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1.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Opioid misuse and overdose remains a leading US public health concern, and many youth are first exposed to opioids via medical use. In this study, we examine school-level prevalence and correlates of medical use and misuse of prescription opioids among US 12th-grade students. METHODS: A sample of 228 507 US 12th-graders in 1079 public and private schools from 2002 to 2017 from the Monitoring the Future study was used to identify school-level prevalence and correlates associated with medical use and misuse of prescription opioids. RESULTS: The past-year prevalence of prescription opioid misuse was 7.6% and ranged from 0% to 73% across US high schools. Lifetime medical use of prescription opioids was 16.9% and ranged from 0% to 85% across US high schools. The odds of prescription opioid misuse were higher at schools with higher proportions of male students, more white students, higher rates of marijuana use, and more medical use of prescription opioids. Students attending schools with the highest rates of medical use of prescription opioids had 57% increased odds of past-year prescription opioid misuse compared with schools with no medical use (adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval = 1.35-1.83); this association was found to weaken in recent years. CONCLUSIONS: Differences exist in the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse among US high schools. The association between greater school-level medical use of prescription opioids and higher prevalence of prescription opioid misuse, although declining, indicates a key risk factor to target for prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Intervalos de Confiança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22409, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991470

RESUMO

Childhood bullying leads to life-long scars and hinders adult development. Schoolchildren involved in bullying are at risk of developing behavioural difficulties, physical health problems and suicidal ideation. This research aimed to evaluate the bullying experience of pupils in Nigerian primary schools.The study is a cross-sectional analytic survey conducted from June to November 2019. A total of 1080 pupils in participated in the study. A self-report questionnaire containing 3 questions was used for collecting data. Analysis of the collected data was done using percentage and Chi-Squared at 0.05 probability level.Results indicate that 51.4% of the male pupils and 50.8% of females reported being victims of bullying. 51.8% of the males and 49.5% of females were found to be perpetrators of bullying. 39.6% of the males and 42.9% of the females were bystanders of bullying. 35.1% of the males and 34.1% of females have experienced any 2 of the categories while 11.2% of the males and 12.4% of the females have experienced all the categories of bullying. Results show a non-significant difference between male and female pupils on bullying victimization (χ = .036, P = .849), bullying perpetration (χ = .589, P = .443), and bullying bystander problem (χ = 1.194, P = .275).In conclusion, school bullying is an increasing problem among Nigerian schoolchildren. Initiatives must, therefore, be taken by the Nigerian government to further prevent and counter bullying problem in Nigerian primary schools. Interventions aimed at helping schools to develop effective policies to reduce bullying behaviour among pupils should be initiated.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1310-1312, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941408

RESUMO

The use of any tobacco product by youths is unsafe, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) (1). Most e-cigarettes contain nicotine, which is highly addictive, can harm the developing adolescent brain, and can increase risk for future addiction to other drugs (1). E-cigarette use has increased considerably among U.S. youths since 2011 (1,2). Multiple factors have contributed to this increase, including youth-appealing flavors and product innovations (1-3). Amid the widespread use of e-cigarettes and popularity of certain products among youths, on February 6, 2020, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) implemented a policy prioritizing enforcement against the manufacture, distribution, and sale of certain unauthorized flavored prefilled pod or cartridge-based e-cigarettes (excluding tobacco or menthol).


Assuntos
Estudantes/psicologia , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47789

