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1.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Acre state, Brazil, the dissemination of cutaneous leishmaniasis has increased in recent years, with limited knowledge of the potential Leishmania spp. vectors involved. OBJECTIVES: Here, data concerning the sandfly fauna of Brasiléia municipality, Leishmania DNA-detection rates and the identification of blood meal sources of insects captured in 2013-2015 are presented. METHODS: Parasite detection in female sandflies was performed individually by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Leishmania kDNA/sandfly cacophony-gene), with the identification of Leishmania spp. by hsp70-PCR and sequencing. The identification of blood gut-content from fed females was performed by cyt b-PCR and sequencing. FINDINGS: A total of 4,473 sandflies were captured. A subgroup of 864 non-blood-fed females evaluated for the presence of Leishmania DNA showed 2.9% positivity for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis. The identification of blood meal sources was performed in 96 blood-fed females, allowing the identification of 13 vertebrate species. In nine/96 fed females, DNA from L. (V.) shawi, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis and Endotrypanum sp. was detected. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: In Brumptomyia sp. and Evandromyia termitophila, the first report of Leishmania DNA-detection is provided in Acre; Nyssomyia shawi is implicated as potential vector of L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis for the first time in Brazil.


Assuntos
DNA/análise , Insetos Vetores/genética , Leishmania/genética , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Feminino , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Psychodidae/classificação
2.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200218, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Southeast Brazil has recently experienced a Yellow Fever virus (YFV) outbreak where the mosquito Haemagogus leucocelaenus was a primary vector. Climatic factors influence the abundance of mosquito vectors and arbovirus transmission. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at describing the population dynamics of Hg. leucocelaenus in a county touched by the recent YFV outbreak. METHODS: Fortnightly egg collections with ovitraps were performed from November 2012 to February 2017 in a forest in Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The effects of mean temperature and rainfall on the Hg. leucocelaenus population dynamics were explored. FINDINGS: Hg. leucocelaenus eggs were continuously collected throughout the study, with a peak in the warmer months (December-March). The climatic variables had a time-lagged effect and four weeks before sampling was the best predictor for the positivity of ovitraps and total number of eggs collected. The probability of finding > 50% positive ovitraps increased when the mean temperature was above 24ºC. The number of Hg. leucocelaenus eggs expressively increase when the mean temperature and accumulated precipitation surpassed 27ºC and 100 mm, respectively, although the effect of rainfall was less pronounced. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring population dynamics of Hg. leucocelaenus and climatic factors in YFV risk areas, especially mean temperature, may assist in developing climate-based surveillance procedures to timely strengthening prophylaxis and control.


Assuntos
Culicidae/virologia , Florestas , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Febre Amarela , Vírus da Febre Amarela/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Culicidae/classificação , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520213

RESUMO

Although the chemical control against leishmaniasis began in 1953 in Brazil, little information is available on how this strategy has affected populations of phlebotomine sandflies in the field. The objective of this study was to analyze the susceptibility profile of four populations of phlebotomine sandflies to the insecticide alpha-cypermethrin. Sandflies collected in field in four Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using CDC bottles in different concentrations of alpha-cypermethrin. A total of 1,186 phlebotomine sandflies were used in the bioassays. The LD50 ranged from 1.48 to 2.57 ug/mL in the field populations. For a dose of 5 ug/mL of alpha-cypermethrin, the LT50 and LT95 ranged from 17.9 to 27.5 minutes, and LT95 from 39.7 to 61.5 minutes, respectively. All the populations studied were highly susceptible to the insecticide alpha-cypermethrin. Routine studies are needed to detect changes in sandflies susceptibility to insecticides.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Psychodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Animais , Brasil , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Psychodidae/classificação
5.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200067, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428176

