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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180441, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1059132

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the limitations, strategies, importance and obstacles in mental health education in undergraduate nursing, focused on the role of nurses in Primary Health Care. Method: An exploratory descriptive study conducted with 103 professors in the mental health area of Bachelor/Postgraduate nursing courses from 89 public Higher Education Institutions in the five regions of Brazil. Results: Only 23.3% (24) of the professors teach mental health classes only in primary health care. Of the sample, the limitations to teaching in primary care education are few class hours (46.6%), faculty to expand teaching beyond specialty settings (38.8%), and prioritization of other scenarios (48.5%). When teaching, the strategies used are home visits (43.7%), educational actions (34.0%) and active search for mental health cases (29.1%). The professors consider them important to support mental health actions (58.3%); and the barriers are the lack of articulation between the Collective Health and Health disciplines to conduct teaching (87.5%). Conclusion: It is suggested that the institutions, courses and professors make the commitment and focus efforts to overcome the gaps, which hinder the nurse's education process regarding primary knowledge in mental health, so that they can offer care to patients in psychological distress in the context of the community, as well as strengthen national mental health policy.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar limitaciones, estrategias, importancia y obstáculos en el ejercicio de la enseñanza de salud mental en la carrera de grado de Enfermería, para el desempeño de los enfermeros en la Atención Primaria de la Salud. Método: estudio descriptivo y exploratorio realizado con 103 docentes del área de salud mental de las carreras de Licenciatura/Post-grado en Enfermería de 89 Instituciones de Enseñanza Superior públicas de las cinco regiones de Brasil. Resultados: solamente el 23,3% (24) de los docentes se desempeñan en la enseñanza de salud mental apenas en la atención primaria de la salud. A partir de la muestra, las limitaciones para dictar clases en la atención primaria son la escasa carga horaria (46,6%), la poca cantidad de docentes para expandir la enseñanza fuera de los ámbitos de la especialidad (38,8%) y la priorización de otros ámbitos (48,5%). Cuando se realiza, las estrategias utilizadas son la visita domiciliaria (43,7%), acciones educativas (34,0%) y búsqueda activa de casos de salud mental (58,3%) y, como obstáculo, se erige la falta de articulación entre las asignaturas de Salud Colectiva y Salud para ejercer la docencia (87,5%). Conclusión: se sugiere que las instituciones, las carreras universitarias y los docentes asuman el compromiso y centren sus esfuerzos en superar las deficiencias que dificultan el proceso de formación de los enfermeros sobre los conocimientos primarios en salud mental, para que dichos profesionales puedan ofrecer atención a personas que padecen enfermedades psíquicas en el contexto de la comunidad, además de fortalecer la política nacional de salud mental.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar limitações, estratégias, importância e entraves na condução do ensino de saúde mental na graduação em Enfermagem para a atuação do enfermeiro na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Método: estudo descritivo exploratório, realizado com 103 docentes da área de saúde mental de cursos de bacharelado/licenciatura em enfermagem de 89 Instituições de Ensino Superior públicas das cinco regiões do Brasil. Resultados: somente (24) 23,3% dos docentes conduzem o ensino de saúde mental apenas na atenção primária à saúde. Da amostra, as limitações para conduzir o ensino na atenção primária são pouca carga horária (46,6%), docentes para expandir o ensino além dos cenários de especialidade (38,8%), e priorização de outros cenários (48,5%). Quando conduzido, as estratégias utilizadas são visita domiciliar (43,7%), ações educativas (34,0%), busca ativa de casos de saúde mental (29,1%). Os docentes consideram importante para subsidiar ações em saúde mental (58,3%), e como entrave, a falta de articulação entre as disciplinas de Saúde Coletiva e Saúde para conduzir o ensino (87,5%). Conclusão: sugere-se que as instituições, cursos e docentes assumam o compromisso e centrem esforços para superar as lacunas, que dificultam o processo formativo do enfermeiro sobre conhecimentos primários em saúde mental, para que estes consigam ofertar cuidado para a sujeito em sofrimento psíquico no contexto da comunidade bem como fortalecer a política nacional de saúde mental.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Saúde Mental , Enfermagem , Currículo , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Conhecimento , Educação em Enfermagem , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Docentes
3.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 216-221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004718

