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1.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 31(10): 717-739, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930630

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of several infectious viruses that cause yellow, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Recently, plant-derived products have been tested as safe and eco-friendly larvicides against Ae. aegypti. The present study aimed to improve QSAR models for 62 larvicidal phytocompounds against Ae. aegypti via the Monte Carlo method based on the index of the ideality of correlation (IIC) criterion. The representation of structures was done with SMILES. Three splits were prepared randomly and three QSAR models were constructed using IIC target function. The molecular descriptors were selected from SMILES descriptors and the hydrogen-filled molecular graphs. The predictability of three models was evaluated on the validation sets, the r 2 of which was 0.9770, 0.8660, and 0.8565 for models 1 to 3, respectively. The statistical results of three randomized splits indicated that robust, simple, predictive, and reliable models were obtained for different sets. From the modelling results, important descriptors were identified to enhance and reduce the larvicidal activity of compounds. Based on the identified important descriptors, some new structures of larvicidal compounds were proposed. The larvicidal activity of novel molecules designed further was supported by docking studies. Using the simple QSAR model, one can predict pLC50 of new similarity larvicidal phytocompounds.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Inseticidas/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126779, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957265

RESUMO

Pyrethroids are a class of highly effective, broad-spectrum, less toxic, biodegradable synthetic pesticides. However, despite the extremely wide application of pyrethroids, there are many problems, such as insecticide resistance, lethal/sub-lethal toxicity to mammals, aquatic organisms or other beneficial organisms. The objectives of this review were to cover the main structures, synthesis, steroisomers, mechanisms of action, anti-mosquito activities, resistance, photodegradation and toxicities of pyrethroids. That was to provide a reference for synthesizing or screening novel pyrethroids with low insecticide resistance and low toxicity to beneficial organisms, evaluating the environmental pollution of pyrethroids and its metabolites. Besides, pyrethroids are mainly used for the control of vectors such as insects, and the non-target organisms are mammals, aquatic organisms etc. While maintaining the insecticidal activity is important, its toxic effects on non-target organisms should be also considered. Pyrethroid resistance is present not only in insect mosquitoes but also in environmental microorganisms, which results in anti-pyrethroids resistance (APR) strains. Besides, photodegradation product dibenzofurans is harmful to mammals and environment. Additionally, pyrethroid metabolites may have higher hormonal interference than the parents. Particularly, delivery of pyrethroids in nanoform can reduce the discharge of more toxic substances (such as organic solvents, etc.) to the environment.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Animais , Culicidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/fisiologia , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Mosquitos Vetores , Fotólise , Piretrinas/química , Piretrinas/metabolismo
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111046, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888614

RESUMO

Agricultural pesticides serve as effective controls of unwanted weeds and pests. However, these same chemicals can exert toxic effects in non-target organisms. To determine chemical modes of action, the toxicity ratio (TR) and critical body residues (CBRs) of 57 pesticides were calculated for Daphnia magna. Results showed that the CBR values of inert compounds were close to a constant while the CBR values of pesticides varied over a wider range. Although herbicides are categorized as specifically-acting compounds to plants, herbicides did not exhibit excess toxicity to Daphnia magna and were categorized as inert compounds with an average logTR = 0.41, which was less than a threshold of one. Conversely, fungicides and insecticides exhibited strong potential for toxic effects to Daphnia magna with an average logTR >2. Many of these chemicals act via disruption of the nervous, respiratory, or reproductive system, with high ligand-receptor binding activity which leads to higher toxicity for Daphnia magna. Molecular docking using acetylcholinesterase revealed that fungicides and insecticides bind more easily with the biological macromolecule when compared with inert compounds. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis revealed that the toxicity of fungicides was mainly dependent upon the heat of formation and polar surface area, while the toxicity of insecticides was more related to hydrogen-bond properties. This comprehensive analysis reveals that there are specific differences in toxic mechanisms between fungicides and insecticides. These results are useful for determining relative risk associated with pesticide exposure to aquatic crustaceans, such as Daphnia magna.


