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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(10): 1032-1037, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607051

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the current situation of school bullying and related factors in junior high school students in China 2016. Methods: Junior high school students were selected from the 2016 China Education Panel Survey. A total of 6 750 students with completed records of suffering from school bulling, individual characteristics, family environment, and school conditions were selected. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the related factors of being bullied. Results: A total of 57.29% (3 867/6 750) of students in the past year had suffered from at least one type of school bullying. The proportions of students who suffered from verbal bullying, social bullying, physical bullying and cyber bullying were 49.12% (3 298/6 714), 37.87% (2551/6736), 18.18% (1226/6743), and 13.51% (910/6 735), respectively. According to the logistic regression model, students who were boys, came from ethnic minorities, lived with their mothers only, had frequent quarreling parents, boarded and had experience of school transfer in primary education were more vulnerable to school bullying compared with those who were girls, came from Han nationality, lived with parents, had parents who seldom quarrel, commute to school daily and had no school transfer experience in primary education. The corresponding OR (95%CI) values were 1.86 (1.66-2.08), 1.27 (1.02-1.57), 1.35 (1.13-1.61), 1.49 (1.23-1.81), 1.65 (1.33-2.04), and 1.21 (1.08-1.36), respectively. Students who were the only child, had relatively good health, had mothers with middle school, high school or secondary specialized school education level, had medium or good family economic conditions, had good academic performance, served as class cadres and had good relations with head teachers were less vulnerable to school bullying compared with those who were not the only child, had relatively bad health, had mothers with primary school or below education level, had poor family economic conditions, had poor academic performance, had never been class cadres and had bad relations with head teachers. The corresponding OR (95%CI) values were 0.80 (0.72-0.90), 0.60 (0.48-0.75), 0.74 (0.64-0.85), 0.75 (0.61-0.91), 0.70 (0.69-0.82), 0.64 (0.52-0.79), 0.85 (0.74-0.99), 0.88 (0.79-0.99), and 0.62 (0.55-0.69), respectively. Conclusion: The situation of suffering from school bullying among junior high school students in China is not optimistic. Individual characteristics, family environment and school conditions were all related to school bullying.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 839-844, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581163

RESUMO

The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits the inclusion of characterizing flavors (e.g., candy or fruit) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products at the federal level.* Flavored tobacco products can appeal to youths and young adults and influence initiation and establishment of tobacco-use patterns (1). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed data from the 2014-2018 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) to determine prevalence of current (past 30-day) use of flavored tobacco products, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), hookah tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, smokeless tobacco, bidis, and menthol cigarettes among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. In 2018, an estimated 3.15 million (64.1%) youth tobacco product users currently used one or more flavored tobacco products, compared with 3.26 million (70.0%) in 2014. Despite this overall decrease in use of flavored tobacco products, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased among high school students during 2014-2018; among middle school students, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased during 2015-2018, following a decrease during 2014-2015. During 2014-2018, current use of flavored hookah tobacco decreased among middle and high school students; current use of flavored smokeless tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, and menthol cigarettes decreased among high school students. Full implementation of comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies, coupled with regulation of tobacco products by FDA, can help prevent and reduce use of tobacco products, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths (2,3).


Assuntos
Aromatizantes , Estudantes/psicologia , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 845-850, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581164

RESUMO

Use of marijuana at an early age can affect memory, school performance, attention, and learning; conclusions have been mixed regarding its impact on mental health conditions, including psychosis, depression, and anxiety (1-3). Medical marijuana has been legal in Washington since 1998, and in 2012, voters approved the retail sale of marijuana for recreational use to persons aged ≥21 years. The first retail stores opened for business in July 2014. As more states legalize marijuana use by adults aged ≥21 years, the effect of legalization on use by youths will be important to monitor. To guide planning of activities aimed at reducing marijuana use by youths and to inform ongoing policy development, Public Health-Seattle & King County assessed trends and characteristics of past 30-day marijuana use among King County, Washington, public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12. This report used biennial data for 2004-2016 from the Washington State Healthy Youth Survey. Among grade 6 students there was a decreasing trend in self-reported past 30-day marijuana use from 2004 to 2016, while the percentage of grade 8 students who had used marijuana during the past 30 days did not change during that period. Among students in grades 10 and 12, self-reported past 30-day use of marijuana increased from 2004 to 2012, then declined from 2012 to 2016. In 2016, the percentage of students with past 30-day marijuana use in King County was 0.6% among grade 6, 4.1% among grade 8, 13.9% among grade 10, and 25.5% among grade 12 students. Among grade 10 students, 24.0% of past 30-day marijuana users also smoked cigarettes, compared with 1.3% of nonusers. From 2004 to 2016 the prevalence of perception of great risk of harm from regular marijuana use decreased across all grades. Continued surveillance using consistent measures is needed to monitor the impact of marijuana legalization and emerging public health issues, given variable legislation approaches among jurisdictions.


