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1.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126416, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380589

RESUMO

The flavonoid metal-insecticide magnesium-hesperidin complex (MgHP) has recently been considered as a novel insecticide to replace some persistent pesticides. However, it is important to evaluate its action on non-target species, mainly those living in an aquatic environment, as these ecosystems are the final receptors of most chemicals. Reactive oxygen species, antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers, genotoxicity as well as cell cycle was evaluated in the liver cell line from zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF-L) exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng mL-1 MgHP. MgHP affected cell stability by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both exposure times (24 and 96 h) at high concentrations. Catalase (CAT) activity decreased after 24 h exposure, and glutathione and metallothionein values increased, avoiding the lipid peroxidation. Genotoxicity increased as MgHP concentration increased, after 24 h exposure, exhibiting nuclear abnormalities; it was recovered after 96 h exposure, evidencing possible stimulation of DNA repair mechanisms. The alteration in the cell cycle (increasing in the Sub-G1 phase and decreasing in the S-phase) was associated with chromosomal instability. In conclusion, the responses of ROS and the antioxidant defense system depended on MgHP concentration and time exposure, while DNA exhibited some instability after 24 h exposure, which was recovered after 96 h.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Dano ao DNA , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hesperidina/química , Hesperidina/toxicidade , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Magnésio/química , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Peixe-Zebra
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008106, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176703

RESUMO

Lymphatic filariasis has remained endemic in Fiji despite repeated mass drug administration using the well-established and safe combination of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole (DA) since 2002. In certain settings the addition of ivermectin to this combination (IDA) remains a safe strategy and is more efficacious. However, the safety has yet to be described in scabies and soil-transmitted helminth endemic settings like Fiji. Villages of Rotuma and Gau islands were randomised to either DA or IDA. Residents received weight-based treatment unblinded with standard exclusions. Participants were actively found and asked by a nurse about their health daily for the first two days and then asked to seek review for the next five days if unwell. Anyone with severe symptoms were reviewed by a doctor and any serious adverse event was reported to the Medical Monitor and Data Safety Monitoring Board. Of 3612 enrolled and eligible participants, 1216 were randomised to DA and 2396 to IDA. Age and sex in both groups were representative of the population. Over 99% (3598) of participants completed 7 days follow-up. Adverse events were reported by 600 participants (16.7%), distributed equally between treatment groups, with most graded as mild (93.2%). There were three serious adverse events, all judged not attributable to treatment by an independent medical monitor. Fatigue was the most common symptom reported by 8.5%, with headache, dizziness, nausea and arthralgia being the next four most common symptoms. Adverse events were more likely in participants with microfilaremia (43.2% versus 15.7%), but adverse event frequency was not related to the presence of scabies or soil-transmitted helminth infection. IDA has comparable safety to DA with the same frequency of adverse events experienced following community mass drug administration. The presence of co-endemic infections did not increase adverse events. IDA can be used in community programs where preventative chemotherapy is needed for control of lymphatic filariasis and other neglected tropical diseases.