Assuntos
Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Praguicidas/química , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Daphnia/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Herbicidas/química , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Resíduos de Praguicidas/metabolismo , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237258, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756605

RESUMO

Aquatic weeds such as muskgrass (Chara spp.), water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillate), filamentous algae (Lyngbya wollei), and duckweed (Lemna minor) thrive in farm canals within the Everglades Agricultural Area of South Florida. Their presence, particularly during the summer months is an environmental concern with regards to water quality, in addition to being a nuisance because of their ability to multiply and spread rapidly in open waters causing restricted drainage/irrigation flow and low dissolved oxygen levels. Chemical control is effective but can have undesirable off-target effects, so reduced herbicide use is desirable. Hence, need exists to discover ways in which these weeds could be best managed or utilized. The objective of this research was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of these weeds to determine their use as potential biopesticides. Six aqueous extracts were tested against 100 bacterial strains isolated from plants and soil to evaluate their antimicrobial activity. These extracts were also used to determine their insecticidal and antifeedant effects on fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda). Both extracts and powder form of the aquatic weeds were tested for their herbicidal activity towards seed germination and growth of three common terrestrial weed species. At a dilution of 1:100 and 1:1,000, none of the aquatic weeds inhibited in-vitro growth of the bacterial strains, with one exception (filamentous algae extract at 1:100 reduced growth of one bacterial isolate by 54%). Water lettuce reduced the survival rate of FAW by 14% while hydrilla and duckweed caused 11% and 9% reduction of FAW growth, respectively. Powdered duckweed inhibited the growth of nutsedge by 41%, whereas filamentous algae powder and extract reduced germination of amaranth by 20% and 28%, respectively. Harvesting these weeds and converting them into useable compounds could not only eliminate the in situ farm canal and water quality problems but also result in development of new soil amendments or biopesticides.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Agentes de Controle Biológico/toxicidade , Plantas Daninhas/química , Agricultura , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Agentes de Controle Biológico/química , Cianobactérias/química , Eichhornia/química , Hydrocharitaceae/química , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Food Chem ; 331: 127352, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652343

RESUMO

The influence of some additives, including metal ions, antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors and organic solvents, on the storage stability of four organophosphorus pesticides in cucumber samples were investigated. It was found that metal ions, including Al3+, Fe3+, and Co2+, increased the stability of dichlorvos, malathion, and chlorpyrifos. Conversely, Al3+, Fe3+, Fe2+, and Co2+ caused catalytic degradation of diazinon. With the addition of organic solvents (CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl4, CH3OH and CH3COCH3), remaining of diazinon residues was higher (16-54%) after storage for seven days. CCl4 was associated with the highest retention of malathion, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos (33%, 48% and 44%, respectively) in samples. SDS also stabilized the pesticides since residues were, again, higher (13-38%) after seven days storage. Furthermore, addition of Al3+ and Fe3+ decreased peroxidase (POD) activity and inhibited degradation of dichlorvos and malathion. After 14 days, lyophilization increased the pesticide residues remaining by 36%, 29%, and 58% for diazinon, malathion and chlorpyrifos, respectively. Overall, the stability of these pesticides during storage is impacted by water content and addition of exogenous substances. This could ensure higher quality of pesticide residue data in samples.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Inseticidas/química , Compostos Organofosforados/química , Alumínio/química , Clorpirifos/análise , Clorpirifos/química , Diazinon/análise , Diazinon/química , Diclorvós/análise , Diclorvós/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Liofilização , Inseticidas/análise , Malation/análise , Malation/química , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Oxirredutases/química , Peroxidases/química , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/química , Água/química
6.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127217, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535437

