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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0240950, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213539

RESUMO

The European honey bee, Apis mellifera L., is the single most valuable managed pollinator in the world. Poor colony health or unusually high colony losses of managed honey bees result from a myriad of stressors, which are more harmful in combination. Climate change is expected to accentuate the effects of these stressors, but the physiological and behavioral responses of honey bees to elevated temperatures while under simultaneous influence of one or more stressors remain largely unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that exposure to acute, sublethal doses of neonicotinoid insecticides reduce thermal tolerance in honey bees. We administered to bees oral doses of imidacloprid and acetamiprid at 1/5, 1/20, and 1/100 of LD50 and measured their heat tolerance 4 h post-feeding, using both dynamic and static protocols. Contrary to our expectations, acute exposure to sublethal doses of both insecticides resulted in higher thermal tolerance and greater survival rates of bees. Bees that ingested the higher doses of insecticides displayed a critical thermal maximum from 2 ˚C to 5 ˚C greater than that of the control group, and 67%-87% reduction in mortality. Our study suggests a resilience of honey bees to high temperatures when other stressors are present, which is consistent with studies in other insects. We discuss the implications of these results and hypothesize that this compensatory effect is likely due to induction of heat shock proteins by the insecticides, which provides temporary protection from elevated temperatures.


Assuntos
Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Neonicotinoides/efeitos adversos , Termotolerância/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Abelhas/fisiologia , Mudança Climática , Polinização/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 436: 115862, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998853

RESUMO

While a considerable body of literature has characterized the clinical features induced by organophosphate pesticides, the field lacks scrutiny into cardio-respiratory changes in different phases of poisoning. Herein, we evaluated the impact of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and its active metabolite chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO) on the cardiorespiratory system during acute and subacute phases of poisoning using an in situ experimental rodent model. CPF (30 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally to rats beforehand (24 h) whereas CPO (15 mg/kg) was added into the perfusate reservoir to evaluate the effects on the motor outputs throughout the three phases of the respiratory cycle: inspiration, post-inspiration and late expiration. Phrenic, recurrent laryngeal (RLN) and thoracic sympathetic nerve activity (tSNA) were recorded. Heart rate was derived from the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the baro- and chemo-reflexes tested. CPF and CPO led to a time-dependent change in cardiorespiratory motor outputs. In the acute phase, the CPO induced bradypnea, transiently reduced the inspiratory time (TI), and increased the amplitude of phrenic. Post-inspiratory (PI) discharge recorded from the RLN was progressively reduced while tSNA was increased. CPO significantly depressed the chemoreflex but had no effect on baroreflex. During subacute phase, CPF prolongated TI with no effect on respiratory rate. Both the RLN PI discharge, the chemoreflex and the baroreflex sympathetic gain were reduced. In addition, both CPF and CPO shifted the cardiac sympatho-vagal balance towards sympathetic dominance. Our data show that different phases of poisoning are associated with specific changes in the cardio-respiratory system and might therefore demand distinct approaches by health care providers.


Assuntos
Barorreflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorpirifos/efeitos adversos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Clorpirifos/análogos & derivados , Inibidores da Colinesterase/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Ann Pharmacother ; 56(3): 352-357, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157881

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the pharmacology, safety, efficacy, and clinical importance of abametapir 0.74% (Xeglyze) for the treatment of head lice. DATA SOURCES: From 2020 to May 2021, a systematic review of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was conducted using the terms abametapir, Xeglyze, Ha44, and head lice. Bibliographies, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug package inserts, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for further information. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: All relevant full-text articles in English were considered for inclusion, with a final article date range of 1999 to 2020. DATA SYNTHESIS: Abametapir chelates heavy metal cations and inhibits metalloproteinases critical to louse ova development, hatching, and adult survival. In phase II, abametapir had direct ovicidal activity inhibiting 100% of treated louse eggs from hatching, compared with 64% in the vehicle-treated group. In two identical phase III clinical trials, subjects treated with a single 10-minute application of abametapir had greater treatment success compared with vehicle-treated subjects, with 81.1% success versus 50.9% in study 1 (P = 0.001) and 81.8% versus 47.2% in study 2 (P < 0.001). Abametapir was well tolerated, with only mild adverse effects. RELEVANCE TO PATIENT CARE AND CLINICAL PRACTICE: Abametapir is a newly FDA-approved, single-application treatment for head lice in patients aged 6 months and older. This review highlights the safety and efficacy of abametapir in the treatment of head lice. CONCLUSIONS: In the wake of increasing widespread resistance to first-line treatment options, abametapir offers a safe and effective new treatment option for head lice infestations.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Infestações por Piolhos , Pediculus , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Lactente , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Infestações por Piolhos/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 6434309, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744524

