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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141945, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911165

RESUMO

Global climate change continues to cause alterations in environmental conditions which can be detrimental to aquatic ecosystem health. The development of pesticide resistance in organisms such as Hyalella azteca can lead to increased susceptibility to environmental change. This research provides a robust assessment of the effects of alterations in salinity on the fitness of H. azteca. Full-life cycle bioassays were conducted with non-resistant and pyrethroid-resistant H. azteca cultured under two salinity conditions representing a rise from freshwater control (0.2 psu) to increased salinity due to salt-water intrusion, reduced snowpack and evaporative enrichment (6.0 psu). Additionally, the upper thermal tolerance was defined for each population at each salinity. Pyrethroid-resistant H. azteca exhibited reduced thermal tolerance; however, they produced more offspring per female than non-resistant animals. Compared to the low salinity water, both non-resistant and pyrethroid-resistant H. azteca produced more offspring, grew larger (based on dry mass), and produced larger offspring in elevated salinity, although pyrethroid-resistant animals had lower survival and lipid levels. This study provides fundamental information about the fitness potential of H. azteca in a changing climate, suggesting advantages for non-resistant animals under future climate scenarios. In addition, this research further supports the need to consider the effects of global climate change when conducting risk assessment of contaminants of concern, as well as the contribution of contaminants when investigating climate change impacts on populations, as exposure may contribute to niche contraction.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Inseticidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Feminino , Inseticidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141630, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182171

RESUMO

Exposure levels of neonicotinoids (NEO) in young children remain unknown, despite their widespread use and the plausible vulnerability of toddlers to environmental toxicants. Herein we aimed to clarify the exposure levels and sources of NEOs in young Japanese children. Disposable diapers were collected from 1036 children (16-23 months old) participating in an adjunct study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study between 2015 and 2016. Six NEOs and one metabolite in urine extracted from a diaper from each child were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A relative potency factor approach was used to assess the cumulative exposure to NEOs equivalent to dinotefuran levels (DINRPF). The 95th percentile urinary concentration of DINRPF was 157 µg/L and 380 µg/g creatinine (Cr). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses for the propensity scores of the possible exposure-related factors revealed that the discriminatory powers determining whether Cr-adjusted and Cr-unadjusted DINRPF concentrations exceeding the 95th percentile values were higher for the amount of each foodstuff ingested on the survey day (areas under the curve were 0.62 and 0.75, respectively) than for the exposure-related behaviors (0.60 and 0.71, respectively) or for mothers' attitudes toward food selection and preparation (0.54 and 0.57, respectively). Use of a mosquito coil, insect repellent, and mothproof net for a screen door, and playing on a lawn were associated with increased urinary NEO levels (odds ratio [OR]: 2.0-2.9), while care about the child's nutritional balance by mothers reduced urinary NEO levels (OR: 0.23-0.41). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that dealt with urinary concentrations and possible exposure sources of NEOs in a large number of young children. Attention to the children's behavior and diet might result in the reduction of a high exposure to NEOs in young children.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Inseticidas/análise , Japão , Mães , Neonicotinoides
3.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127851, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781333

RESUMO

A monitoring study was carried out in three agriculturally influenced microcatchments in Costa Rica during 2012-2014, for pesticides and water quality parameters. A total of 42 pesticides were analyzed, detecting the following in water samples: two herbicides (oxyfluorfen, diuron), four insecticides (carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, oxamyl, ethion), and two fungicides (thiabendazole, carbendazim); while in sediment samples only the insecticides, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were found. Water quality was also assessed by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index and the National Sanitation Water Quality Index, the first one classified most of the sampling point as marginal and poor quality while the second one classified most of them as good quality, the most affected parameters were nitrate, phosphorous, suspended solids and organic matter content. The results suggest that the water quality in the microcatchments seems to be affected by the nearby agricultural and urban activities in the region.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Agricultura , Canadá , Carbamatos , Clorpirifos , Diurona , Herbicidas/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Compostos Organotiofosforados , Rios , Estados Unidos , Qualidade da Água
4.
J Environ Manage ; 276: 111329, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932069

