as possible are the basis of a nutritional epidemiological cohort study in the general population. While introducing the main dietary nutrition assessment methods, this paper manly describes the basic contents and principles for the development of food frequency questionnaire, and briefly illustrates the problems and solutions for the development of area specific food frequency questionnaires by taking the example of Tianjin Chronic Low-grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIH) cohort study. Finally, discusses preliminarily the necessity and possibility of developing a national food frequency questionnaire.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Avaliação Nutricional , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Humanos
7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1071, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parent-child dietary concordance is associated with child diet, but the clinical implications of mother-father dietary concordance during pregnancy are unknown. This study evaluates antenatal mother-father dietary concordance and associations with gestational weight gain (GWG). METHODS: Mother-father (n = 111) dyads with low income reported their fruit/vegetable (FV), fast food (FF), and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption frequency during the first trimester of pregnancy. From electronic health records, we collected height and self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and calculated pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). The primary outcome was excessive GWG for pre-pregnancy BMI. Dyads were categorized as healthy or unhealthy concordant (consuming similarly high or low amounts of FV, FF, or SSB), or mother-healthy or father-healthy discordant (consuming different amounts of FV, FF, or SSB). Multivariable and logistic regressions analyzed associations between dietary concordance and GWG. RESULTS: Mothers were Hispanic (25%), 43% White, 6% Black, and 23% Asian or Other. Most mothers were employed (62%) making <$50,000/year (64%). Average maternal GWG was 11.6 kg (SD = 6.40), and 36% had excessive GWG. Mothers in the mother-healthy discordant FV group (OR = 4.84; 95% CI = 1.29, 18.22) and the unhealthy concordant FF group (OR = 7.08; 95% CI = 2.08, 24.12) had higher odds for excessive GWG, compared to healthy concordant dyads. SSB concordance was associated with higher GWG in unadjusted, but not adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers had higher risk for excessive GWG when both partners had unhealthy FF consumption frequency, and when fathers had unhealthy FV consumption frequency. These findings imply that fathers should be involved in educational opportunities regarding dietary intake during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pobreza , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Trimestres da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1067, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Informal recycling of electronic waste (e-waste) releases particulate matter (PM) into the ambient air. Human exposure to PM has been reported to induce adverse effects on cardiovascular health. However, the impact of PM on the cardiovascular health of e-waste recyclers in Ghana has not been studied. Although intake of micronutrient-rich diet is known to modify these PM-induced adverse health effects, no data are available on the relationship between micronutrient status of e-waste recyclers and the reported high-level exposure to PM. We therefore investigated whether the intake of micronutrient-rich diets ameliorates the adverse effects of ambient exposure to PM2.5 on blood pressure (BP). METHODS: This study was conducted among e-waste and non-e-waste recyclers from March 2017 to October 2018. Dietary micronutrient (Fe, Ca, Mg, Se, Zn, and Cu) intake was assessed using a 2-day 24-h recall. Breathing zone PM2.5 was measured with a real-time monitor. Cardiovascular indices such as systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and pulse pressure (PP) were measured using a sphygmomanometer. Ordinary least-squares regression models were used to estimate the joint effects of ambient exposure to PM2.5 and dietary micronutrient intake on cardiovascular health outcomes. RESULTS: Fe was consumed in adequate quantities, while Ca, Se, Zn, Mg, and Cu were inadequately consumed among e-waste and non-e-waste recyclers. Dietary Ca, and Fe intake was associated with reduced SBP and PP of e-waste recyclers. Although PM2.5 levels were higher in e-waste recyclers, exposures in the control group also exceeded the WHO 24-h guideline value (25 µg/m3). Exposure to 1 µg/m3 of PM2.5 was associated with an increased heart rate (HR) among e-waste recyclers. Dietary Fe intake was associated with a reduction in systolic blood pressure levels of e-waste recyclers after PM exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent adequate dietary Fe intake was associated with reduced effects of PM2.5 on SBP of e-waste recyclers overtime. Nonetheless, given that all other micronutrients are necessary in ameliorating the adverse effects of PM on cardiovascular health, nutrition-related policy dialogues are required. Such initiatives would help educate informal e-waste recyclers and the general population on specific nutrients of concern and their impact on the exposure to ambient air pollutants.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/métodos , Resíduo Eletrônico/efeitos adversos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gerenciamento de Resíduos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674484

