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1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0228561, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130216

RESUMO

Despite more than 250 years of taxonomic research, we still have only a vague idea about the true size and composition of the faunas and floras of the planet. Many biodiversity inventories provide limited insight because they focus on a small taxonomic subsample or a tiny geographic area. Here, we report on the size and composition of the Swedish insect fauna, thought to represent roughly half of the diversity of multicellular life in one of the largest European countries. Our results are based on more than a decade of data from the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative and its massive inventory of the country's insect fauna, the Swedish Malaise Trap Project The fauna is considered one of the best known in the world, but the initiative has nevertheless revealed a surprising amount of hidden diversity: more than 3,000 new species (301 new to science) have been documented so far. Here, we use three independent methods to analyze the true size and composition of the fauna at the family or subfamily level: (1) assessments by experts who have been working on the most poorly known groups in the fauna; (2) estimates based on the proportion of new species discovered in the Malaise trap inventory; and (3) extrapolations based on species abundance and incidence data from the inventory. For the last method, we develop a new estimator, the combined non-parametric estimator, which we show is less sensitive to poor coverage of the species pool than other popular estimators. The three methods converge on similar estimates of the size and composition of the fauna, suggesting that it comprises around 33,000 species. Of those, 8,600 (26%) were unknown at the start of the inventory and 5,000 (15%) still await discovery. We analyze the taxonomic and ecological composition of the estimated fauna, and show that most of the new species belong to Hymenoptera and Diptera groups that are decomposers or parasitoids. Thus, current knowledge of the Swedish insect fauna is strongly biased taxonomically and ecologically, and we show that similar but even stronger biases have distorted our understanding of the fauna in the past. We analyze latitudinal gradients in the size and composition of known European insect faunas and show that several of the patterns contradict the Swedish data, presumably due to similar knowledge biases. Addressing these biases is critical in understanding insect biomes and the ecosystem services they provide. Our results emphasize the need to broaden the taxonomic scope of current insect monitoring efforts, a task that is all the more urgent as recent studies indicate a possible worldwide decline in insect faunas.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Censos , Extinção Biológica , Insetos/classificação , Animais , Dípteros/classificação , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Filogenia , Registros , Suécia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229120, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130246

RESUMO

A remarkable new genus and species of Nemourinae, Sinonemura balangshana gen. et sp. n., is described from Balang Mountains, Sichuan, southwestern China. The description is based on morphology and molecular data. The Nemourinae genera related to the new taxon are re-evaluated on the basis of comparative functional morphology of male epiproct. Notes on the Asian distribution of the Nemourinae are also given.


Assuntos
Insetos/classificação , Neópteros/classificação , Filogenia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Classificação/métodos , Demografia , Feminino , Especiação Genética , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos/anatomia & histologia , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Neópteros/anatomia & histologia , Neópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 882, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060281

RESUMO

The tendency for species to retain their ancestral biological properties has been widely demonstrated, but the effect of phylogenetic constraints when progressing from species to ensemble-level properties requires further assessment. Here we test whether community-level patterns (environmental shifts in local species richness and turnover) are phylogenetically conserved, assessing whether their similarity across different families of lichens, insects, and birds is dictated by the relatedness of these families. We show a significant phylogenetic signal in the shape of the species richness-elevation curve and the decay of community similarity with elevation: closely related families share community patterns within the three major taxa. Phylogenetic influences are partly explained by similarities among families in conserved traits defining body plan and interactions, implying a scaling of phylogenetic effects from the organismal to the community level. Consequently, the phylogenetic signal in community-level patterns informs about how the historical legacy of a taxon and shared responses among related taxa to similar environments contribute to community assembly and diversity patterns.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Aves/genética , Insetos/genética , Líquens/genética , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Insetos/classificação , Insetos/fisiologia , Líquens/classificação , Líquens/fisiologia , Filogenia
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 576, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996690