Assuntos
Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/tendências , Setor Público , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Washington/epidemiologia
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(41): 905-912, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622283

RESUMO

State and local school vaccination requirements exist to ensure that students are protected against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). This report summarizes data collected by state and local immunization programs* on vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten in 49 states, exemptions for kindergartners in 50 states, and provisional enrollment and grace period status for kindergartners in 30 states. Nationally, vaccination coverage† was 94.9% for the state-required number of doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); 94.7% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR); and 94.8% for the state-required doses of varicella vaccine. Whereas 2.5% of kindergartners had an exemption from at least one vaccine,§ 2.8% of kindergartners were not up to date for MMR and did not have a vaccine exemption. Nearly all states could achieve the recommended ≥95% MMR coverage if all nonexempt kindergartners were vaccinated in accordance with local and state vaccination policies.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Varicela/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estados Unidos
5.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(7-8): 264-272, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517459

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Objective - Our aim is to evaluate sleep habits, sleep quality and influencing factors among preschool- and schoolchildren. Methods: Two questionnaires were recorded. Questionnaire 1 dealt with sleeping habits, breastfeeding and health behavior of preschool children and infant, and it contained the abbreviated version of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Questionnaire 2 dealt with health behavior and the application of sleep hygiene rules, as well as it contained the Athens Insomnia Scale. Subjects - We assessed a total of 1063 questionnaires: 516 kindergarten children participated in our online survey across the country; 547 primary and secondary school students participated in the 2nd questionnaire survey in Szolnok. Results: Parents' observation shows that the average nighttime sleeping time of kindergarten children is 10 hours 20 minutes on weekdays and 10 hours 36 minutes on weekends. The most popular sleeping habits in kindergarten age: teal reading (65.1%) and co-sleeping (42.8%). Parents of infants used breastfeeding (50.4%) and rocking (43.2%) most frequently before sleep. Co-sleeping has a positive influence on the length of lactation. Among the preschool sleeping habits we have proved a number of positive effects of teal reading, while watching television have negative effects. The sleep quality of school-age children according to the Athens Insomnia Scale is 6.11 points (SD: 4.11), 19% of the children are insomniac. Their sleep time is 7 hours 31 minutes on weekdays and 9 hours 30 minutes on weekends. The usage of good health behavior and sleep hygiene rules positively influence sleep quality and sleep duration. Conclusion: With our results, we would like to draw the attention of children and parents to the importance of sleeping and using sleep hygiene rules.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Higiene do Sono , Sono/fisiologia , Televisão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Iluminação , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 971-975, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484263

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the associations between smoking and literacy on health among 4-6 grade primary school students. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted to research on health literacy and smoking among 4-6 grade pupils in Shandong province, through a multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method. Sociodemographic characteristics, health literacy level and smoking rate were collected from respondents. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of smoking and health literacy. Results: A total of 9 240 questionnaires were distributed, with the rate of valid response as 99.7%. The current smoking rate of the students was 2.6%, on higher in boys (3.1%) than in girls (2.0%). 60.8% of 4-6 grade students were found to have adequate health literacy level. Levels of literacy health in both boy and girl school students appeared 56.7% and 64.9%, respectively. Results indicated that health literacy in smokers (14.4%) was lower than that in non-smokers (62.0%). Results from the binary logistic regression analysis showed that the independent influencing factors would include grade, father's education level, economic situation of the family, self-assessment on the school record and literacy on health (P<0.01). After controlling the other independent variables, the smoking rate was 8.62 (1/0.116) times in students with low literacy level on health, than those with high literacy level. Conclusions: Literacy on health was significantly associated with smoking in the 4-6 grade pupils of Shandong province.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 135, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558934

