Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.251
Filtrar
1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 839-844, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581163

RESUMO

The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits the inclusion of characterizing flavors (e.g., candy or fruit) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products at the federal level.* Flavored tobacco products can appeal to youths and young adults and influence initiation and establishment of tobacco-use patterns (1). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed data from the 2014-2018 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) to determine prevalence of current (past 30-day) use of flavored tobacco products, including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), hookah tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, smokeless tobacco, bidis, and menthol cigarettes among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. In 2018, an estimated 3.15 million (64.1%) youth tobacco product users currently used one or more flavored tobacco products, compared with 3.26 million (70.0%) in 2014. Despite this overall decrease in use of flavored tobacco products, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased among high school students during 2014-2018; among middle school students, current use of flavored e-cigarettes increased during 2015-2018, following a decrease during 2014-2015. During 2014-2018, current use of flavored hookah tobacco decreased among middle and high school students; current use of flavored smokeless tobacco, cigars, pipe tobacco, and menthol cigarettes decreased among high school students. Full implementation of comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies, coupled with regulation of tobacco products by FDA, can help prevent and reduce use of tobacco products, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths (2,3).


Assuntos
Aromatizantes , Estudantes/psicologia , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Food and Drug Administration
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 845-850, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581164

RESUMO

Use of marijuana at an early age can affect memory, school performance, attention, and learning; conclusions have been mixed regarding its impact on mental health conditions, including psychosis, depression, and anxiety (1-3). Medical marijuana has been legal in Washington since 1998, and in 2012, voters approved the retail sale of marijuana for recreational use to persons aged ≥21 years. The first retail stores opened for business in July 2014. As more states legalize marijuana use by adults aged ≥21 years, the effect of legalization on use by youths will be important to monitor. To guide planning of activities aimed at reducing marijuana use by youths and to inform ongoing policy development, Public Health-Seattle & King County assessed trends and characteristics of past 30-day marijuana use among King County, Washington, public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12. This report used biennial data for 2004-2016 from the Washington State Healthy Youth Survey. Among grade 6 students there was a decreasing trend in self-reported past 30-day marijuana use from 2004 to 2016, while the percentage of grade 8 students who had used marijuana during the past 30 days did not change during that period. Among students in grades 10 and 12, self-reported past 30-day use of marijuana increased from 2004 to 2012, then declined from 2012 to 2016. In 2016, the percentage of students with past 30-day marijuana use in King County was 0.6% among grade 6, 4.1% among grade 8, 13.9% among grade 10, and 25.5% among grade 12 students. Among grade 10 students, 24.0% of past 30-day marijuana users also smoked cigarettes, compared with 1.3% of nonusers. From 2004 to 2016 the prevalence of perception of great risk of harm from regular marijuana use decreased across all grades. Continued surveillance using consistent measures is needed to monitor the impact of marijuana legalization and emerging public health issues, given variable legislation approaches among jurisdictions.


Assuntos
Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/tendências , Setor Público , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Washington/epidemiologia
3.
J Natl Black Nurses Assoc ; 30(1): 34-39, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465683

RESUMO

This article discusses the Provost Scholars, a novel University five-year Mentoring Program for middle and high school students in an inner-city school district. The Provost Scholars is an innovative enrichment Program in which a partnership was formed between an under-resourced inner city school district and a private research university in Cleveland, Ohio. The Program was formed to help students graduate from high school. As these students experience success and empowerment, their willingness and ability to give back to the health of the community is enhanced. The primary goal of the Provost Scholars Mentoring Program is to prepare students for entry into and graduation from colleges/universities, technical/vocational schools, or to find a successful place in the workforce. This article describes a number of initiatives established to ensure the success of the Scholars. One key aspect of the Programs' success is a strong personal interest, caring, engagement, and partnership between the administrative staffs of the following two educational institutions: Case Western Reserve University and the East Cleveland School District, as well as the committed relationships of the university Mentors and the Scholars. Students who participate in the Program are expected to demonstrate improved grades, higher ACT/SAT scores, and to meet the requirements for admission to the colleges and universities of their choice, or to develop skills for meaningful employment in industry.