RESUMO

Urbanisation is an important global driver of biodiversity change, negatively impacting some species groups whilst providing opportunities for others. Yet its impact on ecosystem services is poorly investigated. Here, using a replicated experimental design, we test how Central European cities impact flying insects and the ecosystem service of pollination. City sites have lower insect species richness, particularly of Diptera and Lepidoptera, than neighbouring rural sites. In contrast, Hymenoptera, especially bees, show higher species richness and flower visitation rates in cities, where our experimentally derived measure of pollination is correspondingly higher. As well as revealing facets of biodiversity (e.g. phylogenetic diversity) that correlate well with pollination, we also find that ecotones in insect-friendly green cover surrounding both urban and rural sites boost pollination. Appropriately managed cities could enhance the conservation of Hymenoptera and thereby act as hotspots for pollination services that bees provide to wild flowers and crops grown in urban settings.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Ecologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Polinização , Urbanização , Animais , Abelhas/classificação , Biodiversidade , Cidades , Dípteros , Ecossistema , Flores , Alemanha , Himenópteros , Insetos/classificação , Lepidópteros , Filogenia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0224188, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999713

RESUMO

The present study aimed to perform molecular identification of lepidopteran larvae from canopy fogging including gut-content analyses. A total of 130 lepidopteran larvae were selected from 37 fogging samples at the Panguana station, district Yuyapichis, province Puerto Inca, department Huánuco, Peru. Target trees were pre-identified and subsequently submitted to molecular confirmation of identity with three markers (rbcL, psbA and trnL-F). The COI gene of 119 lepidopteran larvae was successfully sequenced and found to belong to 92 species: Comparison of DNA barcodes with the reference database of adult moths resulted in 65 (55%) matches at species level, 32 (27%) at genus level, 19 (16%) at subfamily or family level, three just to order level. Three larvae could not be assigned to a family. For these larvae the fogged target tree now suggests a potential host-plant relationship. Molecular gut content analysis, based on High-Throughput-Sequencing was successfully tested for ten larvae corroborating feeding on the target plant in some cases but elucidating several other cases of potential 'alternative feeding'. We propose a larger-scale approach using this rapid and efficient method including molecular gut-content analyses for comprehensively testing the ratio of 'alternative feeders' and pitfalls caused by collateral fogging of larvae from neighboring trees.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Mariposas/genética , Filogenia , Animais , DNA/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Insetos/classificação , Insetos/genética , Larva/genética , Mariposas/classificação , Peru , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Clima Tropical
6.
Insect Mol Biol ; 29(1): 124-135, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449690

RESUMO

Many hemimetabolous insects produce their own cellulase enzymes from the glycoside hydrolase family 9, first observed in termites and cockroaches. Phasmatodea have multiple cellulases, some of which are multifunctional and can degrade xylan or xyloglucan. To discover when these abilities evolved, we identified cellulases from the Polyneoptera sampled by the 1000 Insect Transcriptome and Evolution (1KITE) project, including all cockroach and termite transcriptomes. We hoped to identify what role enzyme substrate specificities had in the evolution of dietary specification, such as leaf-feeding or wood-feeding. Putative cellulases were identified from the transcriptomes and analysed phylogenetically. All cellulases were amplified from an exemplar set of Polyneoptera species using rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR and heterologously expressed in an insect cell line, then tested against different polysaccharides for their digestive abilities. We identified several multifunctional xyloglucanolytic enzymes across Polyneoptera, plus a large group of cellulase-like enzymes found in nearly all insect orders with no discernible digestive ability. Multifunctional xylanolytic cellulases remain unique to Phasmatodea. The presence or absence of multifunctional enzymes does not impact dietary specification, but rather having multiple, multifunctional cellulase genes is an ancestral state for Polyneoptera and possibly Insecta. The prevalence of multifunctional cellulases in other animals demands further investigation.


