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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 44, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854673

RESUMO

Introduction: evidence-based mosquito control strategy is important for efficient and effective delivery of mosquito control interventions. This is hinged on effective community participation and thorough understanding of the Knowledge Attitude and Practices (KAPs) to achieve desired result. Such community dynamics are often understudied. We designed this study to assess the perception of four local communities on aspects of mosquito behavior, prevention and control in Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods: a cross-sectional survey was carried out using pretested semi-structured questionnaires to assess socio-demographic factors and KAPs in Kosofe, Alimosho, Ibeju-Lekki and Badagry Local Government Areas of Lagos State, Nigeria. Data analysis was carried out using IBM SPSS version 23. Results: a total of 746 questionnaires were analyzed. Socio-demographic profile of the sampled population reveals that majority of the study population (73.1%) was between 18 and 40 years which constitute 49% males and 51% females. The knowledge of mosquito as a disease vector was high among the respondents which correlates with their level of education (P<0.05). The use of insecticide aerosols and Insecticides Treated Nets (ITNs) are the main control measures employed for mosquito control by respondents. Cost, convenience of usage and awareness majorly influenced the type of control measures that respondents adopt. Reasons such as not being easy to setup, skin irritation and the filling of being caged are reasons why some individuals do not use ITNs. Indoors, 32.4% of the respondents indicate the use of dichlorvos (DDVP) for household control of mosquitoes. Conclusion: the knowledge of mosquito control is high among middle aged individuals in Lagos State. Insecticide aerosols and ITNs are two major mosquito control methods used with DDVP insecticides frequently used indoors. This can inform the design of appropriate control methods in Lagos State.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Nigéria , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Insect Sci ; 21(2)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686432

RESUMO

Insecticide exposure has been identified as a contributing stressor to the decline in the North American monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) population. Monarch toxicity data are currently limited and available data focuses on lethal endpoints. This study examined the 72-h toxicity of two pyrethroid insecticides, bifenthrin and ß-cyfluthrin, and their effects on growth and diet consumption. The toxicity of bifenthrin to caterpillars was lower than ß-cyfluthrin after 72 h. Survival was the most sensitive endpoint for bifenthrin, but diet consumption and caterpillar growth were significantly reduced at sublethal levels of ß-cyfluthrin. Using AgDRIFT spray drift assessment, the aerial application of bifenthrin or ß-cyfluthrin is predicted to pose the greatest risk to fifth-instar caterpillars, with lethal insecticide deposition up to 28 m for bifenthrin and up to 23 m for ß-cyfluthrin from treated edges of fields. Low boom ground applications are predicted to reduce distances of lethal insecticide exposure to 2 m from the treated field edge for bifenthrin and ß-cyfluthrin. Growth and survival of fifth-instar monarch caterpillars developing within the margins of a treated field may be significantly impacted following foliar applications of bifenthrin or ß-cyfluthrin. These findings provide evidence that pyrethroid insecticides commonly used for soybean pest control are a potential risk to monarch caterpillars in agricultural landscapes.


Assuntos
Borboletas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Animais , Borboletas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteção de Cultivos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrilos/administração & dosagem , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 342: 95-103, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609686

RESUMO

Neonicotinoids, which act as agonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of insects, are widely used pesticides worldwide. Although epidemiological studies revealed that the detection amounts of neonicotinoids in urine are higher in the elderly population than other age-groups, there is no available information regarding the risks of neonicotinoids to older mammals. This study was aimed to investigate aging-related differences in the behavioral effects of the neonicotinoid pesticide clothianidin (CLO). We acutely administered a sub-NOAEL level (5 mg/kg) of CLO to adult (12-week-old) and aging (90-week-old) mice and conducted four behavioral tests focusing on the emotional behavior. In addition, we measured the concentrations of CLO and its metabolites in blood, brain and urine. There were age-related changes in most parameters in all behavioral tests, and CLO significantly decreased the locomotor activity in the open field test and elevated plus-maze test in the aging group, but not in the adult group. The concentrations of most CLO and its metabolites were significantly higher in the blood and brain and were slightly lower in the urine in the aging group compared to the adult group. These findings should contribute to our understanding of age-related differences in the adverse effects of neonicotinoids in mammals.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Guanidinas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Tiazóis/toxicidade , Envelhecimento , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Guanidinas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111307, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931968