Assuntos
Tutoria/organização & administração , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Cidades , Humanos , Ohio , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/organização & administração
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 886, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on adolescents' physical activity and determinants are scarce in Nepal. In this study, we aim to assess the level of physical activity, its correlates and the sedentary behavior of high school students in an urban district of Nepal. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Participants were selected using two-stage cluster sampling technique. We used Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) to collect information regarding physical activity and sedentary behavior. We also collected information about socio-demographic, academic, environmental and lifestyle-related factors. Data from 945 high school students from 23 randomly selected schools were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of low physical activity separately for male and female students. RESULTS: Based on GPAQ classification, one out of five respondents reported low physical activity. The prevalence of low physical activity was 8% for males and 31% for females. About 31% of the adolescents and 14% of young adults did not meet the WHO recommendations of physical activity. Forty-seven percent of the total physical activity was borne by recreational activities. Correlates of low physical activity included school type and mode of transport among females, family support and drinking among males, and playground/park around home among both. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence estimate of low physical activity among adolescents is high, with higher odds among females. Several different factors are associated with physical activity among males and females, therefore, interventions to promote physical activity in school may need to weigh these factors prior to/during implementation.


Assuntos
Exercício , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sedentário , Estudantes/psicologia , População Urbana , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(7): 713-718, 2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288343

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the disease burden of influenza in schools and child care settings in rural areas of Hangzhou. Methods: Hospital visit influenza cases aged 3-17 years in hospitals that reported based on influenza surveillance system from 2016 to 2018 in Chun'an county, Hangzhou city were selected as study subjects and a total of 294 confirmed cases of influenza were selected using system sampling method. Questionnaires were designed to investigate the basic information and data on inpatients and outpatients among, health care and life quality, etc.. Direct and indirect economic burden and disability adjusted life year (DALY) were analyzed and compared among different age groups. Results: The mean age of investigated subjects was (8.88±3.92) years. A total of 143 (48.64%) investigated cases were male. In total of 283 (96.26%) cases were outpatients. The total economic burden was 124 743.95 CNY. The mean economic burden was 424.30 CNY per person. The mean direct and indirect economic burden was 361.33 and 62.97 CNY per person respectively. The difference of the mean direct, indirect and total economic burden per person between different age group was statistically significant (P<0.001). The 3-5 years age group showed the highest economic burden with the median value of direct, indirect and total economic burden per person being 276.24, 50.98 and 321.26 CNY, respectively, while the 12-17 years age group showed the lowest values with 175.30, 26.54, 201.79 CNY, respectively. The DALY of 294 influenza cases was 1.18, and the median of burden strength was 3.21 DALY/thousand. The difference of the burden of strength between different age group influenza case was statistically significant (P<0.001), of which the 12-17 years age group showed the highest value with 4.25 DALYs/thousand while the 3-5 years age group showed the lowest value with 2.60 DALY/thousand. Conclusion: The disease burden of influenza was heavy in schools and kindergartens in rural areas of Hangzhou city, with the cases aged from 3 to 5 years showing higher economic burden and cases aged from 12 to 17 years showing greater burden strength.