Assuntos
Albendazol/efeitos adversos , Antiparasitários/efeitos adversos , Dietilcarbamazina/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Ivermectina/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Dietilcarbamazina/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fiji , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , População Rural , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 216, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite rapid upscale of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), malaria remains a major source of morbidity and mortality in Zambia. Uptake and utilization of these and novel interventions are often affected by knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) amongst persons living in malaria-endemic areas. The aims of this study were to assess malaria KAP of primary caregivers and explore trends in relation to ITN use, IRS acceptance and mosquito density in two endemic communities in Luangwa and Nyimba districts, Zambia. METHODS: A cohort of 75 primary caregivers were assessed using a cross-sectional, forced-choice malaria KAP survey on ITN use, IRS acceptance and initial perception of a novel spatial repellent (SR) product under investigation. Entomological sampling was performed in participant homes using CDC Miniature Light Traps to relate indoor mosquito density with participant responses. RESULTS: Ninety-nine percent of participants cited bites of infected mosquitoes as the route of malaria transmission although other routes were also reported including drinking dirty water (64%) and eating contaminated food (63%). All caregivers agreed that malaria was a life-threatening disease with the majority of caregivers having received malaria information from health centers (86%) and community health workers (51%). Cumulatively, self-reported mosquito net use was 67%. Respondents reportedly liked the SR prototype product but improvements on color, shape and size were suggested. Overall, 398 mosquitoes were captured from light-trap collections, including 49 anophelines and 349 culicines. Insecticide treated nets use was higher in households from which at least one mosquito was captured. CONCLUSIONS: The current study identified misconceptions in malaria transmission among primary caregivers indicating remaining knowledge gaps in educational campaigns. Participant responses also indicated a misalignment between a low perception of IRS efficacy and high stated acceptance of IRS, which should be further examined to better understand uptake and sustainability of other vector control strategies. While ITNs were found to be used in study households, misperceptions between presence of mosquitoes and bite protection practices did exist. This study highlights the importance of knowledge attitudes and practice surveys, with integration of entomological sampling, to better guide malaria vector control product development, strategy acceptance and compliance within endemic communities.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Malária/prevenção & controle , População Rural , Adulto , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Malária/epidemiologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 10, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A visceral leishmaniasis outbreak was reported from a village in a low-endemic district of Bihar, India. METHODS: Outbreak investigation with house-to-house search and rapid test of kala-azar suspects and contacts was carried out. Sandfly collection and cone bio-assay was done as part of entomological study. RESULTS: A spatially and temporally clustered kala-azar outbreak was found at Kosra village in Sheikhpura district with 70 cases reported till December 2018. Delay of more than a year was found between diagnosis and treatment of the index case. The southern hamlet with socio-economically disadvantaged migrant population was several times more affected than rest of the village (attack rate of 19.0% vs 0.5% respectively, ORMH = 39.2, 95% CI 18.2-84.4). The median durations between onset of fever to first contact with any health services, onset to kala-azar diagnosis, diagnosis to treatment were 10 days (IQR 4-18), 30 days (IQR 17-73) and 1 day (IQR 0.5 to 3), respectively, for 50 kala-azar cases assessed till June 2017. Three-fourths of these kala-azar cases had out-of-pocket medical expenditure for their condition. Known risk factors for kala-azar such as illiteracy, poverty, belonging to socially disadvantaged community, migration, residing in kutcha houses, sleeping in rooms with unplastered walls and non-use of mosquito nets were present in majority of these cases. Only half the dwellings of the kala-azar cases were fully sprayed. Fully gravid female P. argentipes collected post indoor residual spraying (IRS) and low sandfly mortality on cone-bioassay indicated poor effectiveness of vector control. CONCLUSIONS: There is need to focus on low-endemic areas of kala-azar. The elimination programme should implement a routine framework for kala-azar outbreak response. Complete case-finding, use of quality-compliant insecticide and coverage of all sprayable surfaces in IRS could help interrupt transmission during outbreaks.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Migrantes , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Controle de Insetos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/terapia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125865, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962223

RESUMO

Triflumezopyrim, a new nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) inhibition, can effectively control piercing-sucking insect pests such as white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera). At present, there has been no reports on the effects of triflumezopyrim on the population growth and development of S. furcifera. In this experiment, an age-stage two-sex life table was used to evaluate the impact of triflumezopyrim on the biological parameters of S. furcifera. The results showed that the adult preoviposition period (APOP) and total preoviposition period (TPOP) of the F1 generation were significantly higher than those of the F0 and F4 generations, on the contrary the average fecundity, intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) of the F4 generation were higher than those of the F0 and F1 generations. The results of synergists and enzyme activities indicated that the CarE and P450 activities in the F4 generation were significantly higher than those in the F0 generation (P < 0.05). The protein contents of vitellogenin (Vg) and vitellogenin receptor (VgR) and relative expression quality of VgR in the F4 female adults were also significantly higher than those in the F0 generation (P < 0.05). These results showed that triflumezopyrim at a low concentration could promote the growth and reproduction of S. furcifera, and that may provide a reference for the rational use of triflumezopyrim in the future.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemípteros/enzimologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Proteínas do Ovo/genética , Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemípteros/genética , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Crescimento Demográfico , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sobrevida , Vitelogeninas/genética , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
6.
Toxicol Lett ; 322: 32-38, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923464