RESUMO

Spray application is considered to be the most common method of insecticide use in apple orchard, while trunk injection has often be used in labor-intensive areas. Here, a comparison of both methods in aphid control efficiency and non-target effects was conducted. We evaluated the effects of thiamethoxam by either spray or injection on apple aphid Aphis citricola, and examined the temporal dynamic of thiamethoxam in leaves by using residue analysis. Results showed that thiamethoxam had a remarkable suppression effect on Aphis citricola, and both application methods had obvious control efficiency with the highest value above 90%. The control effect of spray method on Aphis citricola reached the maximum at 7 days after application, while that of injection method reached the maximum at 14 days after application. Moreover, the control effect of injection after 14 days and that of spray after 7 days were not significant, suggesting the spray method had a higher quick-acting effect than the injection method, and the two methods had a similar persistence effect. The population dynamics of non-target insects (ladybugs, parasitoid wasps and predatory bugs) showed basically the same as that of blank controlled. The control effect evaluation of thiamethoxam on Aphis citricola suggest that injection treatment was more effective in protecting natural enemies than spray treatment, and thiamethoxam didn't interfere with natural enemies to control Aphis citricola with both two application methods.


Assuntos
Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tiametoxam/administração & dosagem , Animais , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Populacional , Tiametoxam/farmacologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239017, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007016

RESUMO

Organophosphates are among the most used pesticides. Particularly, chlorpyrifos (CPF) is responsible for a number of deleterious effects on brain development, which may program behavioral changes later in life. Here, we investigated whether a regimen of early low level CPF exposure that did not result in a significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) had deleterious effects on mood-related behaviors, as well as on cholinergic and serotonergic biomarkers in the mice brain. From the 3rd to 9th postnatal day (PN), male and female Swiss mice were subcutaneously injected with CPF. Mice were submitted to a battery of behavioral tests from PN60 to PN63: open field, elevated plus maze and forced swimming tests. The cholinergic and serotonergic biomarkers were assessed at PN10 and PN63. Our data indicated that early CPF exposure increased anxiety-like behavior in females and altered decision-making behavior in both sexes. Most biochemical alterations were sex-dependent and restricted to females. At PN10, CPF female mice showed increased serotonin and choline transporter binding in cerebral cortex. Distinctively, in adult females, the effects indicated a hypoactive state: CPF exposure reduced 5-HT1a receptor binding in cerebral cortex, as well as serotonin transporter binding and choline acetyltransferase activity in brainstem. Our results indicate that CPF exposure during the brain growth spurt deregulates serotonergic and cholinergic biomarkers. The effects are consistent with impaired synaptic function, may be related to long-term mood disorders and point out to higher female susceptibility.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Clorpirifos/administração & dosagem , Colina/metabolismo , Neurônios Colinérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Colinérgicos/fisiologia , Feminino , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Receptores de Serotonina/metabolismo , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/fisiologia
7.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 107998, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941889

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of two injectable formulations of doramectin (DRM) against Psoroptes ovis in sheep infested under controlled experimental conditions and to characterize the DRM plasma disposition kinetics in the infested animals. To this end, sheep were experimentally infested with a P. ovis strain from a farm with a history of treatment failure, and then treated either with DRM 1% (traditional preparation) on days 0 and 7 or with DRM 3.15% (long-acting formulation) on day 0. The efficacy of each treatment was calculated by counting live mites in skin scrapings. Plasma samples were obtained from each animal and DRM concentrations were measured by HPLC. After the two doses of DRM 1%, the maximum efficacy (98.8%) was reached on day 28, whereas after the single dose of DRM 3.15%, the maximum efficacy (100%) was reached on day 35 and ratified on day 42. The long-acting formulation allowed obtaining higher exposure and more sustained concentrations of DRM than the traditional preparation. Although both DRM formulations studied were effective according to international protocols, they did not reach 100% effectiveness in the time required for approved pharmaceutical products against sheep scab, according to Argentine regulations.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Psoroptidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/sangue , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/sangue , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Psoroptidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
8.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190431, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) may be effective for vector control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Their efficacy, however, has not been sufficiently evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the large-scale efficacy of LLINs on Lutzomyia longiflocosa entomological parameters up to two years post-intervention in the sub-Andean region of Colombia. METHODS: A matched-triplet cluster-randomised study of 21 rural settlements, matched by pre-intervention L. longiflocosa indoor density was used to compare three interventions: dip it yourself (DIY) lambda-cyhalothrin LLIN, deltamethrin LLIN, and untreated nets (control). Sand fly indoor density, feeding success, and parity were recorded using CDC light trap collections at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months post-intervention. FINDINGS: Both LLINs reduced significantly (74-76%) the indoor density and the proportion of fully engorged sand flies up to two years post-intervention without differences between them. Residual lethal effects of both LLINs and the use of all nets remained high throughout the two-year evaluation period. CONCLUSIONS: Both LLINs demonstrated high efficacy against L. longiflocosa indoors. Therefore, the deployment of these LLINs could have a significant impact on the reduction of CL transmission in the sub-Andean region. The DIY lambda-cyhalothrin kit may be used to convert untreated nets to LLINs increasing coverage.


