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1.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 316-322, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330281

RESUMO

Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection of humans and, more commonly, ruminants. It is caused by 2 liver fluke species, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, which differ in size. The traditional morphological methods used to distinguish the 2 species can be unreliable, particularly in the presence of hybrids between the 2 species. The development of advanced molecular methods has allowed for more definitive identification of Fasciola species, including their hybrids. Hybrids are of concern, as it is thought that they could acquire advantageous traits such as increased pathogenicity and host range. In 2013, we collected flukes from Fasciola-positive cattle, sheep, and goats slaughtered in 4 Chadian abattoirs. DNA from 27 flukes was extracted, amplified, and analyzed to identify species using the ITS1+2 locus. Twenty-six of the 27 flukes were identified as F. gigantica, while the remaining fluke showed heterozygosity at all variable sites that distinguish F. hepatica and F. gigantica. Cloning and sequencing of both alleles confirmed the presence of 1 F. hepatica and 1 F. gigantica allele. To our knowledge, this is the first unambiguous, molecular demonstration of the presence of such a hybrid in a bovine in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Quimera/genética , Fasciola hepatica/genética , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Matadouros , Animais , Bovinos , Chade , Quimera/classificação , Sequência Consenso , Fasciola/classificação , Fasciola/genética , Fasciola/isolamento & purificação , Fasciola hepatica/classificação , Fasciola hepatica/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Feminino , Inspeção de Alimentos , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
2.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(2): 396-402, mar.-abr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190605

RESUMO

Este artículo analiza el desarrollo, desde 1989 hasta 2019, de la legislación de la Unión Europea sobre los alimentos para usos médicos especiales dirigidos a pacientes y examina cómo desde 1997 los organismos científicos competentes de la Unión Europea y de los Estados Unidos de América han establecido valores de referencia de la dieta, así como niveles de ingesta superior tolerable para vitaminas y minerales basados en su seguridad. La actualización, mediante el Reglamento (UE) 2016/128, de la legislación de la Unión Europea de esta categoría de alimentos parece adecuada en el caso de los lactantes. Sin embargo, para los pacientes mayores de un año, los mínimos y máximos de vitaminas y minerales por 100 kcal de la Directiva 1999/21/CE no fueron modificados en este Reglamento, ignorando así los valores de referencia de la dieta y los niveles de ingesta superior tolerable del periodo 1997-2015, establecidos ambos por los citados organismos científicos


This article analyses, from 1989 until 2019, the development of the European Union legislation on food for special medical purposes, aimed at patients, and examines how from 1997 the competent scientific bodies of the European Union and the United States of America have established dietary reference values, as well as tolerable upper intake levels for vitamins and minerals based on their safety. The update, through the Regulation (EU) 2016/128, of the European Union legislation on this food category seems appropriate in the case of infants. However, for patients older than one year, the minimums and maximums of vitamins and minerals per 100 kcal from the Directive 1999/21/EC were not modified in this Regulation, thus ignoring the dietary reference values and the tolerable upper intake levels from the period 1997-2015, both established by the aforementioned scientific bodies


Assuntos
Humanos , Inspeção de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Alimentos Formulados/normas , Apoio Nutricional/normas , Valores de Referência , Inspeção de Alimentos/normas , União Europeia , Dieta/normas , Comitê de Profissionais/legislação & jurisprudência , Comitê de Profissionais/normas
3.
Rio de Janeiro; PAHO; 2019-12-17.
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr3-51775

RESUMO

[Introduction] This manual contains guidance for risk-based inspections of food processing, preparation, retail and restaurants that countries can consult and adapt/adopt in developing a risk-based food business inspection program for their specific context. It is intended to help countries implement risk-based inspection systems that are consistent with international standards. This document builds on the FAO Risk Based Food Inspection manual (2008) and draws on the more recent guidance developed for governments by Codex Alimentarius, in particular, the Principles and Guidelines for National Food Control Systems (CAC/GL 82-2013) and the General Principles of Food Hygiene (CAC/RCP 1-1969).


