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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(4): e1008518, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324832

RESUMO

Competition is one of the fundamental driving forces of natural selection. Beauveria bassiana is a soil and plant phylloplane/root fungus capable of parasitizing insect hosts. Soil and plant environments are often enriched with other fungi against which B. bassiana competes for survival. Here, we report an antifungal peptide (BbAFP1), specifically expressed and localized to the conidial cell wall and is released into the surrounding microenvironment inhibiting growth of competing fungi. B. bassiana strains expressing BbAFP1, including overexpression strains, inhibited growth of Alternaria brassicae in co-cultured experiments, whereas targeted gene deletion of BbAFP1 significantly decreased (25%) this inhibitory effect. Recombinant BbAFP1 showed chitin and glucan binding abilities, and growth inhibition of a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi by disrupting membrane integrity and eliciting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. A phenylalanine residue (F50) contributes to chitin binding and antifungal activity, but was not required for the latter. Expression of BbAFP1 in tomato resulted in transgenic plants with enhanced resistance to plant fungal pathogens. These results highlight the importance of fungal competition in shaping primitive competition strategies, with antimicrobial compounds that can be embedded in the spore cell wall to be released into the environment during the critical initial phases of germination for successful growth in its environmental niche. Furthermore, these peptides can be exploited to increase plant resistance to fungal pathogens.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Beauveria/metabolismo , Esporos Fúngicos/metabolismo , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Beauveria/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Quitina/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glucanos/metabolismo , Insetos/microbiologia , Peptídeos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Virulência
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1204: 129-140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152945

RESUMO

C-type lectins (CTLs) are a family of carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD)-containing proteins that bind to ligands in a calcium-dependent manner. CTLs act as important components of insect innate immune responses, such as pattern recognition, agglutination, encapsulation, melanization, phagocytosis and prophenoloxidase activation, as well as gut microbiome homeostasis maintenance, to defend against pathogens. Besides, some insect CTLs can facilitate pathogen infection and colonization. In this review, we describe the properties of insect CTLs and focus on explaining their role in viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal infections.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Insetos/imunologia , Insetos/microbiologia , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Aglutinação/imunologia , Animais , Insetos/química
3.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0223629, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196505

RESUMO

Bats are well known reservoir hosts for RNA and DNA viruses. The use of captive bats in research has intensified over the past decade as researchers aim to examine the virus-reservoir host interface. In this study, we investigated the effects of captivity on the fecal bacterial microbiome of an insectivorous microbat, Mops condylurus, a species that roosts in close proximity to humans and has likely transmitted viral infections to humans. Using amplicon 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we characterized changes in fecal bacterial community composition for individual bats directly at the time of capture and again after six weeks in captivity. We found that microbial community richness by measure of the number of observed operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in bat feces increases in captivity. Importantly, we found the similarity of microbial community structures of fecal microbiomes between different bats to converge during captivity. We propose a six week-acclimatization period prior to carrying out infection studies or other research influenced by the microbiome composition, which may be advantageous to reduce variation in microbiome composition and minimize biological variation inherent to in vivo experimental studies.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Insetívoros/microbiologia , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Firmicutes/genética , Insetos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Proteobactérias/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
4.
Subcell Biochem ; 94: 81-121, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189297

RESUMO

The composition of insect hemolymph can change depending on many factors, e.g. access to nutrients, stress conditions, and current needs of the insect. In this chapter, insect immune-related polypeptides, which can be permanently or occasionally present in the hemolymph, are described. Their division into peptides or low-molecular weight proteins is not always determined by the length or secondary structure of a given molecule but also depends on the mode of action in insect immunity and, therefore, it is rather arbitrary. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with their role in immunity, modes of action, and classification are presented in the chapter, followed by a short description of some examples: cecropins, moricins, defensins, proline- and glycine-rich peptides. Further, we will describe selected immune-related proteins that may participate in immune recognition, may possess direct antimicrobial properties, or can be involved in the modulation of insect immunity by both abiotic and biotic factors. We briefly cover Fibrinogen-Related Proteins (FREPs), Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecules (Dscam), Hemolin, Lipophorins, Lysozyme, Insect Metalloproteinase Inhibitor (IMPI), and Heat Shock Proteins. The reader will obtain a partial picture presenting molecules participating in one of the most efficient immune strategies found in the animal world, which allow insects to inhabit all ecological land niches in the world.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/imunologia , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Insetos/imunologia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Hemolinfa/imunologia , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Insetos/microbiologia
5.
Can J Microbiol ; 66(4): 274-287, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961710