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Culicoides transmit a variety of pathogens. Our aim was to survey the Culicoides species occurring in an Amazonian rural settlement, comparing abundance, richness, and diversity in different environments. METHODS: Culicoides were captured using CDC light traps. The Shannon-Wiener (H') and Rényi indices were used to compare species diversity and evenness between environments, the equitability (J') index was used to calculate the uniformity of distribution among species, and similarity was estimated using the Jaccard similarity index. A permutational multivariate analysis of variance was applied to assess the influence of environment on species composition. A non-metric dimensional scale was used to represent the diversity profiles of each environment in a multidimensional space. RESULTS: 6.078 Culicoides were captured, representing 84 species (45 valid species/39 morphotypes). H' values showed the following gradient: forest > capoeira > peridomicile > forest edge. The equitability J' was greater in capoeira and forests compared to peridomiciles and the forest edge. The population compositions of each environment differed statistically, but rarefaction estimates indicate that environments of the same type possessed similar levels of richness. Species of medical and veterinary importance were found primarily in peridomiciles: C. paraensis, vector of Oropouche virus; C. insignis and C. pusillus, vectors of Bluetongue virus; C. filariferus, C. flavivenula, C. foxi, and C. ignacioi, found carrying Leishmania DNA. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that diversity was higher in natural environments than in anthropized environments, while abundance and richness were highest in the most anthropized environment. These findings suggest that strictly wild Culicoides can adapt to anthropized environments.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ceratopogonidae/classificação , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , População Rural , Estações do Ano
6.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190503, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267457

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The genus Rhodnius in the subfamily Triatominae comprises 20 species, which can transmit Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli. Due to the development of molecular techniques, Triatominae species can now be characterized by mitochondrial and nuclear markers, making it possible to verify and/or correct the existing data on these species. The results achieved in this study provide a more detailed and accurate differentiation of the Rhodnius species, helping the establishment of a more appropriate classification. METHODS: Data collection was performed by DNA analysis, morphological and morphometric studies to distinguish four populations of R. neglectus and four of R. prolixus. Phylogenetic data were compared to morphological and morphometric data. RESULTS: The analysis of Cytb fragments suggests that the four colonies designated to Rhodnius neglectus as well as those of R. prolixus were correctly identified. CONCLUSIONS: The morphological characters observed in the specimens of the colonies originally identified as R. prolixus and R. neglectus, such as the presence or absence of collar in the eggs, the patterns of the median process of the pygophore, and anterolateral angle, are consistent with the species. Geometric morphometrics also show an intraspecific variability in R. prolixus.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/anatomia & histologia , Rhodnius/classificação , Animais , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Insetos Vetores/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Rhodnius/anatomia & histologia , Rhodnius/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190538, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267459

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis constitutes a serious but neglected tropical disease. Recently, socio-environmental, biological and physical changes have altered the range of leishmaniasis, causing it to spread into urban areas. In Minas Gerais, the disease is endemic, exhibiting regional differences and reaching urban centers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate entomological aspects related to the ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Itaúna. METHODS: Monthly catches with HP traps were carried out from June 2017 to May 2018, in three ecological areas (urban, rural, and forest). The adaptability of the species to anthropic environments was assessed using the synanthropy index (SI). RESULTS: We collected 1306 specimens of phlebotomine sand flies. Of the species of medical importance, Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum, represented 90.4% of the specimens identified at species level (n=1260). Nyssomyia whitmani, the vector of Leishmania braziliensis, represented 1.6% of the total. Lu. longipalpis displayed an SI of +95.8, a value that denotes a marked preference for human environments. For Ny. whitmani, the SI was -25, expressing the tendency of this species to occupy uninhabited areas. The population of the three most numerous species captured increased with rain, high temperatures, and high relative humidity. Although captured at low numbers, Ny. whitmani showed a different profile concerning the climate variables analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the epidemiology of the disease may assist the health services in formulating effective control measures for improving community health and contributing to the establishment of a dynamic relationship and a global awareness of the health/disease process.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/classificação , Psychodidae/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Masculino , População Rural , Estações do Ano , População Urbana
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 139, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Culicoides biting midges are biological vectors of arboviruses including bluetongue virus (BTV), Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV). Zoos are home to a wide range of 'at risk' exotic and native species of animals. These animals have a high value both in monetary terms, conservation significance and breeding potential. To understand the risk these viruses pose to zoo animals, it is necessary to characterise the Culicoides fauna at zoos and determine which potential vector species are feeding on which hosts. METHODS: Light-suction traps were used at two UK zoos: the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) London Zoo (LZ) and ZSL Whipsnade Zoo (WZ). Traps were run one night each week from June 2014 to June 2015. Culicoides were morphologically identified to the species level and any blood-fed Culicoides were processed for blood-meal analysis. DNA from blood meals was extracted and amplified using previously published primers. Sequencing was then carried out to determine the host species. RESULTS: A total of 11,648 Culicoides were trapped and identified (n = 5880 from ZSL WZ; n = 5768 from ZSL LZ), constituting 25 different species. The six putative vectors of BTV, SBV and AHSV in northern Europe were found at both zoos and made up the majority of the total catch (n = 10,701). A total of 31 host sequences were obtained from blood-fed Culicoides. Culicoides obsoletus/C. scoticus, Culicoides dewulfi, Culicoides parroti and Culicoides punctatus were found to be biting a wide range of mammals including Bactrian camels, Indian rhinoceros, Asian elephants and humans, with Culicoides obsoletus/C. scoticus also biting Darwin's rhea. The bird-biting species, Culicoides achrayi, was found to be feeding on blackbirds, blue tits, magpies and carrion crows. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly confirm blood-feeding of Culicoides on exotic zoo animals in the UK and shows that they are able to utilise a wide range of exotic as well as native host species. Due to the susceptibility of some zoo animals to Culicoides-borne arboviruses, this study demonstrates that in the event of an outbreak of one of these viruses in the UK, preventative and mitigating measures would need to be taken.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/sangue , Ceratopogonidae/classificação , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Feminino , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Reino Unido
9.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190436, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187341