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Inspeção de Alimentos , Região do Caribe , Medição de Risco
4.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 17: 100299, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303223

RESUMO

Porcine and human cysticercosis, caused by the larval stage of tapeworm Taenia solium, is a zoonosis in southern Africa and known to be endemic in South Africa, mainly in Eastern Cape Province. No efforts to control or eradicate this parasite have been made, despite the increasing occurrence in most Eastern Cape districts, except for routine meat inspection at local abattoirs. The parasite poses a potentially serious agricultural problem, public health risk and economic loss amongst Eastern Cape smallholder pig production communities. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of routine meat inspection for the detection of porcine cysticercosis in pigs from rural smallholder/subsistence production systems in Eastern Cape Province villages. The effectiveness of meat inspection, by registered meat inspectors, in the detection of pigs infected with T. solium cysts was assessed and compared with whole carcass dissection as the "gold standard" method. The commercial antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (B158/B160 Ag-ELISA) kit screened all the slaughtered animals. The proportion of pigs found infected with T. solium cysts, as measured by meat inspection, was lower (5%, 9/180) than with carcass dissection (18.9%, 34/180) and B158/B60 Ag-ELISA test (21.6%, 38/176). Four out of 180 carcasses were heavily infested with T. solium cysts, evenly distributed throughout the carcasses, to a level impossible to enumerate. Of the remaining 176 carcasses, approximately 526 cysticerci, distributed at various anatomical regions of the pig, were counted during carcass dissection. Sites with higher cyst counts, such as the back and hind leg, do not form part of the normal meat inspection regime. The level of agreement (Kappa statistic) between dissection (gold standard) and meat inspection of the two districts was negative (-0.1955). There was a slight agreement in the Kappa statistic (0.0328) between dissection and B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. This study confirms that current meat inspection procedures alone are not sufficiently sensitive to detect all cases of porcine cysticercosis at the abattoirs and require modifications, or should be supplemented by other methods. A risk-based meat safety assurance system, such as HACCP, that considers specific food safety aspects before and after the abattoir (point of slaughter) should be followed. Before slaughter, aspects such as origin, husbandry practices and on-farm animal health control should be considered; after slaughter, the abattoir should inform the next entity in the supply chain of the limitations of meat inspections and the real meaning of an "Approval" stamp. New validated testing methods that can be routinely used should be developed, and government should develop policies and legislation that promotes a risk-based meat safety assurance system throughout the food supply chain.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/veterinária , Inspeção de Alimentos , Carne/parasitologia , Taenia solium/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Matadouros , Animais , Cisticercose/diagnóstico , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Cysticercus/isolamento & purificação , Dissecação/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Inspeção de Alimentos/normas , Carne/normas , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Suínos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 305: 108241, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295679

RESUMO

Decreasing the health burden caused by foodborne pathogens is challenging and it depends on the identification of the most significant hazards and food sources causing illnesses, so adequate mitigation strategies can be implemented. In this regard, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has developed the Establishment-based Risk Assessment (ERA) model, so that a more effective and efficient allocation of resources can be assigned to the highest food safety risk areas. To assess risk, the model considers the type of food sub-products being manufactured by establishments and its scope is limited to the 17 most important foodborne pathogens representing the highest level of food safety risk. However, the information on source attribution at the sub-product level based on a structured approach is limited. To overcome this challenge, an expert elicitation was conducted in 2016 to estimate the relative contribution and associated certainty of each sub-product for 31 pathogen-commodity combinations to the total Canadian health burden associated with foodborne illnesses (expressed in DALYs). These DALYs represent 78% of the total Canadian health burden associated with federally-regulated food commodities considered within the model. A total of 49 Canadian experts recruited using a "snow ball" sampling strategy participated in the study by completing an electronic survey. Results of the elicitation displayed variable levels of health burden allocation between the pathogens and the different commodity sub-products. Assessment of the certainty levels showed some combinations being evaluated with more confidence (e.g., Campylobacter and eggs/poultry sub-products) than others, where a bimodal distribution of certainty was observed (e.g., Toxoplasma in pork sub-products). Furthermore, no participant raised concerns on the food classification scheme, suggesting their agreement with the proposed sub-products categorization of the elicitation. Relative contribution estimates will be included in the CFIA ERA model and used to enhance its applicability for risk prioritization and effective resource allocation during food establishment inspections. While substantial uncertainty around the central tendency estimates was found, these estimates provide a good basis for regulatory oversight and public health policy.