RESUMO

Neonicotinoids are widely used to control insect pests in agriculture. Their presence in the environment can affect the health of non-target insects and aquatic animals. The behaviour of four neonicotinoids, namely imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam, has been investigated in soils with contrasting characteristics to understand their migration in soil and ecological risk. Among the study neonicotinoids, thiamethoxam and thiacloprid were found to be the least and most sorbed neonicotinoids by all the soils, respectively (up to 186 time greater adsorption of thiacloprid), and their uptake was affected by the content of organic matter in the soil. Leaching studies in columns confirmed that thiamethoxam leached out of the soils readily, pointing out to a relatively high risk of ground water contamination with possible ecological impact when thiamethoxam is used in soils with low organic matter. In soil column studies, the soil with the lowest organic matter presents the greatest residue of neonicotinoids in the sub-surface (≤5 cm). In contrast the soil richer in organic matter presented most of the contamination deeper down in the column; a factor to be considered in the remediation from soil.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Solo , Agricultura , Animais , Inseticidas/análise , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Tiametoxam
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(33): 41132-41142, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949358

RESUMO

In Guadeloupe, the use between 1972 and 1993 of chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, has permanently contaminated the island's soil, thus contaminating the food chain at its very beginning. There is today a strong societal requirement for an improved mapping of the contaminated zones. Given the extent of the areas to be covered, carrying out soil tests on each plot of the territory would be a long and expensive process. In this article, we explore a method of demarcating polluted areas. The approach adopted consists in carrying out, using surface water analyses, a hydrological delimitation that makes it possible to distinguish contaminated watersheds from uncontaminated ones. The selection of sampling points was based on the spatial analysis of the actual and potential contamination data existing at the beginning of the study. The approach was validated by soil analyses, after having compared the contamination data of the watersheds with the soil contamination data of the plots within them. The study thus made it possible to highlight new contaminated areas and also those at risk of contamination and to identify the plots to be targeted as a priority during future analysis campaigns by State services.


Assuntos
Clordecona , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Clordecona/análise , Guadalupe , Inseticidas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Água , Índias Ocidentais
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239632, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970749

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been growing concern among consumers about pesticide contamination in fruits. Therefore, rapid, reliable, and consistent detection methods for OPPs, especially dimethoate, are crucially needed. The existing quantitative methods for detecting dimethoate are not suitable for rapid measuring system such as the dimethoate samples from two channels. Hence this paper examines the utilization of a dual-channel system for utilize the absorption variations of the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) bands of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were investigate for detection of dimethoate. Under optimized conditions, the relationship between concentrations of dimethoate and absorbance ratios (A(520)/A(640)) was linearly found in the concentration range of 10-100 nM. Result from the experiment shows that both channels exhibit a linear correlation coefficient as high as 0.97 and a limit of detection (LOD) as low as 5.5 nM. This LSPR detection system was characterized by testing the dimethoate in apple samples and the recovery rates were found to be in the range of 85.90% to 107.37%. The proposed dual-channel LSPR system for detecting dimethoate creating a new approach for detecting organophosphate insecticide in agricultural fields. It could lay the foundation for designing a high-throughput analysis of the insecticides using a wavelength division multiplexing switch (WDMS).


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/normas , Dimetoato/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/normas , Inseticidas/análise , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Análise de Alimentos/normas , Frutas/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/normas
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111324, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971453

RESUMO

Chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is extensively used for rice pest management. Lack of information on the role of standing water and amount and timing of rainfall on CAP dissipation in rice ecosystem could hamper its prospective use. Present study was performed to investigate the effects of different water regimes (saturated, 5 and 10 cm standing water) and simulated rainfall (40 and 100 mm occurred at 4, 8 and 24 h after CAP application) on leaching, surface runoff and dissipation of CAP into components of rice ecosystem. The results showed highest concentration of CAP residues in soil and plant under saturated condition followed by 5 and 10 cm standing water conditions. Whereas, the highest concentration of CAP in leachates was detected under 10 cm standing water (12.19 ng mL-1). The results revealed large amount of leaching (21.99 ng mL-1) and surface runoff (42.25 ng mL-1) losses of CAP when 100 mm rainfall occurred at 4 h after pesticide application. The total quantity of CAP residues in soil and plant was highest when rainfall occurred at 24 h after pesticide application under both the rainfall amounts. Water stagnation and high intensity rainfall occurred shortly after pesticide application will contribute to pesticide loss to non-target sites through surface run-off and leaching. There will be less pesticide available in soil for plant uptake which may not be sufficient to kill the target organisms.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Inseticidas/análise , Oryza , Chuva , ortoaminobenzoatos/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111331, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977287