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Triatomines are hematophagous insects of epidemiological importance because they are vectors of Chagas disease. We present here the first report of Rhodnius montenegrensis in Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Triatomines were collected from Attalea butyracea palm trees in the municipality of Guajará. RESULTS: Two adult female R. montenegrensis specimens were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms that the number of triatomine species within the Amazon has increased from 10 to 11, and the number of Brazilian states with R. montenegrensis has increased from two to three.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/anatomia & histologia , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Rhodnius/anatomia & histologia , Rhodnius/classificação , Animais , Brasil , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Feminino
10.
Acta Trop ; 205: 105433, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126211

RESUMO

Triatomines are insect vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi¸ the etiological agent of Chagas disease. Several species belonging to the genus Rhodnius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been reported inhabiting domestic and peridomestic environments in different regions of Latin America. However, behavioral and sensory ecology aspects related to their use of shelters have been poorly studied. The objective of the present study was to characterize how bug density, illumination and thigmotactic information affect the use of shelters by three species belonging to the Rhodnius prolixus species complex. We evaluated whether exposure to different insect densities affects the proportion of R. prolixus, Rhodnius robustus and Rhodnius neglectus that choose to stay inside a refuge. Besides, we evaluated whether absence of an illumination regime affects their tendency to hide in shelters. Our results showed that the proportion of individuals that remained outside the shelter increased with rising insect densities. Nevertheless, while R. prolixus only reacted by augmenting this proportion with the highest density tested, the other species showed significant increases already at lower densities. On the other hand, a significantly higher number of R. robustus stayed outside the shelter in the absence of a light cycle, while no change was induced for the other species. Thus, this study determined species-specific profiles of refuge exploitation defined by factors such as thigmotaxis and negative phototaxis. The differences observed among these Rhodnius species may impact their house colonization abilities, which seem to be critically affected by bug hiding performance during health service detection processes.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Rhodnius/fisiologia , Rhodnius/parasitologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie , Trypanosoma cruzi/fisiologia
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0007855, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092056