RESUMO

Obesity affects both medical and surgical outcomes in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Dietary diversity, an important component of a healthy diet, might be a useful nutritional strategy for monitoring patients with obesity. In this cross-sectional study, the data of 85 eligible RTRs were analyzed. Demographic data, routine laboratory data, and 3-day dietary data were collected. Participants were grouped into nonobesity and obesity groups based on body mass index (BMI) (for Asian adults, the cutoff point is 27 kg/m2). Dietary diversity score (DDS) was computed by estimating scores for the six food groups emphasized in the Food Guide. The mean age and BMI of participants were 49.7 ± 12.6 years and 24.0 ± 3.8 kg/m2, respectively. In the study population, 20.0% (n = 17) were obese. DDS was significantly lower in obese participants than in those who were not obese (1.53 ± 0.87 vs. 2.13 ± 0.98; p = 0.029). In addition, DDS was correlated with nutrition adequacy of the diet. Multivariate analysis showed that the odds of obesity decreased with each unit increase in DDS (odds ratio, 0.278; 95% confidence interval, 0.101-0.766; p = 0.013). We conclude that patients with higher dietary diversity have a lower prevalence of obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta , Transplante de Rim , Obesidade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrientes , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia
10.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200084, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696930

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Food Intake and Physical Activity of School Children (Web-CAAFE) is an online questionnaire developed to monitor the diet and physical activity of Brazilian schoolchildren. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of the day of the week and the number of applications on Web-CAAFE reproducibility. METHODS: Schoolchildren in grades 2 to 5 of two municipal schools in Florianópolis (n = 197) filled out the Web-CAAFE twice in the same day, of which 113 filled out the instrument in three non-consecutive days. The analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation (ICC) and logistic regression was used to evaluate the factors associated with poor reproducibility. RESULTS: The reproducibility of the questionnaire was significantly lower for children who filled out their consumption mostly on weekends in relation to weekdays (OR = 2.93; p = 0.045), and was significantly better in girls in relation to boys (OR = 0.29; p< 0.001). Higher CCI was observed on the second and third day of Web-CAAFE application in relation to the first day. These results are relevant for planning future studies that use dietary assessment instruments in children, especially on evaluation of their validity and reproducibility. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that at least two days provides acceptable reproducibility results of the Web-CAAFE and that the weekend recall may reduce the reproducibility.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Brasil , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555141

RESUMO

Since 2004 the KIDMED questionnaire has been used to evaluate adherence to the mediterranean diet in children and adolescents. During the last decade, there was a paradigm shift about the daily consumption of fruit juice and whole grains. These changes have led to an update of the KIDMED questionnaire in English. We propose an update of the spanish version of the KIDMED questionnaire. We propose deleting 'or fruit juice' from the first question. In the eighth question we propose adding 'whole-grain' to the daily consumption of pasta and rice. In the ninth question, we propose adding 'whole cereals or whole grains' to the consumption of cereals or grain over breakfast. The twelfth question is reformulated as: "Skips breakfast". We propose some modifications to the spanish version KIDMED questionnaire to provide a tool according to the new recommendations for a healthy diet in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Criança , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha , Traduções
13.
Rev. esp. nutr. comunitaria ; 26(2): 0-0, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194451

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTOS: El término edulcorante ha tenido desde hace más de 40 años una gran presencia en la información científico-técnica, en la legislación alimentaria, así como en la información dirigida a los profesionales de la salud, alimentación, nutrición y dietética y, en los medios de comunicación. MÉTODOS: Se ha realizado un trabajo de análisis bibliográfico en las bases de datos PubMed, Science Direct, Bucea (Biblioteca Complutense de Madrid) y Google Académico. Se han consultado las bases de datos oficiales, la legislación y regulación vigente, tanto a nivel de la Unión Europea como de España. Además, se han analizado los datos en las encuestas de ingesta dietética de ámbito nacional. RESULTADOS: Existe legislación específica en la Unión Europea que regula la autorización de edulcorantes bajos en o sin calorías, no hay encuestas dietéticas en España que reflejen a nivel cuantitativo la presencia de edulcorantes bajos en o sin calorías en los productos alimenticios, a excepción del estudio ANIBES. CONCLUSIONES: Las autoridades de seguridad alimentaria y nutrición, en España y Unión Europea, deben seguir velando por la aprobación, regulación y monitorización de los edulcorantes bajos en o sin calorías