RESUMO

In China, many studies have been carried out on pesticide residues in human milk, yet all of them are on organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and mostly focused on large, economically developed cities. In this study, 27 pesticides including OCPs, pyrethroid pesticides (PYRs) and organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) in human milk were investigated in Jinhua, an inland and medium sized city in China. Method based on QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) determination was adopted to analyze the above pesticide residues. The influencing factors as well as the health risks were also evaluated. Results show that PYRs and OPPs in human milk samples were both undetectable. Regarding OCPs, the detection rate of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ß-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) were 83.6%, 36.4% and 58.2%, respectively, and their mean value were 29.4, 32.0 and 85.2 ng/g lipid, respectively. p,p'-DDE levels in human milk was significantly (p < 0.05) related to maternal age, but no association was detected between OCPs residues and other factors (living environment, dietary habit, living style, etc.), suggesting that OCPs in human milk in Jinhua were originated from nonspecific source. All estimated daily intake of pesticides (EDIpesticides) by infants were under the guideline suggested by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and China Ministry of Health (CMH). Yet 9% of EDIsHCB and 16% of EDIsHCHs exceeded the guideline recommended by Health Canada. The associations between DDE residues and the delivery way as well as HCBs residues and the birth weight were seemly significant, yet the significance disappeared when consider age or gestational age as a cofounder, indicating that OCPs residue in mother's body in Jinhua has no obvious influence on fetus development and the delivery way.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Leite Humano/química , Organofosfatos/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Adulto , China , Cidades , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/análise , Feminino , Hexaclorobenzeno/análise , Hexaclorocicloexano/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Inseticidas/análise , Idade Materna , Medição de Risco
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 595, 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827100

RESUMO

Carbaryl (a carbamate insecticide) and cypermethrin (a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide) are extensively used in agriculture. However, the presence of these insecticides in the environment constitutes a significant source of ecological contamination. This study determined the levels of these insecticides in Lisungwi, Neno District, a cotton-growing area in Southern Malawi. A total of 81 soil samples (500 g each) were collected from six sampling points (33 in dry season and 48 rainy season). A total of 86 water samples (500 ml each) were collected seasonally (20 from shallow wells, 18 from streams, and 48 from boreholes). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine carbaryl while UV/Vis spectrophotometer detected cypermethrin. Paired t test showed a significant (p < 0.05) difference between rainy season carbaryl (in water and soil) and maximum recommended levels (MRL) (Canadian guidelines and Australian Guidelines). Similarly, a significant (p < 0.05) difference between carbaryl and WHO limits and US MRL was reported in water and soil during the rainy season. A similar observation was made for cypermethrin. Specifically, carbaryl (0.083-0.254 mg/L in surface water and 0.165-0.492 mg/L in groundwater) and cypermethrin (8.115-15.460 mg/L in surface water and 4.48-12.18 mg/L in groundwater) concentrations during the rainy season were above the recommended limits. On the other hand, cypermethrin (0.01-0.048 mg/L) in the soil samples during the rainy season was below the recommended limits while carbaryl (1.67-1.305 mg/L) was above the recommended limits. Higher carbaryl and cypermethrin values were recorded during the rainy season than the dry season. Nitrate, pH, and EC and the insecticides (carbaryl and cypermethrin) depicted strong correlation and significance (p < 0.05), suggesting that these factors influenced their persistence in both soil and water. The study provides evidence that Lisungwi has cypermethrin and carbaryl concentrations above the recommended limits and their presence varies with seasons-a situation considered to be a serious threat to both aquatic biota and humans.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/análise , Piretrinas/análise , Austrália , Canadá , Carbaril , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Malaui , Solo , Água
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 140248, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806369