RESUMO

Introduction: The rate of sexually transmitted infection's, including HIV has increased in recent years in Ethiopia. Many adolescents and young people still do not protect themselves against unintended pregnancies and STIs. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the predictors of risky sexual behavior among pre-college students in Adama Town, Ethiopia. Methods: School based cross-sectional study was employed. In this study 364 students were recruited from all pre-college schools in Adama town, Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to examine the relationship between the outcome variables and independent variables. Results: The mean age at sexual debut was 16.1 years (± 2.72SD). Social media usage for sexual activity and having multiple sexual partners were observed among students. About 7% of students used social media for watching pornography. The odds of risky sexual behaviour were higher among social media users compared to the nonusers AOR = 1.23 (95% CI 1.13,3.12). Risky sexual behaviour was almost 4 times more likely among night club goers AOR = 4.294 (95% CI: 2.033, 9.073). Peer pressure and substance abuse were also a significant predictor for risky sexual behavior AOR = 6.97 (95% CI: 4.24, 9.69). Conclusion: Social media use, peer pressure, substance abuse, and night club going were found to be significantly associated with risky sexual behaviour among pre-college students. Thus, schools need to establish and strengthen reproductive health clubs to be able to equip students with required skills and knowledge about sexuality. Parents should be aware of the dynamic behavioral change of their children, listen and attend to their needs.


Assuntos
Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Infuência dos Pares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Parceiros Sexuais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 483-488, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559808

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Many studies have indicated numerous nutrition mistakes among school-aged children and adolescents in both urban and rural environments. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional habits of the Polish population, consisting of 7,974 individuals aged 12-17, from rural and urban environments, as well as to identify environmental variations of these habits and to verify the existing information on the incorrect nutrition of school-age children and adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The research covered a group of 7,974 respondents - school-age adolescents with a similar age structure (12-17 years). The study on subjects from secondary school grades 1 - 3 was conducted in randomly selected schools from 2 random Polish provinces; 5 counties were randomly selected, followed by a choice of 2 communes: one rural and one urban. The research technique was a self-designed survey questionnaire. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Pearson Chi 2 and V Cramer test. RESULTS: The research revealed environment-based differences in subjects' nutrition. Breakfast was consumed daily by a statistically significantly fewer subjects from the rural environment (36.31%) than from the urban areas (51.32%); second breakfast was consumed by an insignificantly smaller proportion of respondents from the urban environment (40.00%) than from the rural one (46.00%); dinner was eaten daily by 86.00% of urban subjects and 82.00% of rural respondents; afternoon tea and supper were eaten rarely by respondents from both environments. The diet of respondents was dominated by anti-health behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the respondents displayed incorrect nutritional behaviours. Nutritional mistakes occurred among respondents from both rural and urban environments, with the predominance of the rural areas.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Polônia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 85, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489063

RESUMO

Introduction: Testicular self-examination (TSE) is a screening technique that involves inspection of the appearance and palpation of the testes to detect any changes from the normal. Globally, the incidence of cancer has increased among which is testicular cancer (TC). Data on this topic among male secondary school adolescents in Uganda is limited therefore this study sought to assess the knowledge and practice of testicular self-examination among secondary students at Ntare School, Mbarara District in south western Uganda. The objective of the study is to assess the knowledge and practice of testicular self-examination among secondary students at Ntare School in Mbarara district, south western Uganda. Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study among 165 students. Recruitment was made using simple random sampling technique. Respondents were selected among advanced level (A' level) male students studying at Ntare School in Mbarara district, south western Uganda. Structured self-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Results: Of the male students, 41.8% reported to have knowledge about TSE and only 23.6% practiced TSE. Most students rated their knowledge of TSE to be below 5 (from 1-10). Of the 39 students who admitted performing TSE, only 16 did so as recommended (monthly). Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of TSE were low among adolescent secondary school boys in Ntare School in Mbarara District, south western Uganda. This suggests that these students are unaware of the value of this personal health promotion tool which is fundamental in early diagnosis of testicular cancer.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Autoexame/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
10.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(9): 1218-1223, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489857