RESUMO

Glossina pallidipes is the main vector of animal African trypanosomiasis and a potential vector of human African trypanosomiasis in eastern Africa where it poses a large economic burden and public health threat. Vector control efforts have succeeded in reducing infection rates, but recent resurgence in tsetse fly population density raises concerns that vector control programs require improved strategic planning over larger geographic and temporal scales. Detailed knowledge of population structure and dispersal patterns can provide the required information to improve planning. To this end, we investigated the phylogeography and population structure of G. pallidipes over a large spatial scale in Kenya and northern Tanzania using 11 microsatellite loci genotyped in 600 individuals. Our results indicate distinct genetic clusters east and west of the Great Rift Valley, and less distinct clustering of the northwest separate from the southwest (Serengeti ecosystem). Estimates of genetic differentiation and first-generation migration indicated high genetic connectivity within genetic clusters even across large geographic distances of more than 300 km in the east, but only occasional migration among clusters. Patterns of connectivity suggest isolation by distance across genetic breaks but not within genetic clusters, and imply a major role for river basins in facilitating gene flow in G. pallidipes. Effective population size (Ne) estimates and results from Approximate Bayesian Computation further support that there has been recent G. pallidipes population size fluctuations in the Serengeti ecosystem and the northwest during the last century, but also suggest that the full extent of differences in genetic diversity and population dynamics between the east and the west was established over evolutionary time periods (tentatively on the order of millions of years). Findings provide further support that the Serengeti ecosystem and northwestern Kenya represent independent tsetse populations. Additionally, we present evidence that three previously recognized populations (the Mbeere-Meru, Central Kenya and Coastal "fly belts") act as a single population and should be considered as a single unit in vector control.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/genética , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/genética , Animais , Ecossistema , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Quênia , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogeografia , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Tanzânia , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/classificação , Moscas Tsé-Tsé/fisiologia
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 79, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Culicoides biting midges are potential vectors of different pathogens. However, especially for eastern Europe, there is a lack of knowledge on the host-feeding patterns of this vector group. Therefore, this study aimed to identify Culicoides spp. and their vertebrate hosts collected in a wetland ecosystem. METHODS: Culicoides spp. were collected weekly from May to August 2017, using Biogents traps with UV light at four sites in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, Romania. Vectors and hosts were identified with a DNA barcoding approach. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 was used to identify Culicoides spp., while vertebrate hosts were determined targeting cytochrome b or 16S rRNA gene fragments. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed to verify the biting midge identity against other conspecific Palaearctic Culicoides species. A set of unfed midges was used for morphological confirmation of species identification using slide-mounted wings. RESULTS: Barcoding allowed the species identification and detection of corresponding hosts for 1040 (82.3%) of the 1264 analysed specimens. Eight Culicoides spp. were identified with Culicoides griseidorsum, Culicoides puncticollis and Culicoides submaritimus as new species records for Romania. For 39 specimens no similar sequences were found in GenBank. This group of unknown Culicoides showed a divergence of 15.6-16.3% from the closest identified species and clustered in a monophyletic clade, i.e. a novel species or a species without reference sequences in molecular libraries. For all Culicoides spp., nine mammalian and 24 avian species were detected as hosts. With the exception of C. riethi (n = 12), at least one avian host was detected for all Culicoides spp., but this host group only dominated for Culicoides kibunensis and the unknown Culicoides sp.. The most common host group were mammals (n = 993, 87.6% of all identified blood sources) dominated by cattle (n = 817, 70.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Most Culicoides spp. showed a broad host-feeding pattern making them potential bridge vectors. At the same time, new records of biting midge species for Romania, as well as a potentially unknown Culicoides species, highlight the lack of knowledge regarding the biting midge species and their genetic diversity in eastern Europe.


Assuntos
Sangue , Ceratopogonidae/classificação , Ceratopogonidae/fisiologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Filogenia , Animais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Comportamento Alimentar , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Mamíferos/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Romênia , Áreas Alagadas
13.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190299, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994663

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Triatomine bugs are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. METHODS: Triatomine bugs were collected and identified following established protocols. In addition, infection with T. cruzi was detected by microscopic and molecular analysis. RESULTS: We captured an adult male specimen of the Eratyrus cuspidatus species that has not been reported in the state of Campeche. CONCLUSIONS: This finding provides new information on the distribution of E. cuspidatus in Mexico. However, more studies are needed to determine their epidemiological significance.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/anatomia & histologia , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Triatominae/anatomia & histologia , Triatominae/classificação , Animais , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Masculino , México
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 33, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triatomines are natural vectors of Chagas disease and are mainly prevalent in the Americas. In China, previous data from decades ago showed that there were two species of triatomine bugs, Triatoma rubrofasciata and T. sinica. However, the distribution, genetic characteristics and public health implications of triatomines in China are still relatively unknown. In order to gain knowledge on the distribution, genetic characteristics and public health implications of the triatomines in Guangxi, China, an entomological-epidemiological study and genetic research was conducted. METHODS: Different methods were used to elucidate the distribution of triatomines in Guangxi including consultations with county-level Center for Disease Prevention and Control staff and village doctors, the distribution of educational material on triatomines though the internet and social media apps such as Wechat and QQ, and conducting manual inspections and light trapping to collect triatomines. The morphological characteristics of the collected triatomines were identified under light microscopy. The mitochondrial 16S rRNA, cytochrome b (cytb) genes and nuclear 28S rRNA gene were amplified, sequenced and used in phylogenetic analyses. RESULTS: A total of 305 triatomines were captured from 54 different sites in 13 cities in Guangxi. All collected bugs were identified as T. rubrofasciata based on morphology. Most triatomine collection sites were around or inside houses. Four triatomines bite cases were observed during the investigation indicating that triatomine bites are common, the bites can cause serious anaphylaxis and skin papules and urticaria, suggesting a systemic skin response. The 16S rRNA, 28S rRNA and cytb sequence analyses of T. rubrofasciata from Guangxi and other countries showed that T. rubrofasciata sequences from different regions exhibit a high similarity, with no geographical differences. The phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA and cytb genes showed that T. rubrofasciata sequences from different regions and continents were in the same cluster, indicating no differentiation among different geographical populations. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that T. rubrofasciata is widely distributed in Guangxi and that people are commonly bitten by this insect in some regions. This highlights the need to enhance surveillance for and control of T. rubrofasciata and to strengthen the monitoring of imported Trypanosoma cruzi in China. The 16S rRNA, 28S rRNA and cytb sequence analyses of T. rubrofasciata from different regions and continents suggested that T. rubrofasciata populations exhibit high similarity, and the clustering in the phylogenetic analyses indicates that T. rubrofasciata has a close ancestor originating in the Americas.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/epidemiologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Triatoma/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Citocromos b/genética , DNA/química , DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/parasitologia , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/patologia , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Insetos Vetores/genética , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Triatoma/classificação , Triatoma/genética , Triatoma/parasitologia
15.
J Med Entomol ; 57(1): 297-303, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380562