RESUMO

The study aims to identify risks of agrochemicals that impact farmworkers, consumers, and ecology in Vietnamese mango cultivation to enhance safety and friendly production. The study finds out the total numbers of root fertilizers (N-P-K) of the noncooperative and cooperative farmers are similar, approximately 1,400 kg/ha/year higher than those in other countries. Excessive fertilizer usage is a potential threat to soil, water, and air pollution. In addition, the findings indicate that the ecology component is undergoing the most negative impact from excessive agrochemical use in mango farming. The vast majority of agrochemicals in mango cultivation are fungicide and paclobutrazol over 90% of the total number of agrochemicals used in both noncooperative and cooperative farmer groups among the three seasons. Total field EIQ of the cooperative grower category is less than that of the noncooperative grower category. These results show that mango cultivation should consider rejecting the banned active ingredients of glyphosate, paraquat, and carbendazim as well as reducing fungicide and paclobutrazol usage and encouraging cooperative participation to safeguard the environment and human health. Moreover, science information needs to be closely linked and fed back to policy development to boost the management of the awareness of the ecological risks for farmers associated with reducing agrochemical use in mango cultivation.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/efeitos adversos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Mangifera , Ecologia , Fertilizantes/efeitos adversos , Fungicidas Industriais/efeitos adversos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Triazóis/efeitos adversos , Vietnã
5.
J Insect Sci ; 21(6)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723328

RESUMO

Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies that pollinate California's almond orchards are often exposed to mixtures of agrochemicals. Although agrochemicals applied during almond bloom are typically considered bee-safe when applied alone, their combined effects to honey bees are largely untested. In recent years, beekeepers providing pollination services to California's almond orchards have reported reductions in queen quality during and immediately after bloom, raising concerns that pesticide exposure may be involved. Previous research identified a synergistic effect between the insecticide active ingredient chlorantraniliprole and the fungicide active ingredient propiconazole to lab-reared worker brood, but their effects to developing queens are unknown. To test the individual and combined effects of these pesticides on the survival and emergence of developing queens, we fed worker honey bees in closed queen rearing boxes with pollen artificially contaminated with formulated pesticides containing these active ingredients as well as the spray adjuvant Dyne-Amic, which contains both organosilicone and alkyphenol ethoxylate. The translocation of pesticides from pesticide-treated pollen into the royal jelly secretions of nurse bees was also measured. Despite consistently low levels of all pesticide active ingredients in royal jelly, the survival of queens from pupation to 7 d post-emergence were reduced in queens reared by worker bees fed pollen containing a combination of formulated chlorantraniliprole (Altacor), propiconazole (Tilt), and Dyne-Amic, as well as the toxic standard, diflubenzuron (Dimilin 2L), applied in isolation. These results support recommendations to protect honey bee health by avoiding application of pesticide tank-mixes containing insecticides and adjuvants during almond bloom.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Pólen/química , Prunus dulcis , Agroquímicos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Diflubenzuron/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(48)2021 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810261