RESUMO

Aim: This study aimed to determine the sleeping habits and sleeping periods of kindergarten children, in order to analyze the problems related to sleep hygiene and determine the underlying factors. Methods: The sample size of this cross-sectional study consisted of 390 children. A questionnaire filled in by the parents was used as the data collection tool. The data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests. Results: According to the mothers, 77.2% of the children had their own room at home. Thirty nine percent of children slept with the full light on in their room, 50.3% slept with night light on in their room, 12.3% slept with the radio/television on in their room. Infant sleep practices found in this study are swaddling (18.5%), wrapping of the infant's arms (21.0%), and rocking (58.7%). Conclusions: In terms of sleep hygiene, the vast majority of the children slept in a bright environment, and there were electronic appliances in the room. Common infant-transition-to-sleep practices observed were wrapping their arms and swaddling them. In our point of view, awareness training for parents about the subject will support sleep hygiene practices.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/prevenção & controle , Sono/fisiologia , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães , Pais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 803, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scabies, a parasitic disease of the skin, is a major public health problem, largely affecting children. Scabies is often complicated by impetigo which can result in serious complications including invasive infections and immune mediated diseases. Scabies and impetigo are reported to have high prevalence in tropical settings including the Solomon Islands. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional prevalence survey at Gizo Primary School in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands in August 2018. The diagnosis of scabies was based on criteria developed by the International Alliance for the Control of Scabies in 2018. Population attributable risk was calculated to determine the effect of scabies on the prevalence of impetigo, and both adjusted and unadjusted risk ratios were calculated to identify differences between sexes and age groups. RESULTS: A total of 324 students were assessed (47.5% of those enrolled at the school). The prevalence of scabies was 54.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 48.7-59.8) and most disease was mild (68.8%). The prevalence was higher in males (63.5%; adjusted risk ratio [ARR] 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7), and in those aged 10-12 years (61.4%; ARR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.9 when compared to those aged 4-6 years). The prevalence of impetigo was 32.1%, with males more likely to be affected (41.7%, ARR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4) but with no significant differences between age groups. 63.5% of those with impetigo had scabies, corresponding to a population attributable risk of 11.8%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a very high burden of scabies and impetigo among primary school students in Gizo. There is a critical need for the development and implementation of control programs in areas where scabies is endemic.


Assuntos
Impetigo/epidemiologia , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanesia/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Dent Educ ; 83(9): 1057-1064, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477584