BACKGROUND: For more than 40 years, the term sweetener has had a great presence in scientific and technical information, in food legislation, as well as the information aimed at health, food, nutrition and dietetic professionals and in the media. METHODS: The analysis has been carried out in the databases PubMed, Science Direct, Bucea (Biblioteca Complutense de Madrid) and Google Académico. The official databases, legislation and regulations in force have been consulted, both at the level of the European Union and Spain. In addition, for the national dietary intake surveys have been analyzed the data. RESULTS: There is specific legislation in the European Union that regulates the authorisation of low and non-calorie sweeteners. There are no dietary surveys in Spain that quantitatively reflect the presence of low and non-calorie sweeteners in food products, with the exception of the ANIBES study. CONCLUSIONS: Food safety and nutrition authorities, European and Spanish level, must continue to ensure the approval, regulation and monitoring of low and non-calorie sweeteners


Assuntos
Humanos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Edulcorantes/normas , Legislação sobre Alimentos/normas , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Legislação sobre Alimentos/organização & administração , Adoçantes não Calóricos/normas
14.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531892

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary behaviours of the Spanish adult population were changed during the COVID-19 outbreak confinement. For that purpose, an online questionnaire, based on 44 items including socio-demographic data, Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) Adherence Screener (MEDAS) as a reference of a healthy diet, processed foods intake, changes in their usual food choices and weight gain was distributed using social media and snowball sampling. A total of 7514 participants (37% aged below 35 years, 70.6% female, 77.9% university-level education or higher) from all the Spanish territory completed the questionnaire. Results outlined healthier dietary behaviours during the confinement when compared to previous habits. Overall, the MEDAS score (ranging from 0 to 14, whereby higher a scoring reflects greater adherence to the MedDiet) increased significantly from 6.53 ± 2 to 7.34 ± 1.93 during the confinement. Multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for age, gender, region and other variables, showed a statistically significant higher likelihood of changing the adherence to the MedDiet (towards an increase in adherence) in those persons who decreased the intake of fried foods, snacks, fast foods, red meat, pastries or sweet beverages, but increased MedDiet-related foods such as olive oil, vegetables, fruits or legumes during the confinement. COVID-19 confinement in Spain has led to the adoption of healthier dietary habits/behaviours in the studied population, as reflected by a higher adherence to the MedDiet. This improvement, if sustained in the long-term, could have a positive impact on the prevention of chronic diseases and COVID-19-related complications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/psicologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560550

RESUMO

Confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic can influence dietary profiles, especially those of adolescents, who are highly susceptible to acquiring bad eating habits. Adolescents' poor dietary habits increase their subsequent risk of degenerative diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular pathologies, etc. Our aim was to study nutritional modifications during COVID-19 confinement in adolescents aged 10 to 19 years, compare them with their usual diet and dietary guidelines, and identify variables that may have influenced changes. Data were collected by an anonymous online questionnaire on food intake among 820 adolescents from Spain, Italy, Brazil, Colombia, and Chile. The results show that COVID-19 confinement did influence their dietary habits. In particular, we recorded modified consumption of fried food, sweet food, legumes, vegetables, and fruits. Moreover, gender, family members at home, watching TV during mealtime, country of residence, and maternal education were diversely correlated with adequate nutrition during COVID-19 confinement. Understanding the adolescents' nutrition behavior during COVID-19 lockdown will help public health authorities reshape future policies on their nutritional recommendations, in preparation for future pandemics.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/psicologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sedentário , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585830

