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1.
PLoS Genet ; 16(5): e1008804, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407316

RESUMO

Cattle are ideally suited to investigate the genetics of male reproduction, because semen quality and fertility are recorded for all ejaculates of artificial insemination bulls. We analysed 26,090 ejaculates of 794 Brown Swiss bulls to assess ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, sperm head and tail anomalies and insemination success. The heritability of the six semen traits was between 0 and 0.26. Genome-wide association testing on 607,511 SNPs revealed a QTL on bovine chromosome 6 that was associated with sperm motility (P = 2.5 x 10-27), head (P = 2.0 x 10-44) and tail anomalies (P = 7.2 x 10-49) and insemination success (P = 9.9 x 10-13). The QTL harbors a recessive allele that compromises semen quality and male fertility. We replicated the effect of the QTL on fertility (P = 7.1 x 10-32) in an independent cohort of 2481 Brown Swiss bulls. The analysis of whole-genome sequencing data revealed that a synonymous variant (BTA6:58373887C>T, rs474302732) in WDR19 encoding WD repeat-containing protein 19 was in linkage disequilibrium with the fertility-associated haplotype. WD repeat-containing protein 19 is a constituent of the intraflagellar transport complex that is essential for the physiological function of motile cilia and flagella. Bioinformatic and transcription analyses revealed that the BTA6:58373887 T-allele activates a cryptic exonic splice site that eliminates three evolutionarily conserved amino acids from WDR19. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the BTA6:58373887 T-allele decreases protein expression. We make the remarkable observation that, in spite of negative effects on semen quality and bull fertility, the BTA6:58373887 T-allele has a frequency of 24% in the Brown Swiss population. Our findings are the first to uncover a variant that is associated with quantitative variation in semen quality and male fertility in cattle.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sêmen/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Masculino , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Motilidade Espermática , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
2.
Aust Vet J ; 98(5): 190-196, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) conception rates and serum progesterone concentrations at the time of FTAI for cows treated with the original Ovsynch program (OV) with those treated with a modified Ovsynch (MO) program. DESIGN: This was a randomised clinical trial. METHODS: The study used five split-calving, pasture-based dairy herds in Southwest Victoria, Australia. Controls (n = 851) received the OV program: day 0 gonadotropin-releasing hormone, day 7 prostaglandin F2α (PGF), day 9 gonadotropin-releasing hormone and FTAI at day 10. The treatment group (n = 852) received a MO program with an additional prostaglandin injection on day 8. Subsets of cows from each group were sampled for blood progesterone at the time of FTAI. RESULTS: The treatment group demonstrated FTAI conception rates that were 7% (95% confidence interval 2%-12%) greater than the control group. After adjusting for the effect of age, days in milk at Mating Start Date and herd, the odds of conception using FTAI was 1.36 (95% confidence interval 1.12-1.66) times greater for treatment group cows compared with control group cows. The variability of serum progesterone concentrations at the time of FTAI was significantly less for treatment group cows compared with control group cows. CONCLUSION: For Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian cross-bred cows managed in pasture-based dairy herds in southern Australia, a MO protocol, including a second injection of prostaglandin F2α on day 8, increased FTAI conception rates compared with cows receiving the OV protocol.


Assuntos
Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Luteólise , Animais , Bovinos , Dinoprosta , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Lactação , Progesterona , Prostaglandinas , Prostaglandinas F , Austrália do Sul , Vitória
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(4): 3648-3655, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089296

RESUMO

In dairy cattle, mastitis is a disease of the mammary gland caused by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and algae. Mastitis causes economic losses to dairy farms as well as public health concerns. The reproductive efficiency of commercial dairy herds has important implications for the economic success of dairy operations and is strongly associated with the health status of cows. Mastitis has previously been linked with decreased fertility of dairy cows, but the effect of specific pathogens on the severity of fertility reduction is still unclear. In this study, cows diagnosed with mastitis caused by major pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Mycoplasma spp., and environmental Streptococcus) needed more artificial inseminations (AI) than did cows with mastitis caused by minor pathogens (coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium spp.) and healthy cows. Cows diagnosed with mastitis, independent of what pathogen was causing mastitis, had more days open compared with nonmastitic cows. The percentage of cows that successfully established pregnancy at first AI was greater for the control group than for the major pathogens group but not significantly different from the minor pathogens group. Pregnancy loss was lower in the control group than in the major pathogens group; however, there was no difference compared with the minor pathogen group. Mastitis caused by gram-negative bacteria decreased the percentage of pregnancy per first AI and increased days open and pregnancy loss compared with the control group. Cows with mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria also had increased days open compared with control cows. This study shows that different mastitis-causing bacteria can affect the fertility of cows differently. Mastitis events caused by major pathogens and gram-negative bacteria were associated with the greatest decrease in reproductive efficiency.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Mastite Bovina/microbiologia , Mastite/veterinária , Reprodução , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bovinos , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Mastite/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(4): 3719-3729, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089314