RESUMO

Pesticides are linked to global insect declines, with impacts on biodiversity and essential ecosystem services. In addition to well-documented direct impacts of pesticides at the current stage or time, potential delayed "carryover" effects from past exposure at a different life stage may augment impacts on individuals and populations. We investigated the effects of current exposure and the carryover effects of past insecticide exposure on the individual vital rates and population growth of the solitary bee, Osmia lignaria Bees in flight cages freely foraged on wildflowers, some treated with the common insecticide, imidacloprid, in a fully crossed design over 2 y, with insecticide exposure or no exposure in each year. Insecticide exposure directly to foraging adults and via carryover effects from past exposure reduced reproduction. Repeated exposure across 2 y additively impaired individual performance, leading to a nearly fourfold reduction in bee population growth. Exposure to even a single insecticide application can have persistent effects on vital rates and can reduce population growth for multiple generations. Carryover effects had profound implications for population persistence and must be considered in risk assessment, conservation, and management decisions for pollinators to mitigate the effects of insecticide exposure.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Polinização/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento Demográfico , Animais , Abelhas , Biodiversidade , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Feminino , Modelos Lineares , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Probabilidade , Reprodução , Medição de Risco
7.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258749, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735469

RESUMO

Deltamethrin is a widely used insecticide that kills a wide variety of insects and ticks. Deltamethrin resistance develops as a result of intensive, repeated use, as well as increased environmental contamination and a negative impact on public health. Its negative impact on aquatic ecology and human health necessitated the development of a new technique for environmental remediation and wastewater treatment, such as the use of nanotechnology. The co-precipitation method was used to create Zn-Fe/LDH, Zn-AL-GA/LDH, and Fe-oxide nanoparticles (NPs), which were then characterized using XRD, FT-IR, FE-SEM, and HR-TEM. The kinetic study of adsorption test revealed that these NPs were effective at removing deltamethrin from wastewater. The larval packet test, which involved applying freshly adsorbed deltamethrin nanocomposites (48 hours after adsorption), and the comet assay test were used to confirm that deltamethrin had lost its acaricidal efficacy. The kinetics of the deltamethrin adsorption process was investigated using several kinetic models at pH 7, initial concentration of deltamethrin 40 ppm and temperature 25°C. Within the first 60 min, the results indicated efficient adsorption performance in deltamethrin removal, the maximum adsorption capacity was 27.56 mg/L, 17.60 mg/L, and 3.06 mg/L with the Zn-Al LDH/GA, Zn-Fe LDH, and Fe Oxide, respectively. On tick larvae, the results of the freshly adsorbed DNC bioassay revealed larval mortality. This suggests that deltamethrin's acaricidal activity is still active. However, applying DNCs to tick larvae 48 hours after adsorption had no lethal effect, indicating that deltamethrin had lost its acaricidal activity. The latter result corroborated the results of the adsorption test's kinetic study. Furthermore, the comet assay revealed that commercial deltamethrin caused 28.51% DNA damage in tick cells, which was significantly higher than any DNC. In conclusion, the NPs used play an important role in deltamethrin decontamination in water, resulting in reduced public health risk. As a result, these NPs could be used as a method of environmental remediation.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Nanopartículas/química , Nitrilas/efeitos adversos , Piretrinas/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Acaricidas/química , Acaricidas/toxicidade , Adsorção/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Humanos , Hidróxidos/química , Hidróxidos/farmacologia , Inseticidas/química , Cinética , Nanocompostos/química , Nitrilas/química , Piretrinas/química , Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Purificação da Água
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 582, 2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the lack of vaccines, malaria control mainly involves the control of anopheline vectors (Anopheles spp.) using chemical insecticides. However, the prolonged and indiscriminate use of these compounds has led to the emergence of resistance in Anopheles populations in Africa. Insecticide resistance surveillance programs are less frequent in Cabo Verde than in other African countries. This study aimed to investigate the circulation of the L1014F and L1014S alleles in natural populations of Anopheles arabiensis collected from two sampling sites in the city of Praia, Cabo Verde. METHODS: Anopheles larvae were collected from the two sampling sites and reared in the laboratory until the adult stage. Mosquitoes were first morphologically identified by classical taxonomy and then by molecular species identification using molecular markers. All Anopheles arabiensis were subjected to PCR analysis to screen for mutations associated to resistance in the Nav gene. RESULTS: A total of 105 mosquitoes, all belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex, were identified by classical taxonomy as well as by molecular taxonomy. Molecular identification showed that 100% of the An. gambiae senso lato specimens analyzed corresponded to An. arabiensis. Analysis of the Nav gene revealed the presence of L1014S and L1014F alleles with frequencies of 0.10 and 0.19, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated, for the first time, the presence of the L1014F allele in the An. arabiensis population from Cabo Verde, as well as an increase in the frequency of the kdr L1014S allele reported in a previous study. The results of this study demonstrate the need to establish new approaches in vector control programs in Cabo Verde.


