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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008669, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866146

RESUMO

Exposure of adult mosquitoes to pyriproxyfen (PPF), an analog of insect juvenile hormone (JH), has shown promise to effectively sterilize female mosquitoes. However, the underlying mechanisms of the PPF-induced decrease in mosquito fecundity are largely unknown. We performed a comprehensive study to dissect the mode of PPF action in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Exposure to PPF prompted the overgrowth of primary follicles in sugar-fed Ae. aegypti females but blocked the development of primary follicles at Christopher's Stage III after blood feeding. Secondary follicles were precociously activated in PPF-treated mosquitoes. Moreover, PPF substantially altered the expression of many genes that are essential for mosquito physiology and oocyte development in the fat body and ovary. In particular, many metabolic genes were differentially expressed in response to PPF treatment, thereby affecting the mobilization and utilization of energy reserves. Furthermore, PPF treatment on the previtellogenic female adults considerably modified mosquito responses to JH and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), two major hormones that govern mosquito reproduction. Krüppel homolog 1, a JH-inducible transcriptional regulator, showed consistently elevated expression after PPF exposure. Conversely, PPF upregulated the expression of several key players of the 20E regulatory cascades, including HR3 and E75A, in the previtellogenic stage. After blood-feeding, the expression of these 20E response genes was significantly weaker in PPF-treated mosquitoes than the solvent-treated control groups. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the Methoprene-tolerant (Met) protein, the JH receptor, partially rescued the impaired follicular development after PPF exposure and substantially increased the hatching of the eggs produced by PPF-treated female mosquitoes. Thus, the results suggested that PPF relied on Met to exert its sterilizing effects on female mosquitoes. In summary, this study finds that PPF exposure disturbs normal hormonal responses and metabolism in Ae. aegypti, shedding light on the molecular targets and the downstream signaling pathways activated by PPF.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Culicidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Metoprene/metabolismo , Esterilização , Animais , Ecdisterona/farmacologia , Corpo Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Hormônios Juvenis/farmacologia , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Piridinas , Interferência de RNA , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111033, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888611

RESUMO

Diamide insecticides, such as chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, and tetrachlorantraniliprole, are a new class of insecticides that selectively target insects by affecting calcium homeostasis. While this class of insecticides are effective on a wide range of insect pests, the toxicities of diamide insecticides vary among species and life stages. In this study, we addressed the mechanism underlying the different responses of Plutella xylostella and Pieris rapae to diamide insecticides. The susceptibility to insecticides of P. xylostella and P. rapae larvae was assessed 2 and 4 days after exposure to chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, and tetrachlorantraniliprole. P. xylostella larvae treated with distilled water (Group A), chlorantraniliprole (Group B), cyantraniliprole (Group C), and tetrachlorantraniliprole (Group D) and P. rapae larvae treated with distilled water (Group E), chlorantraniliprole (Group F), cyantraniliprole (Group G) and tetrachlorantraniliprole (Group H) were subjected to metabolomics analysis. The differential metabolites in the B vs. F, C vs. G, and D vs. H groups were analyzed, followed by pathway enrichment analysis. Chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, and tetrachlorantraniliprole all showed high toxicities for P. xylostella and P. rapae larvae. P. rapae larvae were more sensitive to the diamide insecticides than P. xylostella larvae. There were 65 overlapped differential metabolites between P. xylostella and P. rapae larvae treated with these three diamide insecticides. Pathway analysis showed that the differential metabolites were closely related with fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism-related pathways. The differential regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism may contribute to the different response to diamide insecticides in P. xylostella and P. rapae.