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to compare time to pregnancy and proportion of cows not pregnant 210 d after first service for cows managed for second and subsequent artificial insemination (AI) services with a reproductive management program that promoted reinsemination at detected estrus (AIE) or a program that promoted timed AI (TAI). After first service, lactating Holstein cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to d 32 Resynch (D32R; n = 464) or AIE Resynch (AIER; n = 512). To determine the effect of management strategies on time to pregnancy and cows not pregnant by the end of a 210 d at-risk period after first AI service, cows remained in AIER and D32R until pregnancy or herd exit. Cows in D32R received a GnRH treatment 32 ± 3 d after AI (first treatment intervention; FTI). Nonpregnancy diagnosis was conducted 7 d later by transrectal ultrasonography when nonpregnant cows with a corpus luteum (CL) ≥15 mm completed the Resynch protocol (PGF2α, 56 h later GnRH, and 16 to 18 h later TAI) and cows without a CL (NoCL cows) were enrolled in a PreG-Ovsynch protocol (GnRH, 7 d later GnRH, 7 d later PGF2α, 56 h later GnRH, and 16 to 18 h TAI) to receive TAI. For the AIER treatment, nonpregnant cows with a CL ≥15 mm observed by transrectal ultrasonography 32 ± 3 d after AI (i.e., FTI) received PGF2α to induce estrus. Cows not AIE within 7 d were enrolled in Resynch (GnRH, 7 d later PGF2α, 56 h later GnRH, and 16 to 18 h TAI). Cows in the NoCL group in AIER were enrolled in PreG-Ovsynch. Detection of estrus was performed based on visual observation of behavioral signs of estrus and tail-paint removal. Binomial data were analyzed with logistic regression and time to event data with Cox's proportional regression. After the FTI, a greater proportion of cows were AIE in AIER than D32R (36.0 vs. 11.9%) and more cows were AIE within 7 d of the FTI for AIER (25.0%) than D32R (4.8%). Overall pregnancy per AI at 68 ± 3 d after AI did not differ (AIER = 35.5% vs. D32R = 34.7%). The hazard of pregnancy up to 210 d after first AI for all cows enrolled (hazard ratio = 1.04, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.19) and for cows that received treatments only (D32R = 308, AIER = 349; hazard ratio = 1.00, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.19) did not differ. We conclude that a program aimed at increasing the proportion of cows reinseminated at detected estrus by treatment with PGF2α at 32 ± 3 d after AI may be an alternative strategy for dairy farms that prefer or need to inseminate more cows at detected estrus rather than by TAI.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Estro , Detecção do Estro , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Lactação , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores de Tempo , Ultrassonografia
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(4): 3312-3324, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089311

RESUMO

The use of genomic testing for selecting replacement heifers in commercial farms has recently attracted much attention. Fertility traits are among the most complex, hard to measure, and lowly heritable traits, and hence they can benefit the most from genomic testing. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between early genomic prediction of daughter pregnancy rate (GDPR) and pregnancy at the first service (P1), pregnancy at the end of lactation (PEND), number of services for conception (NSFC), days from calving to first service (TP1), and days open (TPEND). Data for GDPR, milk production, and reproductive outcomes from 1,401 multiparous and 3,044 primiparous Holstein cows from 4 commercial farms with the same reproductive management were used in the analyses. All animals were genotyped and genomically evaluated as heifers before first breeding, so no phenotypic data were available for predicting genomic merits. In addition, all animals were genotyped and evaluated as heifers before first breeding, so no phenotypic data were available for prediction. Data for GDPR and milk production were categorized in quartiles. The statistical models included GDPR, farm-year-season of the first insemination, milk yield, breeding code (estrus detection or timed artificial insemination), and the interaction terms as potential predictors for the different reproductive outcomes evaluated. Data were analyzed separately for primiparous and multiparous cows. The proportion of cows bred by estrus detection increased linearly from lowest to highest GDPR in primiparous cows. There were positive associations of GDPR for P1, PEND, NSFC, TP1, and TPEND in both primiparous and multiparous cows. For instance, positive GDPR effects in multiparous cows included a 15.7% higher P1 (47.6% vs. 31.9%), 11.9% higher PEND (84.9% vs. 73.0%), and 48.0-d shorter TPEND (139.8 vs. 175.7 d) for the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile. Milk yield affected PEND in multiparous cows, and TPEND and NSFC affected PEND in primiparous cows. The only significant interaction between GDPR and milk production was detected for NSFC in primiparous cows, where high-producing cows showed a reduction in NSFC as GDPR increased, whereas low-producing cows showed no relationship between GDPR and NSFC. Overall, our findings show that GDPR can be effectively used as a predictor of future reproductive performance, reaffirming the potential benefits of applying early genomic predictions for making accurate early selection decisions.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Testes Genéticos/veterinária , Taxa de Gravidez , Reprodução/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Detecção do Estro , Feminino , Fertilidade , Fertilização , Genômica , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Leite , Paridade , Gravidez
6.
Can Vet J ; 61(1): 53-56, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892755

