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1.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200313, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti is the sole vector of urban arboviruses in French Guiana. Overtime, the species has been responsible for the transmission of viruses during yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika outbreaks. Decades of vector control have produced resistant populations to deltamethrin, the sole molecule available to control adult mosquitoes in this French Territory. OBJECTIVES: Our surveillance aimed to provide public health authorities with data on insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations and other species of interest in French Guiana. Monitoring resistance to the insecticide used for vector control and to other molecule is a key component to develop an insecticide resistance management plan. METHODS: In 2009, we started to monitor resistance phenotypes to deltamethrin and target-site mechanisms in Ae. aegypti populations across the territory using the WHO impregnated paper test and allelic discrimination assay. FINDINGS: Eight years surveillance revealed well-installed resistance and the dramatic increase of alleles on the sodium voltage-gated gene, known to confer resistance to pyrethroids (PY). In addition, we observed that populations were resistant to malathion (organophosphorous, OP) and alpha-cypermethrin (PY). Some resistance was also detected to molecules from the carbamate family. Finally, those populations somehow recovered susceptibility against fenitrothion (OP). In addition, other species distributed in urban areas revealed to be also resistant to pyrethroids. CONCLUSION: The resistance level can jeopardize the efficiency of chemical adult control in absence of other alternatives and conducts to strongly rely on larval control measures to reduce mosquito burden. Vector control strategies need to evolve to maintain or regain efficacy during epidemics.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos Vetores/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Aedes/genética , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Guiana Francesa , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
2.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190431, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) may be effective for vector control of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Their efficacy, however, has not been sufficiently evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the large-scale efficacy of LLINs on Lutzomyia longiflocosa entomological parameters up to two years post-intervention in the sub-Andean region of Colombia. METHODS: A matched-triplet cluster-randomised study of 21 rural settlements, matched by pre-intervention L. longiflocosa indoor density was used to compare three interventions: dip it yourself (DIY) lambda-cyhalothrin LLIN, deltamethrin LLIN, and untreated nets (control). Sand fly indoor density, feeding success, and parity were recorded using CDC light trap collections at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months post-intervention. FINDINGS: Both LLINs reduced significantly (74-76%) the indoor density and the proportion of fully engorged sand flies up to two years post-intervention without differences between them. Residual lethal effects of both LLINs and the use of all nets remained high throughout the two-year evaluation period. CONCLUSIONS: Both LLINs demonstrated high efficacy against L. longiflocosa indoors. Therefore, the deployment of these LLINs could have a significant impact on the reduction of CL transmission in the sub-Andean region. The DIY lambda-cyhalothrin kit may be used to convert untreated nets to LLINs increasing coverage.


Assuntos
Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Leishmaniose Cutânea/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , Colômbia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Mosquitos Vetores , População Rural
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008404, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687497

RESUMO

The northeastern semiarid region stands out in the Brazilian context regarding the eco-epidemiology of Chagas disease, in which Triatoma brasiliensis is the main vector of Trypanosoma cruzi. Persistent house invasion threatens the relative levels of progress achieved over previous decades. We conducted an intervention trial with a five-year follow-up to assess the impacts of residual spraying with pyrethroid insecticides on house infestation with T. brasiliensis in 18 rural villages (242 houses) located in the Tauá, Ceará. House infestations were assessed by systematic manual searches for triatomines in every domestic and peridomestic habitat on five occasions. Triatomines were collected in peridomestic (57.5%), sylvatic (35.8%), and intradomiciliary (6.7%) habitats. The most important ecotopes of T. brasiliensis were containing roofing tiles, bricks or rocks (23.4% ± 9.1). Residual insecticide spraying substantially reduced baseline house infestation rates from 27.9% to 5.9% by 6 months post first spraying (MPS). The decline was substantially greater in intradomiciles (11.2% to 0.8%) than in peridomiciles (16.7% to 5%). The mean relative density of triatomines recovered its preintervention values at 14 MPS in intradomiciles, and in the main peridomestic ecotopes. The house infestation levels recorded at 14 MPS persisted thereafter despite all reinfested houses were selectively sprayed on every occasion. Overall average bug infection rates with T. cruzi in the five occasions were in intradomiciles (11.1%), peridomiciles (4.7%) and wild habitats (3.3%). In peridomicile T. cruzi infection rates decreased significantly at all stages after chemical intervention. In intradomicile, the only significant difference occurred at 20 MPS (7.7% to 30.8%). The vectorial capacity of T. brasiliensis, combined with its invasive potential from sylvatic sources and the limited effectiveness of chemical control in the harsh caatinga landscape, pose serious obstacles to the definite elimination of domestic transmission risks. Systematic vector surveillance supported by community participation and locally adapted environmental management measures are needed to reduce the risks of establishment of domestic transmission with T. cruzi in this region.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos/métodos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Triatoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil , Habitação , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Saúde da População Rural , Triatoma/fisiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520213