RESUMO

The widespread use of pesticides has received increasing attention in regulatory agencies because their extensive overuse and various adverse effects on all living organisms. Organizations such as EPA and ECHA have published laws that pesticides should be fully evaluated before bring them to market. In the present study, we evaluated the pesticides toxicity using the Quantitative Structural-Activity Relationship (QSAR) method. The models for the single class pesticides (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides) as well as the general class pesticides (the combined dataset plus some microbicides, molluscicides, etc.) were developed using the Genetic Algorithm and Multiple Linear Regression method. The internal and external validation results suggested that all the obtained models were stable and predictive. According to the modeling descriptors, the lipophilic descriptors contributed positively while all the electrotopological state descriptors showed a negative contribution, their presences in every model verified the conspicuous influence of molecular lipophilicity and hydrophilicity on the pesticides toxicity. However, the influence of topological structure descriptors was different and varies with the physiochemical information they encode. Finally, the models presented in this paper would help assess the pesticides toxicity against Americamysis bahia, shorten test time, and reduce the cost of pesticides risk assessment.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Teóricos , Praguicidas/química , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Herbicidas/química , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Modelos Lineares , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 672020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350159

RESUMO

We observed instances of cannibalism (intraspecific predation) among intra-instar larvae of Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758 while performing a bioassay of Lysinibacillus sphaericus (formerly named Bacillus sphaericus) larvicide, when the larvae were exposed to the larvicide for 48 h in the absence of food. Larvae without symptoms of poisoning attacked and devoured those visibly affected. Cannibalism was more prevalent in 1st-2nd instar larvae than in 3rd-4th instar. This phenomenon should be taken into account when interpreting the results of larvicide bioassays, especially when the exposure lasts over 24 h. The necessity of creating optimal conditions for organisms tested is emphasised.


Assuntos
Bacillaceae/química , Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Animais , Canibalismo , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Culex/fisiologia , Inseticidas/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233511, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428032

RESUMO

The western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) and the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are key hemipteran pests of numerous crop plants throughout the western United States and Mexico. Management in the U.S. currently relies on only a few insecticides and is threatened by the evolution of resistance. New chemistries or alternative management strategies are needed to reduce selection pressure on current insecticides and enhance control. Here, we investigated the bio-insecticidal toxicity of the French marigold, Tagetes patula Linnaeus (Asterales: Asteraceae), against both L. hesperus and B. tabaci. Assays indicated significantly reduced survival of both pest species on T. patula plants, and in diet incorporation assays containing aqueous and methanolic marigold foliar extracts. Mortality was concentration-dependent, indicating the presence of one or more extractable toxicants. These data suggest that T. patula plants have insecticidal constituents that might be identified and developed as novel alternatives to conventional chemical treatments.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Inseticidas , Controle de Pragas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Tagetes/química , Animais , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia
9.
Food Chem ; 326: 126922, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413749

RESUMO

Organophosphate pesticides are frequently used to eliminate or prevent insects in poultry. However, their residues may continue in meat after slaughtering. In this study, proteomics and peptidomics approaches were used to evaluate their oxidative impact on myosin and chicken breast proteins under in vitro conditions. Myosin protein was exposed to diazinon and chlorpyrifos showing an increase in its oxidation by increasing times, especially with chlorpyrifos. Then, chicken breast was contaminated with chlorpyrifos to evaluate carbonylation and the effect of simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Proteins were isolated using size-exclusion-chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry in tandem. Myosin, ß-enolase, CK-M-type and actin were identified as main proteins susceptible to oxidation. Also, oxidised peptides obtained before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion were identified. Collagen peptides the most susceptible to oxidation. These results suggest that the presence of chlorpyrifos residues on meat could have a negative effect on its final quality and nutritional value.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/química , Clorpirifos/química , Resíduos de Drogas/química , Inseticidas/química , Carne/análise , Miosinas/química , Animais , Galinhas , Diazinon/química , Oxirredução , Peptídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126672, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464766

