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1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190046, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the food consumption according to the degree of processing and associations with sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of the Estudo Pró-Saúde (Pro-Health Study), with 520 civil servants of university campuses, Rio de Janeiro, 2012-13. A food frequency questionnaire was used to classify food consumption: 1) in natura, minimally processed, food preparations based on these foods; 2) processed foods; 3) ultra-processed foods. The relative energy contribution of each group was determined, and a seemingly unrelated equations regression (SUR) regression model was used to estimate associations with sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: The in natura food group (1) contributed with 59% of the energy consumption and was directly associated with age [45-49 years (ß = 1.8 confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI -1.2; 4.8); 50-54 (ß = 1.5 95%CI -1.5; 4.5); 55-59 (ß = 2.9 95%CI -0.4; 6.3) and ≥ 60 (ß = 4.6 95%CI 1.1; 8.2)], compared to age ≤ 44. In contrast, the group of ultra-processed foods contributed 27% and were inversely associated with age [45-49 (ß = -1.7 95%CI -4.3; 0.9); 50-54 (ß = -1.8 95%CI -4.3; 0.9); 55-59 (ß = -4.9 95%CI -8.0; -2.0); ≥ 60 (ß = -4.5 95%CI -7.6; -1.5)]. Gender, income and schooling were not associated with food consumption. CONCLUSION: Younger adults had higher consumption of ultra-processed foods, indicating the need for interventions mainly in this age group. The absence of association with other sociodemographic characteristics may be due to the influence of contextual factors.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência
2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190044, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432987

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several factors can lead to changes in dietary practices of the older adults; which contributes with nutritional recommendations not being met. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of inadequate dietary fiber consumption and to identify associated factors. METHODOLOGY: Population-based, cross-sectional study that used data from a health survey in the municipality of Campinas, SP, Brazil, held in 2008/2009, in which 1,509 individuals aged 60 or older were assessed. Food consumption was estimated through a 24-hour recall, and the prevalence of inadequacy was calculated according to the Institute of Medicine's cut-off point for total fiber (30 g/day for men and 21 g/day for women). Associated factors were identified using the hierarchical Poisson regression model to estimate the prevalence, adjusted for block distal (sociodemographic) and proximal variables (health and lifestyle indicators). RESULTS: Inadequate consumption was observed in 90.1% of the population, and after adjustments in the final model, this rate remained significantly higher among males (RP = 1.06), seniors with a partner (RP = 1.05), lower income (RP = 0.95), physically inactive (RP = 1.05) and those who would not like to change body weight (RP = 1.05). CONCLUSION: Considering that inadequacy of dietary fiber was very high, the whole 60-year-old or older population must be targeted for nutritional intervention in order to ensure adequate intake of this nutrient.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fibras na Dieta , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição de Poisson , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218541, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206566