Assuntos
Anopheles/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Animais , Genes de Insetos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mutação
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21319, 2021 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716379

RESUMO

Pyrethroids are chemical insecticides that are widely used to control pests. Entomopathogenic fungi are considered environmentally safe alternatives to these compounds. Pyrethroids and entomopathogenic fungi not only co-exist in the environment but can also be applied together in pest control. They are often found in contact with each other, and thus, it seems important to understand their interactions at the cellular level. In this study, we analyzed whether pyrethroids could influence the phospholipid profile of Beauveria bassiana and whether membrane changes are one of the mechanisms by which these fungi adapt to unfavorable environmental conditions. The results of our study revealed that pyrethroids changed the phospholipid profile and increased the cell membrane permeability of B. bassiana, which enabled them to enter and accumulate within the fungal cells, resulting in oxidative stress. Pyrethroids influenced the amount of neutral lipids, caused a decrease in sodium content, and also temporarily lowered the level of the secondary metabolite oosporein in the studied fungi. These findings indicate that the effect of pyrethroids on entomopathogenic fungi may be more complex than originally thought and that lipidomic studies can aid in fully understanding the influence of these chemicals on the mentioned group of fungi.


Assuntos
Beauveria/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/efeitos adversos , Beauveria/metabolismo , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Lipidômica , Estresse Oxidativo , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502500

RESUMO

In this paper, we review the effects of large-scale neonicotinoid contaminations in the aquatic environment on non-target aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate species. These aquatic species are the fauna widely exposed to environmental changes and chemical accumulation in bodies of water. Neonicotinoids are insecticides that target the nicotinic type acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the central nervous systems (CNS) and are considered selective neurotoxins for insects. However, studies on their physiologic impacts and interactions with non-target species are limited. In researches dedicated to exploring physiologic and toxic outcomes of neonicotinoids, studies relating to the effects on vertebrate species represent a minority case compared to invertebrate species. For aquatic species, the known effects of neonicotinoids are described in the level of organismal, behavioral, genetic and physiologic toxicities. Toxicological studies were reported based on the environment of bodies of water, temperature, salinity and several other factors. There exists a knowledge gap on the relationship between toxicity outcomes to regulatory risk valuation. It has been a general observation among studies that neonicotinoid insecticides demonstrate significant toxicity to an extensive variety of invertebrates. Comprehensive analysis of data points to a generalization that field-realistic and laboratory exposures could result in different or non-comparable results in some cases. Aquatic invertebrates perform important roles in balancing a healthy ecosystem, thus rapid screening strategies are necessary to verify physiologic and toxicological impacts. So far, much of the studies describing field tests on non-target species are inadequate and in many cases, obsolete. Considering the current literature, this review addresses important information gaps relating to the impacts of neonicotinoids on the environment and spring forward policies, avoiding adverse biological and ecological effects on a range of non-target aquatic species which might further impair the whole of the aquatic ecological web.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Neonicotinoides/efeitos adversos , Animais , Ecossistema , Hidrobiologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Invertebrados/efeitos dos fármacos , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Neurotoxinas/farmacologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0250311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529690

RESUMO

The soybean aphid Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a primary pest of soybeans and poses a serious threat to soybean production. Our studies were conducted to understand the effects of different concentrations of insecticides (imidacloprid and thiamethoxam) on A. glycines and provided critical information for its effective management. Here, we found that the mean generation time and adult and total pre-nymphiposition periods of the LC50 imidacloprid- and thiamethoxam-treatment groups were significantly longer than those of the control group, although the adult pre-nymphiposition period in LC30 imidacloprid and thiamethoxam treatment groups was significantly shorter than that of the control group. Additionally, the mean fecundity per female adult, net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase of the LC30 imidacloprid-treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group and higher than those of the LC50 imidacloprid-treatment group (P < 0.05). Moreover, both insecticides exerted stress effects on A. glycines, and specimens treated with the two insecticides at the LC50 showed a significant decrease in their growth rates relative to those treated with the insecticides at LC30. These results provide a reference for exploring the effects of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam on A. glycines population dynamics in the field and offer insight to agricultural producers on the potential of low-lethal concentrations of insecticides to stimulate insect reproduction during insecticide application.