RESUMO

Neonicotinoids (NNs), a widely used class of systemic pesticides, are regarded as exhibiting selective toxicity in insects. However, NNs are suspected of exerting adverse effects on mammals as well, including humans. To date, only adult male animal models have been subjected to general toxicity studies of NNs; fetuses have yet to be considered in this context. Here, we focused on the NN clothianidin (CLO) for the first quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis of maternal-to-fetal transfer and residual property of once-daily (single or multiple days), orally administered CLO and its metabolites in mice. The results revealed the presence of CLO and its five metabolites at approximately the same respective blood levels in both dams and fetuses. In the dams, CLO showed a peak value 1 h after administration, after which levels rapidly decreased at 3 and 6 h. In the fetuses of each group, levels of CLO were almost the same as those observed in the corresponding dams. The present results clearly demonstrated rapid passage of CLO through the placental barrier. However, metabolite-dependent differences observed in blood pharmacokinetics and residual levels. This is the first quantitative demonstration of the presence of CLO and its metabolites in fetal mouse blood.


Assuntos
Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Guanidinas/sangue , Inseticidas/sangue , Troca Materno-Fetal , Neonicotinoides/sangue , Tiazóis/sangue , Animais , Biotransformação , Feminino , Guanidinas/administração & dosagem , Guanidinas/farmacocinética , Guanidinas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/farmacocinética , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Exposição Materna , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Neonicotinoides/farmacocinética , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/farmacocinética , Tiazóis/toxicidade , Toxicocinética
7.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110872, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622728

RESUMO

The gut microbiota comprises a large number of microorganisms, whose composition can be modified by genetic and environmental factors. The host's genetic background, including the different isoforms of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, can exert an influence over microbiota composition. Exposure to the widely-used pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), can lead to dysbiosis and alter the levels of metabolites produced by the microbiota, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). This study was aimed at assessing the contribution of the APOE genotype and early exposure to CPF on gut microbiota and SCFA in brain. For it, C57BL/6, apoE3-and apoE4-TR mice were orally exposed to CPF from postnatal day (PND) 10 to PND 15. Microbiota in the gut and SCFA in the brain were assessed at PND 15 after CPF exposure. Differences between genotypes at different taxonomic levels were found, A. muciniphila presented greater abundance in APOE4 genotype, but was reduced by CPF exposure. APOE and CPF influenced cerebral SCFAs, with APOE3 genotype showing the highest levels of acetic, propionic and butyric acids and CPF exposure inducing the highest levels of isovaleric and 4-methylvaleric acids. These results provide further knowledge about gut microbiota and cerebral SCFAs composition at early ages and their modulation by APOE and postnatal CPF exposure.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Genótipo , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Clorpirifos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Desmame
8.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124799, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518926

RESUMO

Terrestrial adult stages of freshwater insects may be exposed to pesticides by wind drift, over-spray, contact or feeding. However, studies addressing insecticide effects on freshwater invertebrates focus primarily on the impact of pesticides reaching the streams and potentially harming the aquatic juvenile stages. This is also reflected in the current risk assessment procedures, which do not include testing of adult freshwater insects. In order to assess the potential impact of insecticides on adult stages of freshwater insects, we exposed six common species to the insecticides Karate (lambda-cyhalothrin) and Confidor (imidacloprid). Dose-response relations were established, and LD50 estimates were compared to those of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), which is the standard terrestrial test insect when pesticides are evaluated prior to commercial release. Generally, the tested species were more sensitive to the studied insecticides than the honey bee. In order to examine whether the sensitivity of adult stages of freshwater insects corresponds with the sensitivity of the juvenile stages of the same species, the ranking of the two life stages with respect to the toxicity of Karate was compared, revealing some correspondence, but also some dissimilarities. Our results strongly indicate that terrestrial adult stages of aquatic insects are not adequately protected by current risk assessment procedures.