Assuntos
Borboletas/efeitos dos fármacos , Diamida/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Borboletas/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/metabolismo , Mariposas/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104687, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980055

RESUMO

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are highly conserved multifunctional enzymes that play crucial roles in insecticide resistance development. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of P450s in acetamiprid resistance development to melon aphid, Aphis gossypii was investigated. Acetamiprid resistant (32.64-fold resistance) population (Ace-R) of A. gossypii was established by continuous selection with acetamiprid for 24 generations. Quantitative Real Time PCR was carried out to analyze the expression of P450 genes in both acetamiprid resistant (Ace-R) and susceptible (Ace-S) strains. Result showed that nine genes (CYP6CY14, CYP6DC1, CYP6CZ1, CYP6DD1, CYP6CY5, CYP6CY9, CYP6DA1, CYP6CY18, and CYP6CY16) of CYP3 clade, four genes (CYP302A1, CYP315A1, CYP301A1, and CYP314A1) of CYP2 clade, two genes (CYP4CK1, CYP4G51) of CYP4 clade and three genes (CYP306A1, CYP305E1, CYP307A1) of mitochondrial clade (Mito clad) were significantly up-regulated, in Ace-R compared to Ace-S strain. Whilst CYP4CJ2 gene from (CYP4 clade) was significantly down-regulated in Ace-R strain. Furthermore, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of CYP6CY14, CYP6DC1, and CYP6CZ1 genes significantly increased the sensitivity of Ace-R strain to acetamiprid. Taken together, this study showed that P450 genes especially CYP6CY14, CYP6DC1 and CYP6CZ1 are potentially involved in acetamiprid resistance development in A. gossypii. This study could be useful to understand the molecular basis of acetamiprid resistance mechanism in A. gossypii.


Assuntos
Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Afídeos/genética , Cucurbitaceae , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Neonicotinoides
4.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104699, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980057

RESUMO

The resistance to dieldrin gene (Rdl) encodes a subunit of the insect γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptor, and the encoded Rdl subunit is a major target site for cyclodiene and phenylpyrazole insecticides. Since the substitution of a single amino acid (Ala to Ser/Gly at position 302) of the Drosophila melanogaster Rdl gene was first identified to confer high level resistance to dieldrin, mutations at the equivalent positions have been reported to confer resistance to dieldrin and/or fipronil in a wide range of different insects. In the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera, there are two Rdl homologs (HaRdl-1 and HaRdl-2) in close proximity on the Z chromosome, which as wild-type sequences, encode alanine and serine respectively at amino acid position 302. In the present study, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing approach to knock out HaRdl-1 and HaRdl-2 and establish two homozygous knockout strains (ΔRdl-1 and ΔRdl-2). The ΔRdl-1 strain showed low levels of resistance (8.0- to 9.3-fold) to three cyclodiene insecticides (endosulfan, aldrin and dieldrin) compared with the background SCD strain. In contrast, toxicity of the three cyclodiene insecticides to the ΔRdl-2 strain increased significantly (3.6- to 6.3-fold) when compared with the SCD strain. Genetic analysis indicated the obtained resistance to endosulfan and dieldrin in the ΔRdl-1 strain was sex-linked, which is consistent with the fact that HaRdl-1 locus is located on the Z chromosome. The above results demonstrate that both HaRdl-1 and HaRdl-2 are important determinants for the susceptibility of H. armigera SCD strain to the three cyclodiene insecticides, but have opposite effects. It was also found that HaRdl-1 and HaRdl-2 are involved, to some extent, in mediating sensitivity of H. armigera to avermectin and fipronil respectively. We speculate that the HaRdl-1 and HaRdl-2 subunits have different pharmacological properties, which contribute to the differential sensitivities of H. armigera to the tested cyclodienes and other insecticides.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Mariposas/genética , Animais , Dieldrin/toxicidade , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Receptores de GABA/genética , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Genética Reversa
5.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104686, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980070