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in physical isolation measures in many parts of the world. In Australia, nationwide restrictions included staying at home, unless seeking medical care, providing care, purchasing food, undertaking exercise, or attending work in an essential service. All undergraduate university classes transitioned to online, mostly home-based learning. We, therefore, examined the effect of isolation measures during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia (March/April) on diet (24-h recall) and physical activity (Active Australia Survey) patterns in third-year biomedical students. Findings were compared with students enrolled in the same course in the previous two years. In females, but not males, energy intake was ~20% greater during the pandemic, and snacking frequency and energy density of consumed snacks also increased compared with 2018 and 2019. Physical activity was impacted for both sexes during the pandemic with ~30% fewer students achieving "sufficient" levels of activity, defined by at least 150 min over at least five sessions, compared with the previous two years. In a follow-up study six to eight weeks later (14-18% response rate), during gradual easing of nationwide restrictions albeit continued gym closures and online learning, higher energy intake in females and reduced physical activity levels in both sexes persisted. These data demonstrate the health impacts of isolation measures, with the potential to affect long-term diet and activity behaviours.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/psicologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232954, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vegetarianism is an increasingly common practice worldwide. Despite good evidence from other countries regarding vegetarians' diet quality, data from the Brazilian population is still scarce. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the vegetarian Brazilian population and evaluate their diet quality compared to the general Brazilian population. METHODS: We performed a nationwide cross-sectional study using an online self-administered questionnaire, previously validated for the Brazilian population, to evaluate diet quality markers of vegetarians. The invitation to participate in the survey was spread nationwide, aimed at vegetarian communities. Individuals who considered themselves vegetarians and were at least 18 years old were eligible to participate. The results on regular intake and intake adequacy were compared among vegetarians and between genders using the Pearson's chi-square test. The body mass index (BMI) were analyzed by the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey post-hoc test. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test verified normality. All analyses considered bilateral hypotheses and a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). RESULTS: Brazilian vegetarians presented better diet quality markers, such as higher regular weekly intake and adequate daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and lower regular intake of soft drinks when compared to the general Brazilian population. Vegetarians also presented a proportionally higher consumption of natural foods and lower consumption of processed foods. Among vegetarians, a higher proportion of vegans showed positive results regarding diet markers analysis, when compared to vegetarians, pesco-vegetarians, and semi-vegetarians. CONCLUSIONS: Vegetarians showed better results of diet adequacy when compared to the general population in Brazil, and vegans fared better when compared with other vegetarians. Despite the good results found, a large proportion of the participants still did not achieve the fruits and vegetables daily intake, according to the World Health Organization recommendations.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Ingestão de Alimentos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232447, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition linked to noncommunicable diseases presents major health problems across Europe. The World Health Organisation encourages countries to conduct national dietary surveys to obtain data to inform public health policies designed to prevent noncommunicable diseases. METHODS: Data on 27334 participants aged 19-64y were harmonised and pooled across national dietary survey datasets from 12 countries across the WHO European Region. Weighted mean nutrient intakes were age-standardised using the Eurostat 2013 European Standard Population. Associations between country-level Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and key nutrients and nutrient densities were investigated using linear regression. The potential mitigating influence of participant-level educational status was explored. FINDINGS: Higher GDP was positively associated with total sugar intake (5·0% energy for each 10% increase in GDP, 95% CI 0·6, 9·3). Scandinavian countries had the highest vitamin D intakes. Participants with higher educational status had better nutritional intakes, particularly within lower GDP countries. A 10% higher GDP was associated with lower total fat intakes (-0·2% energy, 95% CI -0·3, -0·1) and higher daily total folate intakes (14µg, 95% CI 12, 16) in higher educated individuals. INTERPRETATION: Lower income countries and lower education groups had poorer diet, particularly for micronutrients. We demonstrate for the first time that higher educational status appeared to have a mitigating effect on poorer diet in lower income countries. It illustrates the feasibility and value of harmonising national dietary survey data to inform European policy regarding access to healthy diets, particularly in disadvantaged groups. It specifically highlights the need for strong policies supporting nutritional intakes, prioritising lower education groups and lower income countries.


Assuntos
Dieta , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Saudável , Escolaridade , Ingestão de Energia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estado Nutricional , Pobreza , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200035, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyze the trend in dietary patterns followed by the adult population aged 18 to 44 years living in Brazilian state capitals between 2007 and 2012. METHODS: We identified dietary patterns using the principal component analysis (PCA). The analysis retained components with eigenvalues >1.0 and highlighted factor loadings (FLs) >|0.2|. After the identification of four patterns, they received standardized scores with zero mean. The mean scores were presented for each pattern according to gender, age group, schooling, and year of data collection. We estimated the temporal variation of the mean scores of the patterns by linear regression. RESULTS: We identified four dietary patterns in the population: prudent, transition, western, and traditional. We found an increasing trend in the mean score of the patterns: prudent, western, and traditional and a reduced mean score in the transition pattern. Individuals with better education showed greater adherence to the prudent pattern. Less-educated individuals presented higher adherence to the western and traditional patterns. CONCLUSION: Public policies targeting the population with lower schooling and men are necessary due to their greater adherence to unhealthy dietary patterns.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta/tendências , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Autorrelato , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232521, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to examine fruit and vegetable consumption according to gender, educational attainment and regional affiliation in Europe. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: 21 European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 37 672 adults participating in the 7th round of the European Social Survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fruit and vegetable consumption was measured using two single frequency questions. Responses were dichotomized into low (

Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutas , Verduras , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Escolaridade , Europa (Continente) , Europa Oriental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
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