Assuntos
Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos/fisiologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Animais , Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinamarca , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Dose Letal Mediana , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Nitrilos/administração & dosagem , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Rios , Especificidade da Espécie , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
Biomedica ; 39(4): 631-638, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860175

RESUMO

Pediculosis capitis is the most frequent ectoparasitosis around the world. The infestation is caused by Pediculus humanus capitis (head louse), which affects hair, scalp, and skin. It rarely presents with more symptoms and in the majority of the cases, it shows a benign course if treated properly. We present the case of a nursery school girl with head lice infestation for 18 months. She did not improve after the shampoo treatment. This case was associated with furunculosis, skin lesions, multiple adenopathies, and anemia. Initially, the presence of boils, alopecia, and lymphadenopathy was evident. The persistence of pediculosis capitis and intense scratching induced changes on skin integrity, facilitating opportunistic bacterial superinfection that led to impetiginization, furunculosis, excoriations, hematic scabs, anemia, alopecia, and lymphadenopathies. Pediculosis capitis affected the patient triggering psychological, economic, social, and other health problems. The patient presented uncommon symptoms (furunculosis, anemia, fever, alopecia, and adenopathies) resulting from the persistence of risk factors and the absence of head inspection and mechanical removal of insects. The education about the risk factors, as well as sanitary controls, are essential to contain the infestation.


Assuntos
Infestações por Piolhos/complicações , Pediculus , Alopecia/etiologia , Anemia/etiologia , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Dermatoses Faciais/etiologia , Feminino , Furunculose/etiologia , Furunculose/patologia , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Infestações por Piolhos/diagnóstico , Infestações por Piolhos/terapia , Linfadenopatia/etiologia , Permetrina/administração & dosagem , Pobreza , Prurido/etiologia , Escolas Maternais
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(11): e0007822, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tungiasis is a neglected tropical skin disease caused by the female sand flea (Tunga penetrans), which burrows into the skin causing intense pain, itching and debilitation. People in endemic countries do not have access to an effective and safe home treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a traditionally used and readily available mixture of neem and coconut oil for treatment of tungiasis in coastal Kenya. METHODOLOGY: Ninety-six children aged 6-14 years with at least one embedded viable flea were randomized to be treated with either a mixture of 20% neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil in coconut oil (NC), or with a 0.05% potassium permanganate (KMnO4) foot bath. Up to two viable fleas were selected for each participant and monitored for 6 days after first treatment using a digital microscope for signs of viability and abnormal development. Acute pathology was assessed on all areas of the feet using a previously established score. Children reported pain levels and itching on a visual scale. RESULTS: The NC was not more effective in killing embedded sand fleas within 7 days than the current standard with KMnO4, killing on average 40% of the embedded sand fleas six days after the initial treatment. However, the NC was superior with respect to the secondary outcomes of abnormal development and reduced pathology. There was a higher odds that fleas rapidly aged in response to NC compared to KMnO4 (OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.22-9.49, p = 0.019). NC also reduced acute pathology (p<0.005), and there was a higher odds of children being pain free (OR 3.5, p = 0.001) when treated with NC. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst NC did not kill more fleas than KMnO4 within 7 days, secondary outcomes were better and suggest that a higher impact might have been observed at a longer observation period. Further trials are warranted to assess optimal mixtures and dosages. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was approved by the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) Scientific and Ethical Review Unit (SERU), Nairobi (Non-SSC Protocol No. 514, 1st April 2016) and approved by and registered with the Pharmacy and Poisons Board's Expert Committee on Clinical Trials PPB/ECCT/16/05/03/2016(94), the authority mandated, by Cap 244 Laws of Kenya, to regulate clinical trials in the country. The trial was also registered with the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry (PACTR201901905832601).