RESUMO

Although the chemical control against leishmaniasis began in 1953 in Brazil, little information is available on how this strategy has affected populations of phlebotomine sandflies in the field. The objective of this study was to analyze the susceptibility profile of four populations of phlebotomine sandflies to the insecticide alpha-cypermethrin. Sandflies collected in field in four Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using CDC bottles in different concentrations of alpha-cypermethrin. A total of 1,186 phlebotomine sandflies were used in the bioassays. The LD50 ranged from 1.48 to 2.57 ug/mL in the field populations. For a dose of 5 ug/mL of alpha-cypermethrin, the LT50 and LT95 ranged from 17.9 to 27.5 minutes, and LT95 from 39.7 to 61.5 minutes, respectively. All the populations studied were highly susceptible to the insecticide alpha-cypermethrin. Routine studies are needed to detect changes in sandflies susceptibility to insecticides.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Psychodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Animais , Brasil , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Leishmaniose/transmissão , Psychodidae/classificação
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231251, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287300

RESUMO

Outdoor residual spraying is proposed for the control of exophilic mosquitoes. However, the residual effect of insecticide mists applied to outdoor resting habitats of mosquitoes is not well characterized. The objective of this study was to assess the longevity of the residual insecticidal effect of three pyrethroid formulations applied to outdoor vegetation against the Southeast Asian malaria vector Anopheles dirus. Lambda-cyhalothrin capsule suspension, deltamethrin emulsifiable concentrate and bifenthrin wettable powder were sprayed on dense bamboo bushes on the Thailand-Myanmar border during the dry season 2018. The duration and magnitude of the residual insecticidal effect were assessed weekly with a standard cone assay, using freshly collected insecticide-treated bamboo leaves and a laboratory-adapted colony of Anopheles dirus sensu stricto susceptible to pyrethroids. The experiment was repeated during the rainy season to assess the persistence of the lambda-cyhalothrin formulation after natural rains and artificial washings. During the dry season (cumulative rainfall = 28 mm in 111 days), mortality and knockdown (KD) rates were >80% for 60 days with bifenthrin and 90 days with lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin. The 50% knockdown time (TKD50) was <15 min with lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin, and <30 min with bifenthrin. During the rainy season (cumulative rainfall = 465 mm in 51 days), mortality and KD rates were >80% for 42 days and TKD50 was <15 min with lambda-cyhalothrin. Additional artificial washing of the testing material with 10L of tap water before performing the cone tests had no significant effect on the residual insecticidal effect of this formulation. Long-lasting residual insecticidal effect can be obtained when spraying pyrethroid insecticides on the outdoor resting habitats of malaria vectors.