RESUMO

Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heidemann) is an invasive species introduced in Europe, Asia, and most recently South America. In the present study, we report the overreaction situation caused by this bug in Chile, as it has been confused with kissing bugs (Reduviidae: Triatominae), Chagas' disease vectors. During 2018 and first months of 2019, we received 74 alleged cases of kissing bugs to confirm identification. From these, a total of 63 were identified as L. occidentalis, representing a 85% of the total denounces. Additionally, the first bite case in a human is described. The situation caused by L. occidentalis in Chile is discussed, and an illustrated table is provided to correctly identify this species and tell it apart from Triatomines. It is concluded that L. occidentalis is well established in Chile, and it is necessary to educate the population on recognition of the bug and to avoid overreaction as the species can inflict painful bites, but not transmit any disease.


Assuntos
Heterópteros/classificação , Espécies Introduzidas , Triatominae/classificação , Animais , Doença de Chagas , Chile , Feminino , Heterópteros/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Masculino , Triatominae/fisiologia
16.
J Med Entomol ; 57(1): 259-265, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346619

RESUMO

The study aims to make an update on the distribution and ecology of sand flies in the Quang Ninh province, Northern Vietnam, where Leishmania cases were reported in 2001. Seventeen sites were chosen in three districts of the province: Ha Long, Cam Pha, and Hoanh Bo. Phlebotomine sand flies were collected using 68 CDC light traps from May 30 to 3 June 2016. Captured specimens were transferred individually into Eppendorf tubes with 90% ethanol. The sand fly heads and genitalia were removed and were mounted in Euparal after successive different baths. Specimen identification was determined based on the morphology of the cibarium, pharynx, and/or male genitalia or female spermathecae. A total of 416 sand flies (125 females, 283 males) belonging to four genera were collected and 10 sand fly species were identified: Sergentomyia silvatica, Se. barraudi, Se. hivernus, Se. bailyi, Phlebotomus mascomai, Ph. stantoni, Ph. yunshengensis, Ph. betisi, Chinius junlianensis, Idiophlebotomus longiforceps. The Sergentomyia genus prevailed (79.7% of the collected sand flies), followed by the Phlebotomus genus (13.7%), the Chinius genus (6.1%), and the Idiophlebotomus genus (0.8%). Besides these well-defined taxa, five specimens, named sp1, showed unknown morphological characteristics, requiring further study. The majority of sand flies were collected in rock caves suggesting the cavernicolous character of the species in the Quang Ninh province. However, specimens were also collected in intra and peridomiciliary sites in which Ph. stantoni and Se. hivernus were found as the main species. It is worth noting that two Ph. stantoni were found in the house of a patient affected by Leishmania.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Psychodidae/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Leishmania , Leishmaniose , Masculino , Psychodidae/classificação , Vietnã
17.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105225, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654646