Assuntos
Celulases/genética , Insetos/enzimologia , Insetos/genética , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Celulases/química , Dieta , Insetos/classificação , Insetos/metabolismo , Enzimas Multifuncionais , Filogenia , Transcriptoma
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5424, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822675

RESUMO

Due to a lack of Mesozoic fossil records, the origins and early evolution of feather-feeding behaviors by insects are obscure. Here, we report ten nymph specimens of a new lineage of insect, Mesophthirus engeli gen et. sp. nov. within Mesophthiridae fam. nov. from the mid-Cretaceous (ca. 100 Mya) Myanmar (Burmese) amber. This new insect clade shows a series of ectoparasitic morphological characters such as tiny wingless body, head with strong chewing mouthparts, robust and short antennae having long setae, legs with only one single tarsal claw associated with two additional long setae, etc. Most significantly, these insects are preserved with partially damaged dinosaur feathers, the damage of which was probably made by these insects' integument-feeding behaviors. This finding demonstrates that feather-feeding behaviors of insects originated at least in mid-Cretaceous, accompanying the radiation of feathered dinosaurs including early birds.


Assuntos
Âmbar , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Plumas/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Insetos/fisiologia , Animais , Insetos/classificação
8.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(6): 6577-6583, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420799

RESUMO

The larvae of the Chrysoperla carnea-group (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) are recognized among the most effective larval predators of various phytophagous arthropods. Therefore, green lacewings are commonly grown by commercial insectaries and released as biological control agents. Previous work has shown that commercial laboratories frequently supply indeterminate species of the large C. carnea cryptic species complex. In Mexico, at least 20 biological control companies have commercialized the species C. carnea, but none of the products reared by those companies have been analyzed scientifically. Thus, the goal of this work was to molecularly characterize nine C. carnea populations from Mexican insectaries using the most efficient molecular markers available: the mitochondrial genes COI, COII, ND2, and ND5. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a unique mitochondrial haplotype in seven commercial insectaries showing 100% similarity to the reference specimen C. plorabunda E100. In contrast, we observed two and four different mitochondrial haplotypes of the carnea-group in two commercial insectaries. More precisely, three specimens possessed the mitochondrial haplotype of the species C. zastrowi, suggesting possible natural occurrence of this haplotype in Mexico. Consequently, this study demonstrated the need for an extensive survey of the different laboratories and insectaries producing C. carnea in Mexico, including unambiguous species identification by song recordings to confirm the species identity of the observed mitochondrial haplotypes.


Assuntos
Insetos/classificação , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Haplótipos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Insetos/genética , Larva , Masculino , México , Filogenia
9.
Gigascience ; 8(8)2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363753

RESUMO

Trap-based surveillance strategies are widely used for monitoring of invasive insect species, aiming to detect newly arrived exotic taxa as well as track the population levels of established or endemic pests. Where these surveillance traps have low specificity and capture non-target endemic species in excess of the target pests, the need for extensive specimen sorting and identification creates a major diagnostic bottleneck. While the recent development of standardized molecular diagnostics has partly alleviated this requirement, the single specimen per reaction nature of these methods does not readily scale to the sheer number of insects trapped in surveillance programmes. Consequently, target lists are often restricted to a few high-priority pests, allowing unanticipated species to avoid detection and potentially establish populations. DNA metabarcoding has recently emerged as a method for conducting simultaneous, multi-species identification of complex mixed communities and may lend itself ideally to rapid diagnostics of bulk insect trap samples. Moreover, the high-throughput nature of recent sequencing platforms could enable the multiplexing of hundreds of diverse trap samples on a single flow cell, thereby providing the means to dramatically scale up insect surveillance in terms of both the quantity of traps that can be processed concurrently and number of pest species that can be targeted. In this review of the metabarcoding literature, we explore how DNA metabarcoding could be tailored to the detection of invasive insects in a surveillance context and highlight the unique technical and regulatory challenges that must be considered when implementing high-throughput sequencing technologies into sensitive diagnostic applications.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Genoma de Inseto , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Insetos/classificação , Insetos/genética , Animais , Biodiversidade , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Marcadores Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos
10.
Sci Justice ; 59(4): 452-458, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256818