Assuntos
Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Animais , Anopheles/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inseticidas/química , Mianmar , Nitrilos/química , Piretrinas/química , Tailândia
6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 25, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved access to health care and quality of services require integrated efforts and innovations, including community empowerment and participation in transformation processes. Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease that is generally controlled by insecticide spraying. To achieve community empowerment in a health program, actions for social innovations may include: community-based research, interdisciplinary and intersectoral participation, community perception of direct benefits and participation in health or environmental improvements. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the processes by which an interdisciplinary team, in collaboration with communities of Comapa, Guatemala, developed an effective solution to address the risk for Chagas disease. METHODS: A qualitative study involving interviews semi-structured and direct observation was conducted using a case study approach to describe and understand the community-based research and intervention process developed by researchers from the Laboratory of Applied Entomology and Parasitology of the Universidad de San Carlos of Guatemala (Laboratorio de Entomologia y Parasitologia Aplicada). Nine interviews were conducted with the investigators, innovators, members of the community in which the intervention had been implemented. NVivo software (version 12) was used for the emergent coding and analysis of the interviews. RESULTS: Processes of social transformation were evident within households, and the communities that transcended the mere improvement of walls and floors. New social dynamics that favored the household economy and conditions of hygiene and home care that positively impacted the health of the community. We describe how the integration of criteria of social innovation into a home improvement strategy for Chagas disease control, can generate processes of transformation in health by considering sociocultural conditions, encouraging dialogue between public health approaches and traditional practices. We identify and discuss processes for Social Innovations in Health and identify their potential in improving community health in Latin America. CONCLUSIONS: When social innovation criteria are included in a health control initiative, the community-based research and the interdisciplinary and intersectoral participation facilitate the implementation of the control strategy, the perceived benefits by the community and its empowerment to sustain and share the strategy. The case study provided understanding of the intersectoral and interdisciplinary dynamics in particular contexts, and documented the relevance of innovation criteria in health processes.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Controle de Insetos , Animais , Doença de Chagas/psicologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Participação da Comunidade , Empoderamento , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Guatemala , Humanos , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Características de Residência , Triatoma
7.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 30, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As of 2015 thousands of refugees are being hosted in temporary refugee camps in Greece. Displaced populations, travelling and living under poor conditions with limited access to healthcare are at a high risk of exposure to vector borne disease (VBD). This study sought to evaluate the risk for VBD transmission within refugee camps in Greece by analyzing the mosquito and sand fly populations present, in light of designing effective and efficient context specific vector and disease control programs. METHODS: A vector/pathogen surveillance network targeting mosquitoes and sand flies was deployed in four temporary refugee camps in Greece. Sample collections were conducted bi-weekly during June-September 2017 with the use of Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and oviposition traps. Using conventional and molecular diagnostic tools we investigated the mosquito/sand fly species composition, population dynamics, pathogen infection rates, and insecticide resistance status in the major vector species. RESULTS: Important disease vectors including Anopheles sacharovi, Culex pipiens, Aedes albopictus and the Leishmania vectors Phlebotomus neglectus, P. perfiliewi and P. tobbi were recorded in the study refugee camps. No mosquito pathogens (Plasmodium parasites, flaviviruses) were detected in the analysed samples yet high sand fly Leishmania infection rates are reported. Culex pipiens mosquitoes displayed relatively high knock down resistance (kdr) mutation allelic frequencies (ranging from 41.0 to 63.3%) while kdr mutations were also detected in Ae. albopictus populations, but not in Anopheles and sand fly specimens. No diflubenzuron (DFB) mutations were detected in any of the mosquito species analysed. CONCLUSIONS: Important disease vectors and pathogens in vectors (Leishmania spp.) were recorded in the refugee camps indicating a situational risk factor for disease transmission. The Cx. pipiens and Ae. albopictus kdr mutation frequencies recorded pose a potential threat against the effectiveness of pyrethroid insecticides in these settings. In contrast, pyrethroids appear suitable for the control of Anopheles mosquitoes and sand flies and DFB for Cx. pipiens and Ae. albopictus larvicide applications. Targeted actions ensuring adequate living conditions and the establishment of integrated vector-borne disease surveillance programs in refugee settlements are essential for protecting refugee populations against VBDs.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos Vetores/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Leishmania , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Dinâmica Populacional , Campos de Refugiados , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Aedes/genética , Animais , Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Anopheles/genética , Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Culex/genética , Feminino , Grécia , Leishmania/genética , Leishmania/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Phlebotomus/efeitos dos fármacos , Phlebotomus/genética , Psychodidae
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0007719, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126087

RESUMO

The putative vector of trachoma, Musca sorbens, prefers to lay its eggs on human faeces on the ground. This study sought to determine whether M. sorbens females were attracted to volatile odours from human faeces in preference to odours from the faeces of other animals, and to determine whether specific volatile semiochemicals mediate selection of the faeces. Traps baited with the faeces of humans and local domestic animals were used to catch flies at two trachoma-endemic locations in The Gambia and one in Ethiopia. At all locations, traps baited with faeces caught more female M. sorbens than control traps baited with soil, and human faeces was the most successful bait compared with soil (mean rate ratios 44.40, 61.40, 10.50 [P<0.001]; 8.17 for child faeces [P = 0.004]). Odours from human faeces were sampled by air entrainment, then extracts of the volatiles were tested by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography with laboratory-reared female M. sorbens. Twelve compounds were electrophysiologically active and tentatively identified by coupled mass spectrometry-gas chromatography, these included cresol, indole, 2-methylpropanoic acid, butanoic acid, pentanoic acid and hexanoic acid. It is possible that some of these volatiles govern the strong attraction of M. sorbens flies to human faeces. If so, a synthetic blend of these chemicals, at the correct ratios, may prove to be a highly attractive lure. This could be used in odour-baited traps for monitoring or control of this species in trachoma-endemic regions.