Assuntos
Inspeção de Alimentos/normas , Carne/microbiologia , Carne/parasitologia , Animais , Campylobacter/genética , Campylobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Canadá , Galinhas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inspeção de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 305: 108244, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202150

RESUMO

This study examined the prevalence and phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus in sushi from 20 Danish outlets. Microbial quality of sushi products and food inspector ranking of outlets were assessed and results for thirteen of the outlets were compared with findings from a previous study in 2012. Inspector rankings were similar in the two studies. The mesophilic aerobic counts were slightly lower (p = 0.0296) in 2017 than in 2012 with average values of the 13 shops of 5.2 log CFU/g and 5.7 log CFU/g, respectively. In both studies E. coli was only found in the products from outlets that did not have consistently superior rankings. On the other hand prevalence and average counts of Staphylococcus spp. were slightly higher in 2017 (p = 0.0286) but no methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were observed in the present study. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) were, however, isolated from 18.7% of sushi products with an average count below 2 log CFU/g. Based on spa and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), isolates belonged to clonal complex CC7 (t2016), CC20 (t7836), CC45 (t065, t127, t362), CC88 (t1998) and CC398 (t164, t331, t1451). The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-encoding gene lukF was detected only in isolates of the t065 spa-type whereas the scn gene from the ΦSa3 prophage was detected in 76.5% of the isolates, supporting that the majority of isolates were of likely human origin. Thirty-six isolates (70.6%) were resistant to at least one of the antibiotic compounds tested. Antibiotic resistance genes that confer resistance to ß-lactams (blaZ) and macrolides (ermC) were detected in 33.3% and 9.8% of isolates, respectively. The tet(K) gene that encode tetracycline resistance was only found in a t7836 strain. Overall, this study indicates that S. aureus in sushi products in Denmark do not represent a major food safety hazard due to, firstly, the low temperature and limited time of storage of product may prevent significant growth and production of toxic levels of enterotoxin of this species. Secondly, the S. aureus isolates obtained did not include MRSA variants and none of them encoded PVL that constitute one of the virulence factors in pathogenesis. Several MSSA isolates contained however genes encoding antibiotic resistance, which emphasize the potential role of foods as vehicles for transmission of such variants.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Produtos Pesqueiros/microbiologia , Inspeção de Alimentos/normas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Dinamarca , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Peixes , Humanos , Meticilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Virulência/genética , beta-Lactamas/farmacologia
7.
Vet J ; 249: 41-46, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239163

RESUMO

Detecting Mycoplasma bovis on cattle farms represents a challenge in the absence of an outbreak or cases of M. bovis mastitis, yet identification of an infection is essential to control the spread of the disease successfully. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine whether meat inspection records can aid identification of cattle farms supporting M. bovis infection, and (2) to compare the average daily weight gain estimated from carcass weight for cattle originating from farms differing in M. bovis test-status. Meat inspection records were collected from two abattoirs in 2015; 80 677 animals in total. All the dairy and mixed breed cows and bulls used for meat production were categorized according to known M. bovis infection status of the farms from which the cattle were derived; positive, contact or control farms. The associations between animals from different M. bovis categories and lung lesions of bulls and cows (pneumonia and pleuritis), identified during meat inspection, and estimated average daily gain (ADG) of bulls, were investigated. The odds ratios for lung lesions, especially pleuritis, were higher in M. bovis test-positive or contact farms compared with control farms. Additionally, odds ratios for pleuritis were higher among animals from M. bovis test-positive farms and animals from contact slaughtering farms originating from M. bovis-free rearing farms. Bulls originating from M. bovis test-positive farms had higher estimated average daily gain than cattle from control farms. Meat inspection records can be used alongside other methods to detect M. bovis-positive farms where M. bovis causes lung lesions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Inspeção de Alimentos , Carne , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma bovis , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Ganho de Peso , Matadouros , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Finlândia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/patologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/fisiopatologia , Pleurisia/patologia , Pleurisia/fisiopatologia , Pleurisia/veterinária , Pneumonia/patologia , Pneumonia/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia/veterinária , Doenças Respiratórias/microbiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/patologia , Doenças Respiratórias/fisiopatologia
8.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999353