RESUMO

Fungal chitinases play essential roles in chitin degradation, cell wall remodeling, chitin recycling, nutrition acquisition, autolysis, and virulence. In this study, 18 genes of the glycoside hydrolase 18 (GH18) family were identified in the Isaria cicadae genome. Seventeen of the genes belonged to chitinases and one was an endo-ß-N-acetylglucosaminidase (ENGase). According to phylogenetic analysis, the 17 chitinases were designated as subgroups A (7 chitinases), B (7), and C (3). The exon-intron organizations of these genes were analyzed. The conserved regions DxxDxDxE and S/AxGG and the domains CBM1, CBM18, and CBM50 were detected in I. cicadae chitinases and ENGase. The results of analysis of expression patterns showed that genes ICchiA1, ICchiA6, ICchiB1, and ICchiB4 had high transcript levels in the different growth conditions or developmental stages. Subgroup A chitinase genes had higher transcript levels than the genes of all other chitinases. Subgroup B chitinase genes (except ICchiB7) presented higher transcript levels in chitin medium compared with other conditions. ICchiC2 and ICchiC3 were mainly transcribed in autolysis medium and in blastospores, respectively. Moreover, ICchiB1 presented higher transcript levels than genes of other chitinases. This work provides an overview of the GH18 chitinases and ENGase in I. cicadae and provides a context for the chitinolytic potential, functions, and biological controls of these enzymes of entomopathogenic fungi.


Assuntos
Quitinases/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Fungos/enzimologia , Genoma Fúngico , Animais , Quitina/metabolismo , Quitinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fungos/genética , Insetos/microbiologia , Família Multigênica , Filogenia
6.
Annu Rev Entomol ; 65: 171-190, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589823

RESUMO

Parasitoids depend on other insects for the development of their offspring. Their eggs are laid in or on a host insect that is consumed during juvenile development. Parasitoids harbor a diversity of microbial symbionts including viruses, bacteria, and fungi. In contrast to symbionts of herbivorous and hematophagous insects, parasitoid symbionts do not provide nutrients. Instead, they are involved in parasitoid reproduction, suppression of host immune responses, and manipulation of the behavior of herbivorous hosts. Moreover, recent research has shown that parasitoid symbionts such as polydnaviruses may also influence plant-mediated interactions among members of plant-associated communities at different trophic levels, such as herbivores, parasitoids, and hyperparasitoids. This implies that these symbionts have a much more extended phenotype than previously thought. This review focuses on the effects of parasitoid symbionts on direct and indirect species interactions and the consequences for community ecology.


Assuntos
Insetos/microbiologia , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Insetos/parasitologia , Microbiota , Fenótipo , Simbiose
7.
Annu Rev Entomol ; 65: 145-170, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594411

RESUMO

Symbiotic associations with microorganisms represent major sources of ecological and evolutionary innovations in insects. Multiple insect taxa engage in symbioses with bacteria of the genus Burkholderia, a diverse group that is widespread across different environments and whose members can be mutualistic or pathogenic to plants, fungi, and animals. Burkholderia symbionts provide nutritional benefits and resistance against insecticides to stinkbugs, defend Lagria beetle eggs against pathogenic fungi, and may be involved in nitrogen metabolism in ants. In contrast to many other insect symbioses, the known associations with Burkholderia are characterized by environmental symbiont acquisition or mixed-mode transmission, resulting in interesting ecological and evolutionary dynamics of symbiont strain composition. Insect-Burkholderia symbioses present valuable model systems from which to derive insights into general principles governing symbiotic interactions because they are often experimentally and genetically tractable and span a large fraction of the diversity of functions, localizations, and transmission routes represented in insect symbioses.