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) must be validated among the population of interest due to the specificities in dietary habits, culture and food in each country of the Mediterranean region. The objective of this study was to determine the relative validity and reproducibility of a 157 item semi-quantitative FFQ among Lebanese adult population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dietary intake was assessed through dietary recalls, a FFQ with food items, and traditional recipes from the Mediterranean cuisine. Validity of the FFQ was measured by comparing the intake of calories, macro and micronutrients to the mean values derived from three dietary recalls (DR). Reproducibility of the FFQ was evaluated after repeating the same FFQ among the participant after a four-month period. RESULTS: 114 healthy adults aged between 18 and 60 years of which 52.6% are men participated in this study. 53 of these adults participated in the reproducibility study. Intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) between the two FFQ measurements ranged from 0.822 for sodium to 0.998 for energy indicating excellent reproducibility. The FFQ showed slightly higher intakes than the dietary recalls for most of the nutrients and foods reaching 2.1% for nutrients (polyunsaturated fatty acids) and 18% for food groups (olive oil). Correlation coefficients ranged between 0.783 (sodium) and 0.996 (carbs) for nutrients and between 0.906 (fish) and 1 (fruits and nuts) for food groups, with a significant p value (p = 0.038 for folate). Cross-classification of nutrients into quartiles showed that more than 81% of the participants were classified in the same quartile. Misclassifications were low for most nutrients with one to three persons misclassified at the extreme quartiles. CONCLUSION: The FFQ used in this research contained western and Mediterranean type of dishes and foods. Statistical analysis showed good reproducibility and validity of the tested tool in a heterogeneous sample of adults living in a Mediterranean country. It is a useful tool for future investigations and strategies promoting the comeback of this traditional diet.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Região do Mediterrâneo/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(2): 330-340, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Few studies have described the socioeconomic disparity of dietary quality in Northwest China. The present study aimed to evaluate the diet quality of pregnant women in Shaanxi province of Northwest China by using the Diet Balance Index for Pregnancy (DBI-P) and explored the relationships with socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of data from 7,630 women who were pregnant during 2012-2013 was performed. Dietary intake during the whole pregnancy was assessed by FFQ within 12 months (median, 3 months; 10th-90th percentile, 0-7 months) after delivery. Diet quality evaluated by the DBI-P was related to socioeconomic factors. RESULTS: Most women had insufficient consumption of vegetables (72.27%), dairy (89.58%), meat (82.07%), fish and shrimp (92.23%), eggs (62.54%), and dietary variety (97.92%). 67.76% of women had excessive intake of grains, and 87.77% and 69.79% of participants had surplus consumption of edible oil and salt respectively. Women with higher education, occupation and household wealth index (HWI) consumed more vegetables, fruit, dairy, soybean and nuts, meat, fish and shrimp, eggs, edible oil, alcohol and dietary variety but less grains and salt. After adjusting for confounders, education, occupation and HWI were negatively associated with the level of inadequate dietary intake. Conversely, individuals with medium HWI had higher level of excessive dietary intake compared to low HWI groups. CONCLUSIONS: The diet quality of pregnant women in Northwest China was associated with SES. Socioeconomic disparities in diet quality should be considered when planning nutrition interventions for pregnant women.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Dieta/métodos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Estado Nutricional , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(2): 362-370, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the reproducibility of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) originally developed for the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study (JPHC study) and modified for use in the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) study. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Participants included 98 men and 142 women aged 40-74 years from the five areas included in the JPHCNEXT protocol. In November 2012, participants were recruited and asked to complete the first nutrition survey. The second nutrition survey was completed after 1 year. RESULTS: We estimated daily energy as well as 53 nutrient and 29 food group intakes using the FFQ. To assess reproducibility, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficients between both FFQs, which showed mostly intermediate-to-high values. Median (range) correlation coefficients and quartile distribution in the same and adjacent categories for energy-adjusted nutrient intakes were 0.55 (0.42-0.84) and 84.7% (76.5%-98.0%) in men and 0.54 (0.35-0.80) and 84.5% (76.1%-94.4%) in women. The respective values for energy-adjusted food group intakes in men and women were also mostly intermediate to high: 0.54 (0.39-0.79) and 83.7% (75.5%-90.8%) in men and 0.57 (0.40-0.83) and 84.5% (77.5%-93.7%) in women. CONCLUSIONS: The FFQ developed for the JPHC-NEXT study has reasonable reproducibility. Because this FFQ has also been validated in a previous study, it can be considered a useful dietary assessment tool to examine associations between dietary consumption and lifestyle-related diseases.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052555

RESUMO

We assessed the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and sensory processing in 583 Spanish children aged 3-7 years from the InProS project in Alicante, Spain. Child sensory processing was measured using the short sensory profile (SSP); atypical sensory performance was defined as SSP total score <155; tactile sensitivity <30; taste/smell sensitivity <15; movement sensitivity <13; under-responsive/seeks sensation <27; auditory filtering <23; low energy/weak <26; and visual/auditory sensitivity <19 scores. Adherence to the MD was measured using the Mediterranean diet quality index KIDMED. Multiple Poisson regression models with robust variance, based on the Huber sandwich estimate, were used to obtain prevalence ratios (PR). Our findings suggested that a lower prevalence of atypical tactile and taste/smell sensitivity were associated with having medium (PR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.25; 0.99; PR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.33; 0.99, respectively) and high adherence to the MD (PR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34; 0.99; PR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.19; 0.60, respectively), and of atypical low energy/weak with having medium adherence to the MD (PR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16; 0.83). A two-point increase in adherence to the MD showed a general positive effect against atypical sensory performance, although it was statistically significant on taste/smell sensitivity (PR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.59; 0.85) and low energy/weak (PR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.64; 0.99) subscales. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows a protective effect of adherence to the MD against prevalence of atypical sensory processing in school-aged children. Further research from longitudinal studies is required to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Cooperação do Paciente , Sensação , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Espanha
7.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 101, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992005

