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1.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(6): 821-827, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121728

RESUMO

Background: Adiponectin is an excellent insulin sensitizer. It also possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties that play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cardio-metabolic disorders. Evaluating adiponectin distribution in children and factors that modulate its blood level is critical for advancing knowledge in its future role in managing associated non-communicable diseases. Aim: To investigate the adiponectin profile in apparently healthy pre-pubertal Nigerian school children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study comprising 125 randomly recruited pupils from eight primary schools in Nnewi located in Anambra State, Nigeria. Anthropometric values were taken and venous blood samples assayed for adiponectin using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Analysis of data was done with SPSS software version 22 and R programming software. The level of significance set at P < 0.05. Results: We enrolled a total number of 125 children, which comprised of 68 (54.4%) males and 57 (45.6%) females with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. The mean age of all the subjects was 7.7 ± 2.0 years. The mean serum adiponectin level of all the participants was 4.67 ± 2.2 ng/mL with a range of 1.9 ng/mL to 10.0 ng/mL. Adiponectin was slightly higher in females than males (4.93 ± 2.4 ng/mL vs 4.45 ± 2.0 ng/mL, respectively; P = 0.223). In males, an inverse relationship was observed between adiponectin and increasing age, whereas in females, a positive correlation was noted (P = 0.637 vs P = 0.639, respectively). The body mass index (BMI) correlated negatively with adiponectin in all the subjects and across both the genders, but these were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Adiponectin varies with sex, age and BMI in pre-pubertal Nigerian children with normal BMI. Further local studies are needed to elucidate its role in the management of associated disease states.


Assuntos
Adiponectina , Resistência à Insulina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Obesidade , Instituições Acadêmicas
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 242, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104290

RESUMO

Introduction: conducting researches and estimating the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in school children is crucial to develop school-based strategies targeted to decrease the prevalence of this disease. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis were aimed to estimate the overall prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) among school children in East Africa. Methods: PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane review, African Journals Online and African Index Medicus databases were searched to identify relevant research articles. The overall prevalence of rheumatic heart disease was pooled based on the weighted inverse variance random-effects model at a 95% confidence interval. The presence of heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis and presence of publication bias was tested. Results were presented with narrative synthesis, tables and forest plots. Results: a total of thirteen research articles were included in the final analysis. The pooled prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in East African school children was 1.79% (17.9 cases per 1000 children (95% CI=11.6, 24.2; I2=95.1%; p<0.001)). From the subgroup analysis conducted by publication year, a lower prevalence of RHD in school children was reported among studies published after 2015 (six studies; overall prevalence=1.17% (11.7 cases per 1000 school children); with 95% CI=0.60, 1.73%; I2=88.8%; p<0.001). Additionally, the horn of Africa was found to have the lowest prevalence of RHD in school children among East African countries (six studies; overall prevalence=1.59% (15.9 cases per 1000 school children); with 95% CI=0.68, 2.51%; I2=94.2%; p<0.001). Conclusion: the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) among school children in East Africa was considerably higher than the results from high-income countries. Therefore, community education on strep throat and its complications should be implemented through mass media. Rheumatic heart disease preventive strategies should be integrated with schools to reduce the prevalence of RHD among school children.


Assuntos
Cardiopatia Reumática/epidemiologia , África Oriental/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Renda , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
4.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 141(9)2021 06 08.
Artigo em Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Karl Evang's (1902-1981) efforts with regard to sex education in Norway are well documented, in particular his work in the interwar period, as an initiator and co-editor of Populært Tidsskrift for Seksuell Oplysning (Popular Journal for Sex Education) (1932-1935). This article takes Evang's work in the 1930s as its starting point, but emphasises his role in promoting sex education in schools after the war. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The main sources for the article are Evang's popular science texts on sex education as well as archive material that shows Evang's role in school policy. Searches have also been conducted in newspaper databases and in the journal. The text builds on research on Populært Tidsskrift and on the teaching of sex education in Norwegian schools undertaken by the author of this article. RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION: Karl Evang worked to promote sex education in Norway. His professional and ideological efforts in this regard in the interwar period are well documented, but he was also committed to this cause as Norway's director general of health in the post-war years. Evang regarded the teaching in schools as a particularly important tool for health-promoting knowledge about sexuality in the population, and he helped to place sex education in schools on the agenda after the war. Through his professional and political networks, he was perhaps the most important driver of sex education in Norway, in the decades before as well as after the war.