RESUMO

The role of infectious disease as a cause of death is undeniable. The affect infectious disease may have on decomposition after death is less well established. Furthermore, virtually no information is available regarding the effects of burial conditions in such circumstances, despite that numerous clandestine burials occur each year. Although many aspects of post-mortem pathology are well understood and provide frequent insight in medicolegal investigation, where buried bodies are concerned, there is great variation in the decomposition processes, depending on extrinsic and intrinsic conditions. Criminal burials and hurriedly dug clandestine graves are seldom deeper than 120 cm allowing access to certain invertebrates, excluding others that only develop in unburied bodies. Numerous studies have reported on such clandestine graves with a purpose to facilitate forensic investigation, but our knowledge of decomposition in deeper graves lags behind, despite several often-cited papers of over a century ago. The poor level of detail in deep-grave knowledge is in part due to resource deficiencies and ethical considerations, but in part due to lack of thorough investigation of the data in papers of often cited prior work. To this end, a metadata analysis assessed a paper written by Dr. Murray Galt Motter in 1898, providing detail of 150 disinterment events with linked medical records from City of Washington cemeteries. This paper, written more than a hundred years ago, was largely descriptive and the detailed data provided in a summary table were never fully analysed. The paper is often quoted despite these obvious oversights. The present study revisits this work, applying a frequency statistical analysis conducted using categorical data and chi-squared analysis. This new analysis reveals patterns and relationships so long 'locked-up' within the body of the table and provides greater understanding of the effect of infectious disease on the abundance of species in the entomofauna associated with deeply buried remains. The data confirm that the presence of adipocere (saponification) is detrimental to development of soil entomofauna ((X2 = 6·64, df = 1, p < 0·01)). Some species, in particular Proisotoma sepulcralis (Collembola), Eleusis pallida (Coleoptera) and Conicera tibialis (Diptera), were positively influenced by association with infectious disease cases (p < 0·01) while only Piophila casei (Diptera) demonstrated a negative association (p < 0·05). Furthermore, the presence of peri-mortem infectious disease, while not necessarily a cause of death, influences post-mortem colonisation of the buried body by insects. The abundance of some species is enhanced, suggesting that bacterial burdens enhance decomposition in a manner favourable to insect feeding and hence abundance, by releasing compounds that the entomofauna feeds on.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/classificação , Exumação/história , Insetos/classificação , Metadados , Animais , Sepultamento , Cemitérios/história , Exumação/estatística & dados numéricos , Entomologia Forense/história , Entomologia Forense/estatística & dados numéricos , Patologia Legal/história , Patologia Legal/estatística & dados numéricos , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mudanças Depois da Morte
11.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219493, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306456

RESUMO

Oceanic islands have been providing important insights on the structuring of ecological communities and, under the context of the present biodiversity crisis, they are paramount to assess the effects of biological invasions on community assembly. In this study we compare the taxonomic and functional diversity of insect herbivore assemblages associated with the dominant tree species of Azorean native forests and investigate the ecological processes that may have originated current patterns of plant-herbivore associations. Five dominant trees-Erica azorica, Ilex perado subsp. azorica, Juniperus brevifolia, Laurus azorica and Vaccinium cylindraceum-were sampled in the remnants of the native forest of Terceira Island (Azores) using a standardised methodology. The taxonomic and functional diversity of insect herbivore assemblages was assessed using complementary metrics and beta diversity partitioning analysis (species replacement and richness differences) aiming to evaluate the variation in insect herbivore assemblages within and between the study plant species. Sixty two insect species, mostly bugs (Hemiptera) and caterpillars (Lepidoptera), were found in the five study plants with indigenous (endemic and native non-endemic) insects occurring with higher species richness and abundance than introduced ones. Species replacement was the most important component of insect herbivore taxonomic beta diversity while differences in trait richness played a major role on functional beta diversity. The endemic E. azorica stands out from the other study plants by having associated a very distinct insect herbivore assemblage with a particular set of functional attributes, mainly composed by large bodied and long shaped species that feed by chewing. Despite the progressive biotic homogenization witnessed in the Azores during the last few decades, several strong associations between the endemic trees and their indigenous insect herbivores remain.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Herbivoria , Insetos/classificação , Árvores , Animais , Açores , Ecologia , Florestas , Ilhas , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 374(1777): 20180246, 2019 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154978