Assuntos
Burkholderia/genética , Insetos/microbiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Genoma Bacteriano , Filogenia , Simbiose
8.
Annu Rev Entomol ; 65: 431-455, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610133

RESUMO

The evolution of a mutualism requires reciprocal interactions whereby one species provides a service that the other species cannot perform or performs less efficiently. Services exchanged in insect-fungus mutualisms include nutrition, protection, and dispersal. In ectosymbioses, which are the focus of this review, fungi can be consumed by insects or can degrade plant polymers or defensive compounds, thereby making a substrate available to insects. They can also protect against environmental factors and produce compounds antagonistic to microbial competitors. Insects disperse fungi and can also provide fungal growth substrates and protection. Insect-fungus mutualisms can transition from facultative to obligate, whereby each partner is no longer viable on its own. Obligate dependency has (a) resulted in the evolution of morphological adaptations in insects and fungi, (b) driven the evolution of social behaviors in some groups of insects, and (c) led to the loss of sexuality in some fungal mutualists.


Assuntos
Fungos/fisiologia , Insetos/microbiologia , Simbiose , Animais , Evolução Biológica
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(47): 13033-13039, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730339

RESUMO

Three new macrocyclic trichothecenes possessing rare 6'-ketal moieties, roridoxins A-C (1-3), and five known compounds (4-8) were isolated from the insect-associated fungus Myrothecium roridum. Their structures were confirmed by a combination of NMR and HRESIMS data, while their absolute configurations were unambiguously determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis and electronic circular dichroism experiments. Trichothecenes 1 and 3 showed potent antifungal activities against four strains of phytopathogenic fungi. In addition, 1, 3, 5, and 6 were found to significantly inhibit the cell growth of Candida albicans with minimal inhibitory concentration values from 8.8 to 18.5 µg/mL. Moreover, they were able to inhibit the biofilm formation of C. albicans better than the positive control.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Hypocreales/química , Insetos/microbiologia , Tricotecenos/química , Tricotecenos/farmacologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hypocreales/isolamento & purificação , Hypocreales/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Tricotecenos/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0212655, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596856

RESUMO

Photorhabdus luminescens is an entomopathogenic bacterium found in symbiosis with the nematode Heterorhabditis. Dam DNA methylation is involved in the pathogenicity of many bacteria, including P. luminescens, whereas studies about the role of bacterial DNA methylation during symbiosis are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Dam DNA methylation in P. luminescens during the whole bacterial life cycle including during symbiosis with H. bacteriophora. We constructed a strain overexpressing dam by inserting an additional copy of the dam gene under the control of a constitutive promoter in the chromosome of P. luminescens and then achieved association between this recombinant strain and nematodes. The dam overexpressing strain was able to feed the nematode in vitro and in vivo similarly as a control strain, and to re-associate with Infective Juvenile (IJ) stages in the insect. No difference in the amount of emerging IJs from the cadaver was observed between the two strains. Compared to the nematode in symbiosis with the control strain, a significant increase in LT50 was observed during insect infestation with the nematode associated with the dam overexpressing strain. These results suggest that during the life cycle of P. luminescens, Dam is not involved the bacterial symbiosis with the nematode H. bacteriophora, but it contributes to the pathogenicity of the nemato-bacterial complex.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Insetos/microbiologia , Nematoides/microbiologia , Photorhabdus/enzimologia , DNA Metiltransferases Sítio Específica (Adenina-Específica)/metabolismo , Simbiose/fisiologia , Animais
11.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223943, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639141

RESUMO

Bioprospection for potential microbial biocontrol agents associated with three major insect pests of economic relevance for olive cultivation in the Mediterranean area, namely the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, the olive moth, Prays oleae, and the olive psyllid, Euphyllura olivina, led to the isolation of several strains of readily cultivable Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria from Tunisian olive orchards. Determination of 16S ribosomal RNA encoding sequences identified the bacteria as members of the taxonomic genus Providencia (Enterobacterales; Morganellaceae). A more detailed molecular taxonomic analysis based on a previously established set of protein-encoding marker genes together with DNA-DNA hybridization and metabolic profiling studies led to the conclusion that the new isolates should be organized in a new species within this genus. With reference to their original insect association, the designation "Providencia entomophila" is proposed here for this hypothetical new taxon.