RESUMO

The present study evaluated 2 fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) techniques in sows in 2 herds. At weaning, sows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: Group 1 received intramuscular injections of 600 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin followed 3 days later by 5 mg of porcine luteinizing hormone; Group 2 received a 200-µg intravaginal dose of triptorelin acetate 4 days post-weaning; and Group 3 were heat checked daily and double-mated when observed in heat. Groups 1 and 2 were bred once at a fixed-time independent of estrous behavior. Time of ovulation was monitored by ultrasound in a subset of sows from each group. Both FTAI techniques resulted in sows farrowing within short intervals, leading to the weaning of pigs that tended to be older and heavier compared with controls. The use of FTAI, however, was associated with a trend to reduced reproductive performance compared with controls in 1 herd.


Assuntos
Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Ovulação , Animais , Estro , Feminino , Cavalos , Suínos , Pamoato de Triptorrelina , Desmame
7.
J Anim Sci ; 98(2)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955201

RESUMO

Efforts to understand biological functions and develop management schemes specific to Bos indicus-influenced cattle raised in tropical and subtropical environments are critical to meet the increasing global demand for protein. In the United States, B. indicus breeds are mostly used to generate B. indicus × B. taurus crosses with increased thermal and parasite tolerance, while retaining some productive characteristics of B. taurus cattle. Although crossbreeding represents a proven strategy to improve cattle adaptation almost immediately, research has also attempted to identify B. taurus genetics that can withstand subtropical and tropical climates. Reduced milk production and delayed reproductive maturation appear to be related with tropical adaptation of B. taurus breeds, as a means to conserve energy under stressful conditions and limited nutrition. Moreover, longevity may be the ultimate adaptation response to unfavorable environments, and retention of bulls and heifers from proven cows is the recommended strategy to improve longevity in B. indicus-influenced herds. Besides selection for longevity, other aspects should be considered when planning reproductive management in tropical and subtropical regions. Bos indicus and B. taurus breeds have multiple differences pertaining to reproductive function, including age at puberty, ovarian dynamics, and pregnancy development. Nutritional strategies such as the stair-step regimen, and use of exogenous progesterone (P4) inserts are options to hasten puberty attainment of late-maturing B. indicus-influenced heifers. Yet, limited pharmacological alternatives are available for reproductive management of B. indicus-influenced females in the United States, which rely on GnRH-based protocols not specifically designed to the reproductive function of B. indicus breeds. In contrast, hormonal protocols based on exogenous P4, estradiol esters, and equine chorionic gonadotropin are available for use in B. indicus females in South America. These include protocols tailored to prepubertal heifers, anestrous cows, and cycling nulliparous or parous females, which often yield pregnancy rates of 50% to fixed-time artificial insemination. The global dairy industry also faces similar challenges in increasing demand and production as the beef industry. Selection of cows capable of sustaining optimal milk yield, reproductive success, and health status in hot and humid conditions is essential for optimal dairy production in subtropical and tropical regions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Bovinos/fisiologia , Reprodução , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Estradiol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Longevidade , Masculino , Ovário/fisiologia , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Clima Tropical
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 2006-2018, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785879

RESUMO

One strategy for improving fertility in cattle is administration of GnRH or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) during the luteal phase, which increases progesterone (P4) secretion and delays luteolysis. To provide an overview of how GnRH or hCG treatment between 4 and 15 d after artificial insemination (AI) improves pregnancy per AI (P/AI) in cows, a meta-analysis was performed on 107 different trials from 52 publications. Data from 18,082 treated cows and 18,385 untreated controls were meta-analyzed. The meta-analysis explained the relative risk for P/AI with GnRH or hCG treatment under various circumstances. The results did not show any difference in P/AI between cows treated with hCG and cows treated with GnRH. Compared with no treatment, treatment with GnRH or hCG improved the chances of P/AI in cows with very poor (<30%) and poor (30.1 to 45%) fertility, whereas treatment did not benefit cows with very good fertility (>60.1%). Moreover, treatment with GnRH and hCG improved the chances of P/AI in primiparous cows. The improvement was much better in primiparous cows with very low fertility. Treatment with buserelin at a dose above 10 µg and with hCG at a dose above 2,500 IU was associated with increased chances of P/AI compared with lower doses. Treatment with GnRH 10 d after AI was also associated with increased chances of P/AI compared with earlier treatment. The present meta-analysis showed that the use of GnRH and hCG after AI should be focused on cows expected to have low or moderate fertility. Day and dose of treatment have to be considered as well.