Assuntos
Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Leishmaniose Cutânea/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , Colômbia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Mosquitos Vetores , População Rural
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0235548, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946475

RESUMO

We constructed an electric multi-rotor autonomous unmanned aerial system (UAS) to perform mosquito control activities. The UAS can be equipped with any of four modules for spraying larvicides, dropping larvicide tablets, spreading larvicide granules, and ultra-low volume spraying of adulticides. The larvicide module sprayed 124 µm drops at 591 mL/min over a 14 m swath for a total application rate of 1.6 L/ha. The tablet module was able to repeatedly deliver 40-gram larvicide tablets within 1.1 m of the target site. The granular spreader covered a 6 m swath and treated 0.76 ha in 13 min at an average rate of 1.8 kg/ha. The adulticide module produced 16 µm drops with an average deposition of 2.6 drops/mm2. UAS pesticide applications were made at rates prescribed for conventional aircraft, limited only by the payload capacity and flight time. Despite those limitations, this system can deliver pesticides with much greater precision than conventional aircraft, potentially reducing pesticide use. In smaller, congested environments or in programs with limited resources, UAS may be a preferable alternative to conventional aircraft.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Culicidae , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/instrumentação , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Controle de Mosquitos/instrumentação , Animais , Larva
10.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(7): 856-865, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613481

RESUMO

Plutella xylostella, is the main pest infesting Brassica crops, and products based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are frequently used in strategies for its biocontrol. The present study aimed to evaluate whether a Bt-based bioinsecticide affects the predation behavior of Ceraeochrysa cincta when preying on P. xylostella. Three larval instars of the predator and the eggs and second-instar larvae of the moth were used, with the prey either untreated or treated with a Bt-based product (Xentari®). Results showed that, the first larval instar of C. cincta presented a type II functional response when preying upon untreated eggs, and a type III response when preying upon Bt-treated eggs, while the second and third instars presented type II and III responses, respectively, in both situations. The predator's first and third larval instars presented a type II functional response when preying upon untreated larvae and a type III response when preying upon Bt-treated larvae. However, the predator's second-instar larvae showed a type II response in both treatments. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that the Bt-based insecticide tested affects the predation behavior of the first-instar larvae of C. cincta on eggs and of both the first- and third-instar larvae of this predator on P. xylostella larvae.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis/química , Controle de Insetos , Insetos/fisiologia , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Brasil , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Mariposas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126416, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380589

RESUMO

The flavonoid metal-insecticide magnesium-hesperidin complex (MgHP) has recently been considered as a novel insecticide to replace some persistent pesticides. However, it is important to evaluate its action on non-target species, mainly those living in an aquatic environment, as these ecosystems are the final receptors of most chemicals. Reactive oxygen species, antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers, genotoxicity as well as cell cycle was evaluated in the liver cell line from zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF-L) exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng mL-1 MgHP. MgHP affected cell stability by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both exposure times (24 and 96 h) at high concentrations. Catalase (CAT) activity decreased after 24 h exposure, and glutathione and metallothionein values increased, avoiding the lipid peroxidation. Genotoxicity increased as MgHP concentration increased, after 24 h exposure, exhibiting nuclear abnormalities; it was recovered after 96 h exposure, evidencing possible stimulation of DNA repair mechanisms. The alteration in the cell cycle (increasing in the Sub-G1 phase and decreasing in the S-phase) was associated with chromosomal instability. In conclusion, the responses of ROS and the antioxidant defense system depended on MgHP concentration and time exposure, while DNA exhibited some instability after 24 h exposure, which was recovered after 96 h.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Dano ao DNA , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hesperidina/química , Hesperidina/toxicidade , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Magnésio/química , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Peixe-Zebra
12.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 672020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350159

RESUMO

We observed instances of cannibalism (intraspecific predation) among intra-instar larvae of Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758 while performing a bioassay of Lysinibacillus sphaericus (formerly named Bacillus sphaericus) larvicide, when the larvae were exposed to the larvicide for 48 h in the absence of food. Larvae without symptoms of poisoning attacked and devoured those visibly affected. Cannibalism was more prevalent in 1st-2nd instar larvae than in 3rd-4th instar. This phenomenon should be taken into account when interpreting the results of larvicide bioassays, especially when the exposure lasts over 24 h. The necessity of creating optimal conditions for organisms tested is emphasised.