RESUMO

Neonicotinoid insecticides (NNIs) are the most widely used insecticides in China and worldwide. Continuous use of NNIs can lead to their accumulation in soil, causing potential ecological risks due to their relatively long half-life. We used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to investigate the residual levels of nine neonicotinoids in greenhouse soils in Shouguang, East China, at different soil depths and with different crops (tomato and cucumber) after varying periods of cultivation. Seven neonicotinoids were detected in the soils of the tomato greenhouses and six were detected in the soils of the cucumber greenhouses, with total concentrations ranging from 0.731 to 11.383 µg kg-1 and 0.363 to 19.224 µg kg-1, respectively. In all samples, the neonicotinoid residues in the soils cultivated for 8-9 years were lower than in those cultivated for 2 years and 14-17 years. In the tomato greenhouse soils, the residual levels of NNIs were highest in the topsoil, with progressively lower concentrations found with depth. Under cucumber cultivation, the NNI residue levels were also highest in the topsoil but there was little difference between the middle and lower soil layers. Total organic carbon (TOC) decreased with soil depth while pH showed the opposite trend, showing a significant negative correlation in both types of soils (tomato soils ρ = -0.900, p = .001; cucumber soils ρ = -0.883, p = .002). Furthermore, TOC was significantly positively correlated, and pH was negatively correlated, with total NNI concentrations in both types of soils (TOC: tomato soils ρ = 0.800, p = .010; cucumber soils ρ = 0.881, p = .004; pH: tomato soils ρ = -0.850, p = .004; cucumber soils ρ = -0.643, p = .086). The results of an ecological risk analysis showed that acetamiprid represents a particularly high toxicity risk in these soils. Based on our analysis, NNI residues in the soils of tomato greenhouses and their associated ecological risks deserve more attention than those of cucumber greenhouse soils.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Inseticidas/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum , Poluentes do Solo/análise , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Neonicotinoides , Solo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt B): 115035, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806455

RESUMO

We investigated the levels and distribution patterns of α- and ß-endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate in air, soil, water, and sediment samples collected from the South Korean persistent organic pollutants (POPs) monitoring networks. In the air samples, the highest concentrations of the total (Σ3) endosulfan (50.3-611 pg/m3, mean: 274 pg/m3) were observed during summer. Spearman analysis revealed a good correlation between agricultural land area and atmospheric concentrations of Σ3 endosulfan except during winter. Regardless of the season, the ratio of the two isomers (α/ß) was 3.6-4.9 in the air samples, higher than that observed in technical mixtures (2.0-2.3), possibly due to the higher volatility of α-endosulfan, compared to ß-endosulfan. Concentrations of Σ3 endosulfan in the soil samples (n.d.-13.4 ng/g, mean: 0.8 ng/g) were not significantly different except at some stations adjacent to large areas of farmland. The average levels of Σ3 endosulfan in the water and sediment samples were 2.1 ng/L and 0.1 ng/g dw, respectively. In analyzing the four largest rivers, it was observed that a few water stations during spring and fall and sediment stations in fall had high concentrations of the two isomers and endosulfan sulfate, particularly around the Yeoungsan and Nakdong Rivers near large areas of agricultural land. Endosulfan sulfate was dominant at most water and sediment sampling stations. This study demonstrates that the endosulfan found in most environmental compartments most probably derives from agricultural areas despite its ban as a pesticide. On the other hand, given that it was also detected in industrial and urban areas, in which pesticide application does not occur, it can be conjectured that endosulfan is aerially transported at higher temperatures and continuously circulates within the environment.


Assuntos
Endossulfano/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , República da Coreia , Solo , Água
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110942, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800224

RESUMO

Spinetoram (XDE-175-J/L), a new spinosyn-based insecticide, is one of the most widely used bio-pesticide worldwide and its registration for direct application on cauliflower to control Plutella xylostella is currently under review in China. In this study, an accredited method for simultaneous determination of spinetoram and its two metabolites in cauliflower was established and validated using QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) preparation coupled with ultra-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries using this method were ranged from 74 to 99% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.4-10.5%. The dissipation kinetics and terminal residues of spinetoram and its two metabolites in cauliflower were studied in Tianjin and Guizhou over two years under open field conditions. The dissipation experiments revealed that spinetoram was swiftly degraded in cauliflower, with the half-lives less than or equal to 4.85 days. The terminal residues of total spinetoram (sum of spinetoram and its two metabolites) detected in cauliflower samples were in the range of 0.009 mg/kg-0.337 mg/kg. Dietary risk assessment study was implemented based on the scientific data of field trials, food consumption and acceptable daily intake (ADI). The estimated long-term dietary risk probability (RQ) of total spinetoram from cauliflower was between 5.79% and 5.91%, indicating that spinetoram was associated with acceptable risk for dietary cauliflower consumption. The results would provide scientific guidance for proper usage of spinetoram in cauliflower field ecosystem.