Assuntos
Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Neonicotinoides/efeitos adversos , Nitrocompostos/efeitos adversos , Soja/parasitologia , Tiametoxam/efeitos adversos , Animais , Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Dose Letal Mediana , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional
13.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 24(4): 477-491, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486307

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> The continuous use of pesticides in the ecosystem is of great concern, as some of them are highly stable and impact non-target organisms. The effect was tested of different concentrations of insecticides such as (Deltamethrin and Malathion) and natural products, Including, lemongrass oil on Fruit Fly (<i>Drosophila melanogaster</i>), to calculate the concentration at which the highest mortality occurred and death half the number of individuals after 96 hrs, as well as calculating the half-lethal time for individuals. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> This study, which evaluated the toxicity of five different concentrations (0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50 and 1.75 mg L<sup>1</sup>) of Malathion, (0.05, 0.10, 0.21, 0.53 and 1.48 mg L<sup>1</sup>) of Deltamethrin and lemongrass oil (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.50 mg L<sup>1</sup>) on the insect of <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i> after 96 hrs of treatment. <b>Results:</b> From the results of this study, the concentration (LC<sub>50 </sub>= 2.938 mg L<sup>1</sup>) of Malathion leads to kills half of the individuals, compared to Deltamethrin a higher concentration (LC<sub>50 </sub>= 4.8673 mg L<sup>1</sup>) that leads to killing half of the individuals. While lemongrass oil the concentration (LC<sub>50 </sub>= 9.7478 mg L<sup>1</sup>) leads to kills half of individuals. Also, when used Deltamethrin it takes (LT<sub>50 </sub>= 660.277) hours to kill half of the individuals compared to Malathion, which takes approximately (LT<sub>50</sub> = 321.862) hours to death half of the individuals. But lemongrass oil (LT<sub>50 </sub>= 819.745) hours to kill half of the individuals. <b>Conclusion:</b> In conclusion, the lemon plant and its components have excellent potential for being used in the control of <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i>, which had an effective role in biological control.


Assuntos
Drosophila/efeitos dos fármacos , Malation/efeitos adversos , Nitrilas/efeitos adversos , Óleos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Piretrinas/efeitos adversos , Terpenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Drosophila/microbiologia , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Malation/metabolismo , Nitrilas/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Piretrinas/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15787, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349192

RESUMO

Recently, we reported a novel mode of action in monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) larvae exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides: arrest in pupal ecdysis following successful larval ecdysis. In this paper, we explore arrested pupal ecdysis in greater detail and propose adverse outcome pathways to explain how neonicotinoids cause this effect. Using imidacloprid as a model compound, we determined that final-instar monarchs, corn earworms (Helicoverpa zea), and wax moths (Galleria mellonella) showed high susceptibility to arrested pupal ecdysis while painted ladies (Vanessa cardui) and red admirals (Vanessa atalanta) showed low susceptibility. Fall armyworms (Spodoptera frugiperda) and European corn borers (Ostrinia nubilalis) were recalcitrant. All larvae with arrested ecdysis developed pupal cuticle, but with incomplete shedding of larval cuticle and unexpanded pupal appendages; corn earworm larvae successfully developed into adults with unexpanded appendages. Delayed initiation of pupal ecdysis was also observed with treated larvae. Imidacloprid exposure was required at least 26 h prior to pupal ecdysis to disrupt the molt. These observations suggest neonicotinoids may disrupt the function of crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) neurons, either by directly acting on their nicotinic acetylcholine receptors or by acting on receptors of inhibitory neurons that regulate CCAP activity.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Muda/efeitos dos fármacos , Neonicotinoides/efeitos adversos , Nitrocompostos/efeitos adversos , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/fisiologia , Animais , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo
15.
Vet Res Commun ; 45(4): 373-380, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363149