RESUMO

New insecticides are urgently needed for the control of arthropod vectors of public health diseases. As resistance to many insecticides used for the control of public health pests is ubiquitous, all available chemistries should be evaluated for their potential to effectively control both insecticide-susceptible and insecticide-resistant strains of mosquitoes. This study aimed to evaluate p-p'-difluoro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DFDT) as a mosquito control technology and relate its activity to that of DDT. We found that topical DFDT was significantly less toxic than DDT to both pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant strains of Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti. Direct nervous system recording from Drosophila melanogaster CNS demonstrated that DFDT is approximately 10-times less potent than DDT at blocking nerve firing, which may explain its relatively lower toxicity. DFDT was shown to be at least 4500 times more vapor-active than DDT, with an LC50 in a vapor toxicity screening assay of 2.2 µg/cm2. Resistance to DFDT was assessed in two mosquito strains that possess target-site mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel and upregulated metabolic activity. Resistance ratios for Akdr (An. gambiae) and Puerto Rico (Ae. aegypti) strains were 9.2 and 12.2, respectively. Overall, this study demonstrates that DFDT is unlikely to be a viable public health vector control insecticide.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Animais , Compostos de Bifenilo , DDT/toxicidade , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores , Porto Rico , Tricloroetanos
6.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104703, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980071

RESUMO

For the last decade, scientists have reported a loss of honeybee colonies. Multiple factors like parasites, pathogens and pesticides are dealt as possible drivers of honeybee losses. In particular, insecticides are considered as a major factor of pollinator poisoning. We applied sublethal concentrations of four insecticidal substances to honeybee larval food and analyzed the effects on transcriptome. The aim was to identify candidate genes indicating early negative impacts after application of insecticidal substances. Honeybee larvae were kept in-vitro under hive conditions (34-35 °C) and fed with dimethoate, fenoxycarb, chlorantraniliprole and flupyradifurone in sublethal concentrations between day 3-6 after grafting. Larvae at day 4, 6 and 8 were sampled and their transcriptome analyzed. By use of a RT-qPCR array differences in gene expression of selected gene families (immune system, development detoxification) were measured. Targets mainly involved in development, energy metabolism and the immune system were significantly affected by the insecticidal substances tested, selectively inducing genes of the detoxification system, immune response and nutritional stress.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Animais , Abelhas/genética , Dimetoato , Larva/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcriptoma
7.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104682, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980072

RESUMO

To evaluate whether the development of ß-cypermethrin resistance in Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattaria: Blattellidae) affects the fecundity fitness of this insect and to determine the underlying mechanism, we compared fecundity differences between ß-cypermethrin-resistant (R) and sensitive (S) strains of B. germanica, observed the physiological structural changes of ovaries from an visual perspective, and analyzed differences in the ovarian proteome using proteomic methods. The results showed that, compared with the S strain of B. germanica, the R strain of B. germanica had a significantly higher ootheca shedding rate, a significantly lower number of hatched and surviving nymphs, a significantly higher female proportion in the population and defective ovarian development. Ovarian proteomic analysis showed a total of 64 differentially expressed proteins in the R strain, including 18 upregulated proteins and 46 downregulated proteins. Twenty-four significantly differentially expressed proteins were further studied, and 14 were successfully identified, which were mainly classified into the following categories: immunity-related proteins, development-related proteins, structural proteins, energy metabolism-related proteins and proteins with unknown functions. The differential expression of these proteins reflects the overall changes in cell structure and metabolism associated with ß-cypermethrin resistance and explains the possible molecular mechanism of fecundity fitness disadvantages. In summary, ß-cypermethrin resistance can cause fecundity fitness disadvantages in B. germanica. The metabolic deviations needed to overcome the adverse effects of insecticides may result in an energy exchange that affects energy allocation and, ultimately, the basic needs of the insect. The fitness cost due to insecticide resistance is critical to the delay of the evolution of resistance.