RESUMO

Mounting evidence highlights the negative impacts of neonicotinoids on non-target organisms and ecosystem, yet there are a few of methods to address the residual neonicotinoids in environment. Herein, series of sulfur and oxygen co-doped carbon nitride (SOCNx) were successfully synthesized via one-step thermal polymerization and applied in photodegradation of multi-neonicotinoids (dinotefuran, acetamiprid, clothianidin, thiacloprid, imidacloprid, nitenpyram and thiamethoxam) simultaneously for the first time. Unique tubular structure was observed at the specific doping ratio, which enhanced both mass transfer and specific surface area of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4). The doping process changed the morphology of g-C3N4 materials and also affected its photocatalytic performance. The degradation rate of optimized material (SOCN8) for nitenpyram could surpass 90% just in 30 min under visible light in aqueous matrix. The degradation for target insecticide increased maximum efficiency of 57.6% compared to bulk g-C3N4. Moreover, the possible mechanism of the degradation process was proposed. The results revealed that photon-induced hole (h+) was the primary active species during the degradation of seven investigated neonicotinoids. Moreover, the SOCN8 showed excellent recyclability after four consecutive cycles, which implied promising applications for pesticide-contaminated water remedy.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/química , Neonicotinoides/química , Nitrilos/química , Fotólise , Catálise , Grafite/química , Inseticidas/efeitos da radiação , Neonicotinoides/efeitos da radiação , Compostos de Nitrogênio/química , Oxigênio/química , Enxofre/química
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230860, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413033

RESUMO

Since 2000, human malaria cases in Malaysia were rapidly reduced with the use of insecticides in Indoor Residual Spray (IRS) and Long-Lasting Insecticide Net (LLIN). Unfortunately, monkey malaria in humans has shown an increase especially in Sabah and Sarawak. The insecticide currently used in IRS is deltamethrin K-Othrine® WG 250 wettable granule, targeting mosquitoes that rest and feed indoor. In Sabah, the primary vector for knowlesi malaria is An. balabacensis a species known to bite outdoor. This study evaluates an alternative method, the Outdoor Residual Spray (ORS) using a novel formulation of deltamethrin K-Othrine® (PolyZone) to examine it suitability to control knowlesi malaria vector in Sabah, compared to the current method. The study was performed at seven villages in Sabah having similar type of houses (wood, bamboo and concrete). Houses were sprayed with deltamethrin K-Othrine® (PolyZone) at two different dosages, 25 mg/m2 and 30 mg/m2 and deltamethrin K-Othrine® WG 250 wettable granule at 25 mg/m2, sprayed indoor and outdoor. Residual activity on different walls was assessed using standard cone bioassay techniques. For larval surveillances, potential breeding sites were surveyed. Larvae were collected and identified, pre and post spraying. Adult survey was done using Human Landing Catch (HLC) performed outdoor and indoor. Detection of malaria parasite in adults was conducted via microscopy and molecular methods. Deltamethrin K-Othrine® (PolyZone) showed higher efficacy when sprayed outdoor. The efficacy was found varied when sprayed on different types of wall surfaces. Deltamethrin K-Othrine® (PolyZone) at 25 mg/m2 was the most effective with regards to ability to high mortality and effective knock down (KD). The vector population was reduced significantly post-spraying and reduction in breeding sites as well. The number of simian malaria infected vector, human and simian malaria transmission were also greatly reduced.


Assuntos
Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Malária/prevenção & controle , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/prevenção & controle , Aerossóis , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Haplorrinos , Inseticidas/química , Malária/transmissão , Malásia , Nitrilos/química , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/transmissão , Plasmodium knowlesi/patogenicidade , Piretrinas/química
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1927): 20200838, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453986

RESUMO

The putative synergistic action of target-site mutations and enhanced detoxification in pyrethroid resistance in insects has been hypothesized as a major evolutionary mechanism responsible for dramatic consequences in malaria incidence and crop production. Combining genetic transformation and CRISPR/Cas9 genome modification, we generated transgenic Drosophila lines expressing pyrethroid metabolizing P450 enzymes in a genetic background along with engineered mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (para) known to confer target-site resistance. Genotypes expressing the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti Cyp9J28 while also bearing the paraV1016G mutation displayed substantially greater resistance ratio (RR) against deltamethrin than the product of each individual mechanism (RRcombined: 19.85 > RRCyp9J28: 1.77 × RRV1016G: 3.00). Genotypes expressing Brassicogethes aeneus pollen beetle Cyp6BQ23 and also bearing the paraL1014F (kdr) mutation, displayed an almost multiplicative RR (RRcombined: 75.19 ≥ RRCyp6BQ23: 5.74 × RRL1014F: 12.74). Reduced pyrethroid affinity at the target site, delaying saturation while simultaneously extending the duration of P450-driven detoxification, is proposed as a possible underlying mechanism. Combinations of target site and P450 resistance loci might be unfavourable in field populations in the absence of insecticide selection, as they exert some fitness disadvantage in development time and fecundity. These are major considerations from the insecticide resistance management viewpoint in both public health and agriculture.