RESUMO

This study investigates acute toxicity and histological effects of Lindane insecticide on intestinal tissues of immature grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For these purposes, 105 fish were exposed to different concentrations of Lindane for 96 h in 5 groups with 3 replications. Samples of intestinal tissues were prepared in both control and exposure groups during and after the toxicity test. Vaculation, necrosis, bleeding and epithelial degeneration were apparent in the intestine tissue of treated individuals. The LC50 96 h of Lindane was 0.788 ppm in the present study, also the results showed besides pesticide-induced lesions, symptoms of abnormal swimming, anxiety, tendency to swim near the surface, and death due to terminal toxicity with mouth widely open. The exposed fish were pale in color, showed oxygen deficit and severe respiratory problems. Overall, our results confirm the toxicity of different concentrations of Lindane insecticide affecting behavior, intestinal function and inducing tissue lesions of immature grass carp.


Assuntos
Carpas/fisiologia , Hexaclorocicloexano/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Carpas/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 236: 113797, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218098

RESUMO

Neonicotinoids (NEOs) are the most important globally available class of chemical insecticides since the introduction of synthetic pyrethroids. The adverse effects of NEOs for early development have been reported via in vivo and epidemiological studies. Therefore, prenatal NEOs exposure is highly concerning. This study aimed to determine the level of NEOs exposure during daily life among pregnant women in Japan, as well as the sources of exposure. Spot urine samples were collected during the first, second, and third trimesters from 109 pregnant women who delivered their infants at obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Kumamoto city, Japan, between 2014 and 2016. Additional data were obtained from medical records and self-administered questionnaires. thiamethoxam and clothianidin (CLO) were detected in most participants (83.4% and 80.9%, respectively), and at higher concentrations than those in other areas of Japan. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed a statistical significant association of pulses in CLO (1.01 [1.00-1.02]). In conclusion, pregnant women in Japan appear to be exposed to NEOs in their daily lives, and pulses intake may be a source of NEOs exposure. These findings may further the assessment of human NEOs exposure risk.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Feminino , Humanos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Japão , Neonicotinoides , Gravidez , Gestantes
17.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 84(21): 875-890, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256683

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is known to be involved in development of numerous diseases including cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, kidney and cancer. Thus, investigations that mimic oxidative stress in vitro may play an important role to find new strategies to control oxidative stress and subsequent consequences are important. Rotenone, widely used as a pesticide has been used as a model to simulate oxidative stress. However, this chemical was found to produce several diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effect of avocado (Persea americana Mill) extract and oil in monkey kidney epithelial cells (VERO) exposed to rotenone. VERO cells were exposed to IC50 of rotenone in conjunction with different concentrations of avocado extract and oil (ranging from 1 to 1000 µg/ml), for 24 hr. Subsequently, cell viability and oxidative metabolism were assessed. Data demonstrated that avocado extract and oil in the presence of rotenone increased cellular viability at all tested concentrations compared to cells exposed only to rotenone. In addition, extract and avocado oil exhibited antioxidant action as evidenced by decreased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide ion, and lipid peroxidation, generated by rotenone. Further, avocado extract and oil appeared to be safe, since these compounds did not affect cell viability and or generate oxidative stress. Therefore, avocado appears to display a promising antioxidant potential by decreasing oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Persea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rotenona/efeitos adversos , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Células Vero
18.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 911, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312484

RESUMO

Anopheles coluzzii females, important malaria vectors in Africa, mate only once in their lifetime. Mating occurs in aerial swarms with a high male-to-female ratio, where traits underlying male mating success are largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) influence mating success in natural mating swarms in Burkina Faso. As insecticides are widely used in this area for malaria control, we also determined whether CHCs affect insecticide resistance levels. We find that mated males have higher CHC abundance than unmated controls, suggesting CHCs could be determinants of mating success. Additionally, mated males have higher insecticide resistance under pyrethroid challenge, and we show a link between resistance intensity and CHC abundance. Taken together, our results suggest that CHC abundance may be subject to sexual selection in addition to selection by insecticide pressure. This has implications for insecticide resistance management, as these traits may be sustained in the population due to their benefits in mating even in the absence of insecticides.