RESUMO

Pipeline programs aim to increase the representation of underrepresented minorities in the dental profession. At New York University College of Dentistry (NYUCD), two dental students initiated the development of a pipeline program for high school students called Saturday Academy. The purpose of the program is twofold: to mentor and coach underrepresented minority and low-income high school students through the college application process, and to expose them to the field of dentistry as a viable career option through both didactic and hands-on learning. The aim of this pilot study was to determine outcomes for the first five years (2013-17) of the Saturday Academy pipeline program at NYUCD with regard to the high school students' experience with the program and their career interests after high school graduation. Across five cohorts, a total of 82 students participated in Saturday Academy. A "where are you now?" survey sent to 72 participants who reported high school graduation years between 2013 and 2018 received a response rate of 76%. The survey results showed that all (100%) of the responding Saturday Academy participants had graduated from high school and were enrolled in college, and 71% were interested in health profession careers. Almost half (47%) of the students self-identified as being pre-dental, and 96% reported that Saturday Academy had increased their interest in the dental profession. These pilot results justified an expansion of Saturday Academy at NYUCD in both size and creation of an alumni outreach initiative. Other dental schools may benefit from the strategies used by this program in establishing or expanding their pipeline programs.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Odontologia , Educação em Odontologia , Faculdades de Odontologia , Estudantes de Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Feminino , Ocupações em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde das Minorias , New York , Projetos Piloto , Pobreza , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD012573, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overconsumption of food, alcohol, and tobacco products increases the risk of non-communicable diseases. Interventions to change characteristics of physical micro-environments where people may select or consume these products - including shops, restaurants, workplaces, and schools - are of considerable public health policy and research interest. This review addresses two types of intervention within such environments: altering the availability (the range and/or amount of options) of these products, or their proximity (the distance at which they are positioned) to potential consumers. OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the impact on selection and consumption of altering the availability or proximity of (a) food (including non-alcoholic beverages), (b) alcohol, and (c) tobacco products.2. To assess the extent to which the impact of these interventions is modified by characteristics of: i. studies, ii. interventions, and iii. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and seven other published or grey literature databases, as well as trial registries and key websites, up to 23 July 2018, followed by citation searches. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials with between-participants (parallel group) or within-participants (cross-over) designs. Eligible studies compared effects of exposure to at least two different levels of availability of a product or its proximity, and included a measure of selection or consumption of the manipulated product. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used a novel semi-automated screening workflow and applied standard Cochrane methods to select eligible studies, collect data, and assess risk of bias. In separate analyses for availability interventions and proximity interventions, we combined results using random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression models to estimate summary effect sizes (as standardised mean differences (SMDs)) and to investigate associations between summary effect sizes and selected study, intervention, or participant characteristics. We rated the certainty of evidence for each outcome using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 24 studies, with the majority (20/24) giving concerns about risk of bias. All of the included studies investigated food products; none investigated alcohol or tobacco. The majority were conducted in laboratory settings (14/24), with adult participants (17/24), and used between-participants designs (19/24). All studies were conducted in high-income countries, predominantly in the USA (14/24).Six studies investigated availability interventions, of which two changed the absolute number of different options available, and four altered the relative proportion of less-healthy (to healthier) options. Most studies (4/6) manipulated snack foods or drinks. For selection outcomes, meta-analysis of three comparisons from three studies (n = 154) found that exposure to fewer options resulted in a large reduction in selection of the targeted food(s): SMD -1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.90 to -0.37) (low certainty evidence). For consumption outcomes, meta-analysis of three comparisons from two studies (n = 150) found that exposure to fewer options resulted in a moderate reduction in consumption of those foods, but with considerable uncertainty: SMD -0.55 (95% CI -1.27 to 0.18) (low certainty evidence).Eighteen studies investigated proximity interventions. Most (14/18) changed the distance at which a snack food or drink was placed from the participants, whilst four studies changed the order of meal components encountered along a line. For selection outcomes, only one study with one comparison (n = 41) was identified, which found that food placed farther away resulted in a moderate reduction in its selection: SMD -0.65 (95% CI -1.29 to -0.01) (very low certainty evidence). For consumption outcomes, meta-analysis of 15 comparisons from 12 studies (n = 1098) found that exposure to food placed farther away resulted in a moderate reduction in its consumption: SMD -0.60 (95% CI -0.84 to -0.36) (low certainty evidence). Meta-regression analyses indicated that this effect was greater: the farther away the product was placed; when only the targeted product(s) was available; when participants were of low deprivation status; and when the study was at high risk of bias. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence suggests that changing the number of available food options or altering the positioning of foods could contribute to meaningful changes in behaviour, justifying policy actions to promote such changes within food environments. However, the certainty of this evidence as assessed by GRADE is low or very low. To enable more certain and generalisable conclusions about these potentially important effects, further research is warranted in real-world settings, intervening across a wider range of foods - as well as alcohol and tobacco products - and over sustained time periods.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Produtos do Tabaco/provisão & distribução , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Restaurantes , Instituições Acadêmicas , Local de Trabalho
14.
Waste Manag ; 100: 249-258, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563025