RESUMO

At meat inspection of a 17-month-old bull (German Fleckvieh), patchy dark discoloration of various organs and tissue sites was noted that was most prominent in perirenal adipose tissue. Microscopic analysis revealed melanosis, that is a congenital melanocytic dystopia, as the underlying cause. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of melanosis detected in adipose tissue in cattle. We speculate that there is a possible pathogenetic link between obesity and melanosis in the animal.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/congênito , Melanose/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Inspeção de Alimentos , Masculino , Carne/normas , Melanose/congênito , Melanose/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/veterinária
9.
Prev Vet Med ; 167: 9-15, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027727

RESUMO

Hydatid disease, caused by Echinococcus granulosus, is a widespread, endemic disease of Australian livestock, wildlife, and occasionally, humans. In the Australian beef industry, the disease is believed to have a substantial economic impact. The reference standard test (gold standard) for detection of hepatic hydatid cysts is gross identification of cysts following cutting of livers into 5-6 mm slices with histological identification in the case of equivocal cysts. This test is not feasible in abattoirs because it takes too long, destroys inspected livers which have monetary value, and could require laboratory facilities. Therefore, routine meat inspection in abattoirs comprises visualisation of the organ surface and palpation to detect hydatid cysts. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of current routine meat inspection processes in an abattoir to detect hepatic hydatid disease (the index test) in comparison to the reference standard test. Both the index and reference standard tests were performed on a systematic random sample of 636 livers from 5023 cattle slaughtered during the study period. Relative proportions of the true positives and false negatives were calculated for categories age, sex, feed-type (grass- or grain-fed), number of cysts, and size of cysts. Pearson's Chi-squared analyses were used to assess the significance of these proportions. Relative diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the index test were determined whilst accounting for the sampling fraction. The relative proportion of true positives to false negatives in livers with one cyst (True Positives [TP] = 30.2%) was significantly lower than in livers with 2-5 cysts (TP = 59.2%; P < 0.05), and livers with more than ten cysts (TP = 75%; P < 0.001). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the index test was 24.9% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 18.9-32.3) and 98.9% (95% CI 97.6-99.6), respectively. The high specificity demonstrates that truly uninfected livers are generally correctly reported. However, the low sensitivity of the index test indicates that prevalence reported by the focus abattoir is underestimated. Although the intended use of routine meat inspection for hydatid disease - to remove "unwholesome" meat from the line of human consumption - is conducted, the results of this study demonstrate that the prevalence of E. granulosus might be higher than reported in abattoir data.


Assuntos
Equinococose/veterinária , Inspeção de Alimentos/normas , Carne/parasitologia , Matadouros , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 16: 100277, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027604

RESUMO

Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) host numerous parasites. Although there is a general knowledge about parasite diversity in reindeer, detailed baseline information about parasitic infections is limited. Detailed knowledge of parasite prevalence and diversity provide a pathway for more targeted parasite control, an increasing need expected in the future. The main aim of our cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in semidomesticated reindeer calves. The 480 reindeer calves included in our study were aged 6-7 months, originated from 9 reindeer herding cooperatives in Finland and 1 in Norway, and were slaughtered during September-November 2015 in 10 reindeer slaughterhouses. All the reindeer calves passed meat inspection, and the detected parasitic infections were subclinical. As the reindeer included in this study were young animals intended for slaughter, they had never been administrated any antiparasitic treatment. Assessments of gastrointestinal parasitism among these reindeer calves were based on fecal examination and morphological identification of coccidian oocysts or helminth eggs. Individual fecal samples collected from the rectum of each of the reindeer were examined using a modified McMaster method. Most (78.3%) of the reindeer calves had eggs or oocysts of at least one parasite species in their feces, and more than half (53.5%) had a mixed infection. Strongylid eggs were detected in 75.6%, Eimeria sp. oocysts in 50.6%, Moniezia sp. eggs in 28.1%, Nematodirus sp. eggs in 22.1%, Capillaria sp. eggs in 9.4%, and Trichuris sp. eggs in 0.6% of the samples. The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was similar or higher relative to previous estimates from the region; the proportion of reindeer calves shedding strongylid eggs and the proportion of reindeer calves shedding Moniezia sp. eggs had increased. Prevalence varied by geographical region, which may reflect different herding practices or environmental parameters. Higher reindeer density was a risk factor for testing positive for Eimeria sp. oocysts, and the odds of testing positive for Nematodirus sp. eggs were higher if a peroral route was used for antiparasitic treatment in the reindeer herding cooperative. The mean proportion of reindeer estimated to receive antiparasitic treatment in Finland was 86% in 2004-2005 and 91% in 2014-2015. During the historical time frames of current management practices, this routine annual antiparasitic treatment of breeding reindeer has not decreased the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in reindeer calves, which can be seen as sentinels or indicators of the infection pressure.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Rena/parasitologia , Matadouros , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Capillaria/isolamento & purificação , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Enoplida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/parasitologia , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Inspeção de Alimentos , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Carne/normas , Moniezíase/epidemiologia , Moniezíase/parasitologia , Nematodirus/isolamento & purificação , Noruega/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estrongilídios/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
12.
Food Res Int ; 116: 441-446, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716966