Assuntos
Bacillaceae/química , Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Animais , Canibalismo , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Culex/fisiologia , Inseticidas/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 344-358, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431275

RESUMO

A cluster-randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to estimate the protective efficacy (PE) of a spatial repellent (SR) against malaria infection in Sumba, Indonesia. Following radical cure in 1,341 children aged ≥ 6 months to ≤ 5 years in 24 clusters, households were given transfluthrin or placebo passive emanators (devices designed to release vaporized chemical). Monthly blood screening and biweekly human-landing mosquito catches were performed during a 10-month baseline (June 2015-March 2016) and a 24-month intervention period (April 2016-April 2018). Screening detected 164 first-time infections and an accumulative total of 459 infections in 667 subjects in placebo-control households, and 134 first-time and 253 accumulative total infections among 665 subjects in active intervention households. The 24-cluster protective effect of 27.7% and 31.3%, for time to first-event and overall (total new) infections, respectively, was not statistically significant. Purportedly, this was due in part to zero to low incidence in some clusters, undermining the ability to detect a protective effect. Subgroup analysis of 19 clusters where at least one infection occurred during baseline showed 33.3% (P-value = 0.083) and 40.9% (P-value = 0.0236, statistically significant at the one-sided 5% significance level) protective effect to first infection and overall infections, respectively. Among 12 moderate- to high-risk clusters, a statistically significant decrease in infection by intervention was detected (60% PE). Primary entomological analysis of impact was inconclusive. Although this study suggests SRs prevent malaria, additional evidence is required to demonstrate the product class provides an operationally feasible and effective means of reducing malaria transmission.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos/administração & dosagem , Fluorbenzenos/administração & dosagem , Habitação , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Malária/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Lactente , Repelentes de Insetos , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores
14.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(7): 846-855, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415362

RESUMO

Recent studies have reported interspecific differences in how bee species respond to various stressors. Evaluating the exposure and responses of different bee species to plant protection products is considered an essential part of their risk assessment. This study was conducted to assess the impacts of thiacloprid-prochloraz mixture on buff-tailed bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) and red mason bees (Osmia bicornis) in a worst-case scenario under semi-field conditions. Bumblebee colonies or solitary bee trap nests were confined in tunnels with flowering oilseed rape. The recommended maximum application rates of 72 g thiacloprid/ha and 675 g prochloraz/ha were applied as a tank mixture during bee flight in full flowering oilseed rape. Several parameters such as flight and foraging activity, population parameters, and exposure level were investigated. Our results show adverse effects of the combination of thiacloprid and prochloraz on the reproductive performance of red mason bees. The number of cocoons produced by O. bicornis was significantly reduced in the treatment compared to the control group. Regarding bumblebees, we found no effects of the thiacloprid-prochloraz mixture on any observed parameters of colony development. The maximum detected concentrations of both active substances three days after application were higher in O. bicornis pollen mass compared to B. terrestris stored pollen. We conclude that this worst-case scenario of thiacloprid-prochloraz exposure poses a high risk to solitary bees and thus the use of such mixture should be restricted.


Assuntos
Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Voo Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Tiazinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Alemanha , Dinâmica Populacional , Reprodução
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 465, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the implementation of the World Health Organisation's recommended indoor residual spraying (IRS) intervention in the upper west region of Ghana to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality, the uptake of this intervention remains low. This study explores the facilitators and barriers to the acceptability and community uptake of indoor residual spraying in a highly endemic region of Ghana. METHODS: The health belief model (HBM) and realist evaluation framework were used to inform the study. A qualitative enquiry was conducted between April to October 2016. Data were collected through focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews with program stakeholders including community members, AngloGold Ashanti malaria control (AGA Mal) spray operators, and AGA Mal officials. RESULTS: A total of 101 people participated in the study. Considerable barriers to community acceptance of indoor residual spraying (IRS) were found, including, dislike of spray insecticides, inadequate information, religious and cultural beliefs, perceived low efficacy of IRS, difficulties with packing, unprofessional conduct of IRS spray operators, and other operational barriers to spraying. Facilitators of IRS uptake included a perceived effectiveness of IRS in preventing malaria and reducing mosquito bites, incidental benefits, respect for authority, training and capacity building, and sensitization activities. CONCLUSION: The numerous barriers to indoor residual spraying acceptance and implications show that acceptance levels could be improved. However, measures are required to address householders' concerns and streamline operational barriers to increase community uptake of indoor residual spraying.