RESUMO

The challenge of increasing food demand due to population growth urges all stakeholders to act against food losses and waste, especially in light of their environmental, cost, and social impacts. In developed countries, awareness raising, and prevention are particularly important at the consumption level, where food waste mainly occurs. In this sense, public school canteens represent a unique setting, because of their capacity of conveying food habits, while sustainably managing available resources. This research assessed the environmental and cost impact of food consumption and wastage in public school canteens through a case study in Italy. It combined life cycle assessment, environmental life cycle costing, and quarter-waste visual methods. The functional unit was defined as the average meal provided by the catering service to 3-10 years old students. Primary data on type and amounts of purchased food, transport, and utilities consumption were provided by the catering service, while food waste assessment was performed in selected representative school canteens. Secondary data on background processes were mainly sourced from databases and literature. Food waste at schools represented 20-29% of the prepared meal, depending on students' age and seasonal menu. The global warming potential (GWP) of the average meal was 1.11-1.50 kg CO2-eq, mostly due to the food production impact. The meal preparation had the largest impact on costs. When considering embedded impacts, food waste was responsible for 14-18% of GWP and 6-11% of the costs. The sensitivity analysis showed promising environmental and cost reductions by introducing changes in the meal composition and preparation.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação , Eliminação de Resíduos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Alimentos , Humanos , Itália , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
15.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 53, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (BREALD-30) administered to adolescents. METHODS: The study included 750 adolescents: 375 aged 12 years and 375 aged 15-19 years, attending public and private schools in Campina Grande, state of Paraíba, Brazil, in 2017. Reliability was measured based on internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Convergent validity was measured based on correlations between BREALD-30 and Functional Literacy Indicator scores. Divergent validity was measured by comparing BREALD-30 scores with sociodemographic variables. For predictive validity, the association between BREALD-30 scores and the presence of cavitated carious lesions was tested using a multiple logistic regression model. All statistical tests were performed with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: BREALD-30 showed good internal consistency for the 12 year olds and 15 to19 year olds (Cronbach's alpha = 0.871 and 0.834, respectively) and good test-retest reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.898 and 0.974; kappa = 0.804 and 0.808, respectively]. Moreover, item-total correlation was satisfactory for all items. BREALD-30 had convergent validity with the Functional Literacy Indicator for 12 year olds (rs = 0.558, p < 0.001) and for 15 to 19 year olds (rs = 0.652, p < 0.001). Participants with higher oral health literacy levels who attended private schools (p < 0.001), belonged to economic classes A and B2 (p < 0.001), and who had parents with higher education levels (p < 0.001) were included, indicating the divergent validity of the BREALD-30. Participants with lower BREALD-30 scores were more likely to have cavitated carious lesions [12 year olds: odds ratio (OR) = 2.37; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.48-3.80; 15 to 19 year olds: OR = 1.96; 95%CI 1.24-3.11]. CONCLUSIONS: BREALD-30 shows satisfactory psychometric properties for use on Brazilian adolescents and can be applied as a fast, simple, and reliable measure of oral health literacy.


Assuntos
Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/instrumentação , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/normas , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Saúde Bucal/educação , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Setor Privado , Psicometria , Setor Público , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto Jovem
16.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1859-1860, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438379

RESUMO

Support for elderly people with dementia is required in the community. Many elementary school students are taking dementia kids supporter training courses, but it is difficult to nurture the ability to correctly understand and respond to dementia. By using multiple information communication technologies, we developed a practical program with concrete response method to convey knowledge on supporting of elderly people with dementia.


Assuntos
Demência , Estudantes , Idoso , Comunicação , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012573, 2019 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overconsumption of food, alcohol, and tobacco products increases the risk of non-communicable diseases. Interventions to change characteristics of physical micro-environments where people may select or consume these products - including shops, restaurants, workplaces, and schools - are of considerable public health policy and research interest. This review addresses two types of intervention within such environments: altering the availability (the range and/or amount of options) of these products, or their proximity (the distance at which they are positioned) to potential consumers. OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the impact on selection and consumption of altering the availability or proximity of (a) food (including non-alcoholic beverages), (b) alcohol, and (c) tobacco products.2. To assess the extent to which the impact of these interventions is modified by characteristics of: i. studies, ii. interventions, and iii. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and seven other published or grey literature databases, as well as trial registries and key websites, up to 23 July 2018, followed by citation searches. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials with between-participants (parallel group) or within-participants (cross-over) designs. Eligible studies compared effects of exposure to at least two different levels of availability of a product or its proximity, and included a measure of selection or consumption of the manipulated product. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used a novel semi-automated screening workflow and applied standard Cochrane methods to select eligible studies, collect data, and assess risk of bias. In separate analyses for availability interventions and proximity interventions, we combined results using random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression models to estimate summary effect sizes (as standardised mean differences (SMDs)) and to investigate associations between summary effect sizes and selected study, intervention, or participant characteristics. We rated the certainty of evidence for each outcome using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 24 studies, with the majority (20/24) giving concerns about risk of bias. All of the included studies investigated food products; none investigated alcohol or tobacco. The majority were conducted in laboratory settings (14/24), with adult participants (17/24), and used between-participants designs (19/24). All studies were conducted in high-income countries, predominantly in the USA (14/24).Six studies investigated availability interventions, of which two changed the absolute number of different options available, and four altered the relative proportion of less-healthy (to healthier) options. Most studies (4/6) manipulated snack foods or drinks. For selection outcomes, meta-analysis of three comparisons from three studies (n = 154) found that exposure to fewer options resulted in a large reduction in selection of the targeted food(s): SMD -1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.90 to -0.37) (low certainty evidence). For consumption outcomes, meta-analysis of three comparisons from two studies (n = 150) found that exposure to fewer options resulted in a moderate reduction in consumption of those foods, but with considerable uncertainty: SMD -0.55 (95% CI -1.27 to 0.18) (low certainty evidence).Eighteen studies investigated proximity interventions. Most (14/18) changed the distance at which a snack food or drink was placed from the participants, whilst four studies changed the order of meal components encountered along a line. For selection outcomes, only one study with one comparison (n = 41) was identified, which found that food placed farther away resulted in a moderate reduction in its selection: SMD -0.65 (95% CI -1.29 to -0.01) (very low certainty evidence). For consumption outcomes, meta-analysis of 15 comparisons from 12 studies (n = 1098) found that exposure to food placed farther away resulted in a moderate reduction in its consumption: SMD -0.60 (95% CI -0.84 to -0.36) (low certainty evidence). Meta-regression analyses indicated that this effect was greater: the farther away the product was placed; when only the targeted product(s) was available; when participants were of low deprivation status; and when the study was at high risk of bias. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence suggests that changing the number of available food options or altering the positioning of foods could contribute to meaningful changes in behaviour, justifying policy actions to promote such changes within food environments. However, the certainty of this evidence as assessed by GRADE is low or very low. To enable more certain and generalisable conclusions about these potentially important effects, further research is warranted in real-world settings, intervening across a wider range of foods - as well as alcohol and tobacco products - and over sustained time periods.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/provisão & distribução , Meio Ambiente , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Produtos do Tabaco/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Restaurantes , Instituições Acadêmicas , Local de Trabalho
18.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(8): 1070-1077, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417049