RESUMO

Interest in using insects as an alternative source of food for humans is increasing. However, few analytical methods provide accurate information about the presence of insect species in processed foods. In this study, we developed a fast real-time PCR assay based on a TaqMan probe that can be performed within 40 min to detect edible rice grasshopper in commercial food products. A rice grasshopper-specific primer pair and probe targeting the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene were newly designed, having an amplicon size of 110 bp. The specificity of this primer pair and probe was verified using 19 insects and five crustaceans and no cross-reactivity was obtained against the non-target species. The absolute limit of detection (LOD) was 0.5 pg of rice grasshopper DNA, and as low as 0.1% of rice grasshopper was detected in raw, heat-treated, and autoclaved binary insect mixtures. To evaluate the effect of food matrix, binary mixtures containing rice grasshopper in wheat were used additionally, and at least 0.1% of target species was detected using this assay. The applicability of this assay was confirmed using nine commercial food samples labeled as containing rice grasshopper or locust. The fast real-time PCR developed in this study is a specific and sensitive method for identifying edible rice grasshopper in various food samples.


Assuntos
Insetos Comestíveis/genética , Insetos Comestíveis/isolamento & purificação , Gafanhotos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Animais , Fast Foods/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inspeção de Alimentos/métodos , Gafanhotos/classificação , Humanos , Insetos/classificação , Insetos/genética , Limite de Detecção , Oryza , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Alinhamento de Sequência
14.
J Food Prot ; 82(2): 339-343, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30688536

RESUMO

Restaurants are a frequent setting for outbreaks and sporadic cases of Salmonella. The relationship among food safety management characteristics, compliance with procedures to reduce Salmonella-associated risk factors (as found during routine inspections), and the likelihood that an establishment has experienced a sporadic Salmonella case was assessed. Individual risk factor violations associated with Salmonella transmission pathways were identified by a literature review. Data from 546 routine inspection reports collected from July 2016 to June 2017, including 25 from restaurants that had experienced a sporadic case of Salmonella, were evaluated. In restaurants with certified food managers, there were fewer observations of Salmonella risk factor reduction procedures that were not in compliance. For establishments that had experienced sporadic cases of Salmonella, the person in charge at the time of an inspection was less likely to have been the establishment's official certified food manager of record (rate ratio = 0.4, 95% confidence interval = 0.2 to 0.8; P = 0.01), and there was increased likelihood of being found out of compliance for prevention of contamination by hands (rate ratio = 3.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.4 to 8.1; P = 0.001). The results of this study warrant future research on the dynamics of food safety management systems, the effect they have on risk factor violations cited on routine inspection results, and the risk for transmission of Salmonella. Analyzing routine inspection data as hazard surveillance may be useful to identify food establishments at a greater risk for transmitting Salmonella infections.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Inspeção de Alimentos , Saúde Pública , Gestão da Segurança , Salmonella , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Restaurantes , Fatores de Risco , Salmonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação
15.
Food Microbiol ; 78: 99-103, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497613