Assuntos
Blattellidae/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Proteoma , Proteômica , Piretrinas
8.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104666, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980073

RESUMO

Despite the substantial progress achieved in the characterization of cytochrome P450 (CYP) -based resistance mechanisms in mosquitoes, a number of questions remain unanswered. These include: (i) the regulation and physiology of resistance conferring CYPs; (ii) the actual contribution of CYPs in resistance alone or in combination with other detoxification partners or other resistance mechanisms; (iii) the association between overexpression levels and allelic variation, with the catalytic activity and the intensity of resistance and (iv) the true value of molecular diagnostics targeting CYP markers, for driving decision making in the frame of Insecticide Resistance Management applications. Furthermore, the translation of CYP - based insecticide resistance research in mosquitoes into practical applications, is being developed, but it is not fully exploited, as yet. Examples include the production of high throughput platforms for screening the liability (stability) or inhibition potential of novel insecticidal leads and synergists (add-ons), as well as the exploration of the negative cross resistance concept (i.e. detoxification of certain insecticides, but activation of others pro-insecticides). The goal of this review is to critically summarise the current knowledge and the gaps of the CYP-based metabolic insecticide resistance in Anopheles and Aedes mosquito vectors. The progress and limitations of the protein and the reverse/forward genetic approaches, the understanding and importance of molecular and physiological aspects, as well as the current and future exploitation routes of CYP research are discussed.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/genética , Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Anopheles/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Piretrinas , Animais , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/genética
9.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 31(10): 717-739, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930630

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of several infectious viruses that cause yellow, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Recently, plant-derived products have been tested as safe and eco-friendly larvicides against Ae. aegypti. The present study aimed to improve QSAR models for 62 larvicidal phytocompounds against Ae. aegypti via the Monte Carlo method based on the index of the ideality of correlation (IIC) criterion. The representation of structures was done with SMILES. Three splits were prepared randomly and three QSAR models were constructed using IIC target function. The molecular descriptors were selected from SMILES descriptors and the hydrogen-filled molecular graphs. The predictability of three models was evaluated on the validation sets, the r 2 of which was 0.9770, 0.8660, and 0.8565 for models 1 to 3, respectively. The statistical results of three randomized splits indicated that robust, simple, predictive, and reliable models were obtained for different sets. From the modelling results, important descriptors were identified to enhance and reduce the larvicidal activity of compounds. Based on the identified important descriptors, some new structures of larvicidal compounds were proposed. The larvicidal activity of novel molecules designed further was supported by docking studies. Using the simple QSAR model, one can predict pLC50 of new similarity larvicidal phytocompounds.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Inseticidas/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003248, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two billion long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have been procured for malaria control. A functional LLIN is one that is present, is in good physical condition, and remains insecticidal, thereby providing protection against vector-borne diseases through preventing bites and killing disease vectors. The World Health Organization (WHO) prequalifies LLINs that remain adequately insecticidal 3 years after deployment. Therefore, institutional buyers often assume that prequalified LLINs are functionally identical with a 3-year lifespan. We measured the lifespans of 3 LLIN products, and calculated their cost per year of functional life, to demonstrate the economic and public health importance of procuring the most cost-effective LLIN product based on its lifespan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A randomised double-blinded trial of 3 pyrethroid LLIN products (10,571 nets in total) was conducted at 3 follow-up points: 10 months (August-October 2014), 22 months (August-October 2015), and 36 months (October-December 2016) among 3,393 households in Tanzania using WHO-recommended methods. Primary outcome was LLIN functional survival (LLIN present and in serviceable condition). Secondary outcomes were (1) bioefficacy and chemical content (residual insecticidal activity) and (2) protective efficacy for volunteers sleeping under the LLINs (bite reduction and mosquitoes killed). Median LLIN functional survival was significantly different between the 3 net products (p = 0.001): 2.0 years (95% CI 1.7-2.3) for Olyset, 2.5 years (95% CI 2.2-2.8) for PermaNet 2.0 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.73 [95% CI 0.64-0.85], p = 0.001), and 2.6 years (95% CI 2.3-2.8) for NetProtect (HR = 0.70 [95% CI 0.62-0.77], p < 0.001). Functional survival was affected by accumulation of holes, leading to users discarding nets. Protective efficacy also significantly differed between products as they aged. Equivalent annual cost varied between US$1.2 (95% CI $1.1-$1.4) and US$1.5 (95% CI $1.3-$1.7), assuming that each net was priced identically at US$3. The 2 longer-lived nets (PermaNet and NetProtect) were 20% cheaper than the shorter-lived product (Olyset). The trial was limited to only the most widely sold LLINs in Tanzania. Functional survival varies by country, so the single country setting is a limitation. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that LLIN functional survival is less than 3 years and differs substantially between products, and these differences strongly influence LLIN value for money. LLIN tendering processes should consider local expectations of cost per year of functional life and not unit price. As new LLIN products come on the market, especially those with new insecticides, it will be imperative to monitor their comparative durability to ensure that the most cost-effective products are procured for malaria control.