RESUMO

The Triatoma genus is paraphyletic, and its species are grouped into complexes and subcomplexes. Given the fact that species that make up a given subcomplex generally share chromosomal traits, we analyzed the distribution of AT- and CG-rich DNA of the T. brasiliensis species subcomplex, in order to establish affinities among members of the T. brasiliensis subcomplex based on chromatin and chromosome traits and develop an identification key for the four monophyletic Triatoma subcomplexes from South America. All species exhibited a CG-rich X sex chromosome and autosomes, as well as an AT-rich Y sex chromosome. This feature can be used as a diagnostic characteristic to determine whether a given species is a member of the T. brasiliensis subcomplex, because it enables the differentiation of these species from all Triatoma of South America. Thus, we confirmed the chromosomal relationship of the T. brasiliensis species subcomplex and developed a dichotomous key based on the chromocenter to differentiate the species from this subcomplex from the other monophyletic Triatoma subcomplexes from South America.


Assuntos
Classificação , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Insetos Vetores/genética , Triatoma/classificação , Triatoma/genética , Animais , Variação Genética , Masculino , América do Sul
18.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 744-749, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800884

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania parasite that is disseminated by some species of sandflies and hosted by a variety of reservoirs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in the municipalities of the Mato Grosso Pantanal. Human data were obtained from the Information System of Notifiable Diseases, and the canine and vector results from the State Department of Health of Mato Grosso. Between 2007 and 2016, 10 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and 499 cases of tegumentary leishmaniasis were identified in the Pantanal region. The surveillance studies regarding the canine reservoir demonstrated that the parasite was present in six of the seven municipalities. Vectors of visceral leishmaniasis were present in five municipalities and vectors of tegumentary leishmaniasis in six. Enhancement of services aimed at controlling this disease is fundamental to prevent an increase in the number of cases in the region.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Incidência , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Psychodidae/classificação
19.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190119, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859942

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oral transmission of acute Chagas disease is an emerging public health concern. This study aimed to detect insect fragments in experimentally contaminated food, by comparing triatomines with other insects. METHODS: Food samples were experimentally contaminated with insects, processed to recover their fragments by light filth, and analyzed by microscopy and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). RESULTS: Morphological differences between coleopteran and triatomine insects were observed in microscopic images. PCR was efficient in amplifying Triatominae DNA in the experimentally contaminated food. CONCLUSIONS: This methodology could be utilized by food analysts to identify possible insect contamination in food samples.


Assuntos
Besouros/classificação , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Saccharum/parasitologia , Triatominae/classificação , Animais , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 604, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification of Trypanosoma cruzi and blood-meal sources in synanthropic triatomines is important to assess the potential risk of Chagas disease transmission. We identified T. cruzi infection and blood-meal sources of triatomines caught in and around houses in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, and mapped the occurrence of infected triatomines that fed on humans and domestic animals. METHODS: Triatominae bugs were manually captured by trained agents from the Epidemiologic Surveillance team of Bahia State Health Service between 2013 and 2014. We applied conventional PCR to detect T. cruzi and blood-meal sources (dog, cat, human and bird) in a randomized sample of triatomines. We mapped triatomine distribution and analyzed vector hotspots with kernel density spatial analysis. RESULTS: In total, 5906 triatomines comprising 15 species were collected from 127 out of 417 municipalities in Bahia. The molecular analyses of 695 triatomines revealed a ~10% T. cruzi infection rate, which was highest in the T. brasiliensis species complex. Most bugs were found to have fed on birds (74.2%), and other blood-meal sources included dogs (6%), cats (0.6%) and humans (1%). Trypanosoma cruzi-infected triatomines that fed on humans were detected inside houses. Spatial analysis showed a wide distribution of T. cruzi-infected triatomines throughout Bahia; triatomines that fed on dogs, humans, and cats were observed mainly in the northeast region. CONCLUSIONS: Synanthropic triatomines have a wide distribution and maintain the potential risk of T. cruzi transmission to humans and domestic animals in Bahia. Ten species were recorded inside houses, mainly Triatoma sordida, T. pseudomaculata, and the T. brasiliensis species complex. Molecular and spatial analysis are useful to reveal T. cruzi infection and blood-meal sources in synanthropic triatomines, identifying areas with ongoing threat for parasite transmission and improving entomological surveillance strategies.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Triatominae/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Brasil , Gatos , Cães , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Triatominae/classificação , Triatominae/fisiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/classificação , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética
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