Assuntos
Cuidado da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Influenza Humana/economia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 549, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections are still common in low-income countries including Ethiopia, particularly in children due to low-quality drinking water, poor personal and environmental sanitation. Disabled individuals are excluded from most academic, economic, social and cultural opportunities, they are among the poorest and most marginalized of the whole world's people. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated factors among mentally disabled and non-disabled students at primary schools in Bahir Dar city, Amhara regional state, Ethiopia, 2018. METHODS: A school-based Comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted from November 1-30, 2018. A total of 418 study participants, 104 mentally disabled and 314 non-disabled students were recruited through a simple random sampling technique. The collected data were coded, entered and cleaned with EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 23. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections. The adjusted odds ratio with a 95% Confidence interval at a 5% level of significance was used to measure the strength of association. RESULTS: The mean age of study participants was 14.05 ± 3.66 and 11.96 ± 2.94 for mentally disabled students and non-disabled students. Prevalence of parasitic infection was 56.70% (n = 59) for mentally disabled students whereas 41.10%(n = 129) for non-disabled students. Unclean fingernails [AOR = 2.42; 1.40,4.17], health checkups [AOR = 1.87;1.16,3.02], hand washing with water only [AOR = 2.48; 1.49,4.12], cooking and sanitation source of water [AOR = 4.40;2.32,8.36], Grade [ (1-4)] [AOR = 2.27;1.41,3.67], sex [AOR = 1.64;1.03,2.63] and Family size> = 7 [AOR = 2.74;1.25,5.99] were variables which showed statistically significant association with intestinal parasitic infections. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was higher among mentally disabled students than non-disabled students. Unclean fingernails, health checkups, hand washing habits, source of water, family size, sex and Grade of students have had a statistically significant association with intestinal parasitic infections. Periodic medicinal treatment was needed twice a year for mentally disabled and once a year for non-disabled students.


Assuntos
Crianças com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Áreas de Pobreza , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 407, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have noted variations in the cost-effectiveness of school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV), but little is known about how SLIV's cost-effectiveness may vary by targeted age group (e.g., elementary or secondary school students), or vaccine consent process (paper-based or web-based). Further, SLIV's cost-effectiveness may be impacted by its spillover effect on practice-based vaccination; prior studies have not addressed this issue. METHODS: We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis on two SLIV programs in upstate New York in 2015-2016: (a) elementary school SLIV using a stepped wedge design with schools as clusters (24 suburban and 18 urban schools) and (b) secondary school SLIV using a cluster randomized trial (16 suburban and 4 urban schools). The cost-per-additionally-vaccinated child (i.e., incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER)) was estimated by dividing the incremental SLIV intervention cost by the incremental effectiveness (i.e., the additional number of vaccinated students in intervention schools compared to control schools). We performed deterministic analyses, one-way sensitivity analyses, and probabilistic analyses. RESULTS: The overall effectiveness measure (proportion of children vaccinated) was 5.7 and 5.5 percentage points higher, respectively, in intervention elementary (52.8%) and secondary schools (48.2%) than grade-matched control schools. SLIV programs vaccinated a small proportion of children in intervention elementary (5.2%) and secondary schools (2.5%). In elementary and secondary schools, the ICER excluding vaccine purchase was $85.71 and $86.51 per-additionally-vaccinated-child, respectively. When additionally accounting for observed spillover impact on practice-based vaccination, the ICER decreased to $80.53 in elementary schools -- decreasing substantially in secondary schools. (to $53.40). These estimates were higher than the published practice-based vaccination cost (median = $25.50, mean = $45.48). Also, these estimates were higher than our 2009-2011 urban SLIV program mean costs ($65) due to additional costs for use of a new web-based consent system ($12.97 per-additionally-vaccinated-child) and higher project coordination costs in 2015-2016. One-way sensitivity analyses showed that ICER estimates were most sensitive to the SLIV effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: SLIV raises vaccination rates and may increase practice-based vaccination in primary care practices. While these SLIV programs are effective, to be as cost-effective as practice-based vaccination our SLIV programs would need to vaccinate more students and/or lower the costs for consent systems and project coordination. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02227186 (August 25, 2014), updated NCT03137667 (May 2, 2017).