Assuntos
Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/economia , Inseticidas/economia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , Culicidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Vetores de Doenças , Características da Família , Seguimentos , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/tendências , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/economia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
11.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 169: 104649, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828367

RESUMO

Spodoptera litura is a destructive agricultural pest and has evolved resistance to multiple insecticides, especially pyrethroids. At present, the resistance mechanism to pyrethroids remains unclear. Four field-collected populations, namely CZ, LF, NJ and JD, were identified to have high resistance to pyrethroids comparing to pyrethroid-susceptible population (GX), with resistant ratio ranging from 11.5- to 9123.5-fold. To characterize pyrethroid resistance mechanism, the transcriptomes between two pyrethroid-resistant (LF and NJ) and a pyrethroid-susceptible (GX) populations were compared by RNA-sequencing. Results showed that multiple differentially expressed genes were enriched in metabolism-related GO terms and KEGG pathways. 35 up-regulated metabolism-related unigenes were selected to verify by qRT-PCR and 15 unigenes, including 4 cytochrome P450s (P450s), 5 glutathione S-transferase (GSTs), 1 UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT), 4 carboxylesterases (COEs) and 1 and ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC), were all up-regulated in the four pyrethroid-resistant populations. The expression levels of CYP3 and GST3, which were annotated as CYP6A13 and GSTE1, respectively, showed positive correlation with their pyrethroid resistance levels among the four pyrethroid-resistant populations. While the expression levels of CYP5, CYP12, COE4 and ABC5 showed good correlation with their pyrethroid resistance levels in at least three populations. UGT5 had the highest expression level among the tested UGT genes in the four pyrethroid-resistant populations. RNAi mediated silencing of CYP6 increased the cumulative mortality treated by beta cypermethrin and cyhalothrin significantly, while silencing of GST3 increased the cumulative mortality treated by fenvalerate significantly. CYP3, CYP5, CYP6, CYP12, GST3, COE4, UGT5 and ABC5 play important roles in pyrethroid resistance among the four pyrethroid-resistant populations. Our work provides a valuable clue for further study of pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in S. litura.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Piretrinas , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 169: 104652, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828370

RESUMO

Neurophysiological recordings were employed to quantify neuronal sensitivity to neurotoxic insecticides and assessed toxicity across field and laboratory fall armyworm (FAW) populations. Topical toxicity resistance ratios (RR) in field-collected FAW was 767-fold compared to laboratory strains and, importantly, a 1750-fold reduction in potency was observed for λ-cyhalothrin in neurophysiological assays. Field collected FAW were found to have a RR of 12 to chlorpyrifos when compared to the susceptible strain and was 8-fold less sensitive in neurophysiological assays. Surprisingly, there were no point mutations identified in the voltage-gated sodium channel known to cause pyrethroid resistance. For acetylcholinesterase, FAW had more than 80% of their nucleotide sequences consistent with A201 and F290 of the susceptible strains although 60% of the tested population was heterozygous for the G227A mutation. These data indicate that point mutations did not contribute to the high level of pyrethroid resistance and nerve insensitivity in this population of field collected FAW. Additionally, these data suggest the kdr phenotype only explains a portion of the heritable variation in FAW resistance and indicates kdr is not the only predictor of high pyrethroid resistance. Phenotypic assays, such as toxicity bioassays or neurophysiological recordings, using field-collected populations are necessary to reliably predict resistant phenotypes and product failures.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Piretrinas , Animais , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 169: 104667, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828373