RESUMO

Background: The World Health Organization defines obesity as an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that can damage health. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of obesity and risk factors in high school students in Erzurum City Center. Study Design and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. The number of students participating in the study was 845, including 47.6% females and 52.4% males. Data collection was done by surveys filled in under supervision. Anthropometric measurements were performed by the researchers. Predictions of the Extended International Obesity Task Force were used for body mass index. Parents' body mass indexes were calculated by self-report and classified according to cut-off points for adults in the world health community. A systematic review of the local literature published between 2004 and 2013 was drafted. Results: In girls and boys, the frequency of overweight was 26.9% and 25.7%, respectively, while the frequency of obesity was 12.4% and 9.5%. A logistic regression analysis was performed to reveal significant risk factors for overweight/obesity. Weekly exercise status [odds ratio = 3.0, 95% confidence interval CI (1.2-7.8)] and school transfer % CI = (1.1-7.2) were important independent risk factors for obesity. The local literature showed a 4.3-fold increase in the prevalence of obesity within 10 years. Conclusion: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in adolescents requires the implementation of effective programs to fight this epidemic. Health education targeting peers and their parents, peer education, screening of risk groups, and controlling the sale of unhealthy foods can be some interventions.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012595, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: School dental screening refers to visual inspection of children's oral cavity in a school setting followed by making parents aware of their child's current oral health status and treatment needs. Screening at school intends to identify children at an earlier stage than symptomatic disease presentation, hence prompting preventive and therapeutic oral health care for the children. This review evaluates the effectiveness of school dental screening in improving oral health status. It is an update of the original review, which was first published in December 2017. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of school dental screening programmes on overall oral health status and use of dental services. SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 4 March 2019), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, the Cochrane Register of Studies, to 4 March 2019), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 4 March 2019), and Embase Ovid (15 September 2016 to 4 March 2019). The US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on language or publication status when searching the electronic databases; however, the search of Embase was restricted to the last six months due to the Cochrane Centralised Search Project to identify all clinical trials and add them to CENTRAL. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (cluster or parallel) that evaluated school dental screening compared with no intervention or with one type of screening compared with another. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven trials (five were cluster-RCTs) with 20,192 children who were 4 to 15 years of age. Trials assessed follow-up periods of three to eight months. Four trials were conducted in the UK, two were based in India and one in the USA. We assessed two trials to be at low risk of bias, two trials to be at high risk of bias and three trials to be at unclear risk of bias.None of the trials had long-term follow-up to ascertain the lasting effects of school dental screening.None of the trials reported the proportion of children with untreated caries or other oral diseases, cost effectiveness or adverse events.Four trials evaluated traditional screening versus no screening. We performed a meta-analysis for the outcome 'dental attendance' and found an inconclusive result with high heterogeneity. The heterogeneity was found to be, in part, due to study design (three cluster-RCTs and one individual-level RCT). Due to the inconsistency, we downgraded the evidence to 'very low certainty' and are unable to draw conclusions about this comparison.Two cluster-RCTs (both four-arm trials) evaluated criteria-based screening versus no screening and showed a pooled effect estimate of RR 1.07 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.16), suggesting a possible benefit for screening (low-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of a difference when criteria-based screening was compared to traditional screening (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.08) (very low-certainty evidence).In one trial, a specific (personalised) referral letter was compared to a non-specific one. Results favoured the specific referral letter with an effect estimate of RR 1.39 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.77) for attendance at general dentist services and effect estimate of RR 1.90 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.06) for attendance at specialist orthodontist services (low-certainty evidence).One trial compared screening supplemented with motivation to screening alone. Dental attendance was more likely after screening supplemented with motivation, with an effect estimate of RR 3.08 (95% CI 2.57 to 3.71) (low-certainty evidence).Only one trial reported the proportion of children with treated dental caries. This trial evaluated a post screening referral letter based on the common-sense model of self-regulation (a theoretical framework that explains how people understand and respond to threats to their health), with or without a dental information guide, compared to a standard referral letter. The findings were inconclusive. Due to high risk of bias, indirectness and imprecision, we assessed the evidence as very low certainty. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The trials included in this review evaluated short-term effects of screening. We found very low-certainty evidence that is insufficient to allow us to draw conclusions about whether there is a role for traditional school dental screening in improving dental attendance. For criteria-based screening, we found low-certainty evidence that it may improve dental attendance when compared to no screening. However, when compared to traditional screening, there is no evidence of a difference in dental attendance (very low-certainty evidence).We found low-certainty evidence to conclude that personalised or specific referral letters may improve dental attendance when compared to non-specific counterparts. We also found low-certainty evidence that screening supplemented with motivation (oral health education and offer of free treatment) may improve dental attendance in comparison to screening alone. For children requiring treatment, we found very-low certainty evidence that was inconclusive regarding whether or not a referral letter based on the 'common-sense model of self-regulation' was better than a standard referral letter.We did not find any trials addressing possible adverse effects of school dental screening or evaluating its effectiveness for improving oral health.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Saúde Bucal , Odontopediatria , Serviços de Odontologia Escolar/métodos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Odontopatias/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Medicina Preventiva , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Serviços de Odontologia Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(8): 824-828, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378043