Assuntos
Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/química , Aedes , Animais , Besouros , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Mosquitos Vetores , Piretrinas
13.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126416, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380589

RESUMO

The flavonoid metal-insecticide magnesium-hesperidin complex (MgHP) has recently been considered as a novel insecticide to replace some persistent pesticides. However, it is important to evaluate its action on non-target species, mainly those living in an aquatic environment, as these ecosystems are the final receptors of most chemicals. Reactive oxygen species, antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers, genotoxicity as well as cell cycle was evaluated in the liver cell line from zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF-L) exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng mL-1 MgHP. MgHP affected cell stability by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both exposure times (24 and 96 h) at high concentrations. Catalase (CAT) activity decreased after 24 h exposure, and glutathione and metallothionein values increased, avoiding the lipid peroxidation. Genotoxicity increased as MgHP concentration increased, after 24 h exposure, exhibiting nuclear abnormalities; it was recovered after 96 h exposure, evidencing possible stimulation of DNA repair mechanisms. The alteration in the cell cycle (increasing in the Sub-G1 phase and decreasing in the S-phase) was associated with chromosomal instability. In conclusion, the responses of ROS and the antioxidant defense system depended on MgHP concentration and time exposure, while DNA exhibited some instability after 24 h exposure, which was recovered after 96 h.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Dano ao DNA , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hesperidina/química , Hesperidina/toxicidade , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Magnésio/química , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Peixe-Zebra
14.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(6): 864-870, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342111

RESUMO

Fraxinellone is an important botanical lactone compound and has been demonstrated to have insecticidal activity. To provide theoretical support to the assessment on the safety of utilizing fraxinellone as a natural insecticidal agent, the interactions between fraxinellone and armyworm DNA, salmon sperm DNA and calf thymus DNA were investigated using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and molecular docking. Results showed that there were two types of combinations between fraxinellone and three kinds of DNA. Type I combination had an equilibrium constant of combination (Ka1) of about 105 and binding sites (n1) of 0.40-0.70, while type II combination had an equilibrium constant of combination (Ka2) of 103 and binding sites (n2) of 1.35-3.15. Results of molecular docking showed that there were non-classical embedding type interactions between fraxinellone and three kinds of DNA, with the reaction taking place in small groove areas of the DNA structure, resulting in relatively weak interactive forces.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/química , Agentes de Controle Biológico/química , DNA/química , Inseticidas/química , Animais , Calorimetria , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Espectral , Termodinâmica
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 197: 110591, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283411

RESUMO

Benzoylphenylureas as an important type of insect growth regulators, acting on the moulting stage in immature insects, are highly effective and low toxic. The new benzoylphenylurea TXH09 [N-((2,6-dimethyl-4-(heptafluoropropyl-2-yl)phenyl)carbamoyl)-2,6-difluorobenzamide] has high efficacy against chewing insect pests harming vegetables and rice. In this paper, the efficacy of TXH09 against two intractable borers Ostrinia furnacalis and Grapholitha molesta were evaluated in field, and safety assessment by exploring the characteristics of photodegradation, cytotoxicity, micronucleus generation and chromosome aberration was performed. The results showed that TXH09 had good capability in preventing infested corn and reducing the population of O. furnacalis larvae, and maintained high efficacy on shoot protection and peach conservation against G. molesta larvae. There were no significant differences between the control effects of TXH09 and that of hexaflumuron or diflubenzuron at the same active dose. TXH09 photolysis in solvents N,N-dimethylformamide, toluene and methanol yielded two major products, and the photodegradation of TXH09 was more prone to occur in N,N-dimethylformamide. TXH09 and the mixture of its photoproducts showed higher cytotoxicity on insect Sf-9 cells than on human Hek293 cells. Moreover, TXH09 didn't show significant effects in inducing micronucleated cells in both male and female mice and chromosomal aberrations in mouse spermatocytes by its own. In conclusion, TXH09, as an effective insecticide, has good environmental safety performance against O. furnacalis and G. molesta in field.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Inseticidas/química , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Compostos de Fenilureia/química , Fotólise , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Células Sf9
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231251, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287300