RESUMO

Enquanto as escolas em todo o mundo lutam para reabrir, os dados mais recentes do Programa de Monitoramento Conjunto (JMP, na sigla em inglês) da OMS e do UNICEF revelam que 43% das escolas em todo o mundo não tinham acesso à lavagem básica das mãos com água e sabão em 2019 – uma condição fundamental para as escolas serem capazes de operar com segurança em meio à pandemia de COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Higiene das Mãos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238001, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Foot health of a child plays a pivotal role in their participation in play, locomotive activities, healthy lifestyle, somatic development, and weight management. The burden of flatfoot among children in Ethiopia is not known. The objective of this study was to analyze the structure of the medial foot arch using Staheli plantar arch index and investigate its associated factors among larger sample school children, aged 11-15 years in Ethiopia. METHODS: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted among children aged 11-15 years from eleven randomly selected primary schools. The sample size was determined proportionally across school strength and governmental and private schools to ensure variety within the sample. Data collection consisted of physical measurements, footprint-based measures whilst full weight-bearing, and a structured questionnaire on foot pain, footwear type, and physical activity. Data were analyzed descriptively and through uni- and multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 823 children participated. The overall prevalence of flatfoot was 17.6% with a significant difference between age, gender, type of school, BMI, and type of footwear. Being younger (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.6-6.7), male (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.4), experiencing foot pain (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5), wearing closed shoe (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.6-11.9), overweight (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.2-8.7), obese (OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.5-10.9), and low level of physical activity (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.6) were significantly associated with flatfoot. Children who were overweight, obese, and also experiencing foot pain have a 2.8 (95% CI 1.62-5.94) and 4.1 (95% CI 2.85-8.31) times greater chance of having flatfoot respectively. The prevalence of flatfoot among 560 normal weight children was 17.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study demonstrated that the overall prevalence and the prevalence of flatfoot among normal-weight children are almost the same. There is a definite need to develop a screening algorithm for diagnosis and treatment indication for this children's lower extremity disorder.


Assuntos
Pé Chato/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237406, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bullying is an emerging risk factor for poor mental health outcomes adversely affecting children and adolescents. However, it has rarely caught the attention of the health and education sector due to lack of evidence in many countries including Nepal. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with bullying behavior among adolescent students in Nepal. METHODS: We used nationally representative data from the Nepal Global School-Based Student Health Survey that involved two-stage cluster sampling design with the use of a standard set of self-administered questionnaires. Complex sample analysis was done to determine the prevalence and correlates of bullying among 6529 students of 68 schools studying in grade 7 to 11 using descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of bullying among Nepalese school adolescents was 51% (55.67% in male and 46.17% in female). Bullied adolescents more commonly reported mental health problems with higher risk of loneliness (aOR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.64), anxiety (aOR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.65, 2.52), suicide attempt (aOR 2.08, 95% CI: 1.54, 2.81), school absenteeism due to fear (aOR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.21) and school truancy (aOR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.87). A significant association was seen between bullying victimization and negative health behaviors like involvement in physical fights (aOR 3.64, 95% CI: 2.94, 4.51) and tobacco use (aOR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.65). CONCLUSION: School bullying is significantly associated with mental health factors like loneliness, anxiety, suicide attempt, school absenteeism and risky behavioral factors like smokeless tobacco use and involvement in physical fight. The insights provided by these findings have important implications for planning anti-bullying strategies in school settings in the Nepalese context.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Nepal , Assunção de Riscos
7.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(2): 105-111, maio-ago. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116373

RESUMO

Este estudo analisou a bibliografia relacionada à hanseníase no Brasil, representada pela publicação de artigos científicos indexados na base de dados científica Web of Science, de 2000 a 2019. Por meio de análise bibliométrica, procurou-se delinear um panorama das produções científicas acerca do tema, identificando os autores, a evolução histórica do número de produções, as áreas de pesquisa que mais publicam, os tipos de artigos publicados e quais as agências financiadoras envolvidas nas publicações relacionadas ao tema. O corpus documental contou com 376 artigos completos, que demonstraram uma intensificação na produção de estudos sobre a hanseníase nos últimos anos, especialmente na área de Medicina Tropical, com predomínio de financiamento por agências brasileiras, e cuja maior fonte de publicações é uma revista científica internacional, dedicada ao estudo de doenças tropicais negligenciadas. Conclui-se que o interesse no estudo do tema se eleva com o passar dos anos, mas dentre as temáticas evidenciadas pela análise empreendida, as políticas públicas para controle e eliminação da doença, foram incipientes. Revela ainda a necessidade de maior aporte científico sobre a temática estimuladas por órgãos governamentais e que amplie as produções científicas por instituições de ensino e pesquisa, que possam alavancar reflexões direcionadas à implementação de diretrizes políticas efetivas para o controle e eliminação da doença.