Assuntos
Busserrelina/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/fisiologia , Gonadotropina Coriônica/administração & dosagem , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Humanos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Fase Luteal , Luteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Progesterona/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 1685-1700, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837792

RESUMO

The objective of the current study was to examine phenotypic fertility performance and survival, and to gain insight into underlying factors that may contribute to greater fertility performance in 2 divergent genetic groups (GG) of Holstein-Friesian, selected using the Irish Economic Breeding Index (EBI). The GG were evaluated across 3 spring calving pasture-based feeding treatments (FT) over 4 yr. The 2 divergent GG were (1) high EBI; representative of the top 5% nationally (elite), and (2) EBI representative of the national average (NA). In each year, 90 elite and 45 NA cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 FT: control, lower grass allowance, and high concentrate. No interaction between GG and FT was observed for any of the measures of fertility investigated. The elite cows achieved significantly greater pregnancy rate to first service (+14.9 percentage points), and significantly greater pregnancy rates after 21, 42, and 84 d of breeding (+17.3, +15.2, and +9.6 percentage points, respectively) compared with NA. The number of services per cow was fewer for elite (1.57) compared with NA (1.80). The interval from mating start date to pregnancy was significantly shorter for elite cows compared with NA. The elite cows maintained greater mean body condition score than NA throughout the study (2.91 vs. 2.72), and had greater body condition score at calving, artificial insemination, and drying off compared with NA. The elite cows had greater mean circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 compared with NA. No significant effect was observed of GG on commencement of luteal activity, or progesterone profile variables. Greater survival to the start of fifth lactation was observed for elite cows. The elite cows were 43% less likely to be culled than NA by the beginning of the fifth lactation. The results highlight the success of the Economic Breeding Index to deliver reproductive performance and longevity consistent with industry targets across a range of seasonal pasture-based FT. The results also clearly demonstrate the potential of appropriate genetic selection to reverse negative fertility trends incurred during previous decades of selection for milk production alone.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Fertilidade , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Leite , Poaceae , Gravidez , Progesterona , Reprodução/genética , Estações do Ano
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 2019-2023, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759602

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of corpus luteum color flow Doppler ultrasonography (CLCFDU) to diagnose nonpregnant dairy cows 21 d after insemination. A secondary objective was to determine the accuracy of other indirect tests such as corpus luteum size and progesteronemia. Data from 1,632 Holstein cows (10 commercial herds) were used for the analysis in this prospective cohort study. The herds were visited weekly by a veterinarian and an animal health technician. During farm visits, cows were examined on d 21 after insemination using transrectal B-mode ultrasonography to quantify the presence and size of the corpus luteum. After identification of the corpus luteum, CLCFDU was performed and scored as D0, D1, D2, or D3 when 10% or less, between 11 and 30%, between 31 and 60%, or 61% or more of the corpus luteum surface was colored, respectively. A blood sample from coccygeal vessels was also collected to quantify progesteronemia. Farmers were blinded to these findings and no intervention was performed following examination. On d 32 after insemination, the cows were examined by the regular herd veterinarian using transrectal palpation and B-mode ultrasonography to determine whether the cows were pregnant or not (the reference test). Statistical analyses were conducted using 2 × 2 contingency tables. The apparent prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of CLCFDU for predicting nonpregnancy were 22.0, 36.6, 99.0, 98.1, and 52.0%, respectively, when using D0 only as the diagnostic criterion; they were 47.2, 76.4, 94.8, 93.5, and 73.8%, respectively, for D0+D1 criteria. The same measures for cows with a corpus luteum <15 mm were 8.0, 11.7, 97.5, 86.9, and 43.4%, respectively, and they were 51.9, 67.4, 70.4, 76.6, and 60.0%, respectively, for progesteronemia <1 ng/mL. The measures of accuracy of CLCFDU to identify nonpregnant cows on d 21 after insemination were high, and the apparent prevalence varied depending on the diagnostic criteria used. The measures of accuracy of corpus luteum size (<15 mm) for the same purpose were high; however, apparent prevalence was low. The measures of accuracy of progesteronemia (<1 ng/mL) were low. In conclusion, CLCFDU had excellent accuracy to diagnose nonpregnancy in dairy cows on d 21 after insemination.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Progesterona/sangue , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores/veterinária , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Corpo Lúteo/diagnóstico por imagem , Indústria de Laticínios , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(2): 1701-1710, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785871