Assuntos
Fezes/química , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Muscidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Feromônios/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Cromatografia Gasosa , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Etiópia , Feminino , Gâmbia , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Masculino , Muscidae/fisiologia , Feromônios/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Parasitol ; 50(3): 171-176, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126240

RESUMO

Prevention of canine Leishmania infantum infection is critical to management of visceral leishmaniasis in people living in endemic areas of Brazil. A bill (PL 1738/11), currently under consideration, proposes to establish a national vaccination policy against canine leishmaniasis in Brazil. However, there is no solid scientific evidence supporting the idea that this could reduce transmission from infected vaccinated dogs to sand flies to a level that would significantly reduce the risk of L. infantum infection or visceral leishmaniasis in humans. Thus, we advocate that insecticide-impregnated collars should the first line protective measure for public health purposes and that vaccines are applied on a case-by-case, optional basis for individual dog protection.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/veterinária , Administração Tópica , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Vacinas contra Leishmaniose , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Psychodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/farmacologia
10.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 53, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aedes-borne diseases such as dengue and chikungunya constitute constant threats globally. In Tanzania, these diseases are transmitted by Aedes aegypti, which is widely distributed in urban areas, but whose ecology remains poorly understood in small towns and rural settings. METHODS: A survey of Ae. aegypti aquatic habitats was conducted in and around Ifakara, a fast-growing town in south-eastern Tanzania. The study area was divided into 200 × 200 m search grids, and habitats containing immature Aedes were characterized. Field-collected Ae. aegypti were tested for susceptibility to common public health insecticides (deltamethrin, permethrin, bendiocarb and pirimiphos-methyl) in the dry and rainy seasons. RESULTS: Of 1515 and 1933 aquatic habitats examined in the dry and rainy seasons, 286 and 283 contained Aedes immatures, respectively (container index, CI: 18.9-14.6%). In the 2315 and 2832 houses visited in the dry and rainy seasons, 114 and 186 houses had at least one Aedes-positive habitat, respectively (house index, HI: 4.9-6.6%). The main habitat types included: (i) used vehicle tires and discarded containers; (ii) flowerpots and clay pots; and (iii) holes made by residents on trunks of coconut trees when harvesting the coconuts. Used tires had highest overall abundance of Ae. aegypti immatures, while coconut tree-holes had highest densities per habitat. Aedes aegypti adults were susceptible to all tested insecticides in both seasons, except bendiocarb, against which resistance was observed in the rainy season. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study on ecology and insecticide susceptibility of Ae. aegypti in Ifakara area, and will provide a basis for future studies on its pathogen transmission activities and control. The high infestation levels observed indicate significant risk of Aedes-borne diseases, requiring immediate action to prevent potential outbreaks in the area. While used tires, discarded containers and flowerpots are key habitats for Ae. aegypti, this study also identified coconut harvesting as an important risk factor, and the associated tree-holes as potential targets for Aedes control. Since Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the area are still susceptible to most insecticides, effective control could be achieved by combining environmental management, preferably involving communities, habitat removal and insecticide spraying.


Assuntos
Aedes , Distribuição Animal , Ecossistema , Inseticidas , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Cidades , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Dengue/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , População Rural , Estações do Ano , Tanzânia
12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15274, 2019 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649285

RESUMO

Attention is increasingly focusing on how best to accelerate progress toward meeting the WHO's 2030 goals for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). For river blindness, a major NTD targeted for elimination, there is a long history of using vector control to suppress transmission, but traditional larvicide-based approaches are limited in their utility. One innovative and sustainable approach, "slash and clear", involves clearing vegetation from breeding areas, and recent field trials indicate that this technique very effectively reduces the biting density of Simulium damnosum s.s. In this study, we use a Bayesian data-driven mathematical modeling approach to investigate the potential impact of this intervention on human onchocerciasis infection. We developed a novel "slash and clear" model describing the effect of the intervention on seasonal black fly biting rates and coupled this with our population dynamics model of Onchocerca volvulus transmission. Our results indicate that supplementing annual drug treatments with "slash and clear" can significantly accelerate the achievement of onchocerciasis elimination. The efficacy of the intervention is not very sensitive to the timing of implementation, and the impact is meaningful even if vegetation is cleared only once per year. As such, this community-driven technique will represent an important option for achieving and sustaining O. volvulus elimination.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Onchocerca volvulus/efeitos dos fármacos , Oncocercose Ocular/prevenção & controle , Oncocercose Ocular/transmissão , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
13.
Int Health ; 11(5): 341-343, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529112