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/economia , Vacinas contra Influenza/economia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/economia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , New York , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(Suppl 2): 450, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, a small number of studies have suggested that gains in fitness and reductions in body fat achieved during the school term are reversed or stagnate during the holiday period. This may be associated with changed activity patterns. The aim of this study was to compare 24-h activity compositions between school and holiday periods in Australian children. METHODS: The participants in this study were 366 children (53% female, 13.4 ± 2.3 years) who were a subgroup of the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey. Each child recalled use of time on at least one school day, one weekend day and one holiday using the Multimedia Activity Recall for Children and Adults. Composite "in-term" and "holiday" use-of-time profiles were generated by weighting school days by 5, and weekends by 2 where data were available. Difference between holiday and in-term time use was assessed using a compositional multivariate linear model for repeated measures. Subsequent models tested for interaction between time of measurement and socio-economic status or body mass index. RESULTS: Time use was significantly different between holidays and in-term days (F = 103, p < 0.0001). On holidays, children accumulated 140 min less School-related time, compensated by sleeping 40 min longer, 58 min more Screen Time, and 35 min more Domestic/Social time. Children spent 10 min less in vigorous physical activity, and although sitting time was 33 min/day less during holidays, estimated total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was 5.4% lower. Differences between holiday and in-term activity compositions did not vary by parental education (F = 1.2, p = 0.25), postcode-level socio-economic status (F = 0.9, p = 0.56) or weight status (F = 1.7, p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: In this subsample of a nationally representative survey of Australian children, holidays were characterised by longer sleep and higher TV and videogame time, lower vigorous activity and lower TDEE. Uncompensated by dietary adjustments, these differences would result in an accumulation of about 650 g of fat over a six-week holiday period. Holiday activity patterns may be a promising focus for obesity prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Actigrafia/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício , Férias e Feriados/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Tecido Adiposo , Adolescente , Austrália , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 653, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study describes patterns of adolescents' objectively-measured sitting volume, sitting bouts, and breaks in sitting during different days and periods of the day, and explored differences by sex and weekdays versus weekend days. METHODS: ActivPAL™ data were collected in August 2014-December 2015 from adolescents attending secondary government schools in Melbourne Australia. Eight periods (early morning, mid-morning, morning break, late morning, lunch, early afternoon, late-afternoon and evening) were extracted for each day. School time, class time and out-of-school time were also extracted for weekdays. The percentage of time sitting, percentage of each hour in prolonged sitting (sitting bout ≥10 min), and number of sitting breaks/hour were calculated for each period. Differences by sex, and week and weekend days were determined using t-tests. RESULTS: Participants (n = 297, 15.4 ± 1.6 years) spent 68% of their day sitting; ~ 30% of each hour in prolonged sitting and 3.1 sitting breaks/hour. Sitting time was greater during class time (75%) and school (70%) compared to out-of-school time (65%). Sitting patterns differed between week and weekend days for all periods except the evening period. Girls had higher proportion of sitting during class than boys (76% vs 72% respectively) and school hours (72% vs 67%), more prolonged sitting during school hours (27% vs 23%), and more sitting breaks per hour during out-of-school time (2.6 vs 2.4), but fewer during class (2.5 vs 3.3) and school hours (2.7 vs 3.3). Sitting patterns did not differ by sex on weekend days. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents spent two-thirds of their waking hours sitting, with distinct patterns on weekdays and weekend days. Even though boys and girls were exposed to the same school day routine, girls spent more time sitting and had fewer sitting breaks. Class times, school breaks and the evening period were identified as key intervention periods. Further research is needed to understand the behavioural differences, and guide future intervention design.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Descanso , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sedentário , Postura Sentada , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 564, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surveys of young people under-represent those in alternative education settings (AES), potentially disguising health inequalities. We present the first quantitative UK evidence of health inequalities between AES and mainstream education school (MES) pupils, assessing whether observed inequalities are attributable to socioeconomic, familial, educational and peer factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional, self-reported data on individual- and poly-substance use (PSU: combined tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use) and sexual risk-taking from 219 pupils in AES (mean age 15.9 years) were compared with data from 4024 pupils in MES (mean age 15.5 years). Data were collected from 2008 to 2009 as part of the quasi-experimental evaluation of Healthy Respect 2 (HR2). RESULTS: AES pupils reported higher levels of substance use, including tobacco use, weekly drunkenness, using cannabis at least once a week and engaging in PSU at least once a week. AES pupils also reported higher levels of sexual health risk behaviours than their MES counterparts, including: earlier sexual activity; less protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs); and having 3+ lifetime sexual partners. In multivariate analyses, inequalities in sexual risk-taking were fully explained after adjusting for higher deprivation, lower parental monitoring, lower parent-child connectedness, school disengagement and heightened intentions towards early parenthood among AES vs MES pupils. However, an increased risk (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.15, 2.60) of weekly PSU was found for AES vs MES pupils after adjusting for these factors and the influence of peer behaviours. CONCLUSION: AES pupils are more likely to engage in health risk behaviours, including PSU and sexual risk-taking, compared with MES pupils. AES pupils are a vulnerable group who may not be easily targeted by conventional population-level public health programmes. Health promotion interventions need to be tailored and contextualised for AES pupils, in particular for sexual health and PSU. These could be included within interventions designed to promote broader outcomes such as mental wellbeing, educational engagement, raise future aspirations and promote resilience.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Ensino
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007326, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095558