Assuntos
Brassica/fisiologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Macrolídeos/toxicidade , China , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Dieta , Ecossistema , Inseticidas/análise , Cinética , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
13.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(3): 474-480, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757042

RESUMO

Thiamethoxam 75 SG has recently got registered for use against shoot borer and termites of sugarcane. It is the only neonicotinoid having label claim against both the major pests of sugarcane. The dissipation kinetics and environmental risk assessment of thiamethoxam 75 SG were studied in a typical tropical sugarcane crop ecosystem as detailed reports are lacking. Rapid and sensitive method adopted to determine the residues of thiamethoxam in the soil employing HPLC could provide more than 95.5% recoveries. The insecticide was observed to persist in the sandy clay loam soil for 60 days and reached below the detectable level of less than 0.01 mg/kg (LOQ = 0.01 mg/kg) on 75th day when applied @ 120 g a.i./ha. The half-life was worked out to be 16.50 days. At double the recommended dose (240 g a.i./ha), the insecticide persisted up to 75 days with the half-life of 16.91 days. The risk quotient values indicated medium to low level of risk to earthworms during the course of degradation of thiamethoxam in the soil.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Tiametoxam/análise , Argila , Ecossistema , Meia-Vida , Cinética , Neonicotinoides , Medição de Risco , Saccharum/metabolismo , Areia , Solo/química
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461328, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797818

RESUMO

Ferric oxide/carbon (Fe2O3@C) was fabricated via direct carbonization of metal-organic framework of iron (MOF-235) under argon atmosphere. The magnetic Fe2O3 nanoparticles are evenly embedded in porous carbon matrix, while original morphology of MOF-235 was well-maintained. The synthesized Fe2O3@C was used as magnetic sorbent for extracting five benzoylurea insecticides (BUs). The materials exhibited excellent extraction performance, which benefited not only from the strong π-π interaction and hydrophobic interaction (π-conjugated system), but also to the abundant adsorption sites and flexible transport channel (the interconnected 3D porous structure). A three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was selected to optimize three greatly influential parameters: amount of adsorbent (A), desorption time (B) and volume of desorption solvent (C) by response surface methodology. The established method coupled to HPLC-UV detection showed wide linearity with the range of 0.2-450 µg•L-1, relatively low limits of detection (0.05-0.10 µg•L-1) with the relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 7) lower t than 5.47%. Moreover, the proposed method was successfully applied to analyze BUs in tea samples and investigate the removal effect of different washing on BUs residues from tea leaf. These results indicated that the synthesized Fe2O3@C is a promising adsorbent material for magnetic solid phase extraction of BUs at trace concentrations from tea samples.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/análise , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Chá/química , Ureia/análise , Adsorção , Carbono/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/normas , Compostos Férricos/química , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Inseticidas/normas , Limite de Detecção , Porosidade , Padrões de Referência , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Chá/metabolismo , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Ureia/isolamento & purificação , Ureia/normas
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 2108-2112, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748782