RESUMO

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have important roles in physiological homeostasis. Numerous studies have provided extensive information about the roles of n-3 LCPUFA, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Arachidonic acid (ARA) is one of the major n-6 LCPUFAs and its biological aspects have been well studied. However, nutritional information for ARA is limited, especially in adult humans. This review presents a framework of dietary ARA intake and the effects of ARA supplementation on LCPUFA metabolism in adult humans, and the nutritional significance of ARA and LCPUFA is discussed.


Assuntos
Ácido Araquidônico/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Ácido Araquidônico/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Dieta/métodos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recomendações Nutricionais
8.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0212257, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943194

RESUMO

Mandatory fortification of edible oil (soybean and palm) with vitamin A was decreed in Bangladesh in 2013. Yet, there is a dearth of data on the availability and consumption of vitamin A fortifiable oil at household level across population sub-groups. To fill this gap, our study used a nationally representative survey in Bangladesh to assess the purchase of fortifiable edible oil among households and project potential vitamin A intake across population sub-groups. Data is presented by strata, age range and poverty-the factors that potentially influence oil coverage. Across 1,512 households, purchase of commercially produced fortifiable edible oil was high (87.5%). Urban households were more likely to purchase fortifiable oil (94.0%) than households in rural low performing (79.7%) and rural other strata (88.1%) (p value: 0.01). Households in poverty were less likely to purchase fortifiable oil (82.1%) than households not in poverty (91.4%) (p <0.001). Projected estimates suggested that vitamin A fortified edible oil would at least partially meet daily vitamin A estimated average requirement (EAR) for the majority of the population. However, certain population sub-groups may still have vitamin A intake below the EAR and alternative strategies may be applied to address the vitamin A needs of these vulnerable sub-groups. This study concludes that a high percentage of Bangladeshi population across different sub-groups have access to fortifiable edible oil and further provides evidence to support mandatory edible oil fortification with vitamin A in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Nutricional , Recomendações Nutricionais , Deficiência de Vitamina A/prevenção & controle , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/economia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados/economia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óleo de Palmeira/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Palmeira/economia , Pobreza/economia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Soja/economia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(2): 356-362, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184330

RESUMO

Introducción: las encuestas alimentarias son utilizadas para la determinación del consumo de alimentos y nutrientes a nivel poblacional y/o individual, aunque subestiman la ingesta en un 37% o más. La introducción de nuevas tecnologías como la imagen digital de la porción de consumo, podría contribuir a disminuir el error de estimación para calorías y determinados macronutrientes. Objetivo: evaluar la precisión y exactitud del método de registro apoyado con imagen digital en tiempo real en la estimación de ingesta de calorías y macronutrientes en adultos jóvenes, considerándose como método de referencia el registro por pesada (RPP). Método: se evaluó la ingesta del almuerzo sometido previamente a un RPP de 58 sujetos. Antes y después de la ingesta, cada participante capturó una imagen de sus porciones de consumo y completaron un registro de ingesta. Se determinó el estado nutricional de los sujetos. El análisis estadístico se realizó con medianas, Kruskal-Wallis y concordancia con Bland-Altman (p < 0,05). Resultados: la mayor proporción de los sujetos presentó estado nutricional normal (72%) y el 80% presentó riesgo cardiovascular promedio. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tres métodos al estimar la ingesta en calorías, proteínas y lípidos. La subestimación de calorías y lípidos disminuye del 32% al 25,8% al utilizar una imagen digital como apoyo a la estimación de ingesta y lípidos de 47% al 24,4%. Conclusiones: el registro complementado con imagen digital de las porciones consumidas presenta mejor concordancia con el método de referencia (RPP) en estimación de calorías, proteínas y lípidos, mejorando la precisión y exactitud del método