RESUMO

Vector control is essential for the prevention and reduction of malaria transmission and is increasingly recognised as a key element of several neglected tropical disease (NTD) elimination programmes. Very few vector control interventions have a strong evidence base for their public health impact, and those that do are insecticide-based and threatened by resistance. The pipeline of new interventions and new insecticides is being filled and several are undergoing randomised controlled trials. If these are subsequently to be used sustainably, interventions will need to be combined. The major challenge will be to generate the evidence base and funding to achieve this sustainable combination at the country level. Unless this is done, the selection pressure for resistance to the new generation of vector control tools is likely to rapidly reduce our ability to control insect vectors in the foreseeable future.


Assuntos
Insetos Vetores , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 160: 163-170, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519251

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti is a major mosquito vector that can transfer many deadly diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and yellow fever viruses. Due to the developing resistance among the vector populations by the application of chemical insecticides, alternative eco-friendly vector management strategies are being focused. In this aspect, the present study was carried out to evaluate the mosquitocidal potentials of essential oil of Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (EO-Sa). EO-Sa was found to be effective against Ae. aegypti mosquito vector by exhibiting significant larvicidal, adulticidal and repellent activities. GCMS analysis of EO-Sa revealed the presence of Carvone as the major component (peak area of 89.7%). The larvicidal bioassays performed revealed that the second instar larvae were relatively more susceptible (94.32% mortality) to EO-Sa treatments (75 ppm), LC50, 20.38 ppm.The sub lethal treatment concentration (20 ppm) significantly affected the oviposition, fecundity and morphology of Ae. aegypti. At sub lethal treatment concentration, EO-Sa down regulated α- and ß carboxylesterase and up regulated the GST and CYP450 level of third and fourth instar larvae. Thus the present results illustrates that EO-Sa can deliver a durable larvicidal, repellent and adulticidal activity against Ae. aegypti in an effective and eco-friendly manner.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Asteraceae/química , Dengue/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Animais
15.
Viruses ; 11(8)2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398840

RESUMO

The impact of topical applications of deltamethrin and ivermectin to cattle on Culicoides spp. landing and blood-feeding was studied in this work using sticky traps mounted on Friesian heifers' backs. There was no effect of the insecticides on total numbers of Culicoides trapped or the proportion engorged. Deltamethrin and ivermectin treatment did not prevent blood-feeding on these animals. Deltamethrin did result in significant Culicoides mortality as evidenced by the numbers of dead midges combed from heifers' upper flanks. The proximity of engorged midges on traps to dead midges in the hair suggests that blood-feeding took place despite midges receiving an ultimately lethal dose of deltamethrin. Ivermectin application resulted in a smaller proportion of nulliparous than parous females caught. There was no significant effect of ivermectin on the numbers of Culicoides that emerged from dung samples (but p was small at 0.095 for the Obsoletus group Culicoides). In cases of suspect animal imports, pour-on or spray applications of deltamethrin could reduce the risk of onward transmission of bluetongue virus.


Assuntos
Ceratopogonidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Nitrilos/administração & dosagem , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bluetongue/prevenção & controle , Bluetongue/transmissão , Bluetongue/virologia , Vírus Bluetongue , Bovinos , Ceratopogonidae/fisiologia , Ceratopogonidae/virologia , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007604, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386661

RESUMO

Bubonic is the most prevalent plague form in Madagascar. Indoor ground application of insecticide dust is the conventional method used to control potentially infected rodent fleas that transmit the plague bacterium from rodents to humans. The use of bait stations is an alternative approach for vector control during plague epidemics, as well as a preventive control method during non-epidemic seasons. Bait stations have many advantages, principally by reducing the amount of insecticide used, lowering the cost of the treatment and minimizing insecticide exposure in the environment. A previous study reported promising results on controlling simultaneously the reservoir and vectors, when slow-acting rodenticide was incorporated in bait stations called "Boîtes de Kartman". However, little evidence of an effective control of the fleas prior to the elimination of rodents was found. In this study, we evaluated bait stations containing insecticide powder and non-toxic attractive rodent bait for their potential to control rat fleas. Its efficacy was compared to the standard method. The impact of both methods on indoor and outdoor rodent fleas, as well as the human household flea Pulex irritans were analyzed at different time points after treatments. Bait stations did not cause any significant immediate or delayed reduction of rat fleas and increasing the number of operational bait stations per household did not significantly improve their efficacy. Insecticide ground dusting appeared to be the most efficient method to control indoor rat fleas. Both methods appeared to have little impact on the density of outdoor rat fleas and human fleas. These results demonstrate limited effectiveness for bait stations and encourage the maintenance of insecticide dusting as a first-line control strategy in case of epidemic emergence of plague, when immediate effect on rodent fleas is needed. Recommendations are given to improve the efficacy of the bait station method.