RESUMO

Outdoor residual spraying is proposed for the control of exophilic mosquitoes. However, the residual effect of insecticide mists applied to outdoor resting habitats of mosquitoes is not well characterized. The objective of this study was to assess the longevity of the residual insecticidal effect of three pyrethroid formulations applied to outdoor vegetation against the Southeast Asian malaria vector Anopheles dirus. Lambda-cyhalothrin capsule suspension, deltamethrin emulsifiable concentrate and bifenthrin wettable powder were sprayed on dense bamboo bushes on the Thailand-Myanmar border during the dry season 2018. The duration and magnitude of the residual insecticidal effect were assessed weekly with a standard cone assay, using freshly collected insecticide-treated bamboo leaves and a laboratory-adapted colony of Anopheles dirus sensu stricto susceptible to pyrethroids. The experiment was repeated during the rainy season to assess the persistence of the lambda-cyhalothrin formulation after natural rains and artificial washings. During the dry season (cumulative rainfall = 28 mm in 111 days), mortality and knockdown (KD) rates were >80% for 60 days with bifenthrin and 90 days with lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin. The 50% knockdown time (TKD50) was <15 min with lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin, and <30 min with bifenthrin. During the rainy season (cumulative rainfall = 465 mm in 51 days), mortality and KD rates were >80% for 42 days and TKD50 was <15 min with lambda-cyhalothrin. Additional artificial washing of the testing material with 10L of tap water before performing the cone tests had no significant effect on the residual insecticidal effect of this formulation. Long-lasting residual insecticidal effect can be obtained when spraying pyrethroid insecticides on the outdoor resting habitats of malaria vectors.


Assuntos
Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Animais , Anopheles/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inseticidas/química , Mianmar , Nitrilos/química , Piretrinas/química , Tailândia
17.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126698, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302901

RESUMO

Organophosphates insecticides (OPs) are one of the major environmental pollutants and their interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) has been shown to have significant effects on their bioavailability which is related to toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics in human body. In this research, solid-phase microextraction methods were developed to analyse the free concentrations of three OPs (chlorpyrifos, parathion-methyl and malathion) in buffered HSA solution and that provide a useful method for the determination of binding affinity constants (Ka), binding forces and binding location. Polydimethylsiloxane fibers were selected for analysing the free concentrations of OPs, with an external calibration approach. Good linearities conducted in PBS solution were observed in the range of 0.0025-1.7 µmol L-1 (R2 = 0.9975) for chlorpyrifos, 1.0-27 µmol L-1 (R2 = 0.9974) for parathion-methyl, and 0.5-70 µmol L-1 (R2 = 0.9973)for malathion, respectively. The LODs for instrument response were 1 ng, 5 ng and 10 ng for chlorpyrifos, parathion-methyl and malathion, respectively. The Ka values for chlorpyrifos, parathion-methyl and malathion showed that they were positively correlated with hydrophobicity and negatively correlated with temperature. The OP binding sites on HSA were confirmed by site marker competition test and further proven by computational approaches. The recognition region of parathion-methyl was situated within residues 199-292 in subdomain IIA. Malathion bonded to residues 404-558 in subdomain IIIA. The mode of action between HSA-parathion-methyl and HSA-malathion is found to involve mainly by H-bonds, π-π stacking and hydrophobic effects. These results clearly demonstrate the noncovalent binding of OPs with HSA and provide new insight into solid-phase microextraction, thermodynamics and computational approaches.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/toxicidade , Compostos Organofosforados/toxicidade , Clorpirifos , Dimetilpolisiloxanos , Humanos , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Malation/análise , Metil Paration , Compostos Organofosforados/química , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Albumina Sérica Humana/química , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
18.
Chemosphere ; 252: 126572, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224362