Assuntos
Insetos/microbiologia , Olea/parasitologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Providencia/genética , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Olea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Providencia/classificação , Providencia/isolamento & purificação , Providencia/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
12.
Annu Rev Genet ; 53: 93-116, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505135

RESUMO

Wolbachia is an endosymbiotic Alphaproteobacteria that can suppress insect-borne diseases through decreasing host virus transmission (population replacement) or through decreasing host population density (population suppression). We contrast natural Wolbachia infections in insect populations with Wolbachia transinfections in mosquitoes to gain insights into factors potentially affecting the long-term success of Wolbachia releases. Natural Wolbachia infections can spread rapidly, whereas the slow spread of transinfections is governed by deleterious effects on host fitness and demographic factors. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) generated by Wolbachia is central to both population replacement and suppression programs, but CI in nature can be variable and evolve, as can Wolbachia fitness effects and virus blocking. Wolbachia spread is also influenced by environmental factors that decrease Wolbachia titer and reduce maternal Wolbachia transmission frequency. More information is needed on the interactions between Wolbachia and host nuclear/mitochondrial genomes, the interaction between invasion success and local ecological factors, and the long-term stability of Wolbachia-mediated virus blocking.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Wolbachia/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Citoplasma , Meio Ambiente , Aptidão Genética , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Insetos/microbiologia , Insetos/virologia , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(8): e1007964, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461507

RESUMO

Chitin is an important component of the fungal cell wall with a family of chitin synthases mediating its synthesis. Here, we report on the genetic characterization of the full suite of seven chitin synthases (MaChsI-VII) identified in the insect pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium acridum. Aberrant distribution of chitin was most evident in targeted gene knockouts of MaChsV and MaChsVII. Mutants of MaChsI, MaChsIII, MaChsIV showed delayed conidial germination, whereas ΔMaChsII and ΔMaChsV mutants germinated more rapidly when compared to the wild-type parent. All MaChs genes impacted conidial yield, but differentially affected stress tolerances. Inactivation of MaChsIII, MaChsV, MaChsVII resulted in cell wall fragility, and ΔMaChsV and ΔMaChsVII mutants showed high sensitivity to Congo red and calcofluor white, suggesting that the three genes are required for cell wall integrity. In addition, ΔMaChsIII and ΔMaChsVII mutants showed the highest sensitivities to heat and UV-B stress. Three of seven chitin synthase genes, MaChsIII, MaChsV, MaChsVII, were found to contribute to fungal virulence. Compared with the wild-type strain, ΔMaChsIII and ΔMaChsV mutants were reduced in virulence by topical inoculation, while the ΔMaChsVII mutant showed more severe virulence defects. Inactivation of MaChsIII, MaChsV, or MaChsVII impaired appressorium formation, affected growth of in insecta produced hyphal bodies, and altered the surface properties of conidia and hyphal bodies, resulting in defects in the ability of the mutant strains to evade insect immune responses. These data provide important links between the physiology of the cell wall and the ability of the fungus to parasitize insects and reveal differential functional consequences of the chitin synthase family in M. acridum growth, stress tolerances, cell wall integrity and virulence.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Quitina Sintase/metabolismo , Insetos/microbiologia , Metarhizium/patogenicidade , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico , Virulência , Animais , Quitina Sintase/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metarhizium/genética , Metarhizium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia
14.
Environ Microbiol ; 21(11): 4151-4165, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374141

RESUMO

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are associated with plants and insects. Determinants for the targeting and occupation of these widely different environments are unknown. However, most of these natural habitats share plant-derived sucrose, which can be metabolized by some AAB via polyfructose building levansucrases (LS) known to be involved in biofilm formation. Here, we propose two LS types (T) encoded by AAB as determinants for habitat selection, which emerged from vertical (T1) and horizontal (T2) lines of evolution and differ in their genetic organization, structural features and secretion mechanism, as well as their occurrence in proteobacteria. T1-LS are secreted by plant-pathogenic α- and γ-proteobacteria, while T2-LS genes are common in diazotrophic, plant-growth-promoting α-, ß- and γ-proteobacteria. This knowledge may be exploited for a better understanding of microbial ecology, plant health and biofilm formation by sucrase-secreting proteobacteria in eukaryotic hosts.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Hexosiltransferases/genética , Hexosiltransferases/metabolismo , Proteobactérias/enzimologia , Animais , Hexosiltransferases/classificação , Insetos/microbiologia , Plantas/microbiologia , Proteobactérias/genética
15.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 35: 20-26, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302355