Introduction: food surveys are used to determine the consumption of food and nutrients at the population and/or individual level, although they underestimate the intake by 37% or more. The introduction of new technologies such as the digital image of the portion of consumption could help to reduce the estimation error for calories and certain macronutrients. Objective: to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the food record method supported with real-time digital imaging in the estimation of caloric intake and macronutrients in young adults, considering the weighed food record (WFR) as a reference method. Methods: lunch intake was evaluated previously submitted to a WFR of 58 subjects. Before and after the intake, each participant captured an image of their consumption portions and completed a food record. The nutritional status of the subjects was determined. The statistical analysis was performed with medians, Kruskal-Wallis, and concordance with Bland-Altman (p < 0.05). Results: the highest proportion of subjects presented normal nutritional status (72%) and 80% presented average cardiovascular risk. Significant differences were found between the three methods when estimating the intake for calories, proteins, lipids. The underestimation of calories and lipids decreases from 32% to 25.8% and lipids from 47% to 24.4% when using a digital image to support the estimation of intake. Conclusions: the food record complemented with digital image of the consumed portions presents better agreement with the reference method (WFR) in estimation of calories, proteins and lipids, improving the precision and accuracy of the method


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Computação , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Almoço , Estado Nutricional , Fotografação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(2): 356-362, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839225

RESUMO

Introduction: Introduction: food surveys are used to determine the consumption of food and nutrients at the population and/or individual level, although they underestimate the intake by 37% or more. The introduction of new technologies such as the digital image of the portion of consumption could help to reduce the estimation error for calories and certain macronutrients. Objective: to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the food record method supported with real-time digital imaging in the estimation of caloric intake and macronutrients in young adults, considering the weighed food record (WFR) as a reference method. Methods: lunch intake was evaluated previously submitted to a WFR of 58 subjects. Before and after the intake, each participant captured an image of their consumption portions and completed a food record. The nutritional status of the subjects was determined. The statistical analysis was performed with medians, Kruskal-Wallis, and concordance with Bland-Altman (p < 0.05). Results: the highest proportion of subjects presented normal nutritional status (72%) and 80% presented average cardiovascular risk. Significant differences were found between the three methods when estimating the intake for calories, proteins, lipids. The underestimation of calories and lipids decreases from 32% to 25.8% and lipids from 47% to 24.4% when using a digital image to support the estimation of intake. Conclusions: the food record complemented with digital image of the consumed portions presents better agreement with the reference method (WFR) in estimation of calories, proteins and lipids, improving the precision and accuracy of the method.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistemas de Computação , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Almoço , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Fotografação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
11.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 125: 271-278, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30602125

RESUMO

Characterization of 'hour-of-day' or 'day-of-week' caffeine intake for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) population is limited. No study has focused on patterns from an individual perspective. The NHANES 2013-2016 survey respondents' dietary recalls were analyzed to gain a better understanding of caffeine intake patterns for different caffeinated beverage consumer types - defined by beverage type consumed and daily caffeine intake levels. Dominant caffeinated beverage consumers (≥143 mg) were identified by a reported daily caffeine intake level greater than or equal to the 50th percentile among those 1-80 y. Dominant caffeinated beverage consumers - irrespective of age groups investigated - typically reported the greatest caffeine intake early in the day from coffee. Analyses by consumer type, relevant age brackets and 'hour-of-day' or 'day-of-week' indicated that caffeinated beverage consumers generally do not cluster multiple caffeine intake events over short periods of time (i.e., less than fours). Dominant caffeinated beverage consumers appear to maintain a relatively stable daily caffeine intake by substitution of secondary sources of caffeine. Only a small fraction (4.1%) of individuals within 13-29 y respondents consumed caffeine at levels in excess of 400 mg/day, compared to 14% within the 30-80 y old survey respondent group.