RESUMO

Aim: According to the WHO, 16%-40% of children aged 6-12 years experience dental traumas. Long-term treatment success depends on immediate emergency care and early professional management after the injury occurred. The primary school teachers can play a crucial role in managing traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) because they are often in proximity to children and often need to assist when dental trauma occurs. The aim of the present study was to assess primary school teachers' knowledge and attitude regarding TDI and describe their behavior in emergency situations. Materials and Methods: A four-part anonymous questionnaire comprised questions on demographic data, attitude, knowledge toward TDI, and behavior in case of accident and self-assessment questions were distributed among 147 teachers from 16 schools. The data were obtained from 106 participants (72.1%). The Kruskal-Wallis and independent t-tests served for statistical analysis. Results: More than half of teachers (56.6%) have witnessed TDI. Almost all respondents (94.3%) indicated that in case of dental trauma is important to take emergency management as soon as possible. However, two-thirds of them (75.5%) thought that teachers cannot provide appropriate emergency management in case of TDI. In addition, teachers had little knowledge regarding TDI and the proper emergency management: 91.3% of participants do not know the right storage media for the avulsed tooth, 40.6% have thought that tooth replantation is impossible, and 17.1% would throw an avulsed tooth away, when it fells on the ground. Conclusion: The study revealed inappropriate knowledge and attitude regarding TDI among primary school teachers and their behavior in first-aid management.


Assuntos
Avulsão Dentária/terapia , Traumatismos Dentários/terapia , Criança , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas
5.
BMJ ; 371: m3588, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To replicate and analyse the information available to UK policymakers when the lockdown decision was taken in March 2020 in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Independent calculations using the CovidSim code, which implements Imperial College London's individual based model, with data available in March 2020 applied to the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) epidemic. SETTING: Simulations considering the spread of covid-19 in Great Britain and Northern Ireland. POPULATION: About 70 million simulated people matched as closely as possible to actual UK demographics, geography, and social behaviours. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Replication of summary data on the covid-19 epidemic reported to the UK government Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE), and a detailed study of unpublished results, especially the effect of school closures. RESULTS: The CovidSim model would have produced a good forecast of the subsequent data if initialised with a reproduction number of about 3.5 for covid-19. The model predicted that school closures and isolation of younger people would increase the total number of deaths, albeit postponed to a second and subsequent waves. The findings of this study suggest that prompt interventions were shown to be highly effective at reducing peak demand for intensive care unit (ICU) beds but also prolong the epidemic, in some cases resulting in more deaths long term. This happens because covid-19 related mortality is highly skewed towards older age groups. In the absence of an effective vaccination programme, none of the proposed mitigation strategies in the UK would reduce the predicted total number of deaths below 200 000. CONCLUSIONS: It was predicted in March 2020 that in response to covid-19 a broad lockdown, as opposed to a focus on shielding the most vulnerable members of society, would reduce immediate demand for ICU beds at the cost of more deaths long term. The optimal strategy for saving lives in a covid-19 epidemic is different from that anticipated for an influenza epidemic with a different mortality age profile.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Quarentena/tendências , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Masculino , Irlanda do Norte/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Quarentena/métodos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028002

RESUMO

This study examined the difficulties of running online physical education classes in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and used the findings to develop an efficient operation plan to address these difficulties. Six middle and high school physical education teachers participated; three were experts in online physical education and active in the Korea Council School Physical Education Promotion, and three were recommended teachers making efforts to improve the online classes offered by the Korea Ministry of Education. A qualitative case study method employing phenomenological procedures to collect and analyze the data was used. The difficulties of operating middle and high school online physical education classes for the first time included (1) the monotony of the classes within their limited environmental conditions and limited educational content that did not adequately convey the value of physical education, (2) trial-and-error methods applied nationwide, resulting from a lack of expertise in operating online physical education classes, and (3) very limited evaluation guidelines proposed by the Korea Ministry of Education, which made systematic evaluation with online methods impossible. To address the identified problems and facilitate the efficient operation of online physical education classes, changes in strategic learning methods are needed to understand online physical education characteristics and thereby better communicate the value of physical education. It is also necessary to cultivate teaching expertise through sharing online physical education classes, where collaboration among physical education teachers is central. In addition, evaluation processes should be less formal to encourage active student participation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Eficiência Organizacional , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia
8.
Tex Med ; 116(9): 47, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023282