Assuntos
Óleo de Coco/administração & dosagem , Glicerídeos/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Terpenos/administração & dosagem , Tungíase/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pé/parasitologia , Pé/patologia , Humanos , Quênia , Permanganato de Potássio/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Tunga/efeitos dos fármacos , Tungíase/parasitologia , Tungíase/patologia
11.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 161: 5-11, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685196

RESUMO

The adulticidal, larvicidal, and repellent activity of 18 trifluoromethylphenyl amides (TFMPAs) was determined against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The compounds studied are the third generation designed from active structures of the previous two generations. N-(3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-chloroacetamide (8f) and N-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropanamide (8h) were most active against 1st stage Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 values of 125 and 2.53 µM; for comparative purposes, the published LC50 for fipronil is 0.014 µM. Compound 8h was the most toxic against adult female Ae. aegypti with an LD50 = 2.12 nmol/mg, followed by 8f, and N-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide (8g) with LD50 values of 4.27 and 4.73 nmol/mg, respectively, although these compounds were significantly less toxic than fipronil against adult female Ae. aegypti. Compounds N-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)butyramide (9c), N-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)pentanamide (9d) and N-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)hex-5-enamide (9e) were the best repellents for female Ae. aegypti, with minimum effective dosages (MEDs) of 0.026, 0.052, and 0.091 µmol/cm2, respectively, compared to DEET at 0.052 µmol/cm2. Out of 52 TFMPAs (total number of compounds from three generations of this research) compound 9c was the most active repellent along with two synthesized in our previous studies, 2-chloro-N-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide (6a) and 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide (4c).


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Amidas/farmacologia , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Aedes/embriologia , Animais , Bioensaio , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Repelentes de Insetos/administração & dosagem , Repelentes de Insetos/química , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(11): e0007907, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Cambodia dengue vector control activities are focused on larviciding with temephos and pyrethroid based adulticide sprays to which Aedes have been shown to be increasingly resistant. A cluster randomized trial assessed the impact of using biological control tools (guppy fish, pyriproxyfen (PPF), and Communication for Behavioral Impact (COMBI) activities in combination), which would be used in a value comparison to traditional chemical control tools. Given these new intervention methods, a qualitative assessment was designed in order to represent the quality of understanding, acceptance, and implementation by participants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 103 participants in 12 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and nine In-Depth Interviews (IDIs) were included in the study. The majority of participants in intervention villages (50 out of 80) preferred guppy fish over other vector control methods due to ease of use and rearing, quick reproduction and propensity to eat larvae. A substantial number of participants (11 out of 40) in intervention villages with PPF favored it due to long-lasting effectiveness, lack of smell and easy maintenance. Participants showed high demand for both interventions and were willing to pay between 100-500 riel (0.03-0.13 USD). Nearly all participants perceived that the interventions resulted in a reduction in Aedes mosquitos (both adults and immatures) and dengue cases. The presence of larvae in the water despite the use of PPF was a source of concern for some participants, although this was overcome in some cases with proper health education through health volunteers. Interpersonal communication through health volunteers was the most favorite method of transmitting prevention messages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The community led COMBI strategy resulted in high acceptance and perceived effectiveness of the interventions in target villages. Health volunteers are an effective and accepted channel of communication to engage communities, disseminate information and promote behavioral change at the household and community level. If shown effective through corresponding entomological surveys, the interventions should be continued and further strengthened to ensure they are accessible, available and affordable.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Poecilia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Animais , Camboja , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Insect Sci ; 19(5)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612947