RESUMO

The phenylpyrazole chiral insecticides, including the widely used fipronil, ethiprole, and flufiprole, have generated a worldwide interest due to their environmental toxicity. However, up to now,only few studies focused on their their potential endocrine-disrupting effects (EDEs). In this study, we investigated the endocrine hormonal disorder caused by the fipronil, ethiprole, and flufiprole enantiomers in vitro and in silico approach. Results of the luciferase reporter assay indicated that the enantiomers of fipronil, ethiprole, or flufiprole have shown stereoselective endocrine-disrupting effects. S-(-)-ethiprole and S-(-)-flufiprole have anti-thyroidal disorder effects whereas R-(-)-fipronil, R-(+)-ethiprole, and R-(+)-flufiprole showed anti-estrogenic disorder effects. The results of the molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the happened EDEs could be partially attributed to the enantioselective specific receptor binding affinities. It also suggested that Vander Waals interactions plays an important role in the binding procedure. This study could provide helpful information for the explanation of enantioselectivity in the EDEs of chiral phenylpyrazole pesticides at the molecular level.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Disruptores Endócrinos/química , Inseticidas/química , Praguicidas/química , Pirazóis/toxicidade , Estereoisomerismo
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(6): 1455-1462, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228790

RESUMO

Environmental factors, including high temperature and humidity, can influence dermal absorption of chemicals. Soldiers can be dermally exposed to permethrin while wearing permethrin-treated uniforms. This study aimed at examining the effects of high temperature and a combined high temperature and humid environment on permethrin absorption compared with ambient conditions when wearing a permethrin-treated uniform. Twenty-seven male enlisted soldiers wore study-issued permethrin-treated army uniforms for 33 consecutive hours in three different environments: 1) simulated high temperature (35°C, 40% relative humidity [rh]) (n = 10), 2) simulated high temperature and humidity (30°C, 70% rh) (n = 10), and 3) ambient conditions (13°C, 60% rh) (n = 7). Spot urine samples, collected at 21 scheduled time points before, during, and after wearing the study uniforms, were analyzed for permethrin exposure biomarkers (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) and creatinine. Biomarker concentrations were 60-90% higher in the heat and combined heat/humidity groups (P < 0.001-0.022) than the ambient group. Also, the average daily permethrin dose, calculated 12 hours after removing the treated uniforms, was significantly higher in the heat (P = 0.01) and the heat/humidity (P = 0.03) groups than the ambient group. There were no significant differences in biomarker concentrations or computed average daily dose between the heat and the heat/humidity groups. Both hot and combined hot and humid environmental conditions significantly increased permethrin absorption in soldiers wearing permethrin-treated uniforms.


Assuntos
Umidade , Inseticidas/urina , Militares , Permetrina/urina , Roupa de Proteção , Temperatura , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/urina , Humanos , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacocinética , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional , Permetrina/química , Permetrina/farmacocinética , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1153, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123169

RESUMO

Cyt1Aa is the one of four crystalline protoxins produced by mosquitocidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) that has been shown to delay the evolution of insect resistance in the field. Limiting our understanding of Bti efficacy and the path to improved toxicity and spectrum has been ignorance of how Cyt1Aa crystallizes in vivo and of its mechanism of toxicity. Here, we use serial femtosecond crystallography to determine the Cyt1Aa protoxin structure from sub-micron-sized crystals produced in Bti. Structures determined under various pH/redox conditions illuminate the role played by previously uncharacterized disulfide-bridge and domain-swapped interfaces from crystal formation in Bti to dissolution in the larval mosquito midgut. Biochemical, toxicological and biophysical methods enable the deconvolution of key steps in the Cyt1Aa bioactivation cascade. We additionally show that the size, shape, production yield, pH sensitivity and toxicity of Cyt1Aa crystals grown in Bti can be controlled by single atom substitution.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/química , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/química , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Dissulfetos/química , Endotoxinas/genética , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Células NIH 3T3 , Conformação Proteica , Células Sf9
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