RESUMO

Climate change is altering the abundance and distribution of millions of insect species around the world and is a major contributor to the decline of numerous species. Many insect species may be indirectly affected through their nutritional dependence on mutualistic bacteria. Indeed, these bacterial partners generally have a highly reduced and static genome, resulting from millions of years of coevolution and isolation in insect cells, and have limited adaptive capacity. The dependence of insects on bacterial partners with narrow environmental tolerance also restricts their ability to adapt, potentially increasing the risk of their extinction, particularly in a world characterized by increasing and fluctuating temperatures. In this review, we examine how climate change can affect the evolutionary trajectories of bacterial mutualism in insects by considering the possible alternatives that may compensate for the dependence on bacterial partners that have become 'Achilles' heels'. We also discuss the beneficial and compensatory effects, as well as the antagonistic effects associated with so-called facultative symbionts in the context of an increased incidence of transient extreme temperatures.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Evolução Biológica , Insetos/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Mudança Climática , Insetos/genética , Insetos/fisiologia , Simbiose , Temperatura
17.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 33: 1-6, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358187

RESUMO

Studies have demonstrated that medication behaviors by insects are much more common than previously thought. Bees, ants, flies, and butterflies can use a wide range of toxic and nutritional compounds to medicate themselves or their genetic kin. Medication occurs either in response to active infection (therapy) or high infection risk (prophylaxis), and can be used to increase resistance or tolerance to infection. While much progress has been made over the last few years, there are also key areas that require in-depth investigation. These include quantifying the costs of medication, especially at the colony level of social insects, and formulating theoretical models that can predict the role of infection risk in driving micro-evolutionary and macro-evolutionary patterns of animal medication behaviors.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Insetos/microbiologia , Insetos/parasitologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Alimentar , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Insetos/fisiologia , Plantas/química
18.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 33: 105-110, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358188

RESUMO

Through evolution, selection pressures cause both insects and the pathogens attacking them to adapt so that they will both survive and this has been called the co-evolutionary 'arms race'. Insects expand their repertoire of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), a fundamental and core component of their immune systems, to adapt to the constantly changing and unpredictable diversity of pathogens. In this review, we discuss the diversity of PRRs based on studies conducted in recent years. The strategies associated with PRR diversity summarized here are genetic evolution, isoform diversity based on alternative splicing, 'part-time' PRRs, PRRs with opsonin function, and regulation of complex signaling pathways. Taken together, these data indicate that the function of PRRs in insect immunity is far more complex and possesses more features than originally thought.


Assuntos
Insetos/imunologia , Insetos/microbiologia , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/imunologia , Animais , Bactérias , Coevolução Biológica , Imunidade Inata
19.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 33: 37-42, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358193

RESUMO

Some parasitoids modify the behavior of their hosts, benefiting themselves at the host's expense. This phenomenon is called 'manipulation', and current research on parasitoid manipulation of host behavior tends to fall into one of three categories. First, the frequency of manipulation and the magnitude of its benefits to the parasitoid remains unclear. Basic documentation of manipulations is thus a major research focus, with especially valuable recent data coming from spiders manipulated by Polysphincta wasps. Second, for a handful of systems, we now have sufficient phylogenetic and behavioral data to begin asking questions about how manipulation evolved. Finally, the field continues to probe the mechanisms through which parasitoids manipulate host behavior, and now examines the role of parasitoid symbionts in this interaction.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Insetos/parasitologia , Aranhas/parasitologia , Animais , Fungos , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Insetos/microbiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Larva/microbiologia , Larva/parasitologia , Larva/fisiologia , Vespas
20.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 33: 43-48, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358194

RESUMO

Insect populations are declining even in protected areas, but the underlying causes are unclear. Here, I consider whether the factors driving the loss of insect diversity include invasive and/or introduced insects transmitting pathogens to less-resistant native species. The introduction of insects into new areas for biocontrol, to promote pollination, or for mass rearing in insect farms, threatens the health and diversity of indigenous insects by the co-introduction of entomopathogens whose spillover is difficult to control. Even less virulent pathogens or covert infections can become lethal if environmental stressors weaken the resistance of indigenous host species in an additive, potentiating or synergistic manner. More research is needed to develop effective strategies that protect the health and diversity of native insects.


Assuntos
Insetos/microbiologia , Insetos/parasitologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Bactérias , Criação de Abelhas/métodos , Abelhas , Parasitos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Vírus
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