This study analyzed the literature related to leprosy in Brazil, represented by the publication of scientific papers indexed in the Web of Science scientific database from 2000 to 2019. Through bibliometric analysis, the authors sought to delineate an overview of scientific productions on the topic, identifying the authors, the historical evolution of the number of productions, the areas of research that had most publications, the types of articles published and which funding agencies are involved in publications related to the topic. The documentary corpus consisted of 376 complete articles, which demonstrated an intensification in the production of studies on leprosy in recent years, especially in the area of Tropical Medicine, with a predominance of funding from Brazilian agencies, and whose largest source of publications is an international scientific journal dedicated to the study of neglected tropical diseases. It can be concluded that the interest in the study of the topic has increased over the years, but among the topics evidenced by the analysis undertaken, public policies for the control and elimination of the disease were incipient. It also reveals the need for greater scientific input on the topic stimulated by both government agencies and educational and research institutions, which can leverage reflections aimed at the implementation of effective political guidelines for the control and elimination of the disease.


Assuntos
Bibliometria/história , Política de Saúde/economia , Hanseníase/mortalidade , Política Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 230, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The province of Ontario, Canada, has instituted indefinite school closures (SC) as well as other social distancing measures to mitigate the impact of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We sought to evaluate the effect of SC on reducing attack rate and the need for critical care during COVID-19 outbreaks, while considering scenarios with concurrent implementation of self-isolation (SI) of symptomatic cases. METHODS: We developed an age-structured agent-based simulation model and parameterized it with the demographics of Ontario stratified by age and the latest estimates of COVID-19 epidemiologic characteristics. Disease transmission was simulated within and between different age groups by considering inter- and intra-group contact patterns. The effect of SC of varying durations on the overall attack rate, magnitude and peak time of the outbreak, and requirement for intensive care unit (ICU) admission in the population was estimated. Secondly, the effect of concurrent community-based voluntary SI of symptomatic COVID-19 cases was assessed. RESULTS: SC reduced attack rates in the range of 7.2-12.7% when the duration of SC increased from 3 to 16 weeks, when contacts among school children were restricted by 60-80%, and in the absence of SI by mildly symptomatic persons. Depending on the scenario, the overall reduction in ICU admissions attributed to SC throughout the outbreak ranged from 3.3 to 6.7%. When SI of mildly symptomatic persons was included and practiced by 20%, the reduction of attack rate and ICU admissions exceeded 6.3% and 9.1% (on average), respectively, in the corresponding scenarios. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that SC may have limited impact on reducing the burden of COVID-19 without measures to interrupt the chain of transmission during both pre-symptomatic and symptomatic stages. While highlighting the importance of SI, our findings indicate the need for better understanding of the epidemiologic characteristics of emerging diseases on the effectiveness of social distancing measures.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e20884, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664080

RESUMO

The objective of this work is to verify the relationship between the self-perception of health and the self-concept of physical appearance in adolescents, in order to check their influence on the physical activity they perform with the aim of preventing chronic illnesses. To this end, an observational, cross-sectional descriptive study with analytical components was carried out. Opportunistic activity, in which young people, between the ages of 16 and 22, were recruited from 5 secondary schools of the municipality of San Cristóbal de La Laguna, on the island of Tenerife (Spain). Data were collected through the General Health Questionnaire, the Rosemberg Self-esteem Scale, and the physical exercise habits test physical activity questionnaire for adolescents-A, revealing the first 2 that most percentage of responses were grouped on the positive side. The physical exercise habits test physical activity questionnaire for adolescents-A described that the most commonly performed physical activity was walking (75%).