RESUMO

Regardless of whether education takes place virtually or in-person, Texas school vaccination rules remain in effect for the 2020-21 school year, according to the Texas Department of State Health Services. All Texas public schools (and most private schools) and colleges require students to have certain shots before they can attend classes at the beginning of a school year.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/legislação & jurisprudência , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Instituições Acadêmicas , Vacinação/legislação & jurisprudência , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina/prevenção & controle , Vacinas , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Visita a Consultório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Texas
9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(4): e22305, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is one of the most effective ways to remove germs, prevent the spread of infectious pathogens, and avoid getting sick. Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, health authorities have been advocating good hand hygiene practices. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study is to field test a prototype smart handwashing station deployed in a school setting during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We deployed a smart handwashing station and examined key technological considerations including connectivity, security, and data management systems, as well as the health and safety of users. RESULTS: The smart handwashing station was deployed for 10 days in a school setting in Australia during the COVID-19 pandemic. The smart handwashing station's electrical components remained operational during field testing and underwent robust cleaning protocols each day. The handwashing station was used 1138 times during the field test and there was no COVID-19 transmission at the school during the testing. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that a personalized feedback approach using technology can successfully be implemented at a school and can provide a platform to improve hand hygiene among school-aged children.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção das Mãos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
10.
Rev Prat ; 70(6): 667-673, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058616

RESUMO

School refusal. School refusal covers a very heterogeneous set of problems ranging from refusal of schooling - in terms of engagement in learning or in situations of evaluation, in relation to knowledge - to school phobia or anxious school refusal. Furthermore, the clinical form of children and adolescents refusing school is determined by a wide range of factors - individual, family, school and cultural - that interact with each other and change over time. In the context of a multidimensional approach, the apprehension of school refusal involves a dialogue between the family, health professionals and the various players in national education. This approach makes it possible to think about the developmental trajectory of the child and lead to the establishment of a personalized care project.


Assuntos
Transtornos Fóbicos , Adolescente , Ansiedade , Criança , Família , Humanos , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/terapia , Instituições Acadêmicas
12.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 367-370, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030455

RESUMO

Although family should be the basis for the development and formation of a child's personality, violence is mostly done in the family, and remains undiscovered for a long time. The real number of abused children is much more than that displayed in the registered cases. The secrecy of the problem is an important feature of this phenomenon. Families in which abuse takes place are mostly isolated. Social isolation does not come about by chance; secrecy is usually encouraged by an abuser to control over famoly members. In most cases, social reaction to violence is late, inadequate and focused on the consequences, but not on the causes. "Abuse implies an act of execution that directly inflicts damage, while neglect implies an act of non-fulfillment of something that is necessary for the well-being of a child". The most common forms of domestic violence are physical, emotional abuse in the presence of violence against the mother, and in a lesser extent sexual abuse. In addition, there is physical, emotional, educational and medical neglect. The presence of violence against the mother and the feeling of impotence leave the same consequences as the endured violence. It is considered that children living in violent families are likely to live under cumulative stress. Traumatic responses include a wide range of conditions from acute stress reactions through post-traumatic stress disorder to complex long-lasting, repeated trauma syndrome. All children will not react to this kind of experience in the same way, with the protective and risk factors in developmental psychopathology having a significant role to play. Because of their developmental vulnerability and dependency, children are at greater risk of violence than adults. Researches point to the need for a multidisciplinary approach to treatment and prevention of child abuse, with greater interaction between health institutions, relevant centers for social work, police, court, government and non-governmental sector, and the existence of adequate family and criminal laws.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/legislação & jurisprudência , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Maus-Tratos Infantis/terapia , Violência Doméstica/legislação & jurisprudência , Violência Doméstica/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
14.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 266-273, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004725