RESUMO

Vector control methods that mobilize and impact rapidly during dengue, Zika, and chikungunya outbreaks are urgently needed in urban contexts. We investigated whether one person using a handheld aerosolized insecticide could achieve efficacy levels comparable to targeted indoor residual spraying (TIRS), using pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti in a semi-field setting with experimental houses in Mexico. The insecticide product (H24, a carbamate and pyrethroid mixture), available over-the-counter locally, was sprayed only on known Ae. aegypti-resting surfaces, for example, walls less than 1.5 m and dark hidden areas. In six identical houses with paired bedrooms, one bedroom was treated, and the other remained an untreated control. Each week for 8 weeks, 100 female pyrethroid-resistant Ae. aegypti were released in each bedroom and followed up daily. Mortality rates in treated bedrooms exceeded 90% for at least 2 weeks, and more than 80% (89.2; 95% CI: 79.98-98.35) for 3 weeks or more. Mortality rates in control houses were zero. Results demonstrate that the immediate impact of TIRS can be delivered by one person using existing products, at an estimated cost for the average household in Mexico of under US$3 per month. Triggered by early outbreak signs, dissemination via community hubs and mass/social media of instructions to treat the home immediately, with monthly re-treatment thereafter, provides a simple means to engage and empower householders. Compatible with integrated vector management strategies, it enables self-protection even if existing agencies falter, a situation exemplified by the potential impact on vector control of the restrictions imposed during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Aedes , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/análise , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Aerossóis , Animais , Feminino , Habitação , México , Piretrinas
16.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127696, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711239

RESUMO

The presence of fungicide and insecticide residues in wine has been largely investigated. However, few studies have addressed the persistence of these compounds in vineyard soils. In this research, we investigate the residues of a relevant number of fungicides and insecticides in vineyard soils, obtained in the Northwest of Spain, at the beginning of each agriculture campaign. Moreover, the dissipation of species showing high concentrations were monitored during the non-vegetative period of vines, in order to understand their soil evolution between application campaigns. To this end, a multiresidue analytical procedure based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination was first optimized. Under final working conditions, absolute recoveries in the range from 70 to 130% were achieved for 44 out of 51 selected compounds. The method LOQs remained at the low ng g-1 level (0.2-13 ng g-1) with a linear response range up to 500 ng g-1. Analysis of vineyard soils, collected during a 2-year period, from a geographic area with a high incidence of fungal diseases, demonstrated the presence of relevant concentrations of several fungicides and the insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) in this compartment. Most compounds detected at the end of the application season remained in soil at the beginning of the next year campaign. Among them, six fungicides (dimethomorph, boscalid, myclobutanil, penconazole, pyraclostrobin and pyrimethanil) and IMI showed average dissipation efficiencies below 50%, so they pose a potential to accumulate in this kind of soils.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura , Cromatografia Líquida , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Solo/química , Espanha , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Triazóis , Vinho/análise
17.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(10): 929-939, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715921

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to investigate the synergetic effect of ozonation on ultraviolet irradiation on the degradation of carbaryl (CBL) (1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate) in aqueous solutions (40 mg L-1). The degradation of CBL and the intermediates formed during ozonation were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. The change in formaldehyde, dissolved oxygen, pH, and total acidity were determined as a function of ozonation time. It was found that the dissolved oxygen and total acidity were increased with the increasing ozonation time but the pH was decreased with the increasing ozonation time. The aliphatic acids formed during ozonation were followed by ion chromatography as a function of ozonation time. It was found that the effect of ozonation is highly effective on the degradation of CBL. The complete degradation of CBL has occurred at 75-second ozonation time. As a consequence of the obtained results the possible degradation pathway was proposed. The results confirmed that ozonation is an effective method for the degradation of CBL.


Assuntos
Carbaril/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Ozônio/química , Fotólise , Raios Ultravioleta , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
18.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127682, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711240

RESUMO

Neonicotinoid insecticides (NEOs) have become the most widely used insecticides worldwide, and they are ubiquitous in food (i.e., fruit juices). In the present study, occurrence of seven NEOs and four metabolites (m-NEOs) in 400 fruit juice samples were investigated. NEOs and m-NEOs were frequently detected (65%-86%) in fruit juice samples. The median residues of NEOs and m-NEOs were ranged from 0.06 ng/mL to 0.94 ng/mL. Seasonal variations in NEOs and m-NEOs in fruit juices were found, indicating that the target analyte residues during the dry season were remarkably higher than those of residues during wet season. The relative potency factor (RPF) method was used to integrate individual NEOs into a single metric [imidacloprid (IMIRPF)] representing the intakes of IMI equivalent to total NEOs for each fruit juice sample. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of total NEOs for the general Chinese population was obtained. The median IMIRPF for total fruit juices was 13.4 ng/g, and the median EDI of NEOs was 18.2 ng/kg bw/day for the general population. Although the EDIs in this study were considerably lower than the acceptable daily intake (60 µg/kg bw/day, ADI), the dietary exposure risks for total NEOs should not be ignored because of the increasing usage of NEOs and their ubiquitous presence in fruit juices in China. To the best of our knowledge, this report was the first time to document residues of NEO and m-NEO in fruit juice samples collected from China.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Neonicotinoides/análise , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Coleta de Dados , Frutas/química , Humanos , Nitrocompostos , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estações do Ano , Verduras/química
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140436, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623160