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Aparência Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoimagem , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Caminhada/fisiologia , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0007613, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to establish the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) intestinal infections, nutritional status, and anemia in school children aged 7 to 10 years old in the biogeographic provinces of Colombia in 2012-2013. STH prevalence in the country has not been described within the last 30 years and it is needed in order to establish policies its control in the country. METHODOLOGY: National Survey of STH in school-aged children with a multistage stratified probability sampling was conducted. The overall prevalence and intensity of STH infection, as well as for each parasite, (A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworms) were calculated for the country and for each of the nine biogeographic provinces. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stool samples were collected from 6045 children in eight out of nine biogeographic provinces. The combined prevalence of STH in the country was 29.6%. T. trichiura was the most prevalent helminth (18.4%), followed by A. lumbricoides (11.3%), and hookworms (6.4%). For A. lumbricoides and hookworms, the highest prevalence values were found in the Amazonía province (58.0% and 35.7%, respectively). Regarding STH intensity, most cases showed moderate intensity (41.3%) for A. lumbricoides, and light intensity, for T. trichiura and hookworms. The national prevalence of anemia in school-aged children was 14.2%, lowest in the Nor-Andina province (3.5%), and highest in the Territorios Insulares oceánicos del Caribe province (45.1%). SIGNIFICANCE: Colombia has a moderate risk of STH infection in school-aged populations, with considerable variation in the prevalence values among the biogeographic provinces. Like any public health issue, this problem should be handled with a comprehensive approach that involves deworming programs and strategies for STH control according to the specific epidemiological and socioeconomic conditions and sanitation service coverage in each biogeographic province. The program should be further supported by intersectoral action to improve living conditions, particularly the excreta disposal, promoted at municipality levels.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Criança , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 28, 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sick building syndrome (SBS) refers to the combination of symptoms experienced by occupants of specific building characteristics. This study investigated the associations of children's lifestyle behaviors, allergies, home, and school environment with SBS symptoms. METHODS: A total of 4408 elementary school children living in Sapporo City, Japan participated in this study. SBS was determined on parental answers to MM080 standardized school questionnaires on symptoms that were weekly experienced by these children, and if the symptom is attributed to their home or school environment. The Japanese version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire was used to assess wheeze, rhino-conjunctivitis, and eczema. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the associations between SBS symptoms and variables by controlling the potential confounders (gender, grade, school, and parental history of allergies). A stepwise backward elimination was conducted to assess independent variables related to SBS. RESULTS: Participants revealed mucosal (6.9%), skin (2.0%), and general (0.8%) symptoms. The presence of one or more allergy was associated with increased mucosal and skin symptoms. Children who skipped breakfast, displayed faddiness (like/dislike of food), had constipation, have insufficient sleep, did not feel refreshed after sleep, and lacked deep sleep showed significantly high odds ratios with SBS symptoms. The stepwise analysis showed faddiness for mucosal symptoms and not feeling refreshed after sleep for mucosal and skin symptoms, whereas constipation and lacking deep sleep for general symptoms were independent variables in increasing the symptoms. We found no significant relationship between SBS in children and schools. Considering children's home, old building, no ventilation, wall-to-wall carpet, and heavy nearby traffic were associated with elevated mucosal symptom, while living in a multifamily home increased general symptoms. Home dampness was an independent variable in increasing all SBS symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Allergies and lifestyle behaviors were associated with increased SBS in children, including skipping breakfast, displaying faddiness, constipation, insufficient sleep, not feeling refreshed after sleep, and the lack of deep sleep. Further, dampness at home was associated with increase in all SBS symptoms. Lifestyle (e.g., eating and sleeping habits) and home (i.e., dampness) improvements might alleviate SBS symptoms in children.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome do Edifício Doente/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Japão , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome do Edifício Doente/etiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236117, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673364

RESUMO

With digitalization and virtual entertainment being the megatrends of the 21st century, there is reasonable concern about the role of physical activity (PA) in the daily life of children and adolescents. To identify risk-groups with insufficient PA and to guide interventions, continuous and representative tracking of PA is crucial. In this paper, representative PA data of children and adolescents from the Motorik-Modul (MoMo) baseline study (2003-2006, N = 4,528) is compared to those of Wave 2 (2014-2017, N = 3,708). Participants aged 4-17 were drawn out of 167 sample points in Germany and the data was weighted to ensure representativeness for Germany. Organized (sports clubs and schools) and unorganized (unorganized sports and playing outside) PA was measured by questionnaire and stratified by sex, age, and socioeconomic status. Contrary to common expectation, overall PA remained stable among youths in the past ten years, however, there is an ongoing trend towards organized forms of PA at the expense of unorganized sports and playing outside. Besides different trends in settings, there is inequality in PA distribution among socioeconomic status and gender, unequally pronounced in different settings.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235951, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little evidence from developing countries on dietary transition demonstrates the effects of comprehensive childhood obesity interventions on dietary diversity and food variety among younger children. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of comprehensive childhood obesity interventions on dietary diversity among younger children. METHODS: A total of 4846 children aged 7-13 years were included based on a multicenter randomized controlled trial for childhood obesity interventions in 38 primary schools. Nutrition education intervention (NE), physical activity intervention (PA) and comprehensive intervention including both NE and PA (CNP) were carried out separately for 2 semesters. Dietary Diversity Score (DDS9 and DDS28 for 9 and 28 food groupings, respectively), Food Variety Score (FVS, the number of food items) and the proportions of different foods consumed were calculated according to the food intake records collected with the 24-h dietary recall method. RESULTS: The intervention effects per day of comprehensive intervention group were 0 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0, 0.1; p = 0.382) on DDS9, 0.1 (95% CI: -0.1, 0.2; p = 0.374) on DDS28 and 0.1 (95% CI: -0.1, 0.3; p = 0.186) on FVS of overall diet, which was 0.1 (95% CI: 0, 0.1; p < 0.001) on DDS9, 0 (95% CI: 0, 0.1; p = 0.168) on DDS28 and 0.1 (95% CI: 0, 0.1; p = 0.067) on FVS of dietary scores of breakfast only. Additionally, CNP group had greater increases in cereals, meat and fruits, and more decreases in eggs, fish and dried legumes consumption proportions as compared with the control group. Decreasing side effect on dietary diversity and food variety were found for PA intervention, but not for NE intervention only. CONCLUSIONS: Though the comprehensive obesity intervention didn't improve the overall dietary diversity per day, the positive intervention effects were observed on breakfast foods and some foods' consumption.