Assuntos
Educação Sexual , Comportamento Sexual , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E55, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081577

RESUMO

The disproportionate impact of COVID-19 and associated disparities among Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native children and teenagers has been documented. Reducing these disparities along with overcoming unintended negative consequences of the pandemic, such as the disruption of in-person schooling, calls for broad community-based collaborations and nuanced approaches. Based on national survey data, children from some racial and ethnic minority groups have a higher prevalence of obesity, asthma, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension; were diagnosed more frequently with COVID-19; and had more severe outcomes compared with their non-Hispanic White (NHW) counterparts. Furthermore, a higher proportion of children from some racial and ethnic minority groups lived in families with incomes less than 200% of the federal poverty level or in households lacking secure employment compared with NHW children. Children from some racial and ethnic minority groups were also more likely to attend school via online learning compared with NHW counterparts. Because the root causes of these disparities are complex and multifactorial, an organized community-based approach is needed to achieve greater proactive and sustained collaborations between local health departments, local school systems, and other public and private organizations to pursue health equity. This article provides a summary of potential community-based health promotion strategies to address racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 outcomes and educational inequities among children and teens, specifically in the implementation of strategic partnerships, including initial collective work, outcomes-based activities, and communication. These collaborations can facilitate policy, systems, and environmental changes in school systems that support emergency preparedness, recovery, and resilience when faced with public health crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etnologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Nativos Estadunidenses/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Doença Crônica/etnologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(11)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070754

RESUMO

Today, the world is experiencing the COVID-19 health contingency, which prevents people from being exposed to one another and restricts physical contact. Under this context, the use of technology has become an essential tool to face the challenges of daily life, and virtual reality can be an alternative in the development of solutions that effectively support the acquisition of learning skills and knowledge transmission through the execution of tasks designed by multi-disciplinary groups. In addition, it can encourage the user to continue with the acquisition of learning skills in a friendly and fun way in a health and education context. This work proposes the use of virtual reality environments as an alternative to support the learning process in children with special educational needs such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and other associated disorders that occur in basic education. These proposed reality environments are designed under the Lean UX process model and their contents are designed according to expert therapeutic guidelines. As a result of this proposal, a case study is presented in which the user experience is evaluated through the use of an interactive environment to support the special educational needs of elementary school children attending an educational institution in Mexico.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , COVID-19 , Realidade Virtual , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Criança , Humanos , México , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073845