RESUMO

Invasive insect species can act as a plague across the globe, capable of vast expansion and rapid, proliferate reproduction. The spread of pathogens of serious diseases such as malaria and Zika virus and damages to agricultural crops number some of the afflictions invasive insects provide to humans alone. Additionally, an escape from predators can fail to keep invasive insects in check, providing potential threats such as extra resource competition to native species when insects invade. A variety of methods are employed to combat these invasive species, each with their own varying levels of success. Here, we explore the more traditional methods of invasive insect pest control, such as pesticides and biological control. In lieu of several unintended consequences resulting from such practices, we suggest some should be abandoned. We evaluate the potential of new techniques, in particular, those with a genetic component, regarding the costs, benefits and possible consequences of implementing them. And finally, we consider which techniques should be the focus of future research, if we truly wish to manage or even eradicate invasive insects in their introduced lands.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos/métodos , Insetos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Animais , Controle de Insetos/instrumentação , Controle Biológico de Vetores/instrumentação
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 337, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flea bite is considered to be the main cause of allergic dermatitis in cats. There is a need for treatments able to control clinical signs of allergic dermatitis associated with flea bite in cats. This was an open pre-treatment versus post-treatment clinical field study. All cats included in the study presented pruritus, skin lesions or other evidence compatible with flea infestation. Skin lesions were assessed (using SCORFAD) at days 0, 28, 56 and 84 whereas pruritus severity was assessed (using PVAS) at days 0, 15, 28, 56 and 84. On day 0, The fluralaner (280 mg/ml) product (Bravecto® spot-on for cats) was supplied in pipettes containing 0.4, 0.89 and 1.79 ml for cats of 1.2-2.8 kg, > 2.8-6.25 kg and > 6.25-12.5 kg body weight, respectively. The other animals living in the same household also received fluralaner. Based on cytological examination at day 0, oral amoxicillin and clavulanic acid was prescribed for 21 days if indicated. For cats presenting intense pruritus and discomfort at day 0, oral prednisolone at 0.5 mg/kg was prescribed for 3 days. RESULTS: During the study all cats, except for one (cat number 10), improved significantly. Post-treatment median SCORFAD scores at all evaluations were significantly different from the pre-treatment score on day 0 (P values < 0.002 for all three post treatment examination days) with a score reduction of 49% on day 28, 79% on day 56 and 87% on day 84. The PVAS score decreased significantly over the study period for all cats but one (cat number 10). Post-treatment median PVAS scores at all evaluations were significantly different from the pre-treatment PVAS score on day 0 (P value < 0.002 for all four post-treatment days) with a reduction of 46% on day 15, 67% on day 28, 82% on day 56 and 92% on day 84. No adverse reaction or other health issue was reported during the study. CONCLUSIONS: A single topical treatment with fluralaner results in a significant reduction of flea bite allergic dermatitis clinical signs in cats over the subsequent 12 weeks without any additional environmental treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Atópica/veterinária , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Gatos , Ácido Clavulânico/uso terapêutico , Ctenocephalides , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/complicações , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , França , Masculino , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/veterinária , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Malar J ; 18(1): 332, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Misuse of long-lasting insecticidal nets together with resistance of vectors to most of the insecticides for indoor residual spraying and impregnated nets threaten malaria vector control interventions, requiring search for alternative control methods. Reports have shown that Anopheles mosquitoes die when they feed on endectocidal drugs used to treat humans and animals. A study was designed to investigate the efficacy of LongRange™ (eprinomectin 5%) on laboratory reared Anopheles arabiensis fed on treated calves. METHODS: Anopheles arabiensis from insectary colony was fed on three calves treated with therapeutic dose of LongRange™ eprinomectin (1 ml/50 kg) and on non-treated three other calves as control arm. For the feeding, mosquitoes were placed in paper cups covered with nylon cloth mesh and then allowed to feed on the necks of calves. Subsequently, mosquito survival, fecundity, egg hatchability, larval development and adult emergence were recorded. Data were entered and analysed by using SPSS version 20. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and independent sample t-test were used. RESULTS: All mosquitoes that fed on LongRange™ Eprinomectin treated calves died within 7 days following blood ingestion. The drug also slightly affected fecundity and hatchability of An. arabiensis. CONCLUSION: Treating livestock with LongRange™ (eprinomectin 5%) may serve as a supplementary control method for zoophagic An. arabiensis.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , Bioensaio , Bovinos , Comportamento Alimentar , Fertilidade , Injeções Subcutâneas , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Gado , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores
16.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 72, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adherence of pregnant women to personal protective measures against mosquito bites, recommended by the Ministry of Health, and to investigate the factors associated with the non-adoption of these measures. METHODS: We interviewed 177 pregnant women between November 2016 and February 2017 in the 10 basic health units of the municipality of Propriá, state of Sergipe, two located in the rural area and eight in the urban area, during prenatal appointments, to raise information about the use of preventive measures against the vector transmission of Zika virus. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods, chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, and the odds ratio was calculated. The independent variables were grouped by the analysis of principal components, and the dependents (the use of repellent, mosquito nets, garments, screens and insecticides) were analyzed using the logistic regression method. RESULTS: Among the measures recommended by the Ministry of Health, mosquito nets were the most used by pregnant women living in rural areas and with low education level, while the repellents were more used by women in the urban area and with higher education level. Women in a vulnerable socio-economic situation presented a risk 2.4 times higher for not using screens in their homes, 1.9 times higher for not changing clothes and 2.5 times higher for not using repellent than pregnant women in better economic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The socioeconomic status of pregnant women, especially among the less privileged, influenced the use of protective measures against Zika virus, from the purchase of repellent, clothing, insecticides to other resources in the municipality of Propriá, SE.