RESUMO

The repeated evolutionary specialization of distantly related insects to cardenolide-containing host plants provides a stunning example of parallel adaptation. Hundreds of herbivorous insect species have independently evolved insensitivity to cardenolides, which are potent inhibitors of the alpha-subunit of Na+,K+-ATPase (ATPα). Previous studies investigating ATPα-mediated cardenolide insensitivity in five insect orders have revealed remarkably high levels of parallelism in the evolution of this trait, including the frequent occurrence of parallel amino acid substitutions at two sites and recurrent episodes of duplication followed by neo-functionalization. Here we add data for a sixth insect order, Orthoptera, which includes an ancient group of highly aposematic cardenolide-sequestering grasshoppers in the family Pyrgomorphidae. We find that Orthopterans exhibit largely predictable patterns of evolution of insensitivity established by sampling other insect orders. Taken together the data lend further support to the proposal that negative pleiotropic constraints are a key determinant in the evolution of cardenolide insensitivity in insects. Furthermore, analysis of our expanded taxonomic survey implicates positive selection acting on site 111 of cardenolide-sequestering species with a single-copy of ATPα, and sites 115, 118 and 122 in lineages with neo-functionalized duplicate copies, all of which are sites of frequent parallel amino acid substitution. This article is part of the theme issue 'Convergent evolution in the genomics era: new insights and directions'.


Assuntos
Cardenolídeos/farmacologia , Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbivoria/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Ortópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Ortópteros/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Herbivoria/classificação , Proteínas de Insetos/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Insetos/química , Insetos/classificação , Insetos/genética , Ortópteros/química , Ortópteros/classificação , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/antagonistas & inibidores , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 408, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165275

RESUMO

Pollution of rivers and streams, by anthropic action, is characterized as an environmental, social, and sanitary problem. Factors such as the association between the marginal vegetation, the distribution of the substrates in the riverbed, and the availability of allochthonous organic matter influence the distribution and composition of the aquatic entomofauna. The objective of this study was to analyze the structure of aquatic insect communities in a pasture stream in northern Paraná, southern Brazil, with emphasis on the groups of indicators of good water quality, thus inferring the conditions of its preservation. Samples were collected from July to October in three parts of the stream (P1, P2, and P3), where the insect faune was collected with the aid of a sieve in the foliage substrate and washing of rocks and decomposing pieces of wood. A total of 1323 individuals were collected, being Chironomidae (Diptera) the most abundant taxon. The analysis of the biotic indices (EPT/Chironomidae, IBF, BMWP, and BMWP/ASPT) and diversity indicated better preservation conditions at points P1 and P3 where the riparian forest was well preserved, with less exposure to the stream bed. In P2, the entomofauna presented less diversity and the biotic indexes indicated loss of water quality, showing the impacts of changes in the marginal vegetation of this section. In a generally preserved aquatic environment, small changes in its vegetation are sufficient to cause an imbalance in the aquatic insect community, showing the efficiency of these organisms as bio-indicators and the sensitivity of biotic indexes.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Chironomidae/classificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Ecossistema , Insetos/classificação , Rios/química , Qualidade da Água
14.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217084, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216285