RESUMO

The reference method for Trichinella detection at meat inspection is the magnetic stirrer method (MSM) utilising HCl-pepsin for pooled sample digestion. Due to availability and quality issues with pepsin, alternative digestion methods are being offered, such as the Priocheck Trichinella AAD kit (T-AAD), based on serine endopeptidase digestion. In this study the T-AAD kit was compared to the reference method. Minced pork samples were spiked with T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) with- and without capsule or T. pseudospiralis ML, and analysed with both tests. Test results of individually spiked test samples were analysed by generalised linear modelling. The T-AAD test kit was comparable to the reference method for the qualitative detection of T. spiralis in pigs, but not quantitatively. Overall, 94% of spiked T. spiralis were recovered using MSM against 75.2% when using T-AAD (p < 0.0001). Using the MSM 80.0% of spiked T. pseudospiralis were recovered against 20% with the T-AAD (p < 0.0001). Based on our experience with the T-AAD kit, we strongly recommend validating the method on site prior to introduction into routine diagnostic laboratories, but this will not alleviate the poor test sensitivity of the T-AAD for the detection of T. pseudospiralis.


Assuntos
Larva/fisiologia , Carne/parasitologia , Músculos/parasitologia , Serina Proteases/metabolismo , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Trichinella spiralis/isolamento & purificação , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Inspeção de Alimentos , Campos Magnéticos , Masculino , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Triquinelose/diagnóstico , Triquinelose/parasitologia , Triquinelose/veterinária
16.
J Helminthol ; 93(3): 367-371, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669610

RESUMO

An abattoir study was carried out between May and October 2016 to determine the parasitic causes of organ condemnation during meat inspection and to evaluate the attendant financial losses in Fako abattoirs, in the South-West region of Cameroon. Organs (liver, lungs, heart, tongue, kidney, spleen and intestine) were examined at meat inspection following standard procedures and the financial loss was estimated by considering the total weight of condemned organs and the price per kilogram of marketable organs, obtained from the local market. The organs of 1472 cattle were examined, of which 357 (24.38%) were condemned. The organs condemned because of parasitic infestations were the liver (333) and small intestine (24), and the infections were caused by flukes of Fasciola sp. and proglottids of Moniezia sp., respectively. Hydatid cysts and cysticerci were absent. The prevalence of fasciolosis and monieziosis was 22.62% and 1.63%, respectively. Condemnation deprived the region of 665.457 kg of meat, with an associated financial loss of CFA 1,330,902 (USD 2505), during the study period. Parasitic diseases worsen the food insecurity situation as they result in the withdrawal of a considerable amount of meat from the food chain. Fasciolosis, the leading parasitic cause of meat condemnation in Fako, is also zoonotic. It is therefore important that effective control measures are implemented countrywide against this parasitosis.


Assuntos
Matadouros , Estruturas Animais/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/economia , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Cestoides/economia , Fasciola/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/economia , Animais , Camarões , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Inspeção de Alimentos , Prevalência
17.
Animal ; 13(4): 835-844, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132431

RESUMO

Tail biting is a major welfare and economic problem in intensive pig production. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine tail lesion prevalence at a German abattoir, (2) test for associations between meat inspection findings and tail lesions, (3) assess the agreement between tail necrosis recorded during meat inspection and scored from pictures and (4) test whether the tail biting management tool 'Schwanzbeiß-Interventions-Programm' (SchwIP) had an effect on tail lesion prevalence. A total of three observers scored tail lesions from pictures of 43 328 pigs from 32 farms where SchwIP had been applied, and of 36 626 pigs from 32 control farms. Tail lesions were classified as score 0: no visible lesion, score 1: mild lesion, score 2: severe lesion and score 3: necrosis. In addition, complete loss of tail (CL) was recorded. Tail necrosis was the only tail-related carcase finding recorded by meat inspectors. (1) Tail lesion prevalences in pigs from control farms were 23.6% for score 1, 1.02% for score 2, 0.55% for score 3 and 0.41% for CL. The combined prevalence of any lesion and/or CL was 25.4%. (2) Pleurisy, lung findings, signs of inflammation in the legs, arthritis and abscesses were the most frequent meat inspection findings (prevalences of 8.46%, 8.09%, 2.99%, 0.83% and 0.23%, respectively; n=79 954 pigs). Leg inflammation, arthritis and abscesses were more prevalent in pigs with tail lesions of any degree compared with pigs without tail lesions (3.39% v. 2.83%, 1.06% v. 0.75% and 0.39% v. 0.17%, respectively; all P<0.001, n=79 954 pigs). Pigs with severe tail lesions also had more lung findings (2.00% v. 0.17%, P<0.001). (3) Tail necrosis scored during meat inspection resulted in lower prevalence than scored from pictures (0.22% v. 0.69%; n=79 954 SchwIP and control farm pigs). (4) Although tail lesion prevalence was significantly higher in pigs from SchwIP than in pigs from control farms during the first 3 months (32.2% v. 23.8%, P=0.015), it was not significantly higher during the remainder of the year (22.6 v. 26.9, 24.4 v. 21.4 and 24.0 v. 28.0, second, third and fourth quarters, respectively). In conclusion, meat inspection results in much lower tail lesion prevalences than tail lesion assessment from pictures, even if only the category 'necrosis' is compared. Advising farms on tail biting using the management tool SchwIP helped to decrease the prevalence of tail lesions on problem farms.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária , Carne , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Cauda/patologia , Matadouros , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/patologia , Inspeção de Alimentos , Necrose , Prevalência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/etiologia
18.
J Anal Toxicol ; 43(4): 307-315, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561666