Assuntos
Dieta , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687515

RESUMO

Mental health and cultural and linguistic diversity in classrooms are part of students' lives. Both factors can lower the achievements of students and classrooms and pose a challenge for teachers. Yet, little is known about the effects on other areas of school life besides achievements. Also, the consequences for classmates and teachers as well as possible resources are mostly disregarded. Semi-structured interviews were held to investigate the diverse effects of mental health issues and cultural and linguistic diversity on students, classmates and teachers. In total 20 interviews were conducted, seven with teachers, seven with external professionals and six with students. Recordings were transcribed and analysed using qualitative text analysis. Results show that especially externalizing symptoms of mental health issues are a burden to classmates and teachers. Teachers face time management problems and emotional stress. Linguistic diversity constitutes a serious challenge at school for students, classmates and teachers. Yet, cultural and linguistic diversity also imports several resources like fostering openness and integration. Future research should expand this research to older children and investigate the specific needs of teachers.


Assuntos
Cultura , Entrevistas como Assunto , Linguística , Saúde Mental , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235211, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current international physical activity guidelines for health recommend children to engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily. Yet, accurate prevalence estimates of physical activity levels of children are unavailable in many African countries due to the dearth of accelerometer-measured physical activity data. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and examine the socio-demographic correlates of accelerometer-measured physical activity among school-going children in Kampala city, Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used to recruit a sample of 10-12 years old school-going children (n = 256) from 7 primary schools (3 public schools and 4 private schools) in Kampala city, Uganda. Sedentary time, light-intensity physical activity (LPA), moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) were measured by accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X+ [Pensacola, Florida, USA]) over a seven-day period. Socio-demographic factors were assessed by a parent/guardian questionnaire. Weight status was generated from objectively measured height and weight and computed as body mass index (BMI). Multi-level logistic regressions identified socio-demographic factors that were associated with meeting physical activity guidelines. RESULTS: Children's sedentary time was 9.8±2.1 hours/day and MVPA was 56±25.7 minutes/day. Only 36.3% of the children (38.9% boys, 34.3% girls) met the physical activity guidelines. Boys, thin/normal weight and public school children had significantly higher mean daily MVPA levels. Socio-demographic factors associated with odds of meeting physical activity guidelines were younger age (OR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.55-0.84), thin/normal weight status (OR = 4.08; 95% CI = 1.42-11.76), and socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as lower maternal level of education (OR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.84-3.21) and no family car (OR = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.17-0.55). CONCLUSION: Children spent a substantial amount of time sedentary and in LPA and less time in MVPA. Few children met the physical activity guidelines. Lower weight status, lower maternal education level and no family car were associated with meeting physical activity guidelines. Effective interventions and policies to increase physical activity among school-going children in Kampala, are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235252, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716944