RESUMO

Aim: This longitudinal, observational study was conducted in the schools of Yamunanagar, Haryana, to evaluate and compare the predictive value of formal type of caries risk assessment using reduced Cariogram software, including only seven factors and informal type among 8-9 years' school-going children. Methods: A.total of 111 school-going children were included in the study. Risk profile for each child was created using cariogram as well as informal factors. The same children were scheduled for re-examination at an interval of 9 and 18 months. The caries status was recorded again using the Collapsed International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) concept. Statistical Analysis: The precoded data were transferred to the computer and analyzed using the SPSS software (version 17.0). Data were analyzed for the identification of children with lesion progression and numbers of lesions progressing using the Transition Scoring System. Results: Cariogram being a multifactorial model gives significant individual weightage to each etiological factor causing dental caries as compared to informal caries risk assessment which though easy to implement yet unstructured unlike cariogram and thus does not guarantee consistent implementation. Conclusion: Cariogram is a perfect option for patient motivation and supports the clinician in decision making for planning preventive strategies for the patients. Along with this, a combination of the factors for informal caries risk assessment can help in making a simple yet multifactorial model which can be applied in daily practice.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Criança , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Software
15.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Opioid misuse and overdose remains a leading US public health concern, and many youth are first exposed to opioids via medical use. In this study, we examine school-level prevalence and correlates of medical use and misuse of prescription opioids among US 12th-grade students. METHODS: A sample of 228 507 US 12th-graders in 1079 public and private schools from 2002 to 2017 from the Monitoring the Future study was used to identify school-level prevalence and correlates associated with medical use and misuse of prescription opioids. RESULTS: The past-year prevalence of prescription opioid misuse was 7.6% and ranged from 0% to 73% across US high schools. Lifetime medical use of prescription opioids was 16.9% and ranged from 0% to 85% across US high schools. The odds of prescription opioid misuse were higher at schools with higher proportions of male students, more white students, higher rates of marijuana use, and more medical use of prescription opioids. Students attending schools with the highest rates of medical use of prescription opioids had 57% increased odds of past-year prescription opioid misuse compared with schools with no medical use (adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval = 1.35-1.83); this association was found to weaken in recent years. CONCLUSIONS: Differences exist in the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse among US high schools. The association between greater school-level medical use of prescription opioids and higher prevalence of prescription opioid misuse, although declining, indicates a key risk factor to target for prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Intervalos de Confiança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Evid Based Dent ; 21(3): 104-105, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978543

RESUMO

This review examined the oral health interventions that have been developed for elementary school age children and the involvement of children in these intervention studies. Eight randomised controlled trials involving 3,232 children were analysed using deductive content analysis by two authors. Child involvement was categorised using the Typology of Youth Participation and Empowerment TYPE model. In all eight studies, the interventions were designed by the researchers and adult-led without involvement of children. Further studies with participatory research methodology are recommended to better understand the role of involvement of children in oral health education.Data sources The data search was carried out in April 2018 using PubMed, CINAHL, Embase and Scopus databases. The search focused on elementary age school children (6-12 years) who were involved in oral health education intervention studies. Exclusion criteria were studies involving children with mental or physical impairment, undergoing hospital or orthodontic treatment, preventative treatments or solely targeted towards parents/caregivers or teachers.Study selection A systematic review method of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was selected. Titles and abstracts were included or excluded before full text analysis for eligibility was carried out. Studies were assessed by two authors with a third author to be consulted in cases of disagreement.Data extraction and synthesis Study sample, intervention duration and content, selection, use of educational methods including use of a theoretical framework and outcomes were extracted from the data. Child involvement was categorised using the Typology of Youth Participation and Empowerment (TYPE) pyramid (Wong et al., 2010).1 The quality of studies was assessed using the CONSORT checklist and the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The methodological quality of the studies was relatively low with a score of 14-22 out of 36. Three studies were rated as being fair quality in terms of risk of bias. The remaining five were rated as either unclear or high risk of bias.Results Eight RCTs were selected for review. Sixty-five articles were assessed for eligibility and 57 articles were excluded due to non-RCT design, excluded/unreported ages and full text unavailability. Nine different methods of oral health education were identified: lecture; printed material; demonstration; toothbrushing diary; game; video; workshop; discussion; and oral hygiene training. None of the reported studies demonstrated a rationale for selecting their educational method. Four reports described a theoretical framework for development their intervention: social learning theory (Parcel and Baranowski, 1981) was used by Haleem et al. (2012); Health Belief Model (Becker, 1974) by Yekaninejad et al. (2012), Wolf's health learning capacity (2009) by Freeman et al. (2016) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (1991) by Simpriano and Mialhe (2017). However, the use of these theories was limited and no attempts to introduce children's perspectives into the theoretical framework was identified.Five outcomes to measure effectiveness were found: clinical oral health status; oral health-related behaviour; oral health knowledge; attitudes towards oral health; and oral health related quality of life. Clinical oral health status was the most commonly used outcome (seven of the eight studies). Positive outcomes were found in all eight studies. None of the reports considered the potential for enhancing intervention effects by involving children more actively. The children's role in the interventions was mostly the Vessel type of participation from the TYPE pyramid model. Partially symbolic participation was detected in two studies - Haleem et al. (2012) trained children to conduct oral health education in the role of peer educators and Simpriano and Mialhe (2017) trained children to create their own plans for daily toothbrushing and how to overcome situations preventing that task. There were no reports of consultation or collaboration with children for their perspectives before or after the interventions. Interventions appear to have been created by the researchers alone.Conclusions In all of the included studies, children were only involved during the intervention implementation phase. The interventions were all adult designed and adult led. Lack of detail in the reports meant that reported positive outcomes could not be clearly attributed to the activities carried out by the children. Further studies with participatory research methodology are recommended to better understand the potential role of children in oral health education and research.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde Bucal , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal , Instituições Acadêmicas
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22409, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991470