RESUMO

The development of accurate and reliable analytical methodologies to detect the abuse of doping agents in sport animals is crucial to ensure their welfare, as well as to support continuing social acceptance of these sports. The detection of doping agents in racing pigeons is difficult, especially owing to the disadvantages and limitations of obtaining samples from conventional matrices. The present study aimed to develop and validate an analytical methodology combining a two-step extraction procedure (liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction) in feathers from racing pigeons with analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) that enabled the simultaneous detection of a beta-agonist drug (clenbuterol) and three corticosteroids (prednisolone, betamethasone and budesonide). The method was validated concerning linearity (with coefficients of determination always higher than 0.99), accuracy (87.3-112.4%), precision (repeatability and intermediate precision coefficient of variation (CV%) always below 15%), recovery (71.6-98.2%), limits of detection (0.24-0.52 ng/g) and quantification (0.79 and 0. 1.74 ng/g) and specificity. The applicability of the method was performed using feathers from pigeons administered orally with a daily dose of 0.075 mg of betamethasone. The drug was administered during 60 days and successive analyses of feathers were performed, at the end of the administration protocol and also after ceasing the oral administration of the drug, for a three weeks period.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/análise , Betametasona/análise , Columbidae/fisiologia , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Plumas/química , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Administração Oral , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/análise , Animais , Betametasona/administração & dosagem , Cromatografia Líquida , Clembuterol/análise , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Inspeção de Alimentos/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 86: e0652018, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1046017

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate Listeria monocytogenes in ham sliced in supermarkets in Recife city, Pernambuco state. In total, 40 samples of sliced ham were collected, and 25 g of ham was added to 225 mL of Demi Fraser broth. After incubation, 0.1 mL was inoculated in Fraser broth and, subsequently, sown in supplemented Listeria Selective Agar, based on Otaviani and Agosti. The following tests were carried out for confirmation purposes: Gram stain, motility test, catalase test and cAMP test. There was L. monocytogenes in 25% (10/40) of the samples. The presence of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food, such as sliced ham, is likely related to lack of proper equipment-cleaning in supermarkets, a fact that poses great risk to public health.(AU)


Objetivou-se com esse estudo realizar a pesquisa de Listeria monocytogenes em presuntos fatiados em supermercados da cidade de Recife, Pernambuco. Foram adquiridas 40 amostras de presuntos fatiados. Para o isolamento, foram utilizados 25 g do alimento para 225 mL do caldo Demi Fraser, após incubação, inoculou-se 0,1mL em caldo Fraser e posteriormente realizou-se a semeadura em Agar seletivo suplementado para Listeria de acordo com Otaviani e Agosti. Como testes confirmatórios, foram realizados a coloração de Gram, teste de motilidade, teste da catalase e teste de cAMP. Identificou-se a presença de L. monocytogenes em 25% (10/40) das amostras. A presença da L. monocytogenes em alimentos prontos para consumo, como o presunto fatiado, é de grande risco à saúde pública e pode estar relacionada à ocorrência de falhas na higienização dos equipamentos nos supermercados.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Listeria , Produtos da Carne , Higiene dos Alimentos , Inspeção de Alimentos , Alimentos Industrializados
20.
Nutr. clín. diet. hosp ; 39(1): 40-45, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184185