RESUMO

Understanding the preferences of dairy cattle producers when selecting beef bulls for mating can help inform beef breeding programs as well as provide default parameters in mating advice systems. The objective of the present study was to characterize the genetic merit of beef artificial insemination (AI) bulls used in dairy herds, with particular reference to traits associated with both calving performance and carcass merit. The characteristics of the beef AI bulls used were compared with those of the dairy AI bulls used on the same farms. A total of 2,733,524 AI records from 928,437 females in 5,967 Irish dairy herds were used. Sire predicted transmitting ability (PTA) values and associated reliability values for calving performance and carcass traits based on national genetic evaluations from prior to the insemination were used. Fixed effects models were used to relate both genetic merit and the associated reliability of the dairy and beef bulls used on the farm with herd size, the extent of Holstein-Friesian × Jersey crossbreeding adopted by the herd, whether the herd used a technician insemination service or do-it-yourself, and the parity of the female mated. The mean direct calving difficulty PTA of the beef bulls used was 1.85 units higher than that of the dairy bulls but with over 3 times greater variability in the beef bulls. This 1.85 units equates biologically to an expectation of 1.85 more dystocia events per 100 dairy cows mated in the beef × dairy matings. The mean calving difficulty PTA of the dairy AI bulls used reduced with increasing herd size, whereas the mean calving difficulty PTA of the beef AI bulls used increased as herd size increased from 75 cows or fewer to 155 cows; the largest herds (>155 cows) used notably easier-calving beef bulls, albeit the calving difficulty PTA of the beef bulls was 3.33 units versus 1.67 units for the dairy bulls used in these herds. Although we found a general tendency for larger herds to use dairy AI bulls with lower reliability, this trend was not obvious in the beef AI bulls used. Irrespective of whether dairy or beef AI bulls were considered, herds that operated more extensive Holstein-Friesian × Jersey crossbreeding (i.e., more than 50% crossbred cows) used, on average, easier calving, shorter gestation-length bulls with lighter expected progeny carcasses of poorer conformation. Mean calving difficulty PTA of dairy bulls used increased from 1.39 in heifers to 1.79 in first-parity cows and to 1.82 in second-parity cows, remaining relatively constant thereafter. In contrast, the mean calving difficulty PTA of the beef bulls used increased consistently with cow parity. Results from the present study demonstrate a clear difference in the mean acceptable genetic merit of beef AI bulls relative to dairy AI bulls but also indicates that these acceptable limits vary by herd characteristics.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Bovinos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Paridade , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reprodução
12.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 212: 106236, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864489

RESUMO

Seminal doses used for cervical and post-cervical artificial insemination (CAI and PCAI, respectively) vary in volume, the number of spermatozoa and packaging. The aim was to evaluate the outcomes when there was use of routine processing procedures for CAI- and PCAI-doses. Two different types of seminal doses were processed: 1) CAI: 2.7 × 109 sperm/80 ml; 2) PCAI: 1.5 × 109 sperm/45 ml. In Experiment 1, the cooling curve of seminal doses during processing occurred in two phases: 1st) At room temperature (23.4 ±â€¯0.5 °C) from 0 (just after packaging) to 120 min; 2nd) At refrigeration (15.7 ±â€¯0.8 °C) from 121-240 min. For the PCAI-doses, the time required to reach room temperature was 47 min compared to 107 min for CAI-doses (decreasing velocity of 0.093 °C/min and 0.048 °C/min, respectively). During refrigeration, for the PCAI-doses the time required to reach the desired preservation temperature was 20 min less than for CAI-doses (PCAI: 90 min, 0.074 °C/min; CAI: 110 min, 0.066 °C/min). In Experiment 2, sperm motility, kinetic parameters and acrosome damage for both types of doses were evaluated at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h of refrigeration. Also, morphology, pH, and osmolality were assessed at 0 and 72 h. Values for all these did not differ between CAI- and PCAI-doses. In conclusion, PCAI-doses took less time than CAI-doses to reach the desired temperature, but sperm quality was similar for CAI- and PCAI-doses during storage. Nevertheless, the different cooling curves should be taken into consideration for further investigation.


Assuntos
Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Sêmen/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Masculino , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 212: 106239, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864495

RESUMO

The dromedary camel (DC) is a strategic animal for the exploitation of the desert and unhospitable lands (arid and semiarid areas). These animals are a genetic resource, locally adapted and more resilient to these environs, that may significantly contribute to food security and sustainable development of marginal land areas. Artificial insemination is the least invasive, least expensive technique for improving genetic selection and minimising transmission of venereal disease among animals and herds. Besides semen preservation protocols, specific approaches for the development of DC semen collection centres - biosecurity measures, screening for infectious diseases, management of animals, welfare, nutrition, control of seasonality, training, hygiene of semen collection and processing - have been considered less important aspects. The aim of this research is to describe the aspects related to the development of a DC semen collection centre, summarising the latest studies in the field of welfare, reproduction and diseases, and describing biosecurity and hygiene aspects related to semen collection and handling. Scientific gaps and requirements for maximising the production of good quality and safe-to-use semen doses with minimal risks of disease transmission are also described.