RESUMO

Subjective happiness is often regarded as a major life goal. Although Japan is an economically powerful country, the level of subjective well-being reported among Japanese adolescents is lower than in other countries. We aimed to investigate the lifestyle factors related to unhappiness in Japanese adolescents. We collected data through the 2017-2018 Lifestyle Survey of Adolescents, a nationally representative cross-sectional study enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. We assessed the prevalence of subjective unhappiness in junior and senior high school students according to school life factors and daily lifestyle habits. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between these factors and unhappiness. A total of 64,329 students were included in the sample (mean age 15.7 years, 53.9% boys). The average prevalence of unhappiness was 10.2%. The logistic regression analyses indicated that unhappiness was strongly associated with being male and with engaging in unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as not having breakfast, poor sleep quality, and some problematic Internet usage. Although the prevalence of unhappiness was significantly higher among current smokers and alcohol drinkers, these behaviors were not associated with unhappiness in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. Unhappiness among Japanese adolescents appears to be strongly related to how they spend their daily life. We therefore consider it desirable for school officials to educate students on the importance of happiness and lifestyle factors conducive to happiness.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Felicidade , Estilo de Vida , Tristeza/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Desjejum/fisiologia , Desjejum/psicologia , Bem-Estar da Criança/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Japão , Masculino , Tristeza/fisiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sono/fisiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 230, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-669581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The province of Ontario, Canada, has instituted indefinite school closures (SC) as well as other social distancing measures to mitigate the impact of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We sought to evaluate the effect of SC on reducing attack rate and the need for critical care during COVID-19 outbreaks, while considering scenarios with concurrent implementation of self-isolation (SI) of symptomatic cases. METHODS: We developed an age-structured agent-based simulation model and parameterized it with the demographics of Ontario stratified by age and the latest estimates of COVID-19 epidemiologic characteristics. Disease transmission was simulated within and between different age groups by considering inter- and intra-group contact patterns. The effect of SC of varying durations on the overall attack rate, magnitude and peak time of the outbreak, and requirement for intensive care unit (ICU) admission in the population was estimated. Secondly, the effect of concurrent community-based voluntary SI of symptomatic COVID-19 cases was assessed. RESULTS: SC reduced attack rates in the range of 7.2-12.7% when the duration of SC increased from 3 to 16 weeks, when contacts among school children were restricted by 60-80%, and in the absence of SI by mildly symptomatic persons. Depending on the scenario, the overall reduction in ICU admissions attributed to SC throughout the outbreak ranged from 3.3 to 6.7%. When SI of mildly symptomatic persons was included and practiced by 20%, the reduction of attack rate and ICU admissions exceeded 6.3% and 9.1% (on average), respectively, in the corresponding scenarios. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that SC may have limited impact on reducing the burden of COVID-19 without measures to interrupt the chain of transmission during both pre-symptomatic and symptomatic stages. While highlighting the importance of SI, our findings indicate the need for better understanding of the epidemiologic characteristics of emerging diseases on the effectiveness of social distancing measures.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
20.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 48(3): 237-243, mayo-jun. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the high prevalence of recurrent wheezing in the pediatric population, it is important to be able to identify environmental risk factors that may affect the etiology of asthma in several regions. OBJECTIVE: to identify possible risk factors associated with asthma in children (9-12 years old) in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 1003 school-age children were selected for the cross-sectional study by applying a standardized written questionnaire from the International Study of Asthma and Allergy, and a supplementary questionnaire (ISAAC phase II) was added to address personal, family and environmental factors. Of these, 125 children were excluded because they did not accept to do the skin prick test, resulting in a sample of 878. RESULTS: Independent risk factors associated with asthma were bronchiolitis before two years old [OR] = 3.11; 2.23-4.33, current rhinitis [0R] = 2.07; 1.43-3.0; sharing bedroom during the first year of life [OR] = 2.03; 1.36-3.04; atopy [OR] = 1,82; 1.26-2.50; use of paracetamol more than 12 times a year [OR] = 1.68; 1.20-2.31; use of antibiotics in the first six months of life [OR]=1,57 1;13-2.17; maternal asthma [OR] = 1.75; 1.05-2.78, having an indoor cat during the first year of life [OR] = 1.73, 1.07-2.78; premature birth [OR] = 1.60,1.02-2.50. CONCLUSIÓN: our results show that genetic backgrounds, environmental factors, premature birth, use of antibiotics before six months of life, using paracetamol once per month and the presence of co-morbidities such as rhinitis are the risk factors associated with asthma in Brazilian children


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Asma/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Brasil/epidemiologia , Asma/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Rinite/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Modelos Logísticos
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