RESUMO

Pyrethroid resistance has been a major hurdle limiting the effective control of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.). Alternative approaches that include the use of plant essential oils (EOs) have been proposed for effective management of bed bugs. However, EO resistance level comparisons between pyrethroid susceptible and resistant bed bug populations have not been previously conducted. The goal of this study was twofold: (i) determine deltamethrin resistance levels and associated resistance mechanisms in the field-collected Knoxville strain and (ii) quantify resistance levels of the Knoxville strain to five EOs (thyme, oregano, clove, geranium and coriander), their major insecticidal constituents (thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, geraniol and linalool) and an EO-based product (EcoRaider®). First, we found that the Knoxville strain was 72,893 and 291,626 fold more resistant to topically applied deltamethrin in comparison to the susceptible Harlan strain at the LD25 and LD50 lethal dose levels, respectively. Synergist bioassays and detoxification enzyme assays revealed significantly higher activity of cytochrome P450 and esterase enzymes in the resistant Knoxville strain. Further, Sanger sequencing revealed the presence of the L925I mutation in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel α subunit gene. The Knoxville strain that possesses both enzymatic and target site deltamethrin resistance, however, did not show any resistance to EOs, their major insecticidal constituents and EcoRaider® in topical bioassays (resistance ratio of ~1). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a deltamethrin-resistant strain of bed bugs is susceptible to EOs and their insecticidal constituents.


Assuntos
Percevejos-de-Cama/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis , Piretrinas , Animais , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilos
14.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 169: 104668, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828374

RESUMO

Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, is an important pest of crucifers worldwide. The extensive use of flubendiamide has led to the development of resistance in field populations and reports of control failures. In this study, the lab-selected (Rf) and field-collected (Rb) flubendiamide-resistant strains of P. xylostella with LC50 resistance ratios of 1890-fold and 1251-fold, respectively, were used, as well as a lab-reared flubendiamide-susceptible strain (S). The results showed that the fecundity of the Rf and Rb-resistant strains was significantly lower than that of S strain. The contents of vitellin and transcripts of P. xylostella vitellogenin (PxVg) and P. xylostella vitellogenin receptor (PxVgR) genes in the Rf and Rb strains were significantly higher than those of S strains at 0-48 h after adult eclosion. At 96 h after eclosion, the content of vitellin in the Rf and Rb strains did not differ significantly from those of S strains, whereas transcripts of the PxVg and PxVgR genes in the Rf and Rb strains were significantly lower than that of the S strain. The content of the juvenile hormone III (JH III), ß-ecdysone (20E), and the gene expression level of P. xylostella methoprene tolerant (PxMet) in the Rf and Rb strains were significantly higher than that of the S strain. The activity of trehalase was significantly higher in the Rf and Rb strains than that of the S strain in the first to the third instar larvae, whereas in the fourth instar larvae, there was no significantly difference in the three strains. At different times after adult eclosion, the differences in trehalase activity were erratic between the strains. The transcripts of P. xylostella trehalase (PxTre) gene in the Rf and Rb strains were significantly higher than that of the S strain in most developmental stages. Here, we report differences in fecundity between flubendiamide-resistant and susceptible strains of P. xylostella and discuss gene expression of several reproductive factors, which provides a possible explanation for the mechanism of fecundity reduction concurrent with flubendiamide-resistance in P. xylostella.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Benzamidas , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonas
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008288, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841229