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus required adjustment regarding the delivery of interventions. Media literacy interventions are necessary to help people acquire relevant skills to navigate the complexities of media communications, and to encourage health-promoting behaviors. The present study aimed to promote a media literacy intervention regarding performance and appearance enhancement substances use in sports high school students. The COVID-19 contingency allowed us to evaluate whether online sessions can effectively promote greater awareness of media influence, a stronger sense of confidence in persuading others to deal with media messages, and healthier attitudes about PAES use among high school students. The study relied on an "intervention group" comprising 162 students (31.5% female) and a "control group" comprising 158 students (42% female). Data were analyzed through repeated measures of Group X Time MANOVA and ANOVA, demonstrating some degree of efficacy of the media literacy intervention. The "intervention group" reported higher awareness of potential newspapers' influence and a significant increase in their sense of confidence in dealing with media influence compared to the "control group". Findings support the efficacy of online media literacy programs to prevent doping consumption in adolescents.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Letramento em Saúde , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
9.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 527, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal pains are among evident health problems in children and adolescents. Backpack carrying behaviors and the sitting postures are among behavioral factors associated with musculoskeletal pain in schoolchildren. Therefore, this study aims to identify the factors related to these important musculoskeletal behaviors, using Health Promotion Models. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was created based on PRECEDE Model and Health Belief Model and was administered to 673 Iranian students, whom were selected randomly from elementary schools of Hamadan, Iran, in 2018. RESULTS: The findings of the study revealed that proper sitting postures and backpack carrying were 42 and 33%, respectively. The findings also showed that predisposing factors including perceived susceptibility (p < 0.05, ß = 0.219), perceived severity (p < 0.05, ß = 0.166), perceived barriers (p < 0.05, ß = - 0.191), perceived self-efficacy (p < 0.05, ß = 0.188) and also enabling factors (p < 0.05, ß = 0.329) were significantly related to sitting behaviors. Moreover, backpack carrying behaviors had significant relationships with predisposing factors of perceived susceptibility (p < 0.05, ß = 0.198), perceived barriers (p < 0.05, ß = - 0.258), perceived self-efficacy (p < 0.05, ß = 0.185) and reinforcing factors (p < 0.05, ß = 0.208). CONCLUSIONS: It seems necessary for future preventive programs to take factors of musculoskeletal pains among children and adolescents into account.


Assuntos
Dor Musculoesquelética , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/diagnóstico , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067562

RESUMO

A parallel fish school tracking based on multiple-feature fish detection has been proposed in this paper to obtain accurate movement trajectories of a large number of zebrafish. Zebrafish are widely adapted in many fields as an excellent model organism. Due to the non-rigid body, similar appearance, rapid transition, and frequent occlusions, vision-based behavioral monitoring is still a challenge. A multiple appearance feature based fish detection scheme was developed by examining the fish head and center of the fish body based on shape index features. The proposed fish detection has the advantage of locating individual fishes from occlusions and estimating their motion states, which could ensure the stability of tracking multiple fishes. Moreover, a parallel tracking scheme was developed based on the SORT framework by fusing multiple features of individual fish and motion states. The proposed method was evaluated in seven video clips taken under different conditions. These videos contained various scales of fishes, different arena sizes, different frame rates, and various image resolutions. The maximal number of tracking targets reached 100 individuals. The correct tracking ratio was 98.60% to 99.86%, and the correct identification ratio ranged from 97.73% to 100%. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is superior to advanced deep learning-based methods. Nevertheless, this method has real-time tracking ability, which can acquire online trajectory data without high-cost hardware configuration.


Assuntos
Movimento , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Cabeça , Movimento (Física) , Instituições Acadêmicas
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069502

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has pointed to the need to increase our knowledge in fields related to human breathing. In the present study, temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, and median particle size diameter measurements were taken into account. These parameters were analyzed in a computer classroom with 15 subjects during a normal 90-minute class; all the subjects wore surgical masks. For measurements, Arduino YUN, Arduino UNO, and APS-3321 devices were used. Natural ventilation efficiency was checked in two different ventilation scenarios: only windows open and windows and doors open. The results show how ventilation affects the temperature, CO2 concentration, and median particle diameter size parameters. By contrast, the relative humidity depends more on the outdoor meteorological conditions. Both ventilation scenarios tend to create the same room conditions in terms of temperature, humidity, CO2 concentration, and particle size. Additionally, the evolution of CO2 concentration as well as the particle size distribution along the time was studied. Finally, the particulate matter (PM2.5) was investigated together with particle concentration. Both parameters showed a similar trend during the time of the experiments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Pandemias , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ventilação
12.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 120-134, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085963