RESUMO

Childhood bullying leads to life-long scars and hinders adult development. Schoolchildren involved in bullying are at risk of developing behavioural difficulties, physical health problems and suicidal ideation. This research aimed to evaluate the bullying experience of pupils in Nigerian primary schools.The study is a cross-sectional analytic survey conducted from June to November 2019. A total of 1080 pupils in participated in the study. A self-report questionnaire containing 3 questions was used for collecting data. Analysis of the collected data was done using percentage and Chi-Squared at 0.05 probability level.Results indicate that 51.4% of the male pupils and 50.8% of females reported being victims of bullying. 51.8% of the males and 49.5% of females were found to be perpetrators of bullying. 39.6% of the males and 42.9% of the females were bystanders of bullying. 35.1% of the males and 34.1% of females have experienced any 2 of the categories while 11.2% of the males and 12.4% of the females have experienced all the categories of bullying. Results show a non-significant difference between male and female pupils on bullying victimization (χ = .036, P = .849), bullying perpetration (χ = .589, P = .443), and bullying bystander problem (χ = 1.194, P = .275).In conclusion, school bullying is an increasing problem among Nigerian schoolchildren. Initiatives must, therefore, be taken by the Nigerian government to further prevent and counter bullying problem in Nigerian primary schools. Interventions aimed at helping schools to develop effective policies to reduce bullying behaviour among pupils should be initiated.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
18.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(Suppl 2): 171-177, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889683

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Expectant and parenting young people (young parents) require diverse services to support their health, educational success, and family functioning. Rarely can the needs of young parents be met by a single school or service provider. This case study examines how one large school district funded through the pathways to success initiative was able to facilitate systems change to increase young parents' access to and use of supportive services. METHODS: Data sources include a needs and resources assessment, quarterly reports documenting grantee effort, sustainability plans, social network analysis, and capstone interviews. All data sources were systematically reviewed to identify the existing context prior to the start of the initiative, the changes that resulted from the initiative, and efforts that could potentially be maintained beyond the grant period. RESULTS: The community context prior to Pathways implementation was one of disconnected services and missed opportunities. The full-time program coordinator hired by the district focused on systems-level change and facilitated connections between organizations. This greater connectivity contributed to increased collaboration with the goal of producing lasting benefits for young parents. DISCUSSION: Promoting sustainable connections and collaboration at the systems level can help dismantle barriers to service access and benefit young parents.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/organização & administração , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Rede Social
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882960

RESUMO

By 15 April 2020, more than 1.5 billion students worldwide experienced school closures in an effort to slow the spread of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), during the worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. These interruptions in formal in-person educational experiences caused adverse consequences on school-age children's academic outcomes. Using a pre-existing database, we calculated changes in children's reading ability without formal education (i.e., the summer months). The resultant models predicted that the rate of reading ability gain in kindergarten children during COVID-19 school closures without formal in-person education will decrease 66% (2.46 vs. 7.17 points/100 days), compared to the business-as-usual scenario, resulting in a 31% less reading ability gain from 1 January 2020 to 1 September 2020. Additionally, the model predicted that kindergarten children who have books read to them daily would have 2.3 points less loss (42%) compared to those who do not, who are predicted to have a 5.6-point loss during the same time period. Even though reading books to children will not substitute the critical role of formal education in teaching children how to read, families, educators, and policy makers can promote this simple strategy to facilitate and maintain reading ability gain during school closures, which may be a common occurrence as nations see the public health benefits of physical distancing for the current and future pandemic outbreaks.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Leitura , Betacoronavirus , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pandemias , Instituições Acadêmicas
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