RESUMO

In the absence of national control programmes against Rhodesian human African trypanosomiasis, farmer-led treatment of cattle with pyrethroid-based insecticides may be an effective strategy for foci at the edges of wildlife areas, but there is limited evidence to support this. We combined data on insecticide use by farmers, tsetse abundance and trypanosome prevalence, with mathematical models, to quantify the likely impact of insecticide-treated cattle. Sixteen percent of farmers reported treating cattle with a pyrethroid, and chemical analysis indicated 18% of individual cattle had been treated, in the previous week. Treatment of cattle was estimated to increase daily mortality of tsetse by 5-14%. Trypanosome prevalence in tsetse, predominantly from wildlife areas, was 1.25% for T. brucei s.l. and 0.03% for T. b. rhodesiense. For 750 cattle sampled from 48 herds, 2.3% were PCR positive for T. brucei s.l. and none for T. b. rhodesiense. Using mathematical models, we estimated there was 8-29% increase in mortality of tsetse in farming areas and this increase can explain the relatively low prevalence of T. brucei s.l. in cattle. Farmer-led treatment of cattle with pyrethroids is likely, in part, to be limiting the spill-over of human-infective trypanosomes from wildlife areas.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Gado , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/transmissão , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Modelos Teóricos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Piretrinas , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma , Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense , Tripanossomíase Africana/prevenção & controle , Moscas Tsé-Tsé
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237744, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841246

RESUMO

Both the Mediterranean (MED) species of the Bemisia tabaci whitefly complex and the greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum, TV) are important agricultural pests. The two species of whiteflies differ in many aspects such as morphology, geographical distribution, host plant range, plant virus transmission, and resistance to insecticides. However, the molecular basis underlying their differences remains largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the genetic divergences between the transcriptomes of MED and TV. In total, 2,944 pairs of orthologous genes were identified. The average identity of amino acid sequences between the two species is 93.6%. The average nonsynonymous (Ka) and synonymous (Ks) substitution rates and the ratio of Ka/Ks of the orthologous genes are 0.0389, 2.23 and 0.0204, respectively. The low average Ka/Ks ratio indicates that orthologous genes tend to be under strong purified selection. The most divergent gene classes are related to the metabolisms of xenobiotics, cofactors, vitamins and amino acids, and this divergence may underlie the different biological characteristics between the two species of whiteflies. Genes of differential expression between the two species are enriched in carbohydrate metabolism and regulation of autophagy. These findings provide molecular clues to uncover the biological and molecular differences between the two species of whiteflies.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola , Genes de Insetos/genética , Especiação Genética , Hemípteros/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Hemípteros/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Região do Mediterrâneo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , RNA-Seq , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Especificidade da Espécie , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Xenobióticos/metabolismo
17.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 169: 104674, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828379

RESUMO

There is an on-going need to develop new insecticides that are not compromised by resistance and that have improved environmental profiles. However, the cost of developing novel compounds has increased significantly over the last two decades. This is in part due to increased regulatory requirements, including the need to screen both pest and pollinator insect species to ensure that pre-existing resistance will not hamper the efficacy of a new insecticide via cross-resistance, or adversely affect non-target insect species. To add to this problem the collection and maintenance of toxicologically relevant pest and pollinator species and strains is costly and often difficult. Here we present Fly-Tox, a panel of publicly available transgenic Drosophila melanogaster lines each containing one or more pest or pollinator P450 genes that have been previously shown to metabolise insecticides. We describe the range of ways these tools can be used, including in predictive screens to avoid pre-existing cross-resistance, to identify potential resistance-breaking inhibitors, in the initial assessment of potential insecticide toxicity to bee pollinators, and identifying harmful pesticide-pesticide interactions.