Assuntos
Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Repelentes de Insetos/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosquiteiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Gestantes , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 84, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489062

RESUMO

Introduction: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is among the major vector control strategies recommended for endemic populations by the World Health Organization (WHO). The success of IRS requires high coverage which is dependent on its acceptability. In Nigeria, IRS pilots have been ongoing and rejection has been a major setback to its coverage. We assessed coverage of IRS and determined factors associated with its acceptability in Nasarawa Eggon district, Nasarawa state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 409 households selected using multi-stage sampling was carried out. Trained data collectors administered pre-tested structured questionnaire to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics of household heads or their representatives, their perceptions on IRS and factors associated with IRS acceptability. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were done at 5% level of significance. Results: Majority of respondents were male (79.7%) and married (82.6%), and their mean age was 36.4 ± 13.3 years. Coverage of IRS was 99.3%. However, only 82.6% of those who previously accepted IRS were willing to accept it in again. Factors independently associated with acceptability were perceived effectiveness of IRS (aOR = 21.8; 95%CI = 6.9-68.8) and lower household cost of malaria prevention after IRS (aOR = 5.0; 95%CI = 1.1-21.8). Conclusion: IRS coverage in the communities studied met WHO minimum standard of 85%. However, for similar results to be achieved in future, acceptability must be promoted by providing information on its effectiveness and its ability to reduce household cost of malaria prevention.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Nigéria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int Health ; 11(5): 341-343, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529112