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Awareness of the public health importance of tungiasis has been growing in East Africa in recent years, but data on epidemiological characteristics necessary for the planning and implementation of control measures do not exist. The work presented here was part of a larger cross-sectional study on the epidemiology of tungiasis in coastal Kenya and aims at identifying risk factors of tungiasis and severe disease in school children. METHODS: A total of 1,829 students of all age groups from five schools and 56 classes were clinically examined for tungiasis on their feet based on standardized procedures and observations made about the school infrastructure. To investigate the impact of school holidays, observations were repeated after school holidays in a subset of children in one school. In an embedded case-control study, structured interviews were conducted with 707 students in the five schools to investigate associations between tungiasis and household infrastructure, behaviour and socio-economic status. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of tungiasis was 48%; children below the age of 15 years were the most affected, and boys were twice as likely as girls to be infected. The highest risk of disease was associated with the socio-economic circumstances of the individual student at home. The study indicated that mild to moderate tungiasis could be reduced by a third, and severe tungiasis by over half, if sleeping places of children had hardened floors, whilst approximately a seventh of the cases could be prevented by sealing classroom floors in schools, and another fifth by using soap for daily feet washing. CONCLUSION: There is a clear role for public health workers to expand the WASH policy to include washing of feet with soap in school-aged children to fight tungiasis and to raise awareness of the importance of sealed floors.


Assuntos
Tungíase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Comportamento , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Tunga/fisiologia , Tungíase/economia , Tungíase/prevenção & controle , Tungíase/psicologia
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007336, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium is a neglected zoonotic parasite endemic throughout many low-income countries worldwide, including Zambia, where it causes human and pig diseases with high health and socioeconomic burdens. Lack of knowledge is a recognized risk factor, and consequently targeted health educational programs can decrease parasite transmission and disease occurrence in endemic areas. Preliminary assessment of the computer-based education program 'The Vicious Worm' in rural areas of eastern Zambia indicated that it was effective at increasing knowledge of T. solium in primary school students. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 'The Vicious Worm' on knowledge retention by re-assessing the same primary school students one year after the initial education workshops. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Follow-up questionnaires were administered in the original three primary schools in eastern Zambia in 2017, 12 months after the original workshops. In total, 86 pupils participated in the follow-up sessions, representing 87% of the initial workshop respondents. Knowledge of T. solium at 'follow-up' was significantly higher than at the initial 'pre' questionnaire administered during the Vicious Worm workshop that took place one year earlier. While some specifics of the parasite's life cycle were not completely understood, the key messages for disease prevention, such as the importance of hand washing and properly cooking pork, remained well understood by the students, even one year later. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results of this study indicate that 'The Vicious Worm' may be an effective tool for both short- and long-term T. solium education of rural primary school students in Zambia. Inclusion of educational workshops using 'The Vicious Worm' could be recommended for integrated cysticercosis control/elimination programs in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly if the content is simplified to focus on the key messages for prevention of disease transmission.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Taenia solium/fisiologia , Teníase/psicologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Erradicação de Doenças , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Teníase/prevenção & controle , Zâmbia
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 595, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood epilepsy can adversely affect education and employment in addition to health. Previous studies are small or highly selective producing conflicting results. This retrospective cohort study aims to compare educational and health outcomes of children receiving antiepileptic medication versus peers. METHODS: Record linkage of Scotland-wide databases covering dispensed prescriptions, acute and psychiatric hospitalisations, maternity records, deaths, annual pupil census, school absences/exclusions, special educational needs, school examinations, and (un)employment provided data on 766,244 children attending Scottish schools between 2009 and 2013. Outcomes were adjusted for sociodemographic and maternity confounders and comorbid conditions. RESULTS: Compared with peers, children on antiepileptic medication were more likely to experience school absence (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR] 1.43, 95% CI: 1.38, 1.48), special educational needs (Odds ratio [OR] 9.60, 95% CI: 9.02, 10.23), achieve the lowest level of attainment (OR 3.43, 95% CI: 2.74, 4.29) be unemployed (OR 1.82, 95% CI: 1.60, 2.07), be admitted to hospital (Hazard Ratio [HR] 3.56, 95% CI: 3.42, 3.70), and die (HR 22.02, 95% CI: 17.00, 28.53). Absenteeism partly explained poorer attainment and higher unemployment. Girls and younger children on antiepileptic medication had higher risk of poor outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Children on antiepileptic medication fare worse than peers across educational and health outcomes. In order to reduce school absenteeism and mitigate its effects, children with epilepsy should receive integrated care from a multidisciplinary team that spans education and healthcare.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Absenteísmo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Registro Médico Coordenado , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escócia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 6, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068999