Assuntos
Anopheles/fisiologia , Hidrocarbonetos/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Feromônios/farmacologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Burkina Faso , Epiderme/química , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Malária , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/efeitos adversos , Reprodução
19.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101757, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147920

RESUMO

The prevention of tick-borne diseases is a major challenge for livestock production globally. Tick control strategies include the use of acaricides, but the prescribed strategies do not achieve the desired results in several countries, including Kenya. To better understand how tick treatment practices, contribute to reported tick treatment failures, we assessed livestock owners' acaricide procurement, level of knowledge about acaricides and tick resistance, and how they apply acaricides. We also assessed the quality of the commonly available acaricides. We focused on three livestock systems in Laikipia County, Kenya: two private ranches; one community ranch whose members communally graze their cattle and acquire and apply acaricides; and individual livestock owners in two pastoral communities who individually graze their cattle and acquire and apply acaricides. Through interviews and focus group discussions we assessed; access to acaricides, livestock owners' knowledge, and acaricide use practices; interview data were triangulated with participant observations (n = 107). We analysed nine commonly used acaricides to determine the active ingredient concentration and we determined the concentration of active ingredients in acaricide dilutions collected on farms. All livestock owners had access to and used chemical acaricides for tick control, predominantly amitraz-based. Private ranchers bought one amitraz-based acaricide in bulk directly from the manufacturer, while all other livestock owners bought from agrovet shops. The livestock owners acquired knowledge about acaricides from their own experiences and through experience-based recommendations from peers, but not from the technical information provided by the manufacturers and agrovet shops. All pastoral livestock frequently changed acaricide brand and active ingredient class. A large majority of pastoralists (86%) mixed acaricide brands within and across active ingredient classes; a smaller majority (56%) mixed acaricides with crop pesticides and insecticides. Our lab tests confirmed the content description on the labels bought from agrovet shops. However, on-farm acaricide dilutions from all three livestock systems deviated from the level recommended for effective treatment. If too diluted, the acaricide does not kill ticks, promoting resistance development. If too concentrated, this increases environmental contamination and raises public health concerns. Livestock owners lack a technical understanding of the functioning of acaricides, compromising their use and effectiveness. The widely adopted mixing of acaricides with insecticides and pesticides raises serious health concerns.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Fazendas , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos , Acaricidas/efeitos adversos , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Poluição Ambiental , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Ixodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Quênia , Saúde Pública , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Toluidinas/farmacologia
20.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 84(20): 836-845, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167450

RESUMO

o,p'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p'-DDT) is a representative endocrine disruptor, and exposure to o,p'-DDT may produce immune disorders and inflammation, leading to various diseases such as cancer. Chronic airway inflammation is characterized by excessive mucus secretion resulting in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mucin 5AC  (MUC5AC), one of the mucus genes, plays an important role in mucus secretion and inflammation in the airways. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of o,p'-DDT on the regulation of MUC5AC expression in human lung epithelial A549 cell line. o,p'-DDT increased mRNA levels and the promoter activity of MUC5AC. Transient transfection with mutation promoter constructs of MUC5AC demonstrated that nuclear factor kappa-b (NF-κB) and activator protein 1(AP-1) response elements were essential for the consequences of o,p'-DDT on MUC5AC expression. In addition, o,p'-DDT induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, p38, and Akt, which are involved in the regulation of MUC5AC expression. It is noteworthy that inhibitors of NF-κB, AP-1, Akt, and MAPKs blocked enhanced o,p'-DDT-induced MUC5AC mRNA expression. Data indicate that o,p'-DDT increase in NF-κB, and AP-1 transcriptional activation-dependent MUC5AC expression is associated with stimulation of Akt and MAPK signaling pathways in A549 cells.


Assuntos
DDT/efeitos adversos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Mucina-5AC/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Mucina-5AC/metabolismo
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