RESUMO

International regulations about Accessibility and Design for All are clear. They provide two guidelines to ensure equality, autonomy, and non-discrimination, such as Reasonable Accommodation and Universal Design (or Design for All). Reasonable Accommodation leads to Adapted Fashion, which adjusts clothing to the body (average clothes for the average consumer). Universal Design leads to Inclusive Fashion, which creates clothes for everybody even if you have a body issue. Design for All (or Universal Design) implies projecting from the beginning to the end of the design process based on inclusion. In this context, the Museum-Foundation Juan March in Palma was the starting point to conceive, develop and communicate a collaborative and transdisciplinary design project; it was designed under the principle of Universal Design. This transdisciplinary co-design project took place during the first semester of the 2019-2020 academic year with a third-year BA in Fashion Design students. They designed an inclusive ready-to-wear fashion micro-collection, which focused on sensitizing BA in Fashion Design students, promoting a change of attitude, and fostering a better understanding of the challenges clothing design process. Students were invited to complete two online questionnaires to collect data on the project. The first survey was used to assess alumni's perception of acquisition, development, and/or consolidation of key competences in participating students and control groups. The second survey was used to assess alumni's activity on the project among participating students. This project was aimed at sensitizing BA in Fashion Design students, promoting a change of attitude, and a better understanding of the challenges clothing design process. After visiting the museum, getting inspired by their artists and their works of art, creating a mood board, and drawing the first sketches, two groups were created to develop an inclusive, ready-to-wear fashion micro-collection. Each collection focused on a different users' profile: one group worked with a model with achondroplasia (woman), and the other group worked with two wheelchair models (man, woman). Despite the mixed results, the main objectives of the project were reached. As members of a school community, students must learn about other realities that differ from their everyday environment. As members of a school of design, students must be aware of an important prospective market niche and expand their fields of action that must include Design for All. In any case, human diversity is the key concept to approach user-centred design in the twenty-first century. The «Museum and Inclusive Fashion¼ project was part of an ongoing academic research project funded by the Balearic Government (2017-2020). This article reflects the views only of the authors, and the Balearic Government cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.


Assuntos
Museus , Design Universal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 144-160, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085965

RESUMO

The TINEL Project is running a series of camps for staff at higher education institution to support them in developing inclusive eLearning. The first camp was conducted face-to-face, but the coronavirus pandemic meant that the second camp was conducted online. This created a case study in inclusive eLearning in itself and allowed us to experience and reflect on the challenges and opportunities of inclusive online teaching and learning. This paper presents the structure and content of the two camps, our reflections on moving from a face-to-face to an online situation and our elaboration how the UDL principles apply to eLearning to create Universal Design for eLearning (UDeL). We found that because we already had a syllabus for the camp prepared, transferring it to an online camp did not present a great number of challenges. Some aspects of the online situation were actually advantageous (e.g. presenting all materials digitally and making them fully accessible) while others were difficult to overcome (e.g. engaging all participants in online activities and discussions). We provide a set of recommendations of how to implement the three principles of UDL in eLearning situations.


Assuntos
Instrução por Computador , Educação à Distância , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Design Universal , Universidades
14.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 176-182, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085967

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to introduce participants to our journey of integrating Universal Design as a central part of a new Technological University in addressing the challenge of a consistent quality experience for all learners. Adopting and combining both the principles of universal design and universal design for learning is not to make it easier but to offer a framework of principles and guidelines to make education appropriate and challenging for everyone. Ken Robinson wrote "A vibrant school can nourish an entire community by becoming a source of hope and creative energy…Poor schools can drain the optimism from all the students and families who depend on it by diminishing their opportunities for growth and development" (1).