Assuntos
Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Gana , Humanos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4518, 2020 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161302

RESUMO

Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides is a major vector control strategy for malaria prevention. We evaluated the impact of a single round of IRS with the organophosphate, pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic 300CS), on entomological and parasitological parameters of malaria in Migori County, western Kenya in 2017, in an area where primary vectors are resistant to pyrethroids but susceptible to the IRS compound. Entomological monitoring was conducted by indoor CDC light trap, pyrethrum spray catches (PSC) and human landing collection (HLC) before and after IRS. The residual effect of the insecticide was assessed monthly by exposing susceptible An. gambiae s.s. Kisumu strain to sprayed surfaces in cone assays and measuring mortality at 24 hours. Malaria case burden data were extracted from laboratory records of four health facilities within the sprayed area and two adjacent unsprayed areas. IRS was associated with reductions in An. funestus numbers in the intervention areas compared to non-intervention areas by 88% with light traps (risk ratio [RR] 0.12, 95% CI 0.07-0.21, p < 0.001) and 93% with PSC collections (RR = 0.07, 0.03-0.17, p < 0.001). The corresponding reductions in the numbers of An. arabiensis collected by PSC were 69% in the intervention compared to the non-intervention areas (RR = 0.31, 0.14-0.68, p = 0.006), but there was no significant difference with light traps (RR = 0.45, 0.21-0.96, p = 0.05). Before IRS, An. funestus accounted for over 80% of Anopheles mosquitoes collected by light trap and PSC in all sites. After IRS, An. arabiensis accounted for 86% of Anopheles collected by PSC and 66% by CDC light trap in the sprayed sites while the proportion in non-intervention sites remained unchanged. No sporozoite infections were detected in intervention areas after IRS and biting rates by An. funestus were reduced to near zero. Anopheles funestus and An. arabiensis were fully susceptible to pirimiphos-methyl and resistant to pyrethroids. The residual effect of Actellic 300CS lasted ten months on mud and concrete walls. Malaria case counts among febrile patients within IRS areas was lower post- compared to pre-IRS by 44%, 65% and 47% in Rongo, Uriri and Nyatike health facilities respectively. A single application of IRS with Actellic 300CS in Migori County provided ten months protection and resulted in the near elimination of the primary malaria vector An. funestus and a corresponding reduction of malaria case count among out-patients. The impact was less on An. arabiensis, most likely due to their exophilic nature.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/parasitologia , Compostos Organotiofosforados/administração & dosagem , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Entomologia , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/transmissão , Estações do Ano
17.
Int J Parasitol ; 50(3): 171-176, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126240

RESUMO

Prevention of canine Leishmania infantum infection is critical to management of visceral leishmaniasis in people living in endemic areas of Brazil. A bill (PL 1738/11), currently under consideration, proposes to establish a national vaccination policy against canine leishmaniasis in Brazil. However, there is no solid scientific evidence supporting the idea that this could reduce transmission from infected vaccinated dogs to sand flies to a level that would significantly reduce the risk of L. infantum infection or visceral leishmaniasis in humans. Thus, we advocate that insecticide-impregnated collars should the first line protective measure for public health purposes and that vaccines are applied on a case-by-case, optional basis for individual dog protection.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/veterinária , Administração Tópica , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Vacinas contra Leishmaniose , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Psychodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/farmacologia
18.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 45(6): 712-715, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The correct treatment and management of scabies is expensive and time-consuming, and may have a negative impact on patients and their families. AIM: To investigate the effects of permethrin 5% cream on scabies mites, and explore mite survival times outside the human body. METHODS: We performed a nonrandomized controlled study. In total, 20 petri dishes were coated with permethrin 5% cream (treatment group) and 20 plain petri dishes (control group) each had one scabies mite placed in them, and were then observed at baseline and 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 12 h from baseline. In the second part of our study, 30 scabies mites from infested patients were investigated in an observational experiment in 30 plain petri dishes at days 0, 3 and 4. RESULTS: Our data showed that 65% of scabies mites survived after 8 h in the treatment group compared with 75% of mites in the control group. After 12 h, 25% of mites in the treatment group and 60% in the control group were still alive. Data from the observational survival study showed that one mite was alive on day 3, but all mites were dead by day 4. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed no significant effects of mite survival times with 5% topical permethrin after 8 h, while its efficacy was stronger and significant after 12 h. We recommend the isolation of all mite-infested items for at least 4 days.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Permetrina/farmacologia , Sarcoptes scabiei/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Pomadas/administração & dosagem , Permetrina/administração & dosagem , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Tempo
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008106, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176703