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the incidence of school violence and its related factors among senior students in rural primary schools in Guizhou and Anhui provinces in 2016. Methods: From September to November 2016, one county was randomly selected from 47 impoverished counties of Guizhou and one county was randomly selected from 18 impoverished counties of Anhui Province by using multi-stage cluster sampling method. A total of 4 schools were randomly selected from primary schools which had more than 70% students with rural resident registration in each selected county, and 3 classes were randomly selected from fifth and sixth grades of each selected school. All students in each selected class were included in this study. A total of 2 521 students were included, and 2 506 valid questionnaires were collected with an effective response rate about 99.4%. Self-designed questionnaires were used to collect data on individual information, family information, and the incidence of school violence with related factors. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to analyze related factors of school violence. Results: The incidence of violence in rural primary schools was 50.4% (1 264/2 506) in 2016. The number of students who had physical assault, fought or been bullied was 682 (27.2%), 689 (27.5%) and 764 (30.5%), respectively. The results of multivariable logistic regression showed that the OR (95%CI) values of incidence of school violence for male students was 2.13(1.78-2.54) compared with female students; and the OR(95%CI) values of incidence of school violence for students with high peer acceptance, high family intimacy, more physical activity and mother who had education background of junior high school, senior high school, technical secondary school and junior college, bachelor's degree or above were 0.39 (0.26-0.57), 0.47 (0.40-0.57), 0.64 (0.52-0.78), 0.79 (0.66-0.96), and 0.65 (0.46-0.92) compared with those with low peer acceptance, low family intimacy, less physical activity and mother who had primary education and below. Conclusion: The incidence of violence in rural primary schools is not optimistic. Gender, peer acceptance, family intimacy, physical activity and mother education are related to school violence.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Violência , China , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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