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Design Universal , Currículo , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
15.
Wiad Lek ; 74(5): 1086-1092, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Study of psychophysiological features of children depending on gender in the dynamics of the school year and the action of parents on preventive measures among primary school children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The study of biological adaptation of primary school students was conducted in two stages among second-graders (children 7-8 years) in the dynamics of the week and year. A total of 46 children (24 girls and 22 boys). The psychophysiological part of the study included electroencephalography (EEG) recording to assess the individual characteristics of the nervous system and determine mental performance. The next step was to determine mental performance, which is one of the important criteria for the health of schoolchildren, which characterizes the relationship between the functional state of the child's body and learning load. The analysis of mental capacity was conducted at school with the permission of parents during the first school week and the last school week. RESULTS: Results: Based on the recorded EEG, the average values of the peak frequencies in each lead in the five ranges were calculated. When comparing the average values of indicators recorded in the modes of quiet wakefulness and mental load (mental account) at the beginning of the year, using a nonparametric criterion of signs revealed significant (p <0,05) differences between peak frequencies in the ranges ß1 and ß2 . The average peak frequency in the ß1 range at rest (14.3 ± 0.5 Hz) is higher than during mental stress (13.8 ± 0.4 Hz). autonomy of regulation (p <0.01) in girls at the end of the school year is characterized by higher values. Analysis of data on the mental capacity of first-graders showed that the dynamics of the week among boys the number of traced signs increased from (120.5 ± 2.6) to (122.3 ± 4.8) signs, (p > 0.05) by the end of the week , and had the largest number of signs on Wednesday (127.4 ± 4.2) but had no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Preventive measures such as sleep and rest, walks in the fresh air aimed at promoting health can be the same for both girls and boys, but more attention and control over the implementation of these measures should be paid to boys.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Pais , Estresse Psicológico
16.
Wiad Lek ; 74(5): 1147-1151, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: The aim of research was to determine of socio-hygienic and psychophysiological characteristics of adolescents with different levels of professional readiness at the beginning of professional education. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: Among 451 adolescents aged 15-18 who start vocational training were studied vocational readiness, quality of life related to health, social characteristics, self-assessment of individual psychological and physiological characteristics and needs. RESULTS: Results: Students of vocational schools have a lower (p <0.05) level of readiness to make decisions and plan future professional activities. Medical students had the highest levels of professional readiness. It was found that (57.5 ± 4.3)% of the studied adolescents did not have a clearly defined hierarchy of life spheres and terminal values. There are no significant differences in the quality of life related to health among students of different educational institutions. The highest indicators of satisfaction of basic needs were observed among students of vocational schools. The level of professional readiness of adolescents who studied in the pedagogical field had a greater impact on their physical functioning and mental health; аmong medical students - social and physical functioning, general and psychological health. CONCLUSION: Conclusions:The professional orientation of young students has a significant impact on their health-related quality of life and health-promoting behavior. Students whose behavior depends on external circumstances are a risk group for healthy lifestyle disorders, and their health-preserving behavior is more dependent on the positive impact of the educational environment.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Educação Profissionalizante , Adolescente , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida , Instituições Acadêmicas
17.
Wiad Lek ; 74(5): 1169-1173, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Scientific substantiation of the method of screening assessment of the degree of risk of prenosological changes in the state of the mental health of school-age pupils in the context of the analysis of behavioral aspects of public health. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The level of neuroticism of young women and men was assessed based on the use of the Eysenck рersonality questionnaire, the level of state, trait and school anxiety - according to the Spielberger State-Trait Personality inventory and Phillips school anxiety questionnaire, the level of emotional burnout - based on the use Boiko questionnaire, the level of aggressive manifestations - according to data Bassa-Darkness questionnaire, the level of depression - based on the use data of Zung self-rating depression scale. RESULTS: Results: The method of screening the degree of risk of prenosological changes in the mental health of school-age pupils involves determining the degree of expression of neuroticism, state, trait and school anxiety, emotional burnout, aggression and depression. The obtained data are evaluated in standardized scores, which are used to calculate the integrated indicator of mental health and the integrated indicator of dynamic changes in mental health, on the basis of which the person is classified as minimal, low, moderate or high risk of mental health abnormalities. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The proposed method is a simple and easy to use, highly informative tool for identifying adverse prenosological changes in mental health of school-age pupils in the context of analyzing the behavioral aspects of public health.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Saúde Pública , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
18.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e44, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092271