Assuntos
Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Líquidos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(3): 1247-1258, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511828

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Excessive consumption of free sugar increases the risk for non-communicable diseases where a proper assessment of this intake is necessary to correctly estimate its association with certain diseases. Urinary sugars have been suggested as objective biomarkers for total and free sugar intake in adults but less is known about this marker in children and adolescents. Therefore, the aim of this exploratory study is to evaluate the relative validity of self-reported intake using urinary sugars in children and adolescents. METHODS: The study was conducted in a convenience subsample of 228 participants aged 5-18 years of the I.Family study that investigates the determinants of food choices, lifestyle and health in European families. Total, free and intrinsic sugar intake (g/day) and sugar density (g/1000 kcal) were assessed using 24-h dietary recalls (24HDRs). Urinary sucrose (USUC) and urinary fructose (UFRU) were measured in morning urine samples and corrected for creatinine excretion (USUC/Cr, UFRU/Cr). Correlation coefficients, the method of triads and linear regression models were used to investigate the relationship between intake of different types of sugar and urinary sugars. RESULTS: The correlation between usual sugar density calculated from multiple 24HDRs and the sum of USUC/Cr and UFRU/Cr (USUC/Cr + UFRU/Cr) was 0.38 (p < 0.001). The method of triads revealed validity coefficients for the 24HDR from 0.64 to 0.87. Linear regression models showed statistically significant positive associations between USUC/Cr + UFRU/Cr and the intake of total and free sugar. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the relative validity of total and free sugar intake assessed by self-reported 24HDRs in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Açúcares da Dieta/urina , Frutose/urina , Autorrelato , Sacarose/urina , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 73(1): 105-111, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are advised to restrict sodium intake. For best use of resources, rapid screening tools are required for dietary assessments to allow for targeting of patients. We wished to evaluate the usefulness of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) for estimating dietary sodium. METHODS: Sodium intake was estimated using the Derby Salt Questionnaire (DSQ), and Royal Free Sodium Questionnaire (RFSQ). Body composition was determined by bioimpedance. RESULTS: 90 peritoneal dialysis patients, 52 men (57.8%), mean age 62 ± 15.8 years, were asked to complete the DSQ and RFSQ questionnaires. 88 completed one or more questionnaire, with 87 completing the DSQ and 86 the RFSQ. The median estimated dietary sodium intake 104 (72-145) mmol/day (2.39 (1.64-3.34) g sodium/day) DSQ, and 92 (60-114) mmol/day (2.11 (1.38-2.62) g sodium/day) RFSQ. Younger patients, aged ≤52 years had greater dietary sodium intake compared to those ≥76 years (RFSQ 105.4 (73-129) vs 96 (71-116) mmol/day), p < 0.05. Extracellular water to total body water (ECW/TBW) was greater in those with higher DSQ estimated dietary sodium intake (0.40 ± 0.01 vs 0.39 ± 0.01, p < 0.05). A multivariable model showed that increased dietary sodium intake was independently associated with increased SMM (DSQ odds ratio (OR) 1.17 (95% confidence limits 1.05-1.32, RFSQ OR 1.15 (1.04-1.27, p < 0.05) and raised ECW/TBW (DSQ OR 1.88 (1.22-2.92) p = 0.004, and ECW/height (RFSQ OR 1.42 (1.02-1.98) p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Both questionnaires were acceptable to patients, and the majority were found to be consuming more dietary sodium than recommended. Dietary sodium estimation was associated with SMM and increased ECW.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Diálise Peritoneal/estatística & dados numéricos , Sódio na Dieta/análise , Sódio/análise , Urinálise/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Impedância Elétrica , Líquido Extracelular/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Nutrition ; 57: 115-121, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To our knowledge, the overall nutritional quality of the Japanese diet has not been assessed previously. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between adhering to a Japanese diet and nutrient intake. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1129 Japanese persons ≥70 y of age. Dietary habits were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The primary outcome was nutrient intake (12 components of NRF9.3 index). The overall nutrient adequacy (ONA) score was applied for assessing the potential of nutrient density. Correlation analysis was performed to compare the Japanese Diet Index (JDI) and nutrient intake, and multiple regression analysis was used to simulate the modified JDI (MJDI). RESULTS: The JDI was positively correlated with all nine beneficial nutrients, and negatively correlated with two nutrients (saturated fat and sugar). The JDI was significantly correlated with the ONA score (Spearman's coefficient = 0.248). The MJDI, which was defined by the coefficients for seven food items, was significantly correlated with the ONA score (Spearman's coefficient = 0.515). However, the JDI and MJDI were correlated with higher sodium intake. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that adhering to a Japanese diet defined by the JDI score is associated with better nutrient intake. However, this dietary pattern also appears to be associated with high sodium intake.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Dieta/métodos , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Nutrientes , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo
15.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 119(3): 500-506, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) is a federally funded, community nutrition education program that assists the low-income population in acquiring knowledge and skills related to nutrition, food safety, food resource management, food security, and physical activity. Evaluation of EFNEP includes a 24-hour dietary recall (24HDR) administered by paraprofessional educators, yet protocols for most large-scale nutrition research studies employ registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) or individuals with educational backgrounds in nutrition or related fields to collect dietary recalls. OBJECTIVE: To compare 24HDRs collected by trained paraprofessional educators with recalls collected by an RDN. DESIGN: Exploratory cross-over study comparing same-day 24HDR in a one-on-one setting collected by paraprofessional educators and an RDN. Paired recalls were separated by at least 1 hour. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The participants (n=41) were volunteer women who were eligible for participation in EFNEP in two states. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The 24HDRs were compared for energy, macronutrients, micronutrients, and food groups. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS PERFORMED: Mixed-model analysis to account for repeated measures. Intraclass correlation and Spearman correlation coefficients to determine interrater agreement. RESULTS: No difference in 24HDR was seen when compared by interviewer (paraprofessional vs RDN) or by site (Colorado vs North Carolina). There were significant differences in four components (energy, total fat, saturated fat, and solid fats-added sugar) based on recall order, with a higher intake in the second recall compared with the first. CONCLUSION: The results of this preliminary study suggest that a well-trained paraprofessional educator using a valid methodology can collect a 24HDR that is similar to a recall collected by an RDN. The paraprofessional educator can be employed for dietary data collection, allowing the RDN to focus on more advanced aspects of scope of practice, such as data evaluation and program development.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Educadores em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutricionistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Colorado , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Rememoração Mental , North Carolina , Pobreza/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21(suppl 1): e180009, 2018 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517460