RESUMO

Introduction: Up to date, the frequency of preventive chemotherapy based on the prevalence is the only strategy in the control programmes of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). However, prevalence of STHs may be affected by climatic and/or seasonal changes, particularly when these are important determinants of transmission of STH infections. Our objective was to describe the prevalence and infection intensity and seasonal variation (mainly dry vs rainy season) of any STHs among school age children. Methods: Assessment of infection intensity and prevalence of STHs was carried out during dry season (February-March, 2012) and end of rainy season (September-October, 2012) across 14 primary schools in Jimma Town, Jimma, Ethiopia. A total of 1,680 school children (840 in each season) were included. All stool samples were processed by the McMaster egg counting method. Odds of infection and intensity was performed to assess any differences in prevalence and infection intensity between the schools and the two seasons. The pooled odd ratio and their 95% confidence interval was also computed and presented using the "metafor" package of the statistical software R. The level of significance was declared at p < 0.05. Results: Infections with any STH were observed in 824/1,680 (49.0%) subjects. T. trichiura was the most prevalent (35.5%), followed by A. lumbricoides (23.4%) and hookworms (9.9%). Among the schools there were a huge variation in prevalence, ranging from 16.7% to 68.3% for any STH, 6.7% to 39.2% for A. lumbricoides, 10.8% to 55.0% for T. trichiura and 0 % to 28.3% for hookworms. A significant difference in prevalence (for T. trichiura) and in infection intensity (for A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura) across seasons was observed. Generally, STH infections were more prevalent in the dry season (52.4%) compared to the rainy season (45.7%) and as well intensity of all three STH infections was higher in the dry season. Conclusion: Our data suggested that there were huge variation in STH prevalence among schools and a significant difference in infection intensity and prevalence across seasons. This in turn might limits how national governments and international organizations define and target resources to combat the disease burden due to STH infection. Long term studies are needed to confirm the influence of seasonal factors and related ecological, environmental and socio-economic factors.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Public Health ; 171: 24-30, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082757

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess if school characteristics were associated with the uptake of the meningococcal ACWY (MenACWY) vaccine in Greater Manchester in 2017/18. STUDY DESIGN: This is an ecological cross-sectional study. METHODS: We analysed data on all 129 schools in seven local authorities in Greater Manchester from the Department for Education and from local child health information systems to determine whether school characteristics, including school type and Ofsted effectiveness score, were associated with vaccine uptake. Schools with no eligible pupils were excluded. We undertook single-variable and multivariable analysis and considered key interactions. RESULTS: The overall uptake rate was 80.7%, with a median uptake per school of 80.6% (interquartile range, 69.0%-87.4%). Lower vaccination rates were associated with lower overall effectiveness scores (odds ratio [OR]: 3.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.00-4.19) and lower numbers of pupils eligible for vaccination (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.28-1.51). Schools with a lower percentage of pupils for whom English is a second language and high deprivation were associated with lower uptake (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.41-1.78). In addition, community schools (the schools with the most local authority oversight) had lower vaccination rates than other categories of schools. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, uptake rates of the MenACWY vaccine were associated with all five school characteristics considered. Effectiveness scores for schools had the largest association with vaccine uptake, with poorer schools having lower uptake. These characteristics should be used by vaccination providers to prioritise their interventions to increase immunisation rates.