Assuntos
Camelus , Criopreservação/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária , Animais , Criopreservação/métodos , Criopreservação/normas , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Preservação do Sêmen/normas , Manejo de Espécimes/normas
14.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 212: 106253, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864501

RESUMO

Embryonic loss in cattle may be related to a hormonal imbalance resulting in alterations in timing of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) secretion around the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy. The objective of this study was to examine effects of aspirin (a PGF2α inhibitor) on pregnancy per AI (P/AI), and progesterone (P4), and pregnancy specific protein B (PSPB) concentrations in lactating dairy cows inseminated more than once after parturition. Fourteen days after second or subsequent AI (Day 0 = Day of AI), 556 cows were assigned randomly to aspirin (187.2 g total; n = 277) or control (n = 279) groups. Aspirin was administered orally on Day 14 and 15, and control cows were subjected to sham bolus administration. On Day 25, blood samples were collected from a subset of cows (n = 194) to quantify P4 and PSPB, whereas pregnancy was determined in all cows at 35-42 days post-AI. Maximum daily ambient temperature ranged from 38-41 °C during the experiment. Mean parity, days in milk, and times bred before treatment (TBRD) did not differ between groups. There were no differences in P/AI between treatments (aspirin 21.6 % compared with control 27.5 %). Neither treatment, parity, TBRD, or any two-way interactions with treatment affected concentrations of P4. Moreover, there were no effects (P > 0.50) of treatment, or treatment by TBRD interaction on serum PSPB concentrations. A tendency (P = 0.07) occurred for multiparous cows to have greater serum PSPB concentrations compared with primiparous cows. Mean serum PSPB concentrations tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for second or third TBRD compared to fourth and greater TBRD. These results provide evidence that aspirin administered during periods of heat stress after the second and subsequent AI post-partum during the summer months does not improve P/AI or alter P4 and PSPB in lactating dairy cows.


Assuntos
Aspirina/farmacologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Proteínas da Gravidez/sangue , Progesterona/sangue , Estações do Ano
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 823-839, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677831

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate whether health, survival, and performance of dairy heifers from birth through first lactation are associated with parity and health status of their dams. Holstein heifers (n = 1,811) derived from artificial insemination were categorized as (1) daughters of primiparous cows that, consequently, were nonlactating heifers during gestation (Prim-NoL; n = 787); (2) daughters of multiparous cows that did not have any clinical diseases in the previous lactation (Mult-NoCD; n = 638); and (3) daughters of multiparous cows that had at least one clinical disease in the previous lactation (Mult-CD; n = 386). Clinical diseases of the multiparous dams included retained placenta, metritis, mastitis, lameness, and digestive and respiratory problems. Data collected for evaluation of daughters included genotypic and phenotypic characteristics at birth, morbidity, reproductive performance, and culling from birth through 305 d in milk of first lactation. Orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate the effect of the parity of the dam (Prim-NoL vs. Mult-NoCD + Mult-CD) and the effect of clinical disease occurrence in the previous lactation among multiparous dams (Mult-NoCD vs. Mult-CD). Compared with daughters of multiparous cows, daughters of Prim-NoL were lighter at birth (36 vs. 41 kg), had greater genetic merit for production traits (e.g., genomic estimated breeding value for milk yield: 875 vs. 746 kg), were less likely to leave the herd (17 vs. 28%) and to lose pregnancy as a heifer (9 vs. 14%), calved earlier (703 vs. 711 d old), were less likely to have clinical diseases as a first lactation cow (30 vs. 37%), and had reduced performance in the first lactation when considering their genetic merit (e.g., 305-d yield of energy-corrected milk: 11,270 vs. 11,539 kg). Compared with daughters of Mult-NoCD, daughters of Mult-CD were less likely to have digestive problems as a heifer (17 vs. 27%) and clinical disease as a first lactation cow (32 vs. 42%), but were also more likely to leave the herd as a heifer (32 vs. 25%) even though genetic merit for production traits were similar (e.g., genomic estimated breeding value for milk: 744 vs. 749 kg). In conclusion, both parity and health status of the dam in the previous lactation were associated with morbidity, survival, and performance of their daughters from birth through 305 d in milk of the first lactation and might represent factors affecting developmental programming of dairy heifers in utero.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Indústria de Laticínios , Lactação , Paridade , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Leite , Parto , Placenta Retida/veterinária , Gravidez , Reprodução , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 929-939, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668438