Assuntos
Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Abelhas , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1008136, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822342

RESUMO

Management strategies for control of vector-borne diseases, for example Zika or dengue, include using larvicide and/or adulticide, either through large-scale application by truck or plane or through door-to-door efforts that require obtaining permission to access private property and spray yards. The efficacy of the latter strategy is highly dependent on the compliance of local residents. Here we develop a model for vector-borne disease transmission between mosquitoes and humans in a neighborhood setting, considering a network of houses connected via nearest-neighbor mosquito movement. We incorporate large-scale application of adulticide via aerial spraying through a uniform increase in vector death rates in all sites, and door-to-door application of larval source reduction and adulticide through a decrease in vector emergence rates and an increase in vector death rates in compliant sites only, where control efficacies are directly connected to real-world experimentally measurable control parameters, application frequencies, and control costs. To develop mechanistic insight into the influence of vector motion and compliance clustering on disease controllability, we determine the basic reproduction number R0 for the system, provide analytic results for the extreme cases of no mosquito movement, infinite hopping rates, and utilize degenerate perturbation theory for the case of slow but non-zero hopping rates. We then determine the application frequencies required for each strategy (alone and combined) in order to reduce R0 to unity, along with the associated costs. Cost-optimal strategies are found to depend strongly on mosquito hopping rates, levels of door-to-door compliance, and spatial clustering of compliant houses, and can include aerial spray alone, door-to-door treatment alone, or a combination of both. The optimization scheme developed here provides a flexible tool for disease management planners which translates modeling results into actionable control advice adaptable to system-specific details.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos
19.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127620, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758770

RESUMO

Developing an eco-friendly Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach is only possible by minimizing the use of insecticides and their effects on non-targets such as natural enemies. Chrysoperla carnea is a potential predator of several economic pests including whiteflies and aphids. C. carnea selected with cyromazine for 15 generations indicated a great increase in resistance to this Insect Growth Regulator (IGR). There was no cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and nitenpyram in Cyro-SEL population. Inheritance to cyromazine was autosomal, incompletely dominant, and polygenic. A high realized heritability (h2) value (0.37) confirmed more genetic variability. Synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) showed a significant involvement of P-450 monooxygenase and esterase in cyromazine resistance development. These findings are helpful to design a natural enemy-friendly IPM strategy resulting in increased survival and performance of C. carnea controlling economic pests.


Assuntos
Insetos/fisiologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Triazinas/toxicidade , Animais , Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorpirifos/farmacologia , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Neonicotinoides , Butóxido de Piperonila/farmacologia , Piretrinas
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008697, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776976

RESUMO

The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is a cosmopolitan pest and the first species to develop field resistance to toxins from the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Although previous work has suggested that mutations of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C2 (ABCC2) or C3 (ABCC3) genes can confer Cry1Ac resistance, here we reveal that P. xylostella requires combined mutations in both PxABCC2 and PxABCC3 to achieve high-level Cry1Ac resistance, rather than simply a mutation of either gene. We identified natural mutations of PxABCC2 and PxABCC3 that concurrently occurred in a Cry1Ac-resistant strain (Cry1S1000) of P. xylostella, with a mutation (RA2) causing the mis-splicing of PxABCC2 and another mutation (RA3) leading to the premature termination of PxABCC3. Genetic linkage analysis showed that RA2 and RA3 were tightly linked to Cry1Ac resistance. Introgression of RA2 and RA3 enabled a susceptible strain (G88) of P. xylostella to obtain high resistance to Cry1Ac, confirming that these genes confer resistance. To further support the role of PxABCC2 and PxABCC3 in Cry1Ac resistance, frameshift mutations were introduced into PxABCC2 and PxABCC3 singly and in combination in the G88 strain with CRISPR/Cas9 mediated mutagenesis. Bioassays of CRISPR-based mutant strains, plus genetic complementation tests, demonstrated that the deletion of PxABCC2 or PxABCC3 alone provided < 4-fold tolerance to Cry1Ac, while disruption of both genes together conferred >8,000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac, suggesting the redundant/complementary roles of PxABCC2 and PxABCC3. This work advances our understanding of Bt resistance in P. xylostella by demonstrating mutations within both PxABCC2 and PxABCC3 genes are required for high-level Cry1Ac resistance.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Hemolisinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/química , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Mariposas/química , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/metabolismo , Mutação , Alinhamento de Sequência
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