RESUMO

Vector control is essential for the prevention and reduction of malaria transmission and is increasingly recognised as a key element of several neglected tropical disease (NTD) elimination programmes. Very few vector control interventions have a strong evidence base for their public health impact, and those that do are insecticide-based and threatened by resistance. The pipeline of new interventions and new insecticides is being filled and several are undergoing randomised controlled trials. If these are subsequently to be used sustainably, interventions will need to be combined. The major challenge will be to generate the evidence base and funding to achieve this sustainable combination at the country level. Unless this is done, the selection pressure for resistance to the new generation of vector control tools is likely to rapidly reduce our ability to control insect vectors in the foreseeable future.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 409, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is the mainstay for vector control intervention of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India. Little is known on the control effects of IRS on different household types. Here, we assessed if IRS with insecticides has an equal residual and interventional effect on all household types in a village. We also developed a combined spatial-risk map and a sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes density analytical model based on household characteristics, insecticide susceptibility and IRS-status to explore the spatio-temporal distributions of the vector at a micro-scale level. METHODS: This study was carried out in two villages of Mahnar block in Vaishali district, Bihar. IRS using two insecticides [dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT 50%) and synthetic pyrethroid (SP 5%)] was evaluated for VL-vector (P. argentipes) control. Temporal residual efficacy of the insecticides on different wall-surface types was evaluated using the cone-bioassay technique according to WHO guidelines. Insecticide susceptibility of local P. argentipes was explored using the tube-bioassay method. Pre- and post-IRS sand fly densities were monitored in human dwellings and animal shelters using Centers for Disease Control light-traps installed between 18:00-6:00 h. A best-fit model for sand fly density analysis was developed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Geographical information system based spatial analysis techniques were employed to map the household type distribution of insecticide susceptibility of the vector, and IRS-status of the households to interpret the spatio-temporal distributions of P. argentipes. RESULTS: Phlebotomus argentipes was highly susceptible to SP (100%) but showed high resistance to DDT with a 49.1% mortality rate. SP-IRS has been reported as having better community acceptance than DDT-IRS in all household types. Residual efficacies were varied between wall-surfaces; both insecticides failed to achieve the duration of IRS effectiveness recommended by the WHO. Reduction in P. argentipes counts due to SP-IRS was higher than DDT-IRS between household groups (i.e. sprayed and sentinel), in all intervals post-IRS. Combined spatial risk-maps revealed a better control effect of SP-IRS on sand flies than DDT-IRS in all household types risk-zones. The multilevel logistic regression analysis explored five risk-factors that were strongly associated with the density of P. argentipes. CONCLUSIONS: The results contribute to furthering current understanding of IRS-practices for control of visceral leishmaniasis in endemic Bihar, which may help in future actions for improvements.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Controle de Insetos/normas , Insetos Vetores , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Phlebotomus , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bioensaio , Feminino , Índia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Masculino , Phlebotomus/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espaço-Temporal
20.
Malar J ; 18(1): 296, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most malaria vector control programmes rely on indoor residual spraying of insecticides and insecticide-treated bed nets. This is effective against vector species that feed indoors at night and rest inside the house afterwards. In Central America, malaria vectors have different behaviours and are typically exophagic (i.e., bite outdoors), exophilic (i.e., remain outdoors after feeding), and zoophagic (i.e., as likely to feed on non-humans as humans). Thus, malaria elimination in Central America may require additional tactics. This pilot study investigated whether commercially-available products used to treat livestock for ticks could also be used to kill and/or sterilize zoophagic malaria vectors that feed on treated cattle in Belize. METHODS: Cattle were treated with either a pour-on formulation of 1% fipronil (3 heifers) or injection of 1% ivemectin (1 heifer). Control heifers (n = 2) were left untreated. Field-collected Anopheles albimanus contained in screen-top cages were strapped onto cattle at 2, 5, 7, and 14 days after treatment. Mosquito mortality was monitored once a day for 4 successive days. Surviving mosquitoes were dissected to assess blood meal digestion and ovarian development. RESULTS: A total of 1078 female An. albimanus mosquitoes were fed and monitored for mortality. Both fipronil and ivermectin significantly reduced survivorship of An. albimanus for up to 7 days after treatment. By 14 days, efficacy had declined. The ivermectin treatment completely lost its effectiveness and even though the fipronil-treated heifers were still killing significantly more mosquitoes than the untreated heifers, the amount of mosquito killing had diminished greatly. Both treatments significantly reduced ovary development in mosquitoes fed on treated cattle for the duration of the 2-week trial. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of cattle in northern Belize with topical fipronil and injectable ivermectin had significant lethal and sublethal effects on wild An. albimanus females. These results suggest that efforts towards eliminating residual transmission of malaria by zoophagic vectors in Central America may benefit by the judicious, targeted treatment of livestock with mosquitocidal compounds, such as fipronil or ivermectin.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Belize , Bovinos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Injeções Intramusculares/efeitos adversos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Projetos Piloto
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