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inadequate dietary patterns in childhood and adolescence are a major risk factor for the early onset of obesity and other chronic diseases. OBJECTIVES: To identify and to analyze dietary patterns among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: Data from the Brazilian National School Health Survey (PeNSE) of 2015 were used (n = 10,926 adolescents). The identification and analyses of dietary patterns were calculated using principal component analysis and linear regression, respectively. RESULTS: Two dietary patterns were identified. The first one was characterized by the presence of markers of unhealthy eating, and the second one by markers of healthy eating. The adherence to the unhealthy pattern was positively associated with female adolescents, which mothers had completed, at least, the elementary school, residents in developed regions and urban areas, as well as those students who usually chose to skip breakfast, to not have meals with their parents/guardians, and who usually had meals while watching TV/studying, and at fast food restaurants. DISCUSSION: Analyses of the consumption of isolated food groups, which do not consider the diet in all its complexity, have been insufficient in explaining the main outcomes of the public health nutrition area. CONCLUSION: Our findings contributed to the identification of the most vulnerable population groups to unhealthy dietary patterns and to the understanding of the coexistence of different food habit determinants among adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Adolescente , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208169, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540812

RESUMO

Although insufficient dietary protein intake is a known risk factor for age-related muscle weakness, the optimal age at which higher protein intake is required to prevent muscle weakness is yet to be determined. Using a population-based panel survey of community-dwelling people aged 50-75 years, this cross-sectional study aimed to find the age threshold at which a higher protein intake is associated with higher muscle strength. We utilized a dataset from the Japanese Study of Aging and Retirement conducted between 2007 and 2011. Dietary protein intake was estimated using a validated dietary questionnaire and energy-adjusted via density method. Grip strength was measured using a Smedley-type handheld dynamometer. We calculated the marginal effect (and 95% confidence intervals) of protein intake on grip strength with stratification by age using multiple linear regression analyses with robust variance adjusting for potential confounders. There were 9,485 observations from 5,790 participants in the final analysis. Marginal effects of protein intake on grip strength increased with age, and it reached significance and had a positive impact only among men aged ≥75 years and women aged ≥65 years. With an additional 1% energy of protein intake, grip strength was increased by 0.10 kg and 0.19 kg for men and women aged ≥75 years, respectively. Our result indicated the possibility that women needed a high protein intake from a younger age compared with men. Further studies are needed to clarify from when a higher protein intake is recommended to prevent muscle weakness.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta , Debilidade Muscular/prevenção & controle , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Debilidade Muscular/diagnóstico , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Nutr J ; 17(1): 91, 2018 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30292239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the acidity of the diet may be related to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. To investigate this hypothesis, we tested if the acidity of the diet, measured as the Potential Renal Acid Load (PRAL) score, was associated with incident diabetes and diabetes-related intermediary traits. METHODS: A total of 54,651 individuals from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) cohort were included in the prospective cox regression analyses of incident diabetes over a 15 years follow-up period. Moreover, 5724 Danish individuals with baseline data from the Inter99 cohort were included in the cross sectional, multivariate and logistic regression analyses of measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin release and glucose tolerance status derived from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). RESULTS: In the DCH cohort a trend analysis showed that quintiles of PRAL score were, after multifactorial adjustment, associated with a higher incidence of diabetes (ptrend = 6 × 10- 7). HR for incident diabetes was 1.24 (1.14; 1.35) (p = 7 × 10- 7) between first and fifth PRAL score quintile. In Inter99 higher PRAL score associated with insulin resistance as estimated by lower BIGTT-Si (an OGTT-derived index of insulin sensitivity) (p = 4 × 10- 7) and Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity (p = 2 × 10- 5) as well as higher HOMA-IR (p = 0.001). No association was observed for measures of insulin release, but higher PRAL score was associated with lower OGTT-based disposition index. CONCLUSIONS: A high dietary acidity load is associated with a higher risk of diabetes among middle-aged Danes. Although adjustment for BMI attenuated the effect sizes the association remained significant. The increased risk of diabetes may be related to our finding that a high dietary acidity load associates with impaired insulin sensitivity.


Assuntos
Desequilíbrio Ácido-Base/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Resistência à Insulina , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0206242, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: National dietary guidelines are intended to promote primary prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, but little is known about their effectiveness in prevention of stroke. METHODS: We used the Danish cohort Diet, Cancer and Health (n = 57 053) to investigate whether adherence to the Danish food-based dietary guidelines was associated with risk of stroke. Adherence was assessed by the Danish Dietary Guidelines Index, score 0 [no adherence] to 6 [complete adherence]. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for stroke and subtypes of stroke in men and women separately. RESULTS: Incident stroke was determined in 1357 men and 900 women during follow-up (median 12.5 years and 13.0 years, respectively). A higher Danish Dietary Guidelines Index score was inversely associated with total stroke in men but not in women. In men, a high Index score (≥4) was also inversely associated with total ischemic stroke (hazard ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.65-0.86), large-artery atherosclerosis (hazard ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.44-0.92) and small artery occlusion (hazard ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.84) compared to a low Index score (<4). In women, inverse associations were found for total ischemic stroke (hazard ratio 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.72-0.98) and intracerebral hemorrhage (hazard ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.43-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that adherence to the Danish Dietary Guidelines is associated with a lower rate of stroke, and thus may be useful in primary prevention of disease.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Política Nutricional , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/métodos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
20.
Nutrients ; 10(10)2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30332823

RESUMO

Monitoring the nutritional environment is important to help inform future initiatives to improve access to healthy foods. The objective was to examine the nutritional quality of lunch meals eaten at 15 worksite canteens and then to compare with results from a study conducted 10 years before. The duplicate-portion-technique with subsequent chemical analysis was used to quantify 240 customers' lunch intake. Estimated mean energy intake was 2.1 MJ/meal (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9 to 2.4 g/meal) and estimated energy density 599 kJ/100 g (95% CI 550 to 653 kJ/100 g). Energy density of the male participants' meals were significantly higher compared with the female participants' meals (+55 kJ/100 g, 95% CI: +12 to +98 kJ/100 g, p = 0.012), whereas no gender differences were found in macronutrient distribution or fruit and vegetable intake. Compared to the study conducted 10 years before several significant changes were observed, including an increase in mean estimated intake of fruit and vegetables (+38 g/meal, 95% CI: 19 to 57 g/meal, p < 0.001) and a decrease in energy density (-76 kJ/100 g, 95% CI: -115, -37 kJ/100 g, p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study suggests an equalization of gender differences in fruit and vegetable intake and a possible improvement in the nutritional quality of canteen lunch meals over a 10-year period.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Almoço , Valor Nutritivo , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Dinamarca , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Verduras
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