RESUMO

Lymphatic filariasis has remained endemic in Fiji despite repeated mass drug administration using the well-established and safe combination of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole (DA) since 2002. In certain settings the addition of ivermectin to this combination (IDA) remains a safe strategy and is more efficacious. However, the safety has yet to be described in scabies and soil-transmitted helminth endemic settings like Fiji. Villages of Rotuma and Gau islands were randomised to either DA or IDA. Residents received weight-based treatment unblinded with standard exclusions. Participants were actively found and asked by a nurse about their health daily for the first two days and then asked to seek review for the next five days if unwell. Anyone with severe symptoms were reviewed by a doctor and any serious adverse event was reported to the Medical Monitor and Data Safety Monitoring Board. Of 3612 enrolled and eligible participants, 1216 were randomised to DA and 2396 to IDA. Age and sex in both groups were representative of the population. Over 99% (3598) of participants completed 7 days follow-up. Adverse events were reported by 600 participants (16.7%), distributed equally between treatment groups, with most graded as mild (93.2%). There were three serious adverse events, all judged not attributable to treatment by an independent medical monitor. Fatigue was the most common symptom reported by 8.5%, with headache, dizziness, nausea and arthralgia being the next four most common symptoms. Adverse events were more likely in participants with microfilaremia (43.2% versus 15.7%), but adverse event frequency was not related to the presence of scabies or soil-transmitted helminth infection. IDA has comparable safety to DA with the same frequency of adverse events experienced following community mass drug administration. The presence of co-endemic infections did not increase adverse events. IDA can be used in community programs where preventative chemotherapy is needed for control of lymphatic filariasis and other neglected tropical diseases.


Assuntos
Albendazol/efeitos adversos , Antiparasitários/efeitos adversos , Dietilcarbamazina/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Ivermectina/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Dietilcarbamazina/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fiji , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , População Rural , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 216, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite rapid upscale of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), malaria remains a major source of morbidity and mortality in Zambia. Uptake and utilization of these and novel interventions are often affected by knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) amongst persons living in malaria-endemic areas. The aims of this study were to assess malaria KAP of primary caregivers and explore trends in relation to ITN use, IRS acceptance and mosquito density in two endemic communities in Luangwa and Nyimba districts, Zambia. METHODS: A cohort of 75 primary caregivers were assessed using a cross-sectional, forced-choice malaria KAP survey on ITN use, IRS acceptance and initial perception of a novel spatial repellent (SR) product under investigation. Entomological sampling was performed in participant homes using CDC Miniature Light Traps to relate indoor mosquito density with participant responses. RESULTS: Ninety-nine percent of participants cited bites of infected mosquitoes as the route of malaria transmission although other routes were also reported including drinking dirty water (64%) and eating contaminated food (63%). All caregivers agreed that malaria was a life-threatening disease with the majority of caregivers having received malaria information from health centers (86%) and community health workers (51%). Cumulatively, self-reported mosquito net use was 67%. Respondents reportedly liked the SR prototype product but improvements on color, shape and size were suggested. Overall, 398 mosquitoes were captured from light-trap collections, including 49 anophelines and 349 culicines. Insecticide treated nets use was higher in households from which at least one mosquito was captured. CONCLUSIONS: The current study identified misconceptions in malaria transmission among primary caregivers indicating remaining knowledge gaps in educational campaigns. Participant responses also indicated a misalignment between a low perception of IRS efficacy and high stated acceptance of IRS, which should be further examined to better understand uptake and sustainability of other vector control strategies. While ITNs were found to be used in study households, misperceptions between presence of mosquitoes and bite protection practices did exist. This study highlights the importance of knowledge attitudes and practice surveys, with integration of entomological sampling, to better guide malaria vector control product development, strategy acceptance and compliance within endemic communities.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Malária/prevenção & controle , População Rural , Adulto , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Malária/epidemiologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
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