RESUMO

The objective was to evaluate the reproductive performance of frozen sex-sorted sperm at 4 × 106 sperm per dose (SexedULTRA 4M, Sexing Technologies, Navasota, TX) relative to frozen conventional sperm in seasonal-calving pasture-based dairy cows. Semen from Holstein-Friesian (n = 8) and Jersey (n = 2) bulls was used. Four of the Holstein bulls used were resident at or near a sex-sorting laboratory (Cogent, UK, or ST Benelux, the Netherlands). The remaining 6 bulls were located at studs in Ireland. For these 6 bulls, ejaculates were collected, diluted with transport medium, and couriered to Cogent in parcel shippers. Transit time from ejaculation to arrival at the sorting laboratory was 6 to 7 h. For all bulls, ejaculates were split and processed to provide frozen conventional sperm (CONV) at 15 × 106 sperm per straw and frozen sex-sorted (SS) sperm at 4 × 106 sperm per straw and used to inseminate lactating dairy cows after spontaneous estrus. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasound scanning (n = 7,246 records available for analysis). Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine effects on pregnancy per AI (P/AI) at first artificial insemination, with sperm treatment (CONV vs. SS), bull (n = 10), and treatment × bull interaction as the fixed effects, and herd (n = 142) as a random effect. Overall, P/AI was greater for cows inseminated with CONV than for those inseminated with SS (59.9% vs. 45.5%; 76.0% relative to CONV). This study was not designed to compare resident bulls vs. shipped ejaculates, but the magnitude of the difference between P/AI achieved by CONV and SS was apparently less for resident bulls (60.3% vs. 50.2%) than for shipped ejaculates (58.6% vs. 40.7%). We discovered a treatment × bull interaction for shipped ejaculates (P/AI ranged from 45 to 86% relative to CONV) but not for the resident bulls (P/AI ranged from 81 to 87% relative to CONV). Relative P/AI of SS compared with CONV was greater in cows with high or average fertility potential (76.1% and 78.3%, respectively) than in cows with low fertility potential (58.1%). In 33.1% of the enrolled herds, the P/AI achieved with SS was 90% or more of the P/AI achieved with CONV; this was mainly explained by herds in which SS performed exceptionally well but CONV performed poorly. In conclusion, SS had lower overall P/AI compared with CONV; however, P/AI achieved with SS was dependent on the bull, fertility potential of the cow, and herd. Strategies to improve the P/AI with SS in seasonal-calving pasture-based lactating dairy cows require further research.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactação/fisiologia , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Pré-Seleção do Sexo/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Congelamento , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estações do Ano , Sêmen , Espermatozoides
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 545-555, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668445

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and genetic trends for male fertility in Norwegian Red bulls. We analyzed data on semen characteristics traits collected at the performance test station of young bulls from 1994 to 2016, in an andrology test used to ensure acceptable semen quality before being selected as an artificial insemination bull. Traits included were volume, concentration, and motility (percentage of moving sperm cells) in fresh samples and after storing for 24 and 48 h, and sperm defects. The data consisted of 14,972 ejaculates from 3,927 young (11-15 mo) Norwegian Red bulls. Genetic parameters were estimated using bivariate linear animal models that included age in months, group-year, and collection-group (main effect of the interaction between ejaculate number and interval between collections) as fixed effects, and test-day and additive genetic and permanent environment effect of the bull as random effects. Considerable genetic coefficients of variation were found for concentration and volume, with lower values for motility. Estimated heritabilities ranged from 0.02 and 0.03 (for sperm defects and motility in fresh samples) to 0.14 (volume and concentration measured on a continuous scale). All estimated genetic correlations were favorable, but the genetic correlations between volume and concentration and volume and sperm defects were not significantly different from zero. The genetic correlations between concentration and motility traits ranged from 0.53 to 0.83, and those between volume and the motility traits were between 0.24 and 0.57. All traits showed a slightly unfavorable genetic trend. Our results indicate that selection of bulls with better sperm quality is possible.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Sêmen , Animais , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Masculino , Noruega , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides
19.
Theriogenology ; 141: 48-53, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518728