RESUMO

AIMS: Alienation towards parents often occurs when parents divorce; however, it can also occur when one or both parents leave for work for more than 6 months. Our previous investigation has confirmed a high level of feelings of alienation towards parents among Chinese left-behind children. However, the longitudinal prediction of alienation on children's mental health outcomes remains largely unknown. This study aims to observe the prediction of alienation towards parents on children's depression 12 months later and potential mediators and moderators. METHODS: A total of 1090 Chinese left-behind children took part in this 12-month follow-up investigation, using the Chinese version of the Inventory of Alienation towards Parents (IAP), the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the Adolescent Self-Rating Life-events Checklist (ASLEC), and the Adolescent Resilience Scale. RESULTS: Alienation towards parents was high (16.42 ± 7.27 for mother, 15.63 ± 7.17 for father) in left-behind children, and 21.01% of children reported depression. Alienation towards parents predicted current depression of children directly and later depression indirectly; children's alienation toward their mothers was a stronger predictor of depression than alienation towards fathers. In models, stressful life-events acted as a risk mediator. Previous depression was the strongest risk predictor, resilience was the strongest protective factor, and duration of fathers' absence and parents' marital status moderated the predictive effects. CONCLUSIONS: This study is among the first to longitudinally confirm that alienation towards parents is a predictor of children's later depression. The results provide important suggestions for families and schools; i.e. to prevent depression in left-behind children, parent-child bonds especially alienation towards mothers, should be carefully considered, and individuals with more negative life-events and weaker resilience need further attention.


Assuntos
Emoções , Pais , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Mães , Instituições Acadêmicas
19.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 214, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to explore kindergarten staffs' perceived usefulness of intervention components in association with changes in children's vegetable intake and vegetables served in the kindergarten. Assessment of the perceived usefulness of intervention components consisted of a paper-based questionnaire for the kindergarten staff assessing usefulness of posters, supplementary material and 1-day inspirational course. Children's vegetable intake in the kindergarten was assessed by direct observation, while vegetables served was assessed by a 5-day weighted vegetable diary. RESULTS: Seventy-three kindergartens in two counties in Norway participated (response rate 15%) and parental consent was obtained for 633 children 3-5 years of age at baseline (response rate 39%). Mixed effect models indicated a tendency that posters were associated with increased child vegetable intake (P = 0.062). Surprisingly, a low degree of perceived usefulness of supplementary material was associated with the largest increase in child vegetable intake (P = 0.020). No significant associations between perceived usefulness of intervention components and vegetables served in the kindergarten were found. This study indicated a tendency that posters were associated with increased child vegetable intake; however, this may also be due to synergies between multiple intervention components. Trial registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials ISRCTN51962956 ( http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN51962956 ). Registered 21 June 2016 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Verduras , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Humanos , Noruega , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e049876, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections in secondary schools after their reopening in May 2020. DESIGN: Repeated SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence study after the reopening of schools and 4 months later. SETTING: Secondary school in Dresden, Germany. PARTICIPANTS: 1538 students grades 8-12 and 507 teachers from 13 schools. INTERVENTIONS: Serial blood sampling and SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody assessment. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in study population. Number of undetected cases. RESULTS: 1538 students and 507 teachers were initially enrolled, and 1334 students and 445 teachers completed both study visits. The seroprevalence for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 0.6% in May/June and the same in September/October. Even in schools with reported COVID-19 cases before the lockdown of 13 March, no clusters could be identified. Of 12 persons with positive serology five had a known history of confirmed COVID-19; 23 out of 24 participants with a household history of COVID-91 were seronegative. CONCLUSIONS: Schools do not play a crucial role in driving the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in a low-prevalence setting. Transmission in families occurs very infrequently, and the number of unreported cases is low in this age group. These observations do not support school closures as a strategy fighting the pandemic in a low-prevalence setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS00022455.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudantes
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