RESUMO

Taxonomic identification of biological materials can be achieved through DNA barcoding, where an unknown "barcode" sequence is compared to a reference database. In many disciplines, obtaining accurate taxonomic identifications can be imperative (e.g., evolutionary biology, food regulatory compliance, forensics). The Barcode of Life DataSystems (BOLD) and GenBank are the main public repositories of DNA barcode sequences. In this study, an assessment of the accuracy and reliability of sequences in these databases was performed. To achieve this, 1) curated reference materials for plants, macro-fungi and insects were obtained from national collections, 2) relevant barcode sequences (rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA, ITS and COI) from these reference samples were generated and used for searching against both databases, and 3) optimal search parameters were determined that ensure the best match to the known species in either database. While GenBank outperformed BOLD for species-level identification of insect taxa (53% and 35%, respectively), both databases performed comparably for plants and macro-fungi (~81% and ~57%, respectively). Results illustrated that using a multi-locus barcode approach increased identification success. This study outlines the utility of the BLAST search tool in GenBank and the BOLD identification engine for taxonomic identifications and identifies some precautions needed when using public sequence repositories in applied scientific disciplines.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Animais , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Insetos/classificação , Insetos/genética , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Int J Legal Med ; 133(5): 1581-1592, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152279

RESUMO

Baseline data on the insect successional patterns on carcasses can be a valuable estimation tool in the investigations of suspicious deaths, particularly when the post-mortem interval is longer than months or years. However, although carrion insect succession is a recurrent topic in forensic science research, the duration of the published studies is typically shorter than 1 year, with only one published study from central Europe documenting successional patterns beyond the first year of decomposition. We provide here the first data on the long-term insect successional patterns in southern Europe, using pig carcasses exposed in the four seasons of the year and documenting the carrion entomofauna during the second and third year of decomposition. Our results confirmed previous observations from central Europe that several Coleoptera species are able to recolonize cadavers during the second and third year after death, with their larvae residing on the remains for long periods. The season of cadaver exposure appears to be a main factor determining the composition of the insect fauna that exploits the remains during subsequent years. Our results suggest that it might be possible to estimate the year and season of death analyzing the composition of the insect fauna occurring on a cadaver. The present data highlight the need for further studies on the long-term insect succession on cadavers in different seasons and geographical areas, in order to fully understand its patterns and ensure its proper application in PMI estimations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Entomologia Forense , Insetos/classificação , Larva/classificação , Animais , Cadáver , Besouros/classificação , Dípteros/classificação , Estudos Longitudinais , Modelos Animais , Estações do Ano , Espanha , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 31: 99-105, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109681

RESUMO

If we are to fully comprehend the evolution of insect diversity at a genomic level we need to understand how natural selection can alter genetically encoded characters within populations. Genetic association panels have the potential to be standard bearers in this endeavour. They enable the mapping of phenotypes to genotypes at unprecedented resolution while simultaneously providing population genomic samples that can be interrogated for the tell-tale signs of selection. Analyses of these panels promise to elucidate the entanglement of gene ontologies, pathways, developmental processes and evolutionary constraints, and inform how these are shaped by adaptation.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Animais , Variação Genética , Genoma de Inseto , Insetos/classificação , Insetos/genética
17.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215525, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059549

RESUMO

Cities comprise of mixed green patches that vary in size and are highly scattered and disconnected. Although small green spaces largely dominate the cityscape, they are often neglected and ignored by the naturalists and conservationists, as they do not fulfill the large green spaces criteria. The citizens on the other hand seem to have a different perception and requirements from small green spaces as they are within their neighbourhood. Bangalore, a developing city within South India, consists of a large number of newly formed residential areas which have pocket green spaces in the form of neighbourhood parks (henceforth NPs). They are maintained by the municipality and are mainly designed for recreation purposes, completely neglecting the fact that these spaces could be essential for biodiversity. Here, there is a disconnect between the requirements of the citizens, conservationists and the end product that the municipality delivers. Here, through a questionnaire survey we assess the biodiversity citizens are fond off, and use them as surrogate taxa for the not so immediately obvious taxa, insects to enumerate the biodiversity within NPs. We analyze and identify landscape characteristics around NPs which could enhance the biodiversity within NPs. Our results reveal that people are fond of Birds and Butterflies and we use them as surrogates for the inconspicuous taxa to assess biodiversity within NPs. 55 tree species, 45 species of birds, 41 species of butterflies and 68 morpho species of insects were recorded. We demonstrate that small green spaces are critical systems and help support biodiversity across three scale within the city. Interestingly, results suggests that density of NPs is more important rather than the size of NPs. Also, the presence of high density of NPs within a neighbourhood could support similar biodiversity that large green spaces support. Finally, this study provides insights on the landscape matrix that could help enhance biodiversity support service within NPs and the surrounding neighbourhood.