RESUMO

An efficient system to collect large numbers of vital zygotes is a pre-requisite for application of zygote genome-editing technology, including development of efficient models for xenotransplantation using pigs. Owing to the sub-optimal in vitro production of zygotes in pigs, efficient collection of in vivo developed zygotes is required. Timing of ovulation is a key factor to sustain efficiency since the interval between pronuclear formation and the first division is very short in pigs. The weaning-to-estrus interval can, due to its inverse relation with length of estrus and time of ovulation, interfere with ovulation and make it asynchronous, which reduces the probability of obtaining zygotes. This retrospective study compared the effects of three weaning-to-estrus intervals of 3, 4 or 5 days on zygote collection efficiency in a total of 17 trials over a 3-year period including 223 sows. Donor sows in groups of 10-15 animals were super-ovulated with eCG 24 h after weaning and those in estrus at 48-72 h post-eCG were immediately treated with hCG, followed by insemination 6 and 24 h thereafter. Collected structures during laparotomy on Day 2 (Day 0: onset of estrus) were morphologically evaluated and only those with a single cell and two visible polar bodies were considered as zygotes. Zygotes were injected with CRISPR-Cas9 editor mixture and cultured for 6 days to evaluate their developmental ability against non-injected control zygotes. Of all recovered structures (N = 5,468), 67.4%, 30.8% and 1.8% were zygotes, 2-cell embryos and oocytes-degenerated embryos, respectively. The different weaning-to-estrus intervals did not affect either the percentages of collected zygotes (range: 64.1%-70.0%) or the percentages of sows with zygotes at collection time (range: 69.0%-73.3%). The weaning-to-estrus intervals did not affect the in vitro developmental ability of zygotes. After 24 h of culture, 78.1 ±â€¯2.0% and 95.1 ±â€¯0.6 (P < 0.05) of injected (N = 2,345) and non-injected (N = 335) zygotes, respectively, developed to 2-to-4-cell embryo stage. The total efficiency of the system was 64.1 ±â€¯2.2% and 85.8 ±â€¯1.5% (P < 0.05) for injected and non-injected zygotes, respectively. In conclusion, the results indicate that neither the efficiency of collecting in vivo derived porcine zygotes from superovulated sows nor the zygote ability to develop to blastocyst after cytoplasmic genome-editing injection were affected by a weaning-to-estrus interval between 3-to-5 days.


Assuntos
Gonadotropina Coriônica/farmacologia , Oócitos , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/veterinária , Embrião de Mamíferos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Superovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/embriologia , Fatores de Tempo , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos
20.
Theriogenology ; 141: 105-112, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536859

RESUMO

We hypothesized that a shortened version of a modified Ovsynch program (OVS: GnRH-1 - 7 d - PGF2α-1 - 24 h - PGF2α-2 - 32 h - GnRH-2 - 16 h - AI) that excluded GnRH-1 to resynchronize ovulation in cows bearing a corpus luteum (CL) after a non-pregnancy diagnosis (NPD) or including progesterone supplementation with the OVS treatment for cows without a CL would produce shorter inter-insemination intervals and pregnancy per AI (P/AI) not different from that of cows treated with the OVS treatment. Of the 1697 lactating Holstein cows enrolled in this experiment, complete data were available for only 1584 cows because the remainder was not treated, inseminated per treatment design, left the herd before pregnancy diagnosis, or some other outcome was missing. Cows were enrolled in the study and assigned to either of three treatments at NPD (32 ±â€¯3 d after AI [Day 0]). Cows with a detected CL were assigned randomly to: (1) a modified Ovsynch (OVS; GnRH-1 - 7 d - PGF2α-1 - 24 h - PGF2α-2 - 32 h - GnRH-2 - 16 h - AI) or (2) Short Synch (SS; PGF2α-1 - 24 h - PGF2α-2 - 32 h - GnRH-2 - 16 h - AI). Cows with no CL were assigned to OVS plus a progesterone insert (CIDR). Blood was collected at NPD to measure progesterone concentration and determine accuracy of treatment assignment (progesterone ≥ 1 ng/mL for a functional CL). Overall progesterone concentration at NPD was less in OVS + CIDR cows (1.5 ± 0.3 ng/mL) than in OVS (5.2 ± 0.2 ng/mL) or SS cows (3.7 ± 0.3 ng/mL). No differences in luteolytic risk (progesterone < 0.5 ng/mL at 72 h after PGF2α-1) were detected after PGF2α (>96.7%) and ovulation risk after GnRH-2 was 93.8, 91.7, and 86.2% for SS, OVS, and OVS + CIDR, respectively. Mean and median inter-insemination interval were less in SS (mean = 34.3 ± 0.05 d [median = 35 d] than OVS cows (40.2 ± 0.05 d [42 d]), but that in OVS cows did not differ from OVS + CIDR cows (41.4 ± 0.05 d [42 d]). Technicians were more accurate in visually detecting a functional CL than a non-functional CL (81.2 vs. 61.1%). Sensitivity of detecting a functional CL by technicians averaged 91.2%, but specificity was 39.8%. Pregnancy per AI at 32 ± 3 d after AI was less for SS (16.5% [n = 115]) than OVS (29.3% [n = 133] when a functional CL was inaccurately detected, but did not differ when a functional CL was detected accurately (27.6% [n = 561] vs 30.3% [508]). Pregnancy per AI did not differ between OVS and OVS + CIDR cows regardless of CL status. Short synch is an alternative to the entire modified Ovsynch program to produce similar P/AI when the CL status was detected accurately, and regardless of functional CL status, SS reduced inter-insemination intervals by 7 d.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Corpo Lúteo , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/farmacologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Animais , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Gravidez
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