RESUMO

Pesticide exposure is a growing global concern for pollinator conservation. While most current pesticide studies have specifically focused on the impacts of neonicotinoid insecticides toward honeybees and some native bee species, wild pollinators may be exposed to a broader range of agrochemicals. In 2016 and 2017 we collected a total of 637 wild bees and butterflies from the margins of cultivated agricultural fields situated on five Conservation Areas in mid-northern Missouri. Pollinators were composited by individual genera (90 samples) and whole tissues were then analyzed for the presence of 168 pesticides and degradation products. At least one pesticide was detected (% frequency) in the following wild bee genera: Bombus (96%), Eucera (75%), Melissodes (73%), Ptilothrix (50%), Xylocopa (50%), and Megachile (17%). Similarly, at least one pesticide was detected in the following lepidopteran genera: Hemaris (100%), Hylephila (75%), Danaus (60%), and Colias (50%). Active ingredients detected in >2% of overall pollinator samples were as follows: metolachlor (24%), tebuconazole (22%), atrazine (18%), imidacloprid desnitro (13%), bifenthrin (9%), flumetralin (9%), p, p'-DDD (6%), tebupirimfos (4%), fludioxonil (4%), flutriafol (3%), cyproconazole (2%), and oxadiazon (2%). Concentrations of individual pesticides ranged from 2 to 174 ng/g. Results of this pilot field study indicate that wild pollinators are exposed to and are potentially bioaccumulating a wide variety of pesticides in addition to neonicotinoids. Here, we provide evidence that wild bee and butterfly genera may face exposure to a wide range of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides despite being collected from areas managed for conservation. Therefore, even with the presence of extensive habitat, minimal agricultural activity on Conservation Areas may expose pollinators to a range of pesticides.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Animais , Abelhas , Missouri , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140627, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653707

RESUMO

Neonicotinoid insecticides pose risks that need to be managed for conservation of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the associations between the estimated environmental concentrations of two neonicotinoid insecticides (imidacloprid and dinotefuran) and the total abundances of seven functional feeding groups (FFGs) of benthic invertebrate communities in rivers in urban rice-paddy areas in four Japanese regions. Regional datasets of benthic invertebrate communities and environmental variables available for Japan were analyzed. The associations between neonicotinoid exposure and benthic functional groups in each region were evaluated by applying a partial redundancy analysis to each regional dataset. We then examined whether there was an interregionally consistent pattern in the observed associations to ascertain the general applicability of the associations. In two of the four regions, the associations of the total abundances of the seven FFGs with neonicotinoid concentrations were significant, suggesting negative effects of imidacloprid and dinotefuran on river ecosystem functions in these two Japanese regions. Moreover, although the associations in the remaining two regions were not significant, the pattern of associations of the total abundances of six of the FFGs (shredders, filter feeders, collectors, grazers, predators, and scavengers) with imidacloprid concentrations seemed to be consistent among the four regions. This implies broad-scale negative effects of imidacloprid on river ecosystem functions in urban rice-paddy areas. We did not, however, find any interregionally consistent patterns in the associations with dinotefuran concentrations. This may be related to the multicollinearity with the imidacloprid concentrations and/or the low maximum dinotefuran concentration relative to the toxicity values of this neonicotinoid. Therefore, the association between dinotefuran and river ecosystem functions requires additional investigation. We believe that this type of hypotheses-generating research using country-wide biomonitoring and exposure databases can be a great aid in future ecological risk assessment studies.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/análise , Oryza , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ecossistema , Invertebrados , Japão , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Rios
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