RESUMO

Introducción: El análisis de la composición nutricional de los alimentos mediante análisis bromatológico es una ardua tarea; por ello, gracias a la recopilación de los datos obtenidos de estos análisis en diferentes países se han elaborado las tablas de composición de alimentos (TCA). Estas suponen la base de los programas informáticos nutricionales, con los que se consigue agilizar el cálculo de la composición en nutrientes de la dieta. Objetivo: comprobar sí hay diferencias significativas entre los resultados obtenidos para el cálculo de proteínas, glúcidos, lípidos, fibra dietética y hierro mediante análisis bromatológico, y el obtenido mediante el cálculo por programas informáticos. Métodos: para el análisis bromatológico se han utilizado las técnicas recomendadas por la AOAC y para los valores obtenidos mediante cálculo se han utilizado los programas informáticos nutricionales de distintas épocas: Programa utilizado por la Subdirección general de protección del comercio de la Comunidad de Madrid, Dietowin, Dietsource y Dial. Se han estudiado veintitrés platos diferentes: doce primeros y once segundos, correspondientes al menú de siete comedores colectivos de una empresa de la Comunidad Valenciana, en un estudio transversal y longitudinal durante un periodo de dos años. Resultados: se ha comprobado que los valores promedio determinados por análisis directo y los obtenidos por cálculo, muestran diferencias significativas tras aplicar el estadístico de la t de Student. En el caso de los valores obtenidos para los distintos programas informáticos no se encuentran diferencias significativas. Conclusión: Los programas informáticos que se han utilizado presentan un 65% e incluso superior, de diferencias significativas en los valores calculados para los distintos nutrientes, con respecto a los valores obtenidos mediante análisis bromatológico. Una de entre las posibles causas que se podrían considerar por la que se dan estas diferencias sería: porque en TCA la mayoría de los valores de los nutrientes son obtenidos a partir de alimentos en crudo; mientras que en el análisis directo se han analizado platos completos en los cuales los alimentos se han sometido a técnicas culinarias o de procesado. En cuanto a la segunda hipótesis planteada, decir que no hay diferencias entre los valores obtenidos por los diferentes programas informáticos utilizados, ya que los valores para todas las TCA están valorados en crudo


Introduction: The analysis of the nutritional composition of foods by bromato- logic analysis is an arduous task; for this reason, thanks to the collection of the data obtained from these analyses in different countries, the food composition tables have been developed. These are the basis of nutritional software, which gets speed up the calculation of the composition of nutrients in the diet. Objective: check if there are significant differences between the results obtained for the calculation of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, dietary fiber and iron through bromatological analysis, and the one obtained by the calculation with computer programs. Methods: for the bromatological analysis have been used the techniques recommended by the AOAC and for the values obtained by calculation, the nutritional computer programs of different periods have been used: Program used by the General Subdirectorate for Commercial Protection of the Community of Madrid, Dietowin, Dietsource and Dial. 23 different dishes were studied: twelve starters and eleven main dishes, corresponding to the menu of seven collective dining rooms of a company from the Valencian Community, in a transversal and longitudinal study over a period of two years. Results: it has been verified that the average values determined by direct analysis and those obtained by calculation, show significant differences after applying the t of Student. In the case of the values obtained for the different computer programs, no significant differences were found. Conclusion: The computer programs that have been used present about 65% and even higher significant differences in the values calculated for the different nutrients, with respect to the values obtained by bromatolo- gical analysis. One of the possible causes that could explain these differences would be: because in TCA most of the values of the nutrients are obtained from raw foods; While in the direct analysis, complete dishes have been analyzed in which the food has been subjected to culinary or processing techniques. Regarding the second hypothesis, it could be said that there are no differences between the values obtained by the different computer programs used, since the values for all TCAs are valued in crude


Assuntos
Humanos , Planejamento de Cardápio/tendências , Alimentação Coletiva , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Composição de Alimentos , Inspeção de Alimentos/métodos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Validação de Programas de Computador , Nutrientes/análise , Micronutrientes/análise
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