Assuntos
Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Peste/prevenção & controle , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Madagáscar , Peste/transmissão , Ratos , Roedores , Sifonápteros/microbiologia , Yersinia pestis
17.
Acta Trop ; 198: 105097, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325415

RESUMO

An appropriate management strategy of bluetongue vectors should include larvicidal treatments in their larval development sites utilizing active substances with low environmental impact. A selection of biorational insecticides with potential against dipteran larvae was assayed in the laboratory against field collected Culicoides larvae including C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, and C. imicola, determining their median lethal concentrations in water and mud/water substrate. The efficacy of formulations containing the insect growth regulators pyriproxyfen and cyromazine, the botanical insecticide azadirachtin, and the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and Brevibacillus laterosporus, was also assessed in field conditions in a comparative study conducted in sheep farm larval development sites, including treatments with the organophosphate temephos. Significant larvicidal properties were associated with the various insecticides evaluated in the laboratory assays and in field trials, although with different levels of effectiveness. While temephos was confirmed to be an effective broad spectrum larvicidal substance, B. laterosporus appeared to be the most effective among entomopathogens, while insect growth regulators combined a good efficacy to a long-lasting residual effect in the field. Everything considered, the use of these biorational insecticides alone or in combination with larval habitat manipulation techniques appears to be a promising method to complement integrated biting midge management programs.


Assuntos
Ceratopogonidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Água/química
18.
Viruses ; 11(4)2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970658

RESUMO

As an invasive weed, Mikania micrantha Kunth has caused serious damage to natural forest ecosystems in South China in recent years. Mikania micrantha wilt virus (MMWV), an isolate of the Gentian mosaic virus (GeMV), is transmitted by Myzus persicae (Sulzer) in a non-persistent manner and can effectively inhibit the growth of M. micrantha. To explore the MMWV-M. micrantha-M. persicae interaction and its impact on the invasion of M. micrantha, volatile compounds (VOCs) emitted from healthy, mock-inoculated, and MMWV-infected plants were collected, and effects on host preference of the apterous and alate aphids were assessed with Y-shaped olfactometers. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated that MMWV infection changed the VOC profiles, rendering plants more attractive to aphids. Clip-cages were used to document the population growth rate of M. persicae fed on healthy, mock-inoculated, or MMWV-infected plants. Compared to those reared on healthy plants, the population growth of M. persicae drastically decreased on the MMWV-infected plants. Plant host choice tests based on visual and contact cues were also conducted using alate M. persicae. Interestingly, the initial attractiveness of MMWV-infected plants diminished, and more alate M. persicae moved to healthy plants. Taken together, MMWV appeared to be able to manipulate its plant host to first attract insect vectors to infected plants but then repel viruliferous vectors to promote its own dispersal. Its potential application for invasive weed management is discussed.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Fabavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/efeitos dos fármacos , Mikania/virologia , Feromônios/metabolismo , Animais , Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(6): 1482-1485, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994101

RESUMO

Pyrethroid resistance has been detected in Triatoma infestans, which in part has been attributed to increased oxidative metabolism of the insecticide by cytochrome P450s. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) catalyzes electron transfer from NADPH to all known cytochrome P450s. In this study, the expression of the CPR gene at transcriptional level was determined in different tissues and two life stages. The expression patterns showed differences in the tissues and stages studied, suggesting differential metabolic requirements. On the other hand, to investigate the presence of rhythms in the expression of genes related with insecticide resistance, we explored the daily expression profile of the CPR gene and a P450 gene (CYP4EM7) in fat body from adults of T. infestans under different dark/light regimes. The results suggest that CPR gene expression is under endogenous clock regulation and show a rhythmic profile in the expression of the CYP4EM7 gene.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Triatoma/genética , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , NADPH-Ferri-Hemoproteína Redutase/genética , Fotoperíodo , Piretrinas/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Triatoma/efeitos dos fármacos
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