Assuntos
Aves/classificação , Borboletas/classificação , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Insetos/classificação , Árvores/classificação , Animais , Biodiversidade , Cidades , Humanos , Índia , Parques Recreativos , Características de Residência , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Sci Adv ; 5(5): eaau3753, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086812

RESUMO

doublesex regulates early embryonic sex differentiation in holometabolous insects, along with the development of species-, sex-, and morph-specific adaptations during pupal stages. How does a highly conserved gene with a critical developmental role also remain functionally dynamic enough to gain ecologically important adaptations that are divergent in sister species? We analyzed patterns of exon-level molecular evolution and protein structural homology of doublesex from 145 species of four insect orders representing 350 million years of divergence. This analysis revealed that evolution of doublesex was governed by a modular architecture: Functional domains and female-specific regions were highly conserved, whereas male-specific sequences and protein structures evolved up to thousand-fold faster, with sites under pervasive and/or episodic positive selection. This pattern of sex bias was reversed in Hymenoptera. Thus, highly conserved yet dynamic master regulators such as doublesex may partition specific conserved and novel functions in different genic modules at deep evolutionary time scales.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Insetos/genética , Animais , Besouros/classificação , Besouros/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Dípteros/classificação , Dípteros/genética , Éxons , Himenópteros/classificação , Himenópteros/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Insetos/classificação , Lepidópteros/classificação , Lepidópteros/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Domínios Proteicos
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(4)2019 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974866

RESUMO

Proturans are small, wingless, soil-dwelling arthropods, generally associated with the early diversification of Hexapoda. Their bizarre morphology, together with conflicting results of molecular studies, has nevertheless made their classification ambiguous. Furthermore, their limited dispersal capability (due to the primarily absence of wings) and their euedaphic lifestyle have greatly complicated species-level identification. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers have been applied herein to investigate and summarize proturan systematics at different hierarchical levels. Two new mitochondrial genomes are described and included in a phylum-level phylogenetic analysis, but the position of Protura could not be resolved with confidence due to an accelerated rate of substitution and extensive gene rearrangements. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were also applied in order to revise the intra-class systematics, recovering three proturan orders and most of the families/subfamilies included as monophyletic, with the exception of the subfamily Acerentominae. At the species level, most morphologically described species were confirmed using molecular markers, with some exceptions, and the advantages of including nuclear, as well as mitochondrial, markers and morphology are discussed. At all levels, an enlarged taxon sampling and the integration of data from different sources may be of significant help in solving open questions that still persist on the evolutionary history of Protura.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Insetos/genética , Animais , Artrópodes/classificação , Insetos/classificação , Filogenia
20.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 108: 61-70, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904465

RESUMO

Insects are often regarded as the most successful group of animals in the terrestrial environment. Their success can be represented by their huge biomass and large impact on ecosystems. Among the factors suggested to be responsible for their success, we focus on the possibility that the cuticle might have affected the process of insects' evolution. The cuticle of insects, like that of other arthropods, is composed mainly of chitin and structural cuticle proteins. However, insects seem to have evolved a specific system for cuticle formation. Oxidation reaction of catecholamines catalyzed by a copper enzyme, laccase, is the key step in the metabolic pathway for hardening of the insect cuticle. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that laccase functioning in cuticle sclerotization has evolved only in insects. In this review, we discuss a theory on how the insect-specific "laccase" function has been advantageous for establishing their current ecological position as terrestrial animals.


Assuntos
Insetos/enzimologia , Insetos/metabolismo , Tegumento Comum , Lacase/metabolismo , Animais , Quitina/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Insetos/classificação , Oxirredução , Filogenia
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