Assuntos
Vacinas Meningocócicas/administração & dosagem , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Reino Unido
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 198, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined the association of bullying experiences with depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning among children and adolescents in rural Pakistan. A total of 452 school-going children in Nawabshah, Pakistan were conveniently interviewed to assess rates of bullying experiences and severity of depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire for Adolescents. RESULTS: Experience of victimization was reported by 130 (28.8%) and perpetration by (146, 32.3%). A total of 162 (35.80%) reported mild depressive symptoms, 88 (19.50%) moderate, 33 (7.30%) moderately severe and 19 (4.20%) severe depressive symptoms. Age was not associated with patterns of bullying other than pure bully perpetration (.12, P = .024). Both victims and perpetrators of bullying experienced adverse emotional and social consequences. Bully-perpetrators exhibited the greater severity of depressive symptoms due to distress in psychosocial functioning.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 81(1): 65-79, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962656

RESUMO

In Myanmar, although the law prohibits the sale of tobacco products to and by those aged less than 18 years, the use of smoking and smokeless tobacco among high school students is a social problem. There has been no previous study on tobacco use or knowledge of tobacco law among students in Nay Pyi Taw. A survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude, and usage pattern of tobacco among high school students in Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar. The data were collected in three high schools, from 300 students of Grade 10 and 11, in September 2015, using anonymous self-administered questionnaires which included characteristics of students, knowledge, attitude, and usage pattern of tobacco. Of the 300 students, 104 (34.7%) were smokers and 85 (28.3%) were users of smokeless tobacco. The average age of first use of tobacco was 14 years. Although most students knew about the ill effects of tobacco, only 25% knew about the Tobacco Product Law. The most common source of tobacco was friends and male family members were main smokers in families. Most students had seen male teachers and headmasters smoking in schools. The usage of tobacco and smokeless tobacco was associated with sex and the students' attitude towards tobacco. This study indicated that the high school students knew about the ill effects of tobacco, but not about the Tobacco Product Law. Schools need to educate students and teachers about tobacco and the Tobacco Product Law and the enforcement of the law is also needed.


Assuntos
Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mianmar , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Adulto Jovem
18.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1598648, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Limited data exist on health conditions of school children in Somaliland. School Health Intervention Pilot Program (SHIPP) was conducted through Edna Adan University Hospital to screen children and offer interventions. We present the results of the general health screening of the school children, and also describe the association between nutritional status and other variables. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study children from two public primary schools in Hargeisa were assessed for general health by nursing students. Nutritional status was assessed by BMI-for-age z-scores and visual acuity by Paediatric Snellen Chart. RESULTS: We screened 2,093 children aged 4-19 years; 58% were boys. Very low BMI-for-age (z-score < -3) was detected in 5%; 6% had visual acuity below 0.7; 26% had dental caries. Children reported low exposure to health services: 33% reported no prior vaccination; 46% reported they had never visited a health clinic or hospital. CONCLUSION: A significant number of children were malnourished, had reduced visual acuity or treatable infections which could impact their ability to learn. Public schools are a feasible entry point for public health action including screening, treatment, and referral in fragile countries.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Estado Nutricional , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Somália , Adulto Jovem
19.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 24(2): 379-387, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968719

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore whether there has been an increase in prevalence and changes in sex ratio in feelings of gender dysphoria (GD) in an adolescent population in Northern Europe, and to study the impact of invalid responding on this topic. We replicated an earlier survey among junior high school students in Tampere, Finland. All first and second year students, aged 16-18, in the participating schools were invited to respond to an anonymous classroom survey on gender experience during the 2012-2013 school year and in the spring and autumn terms of 2017. Gender identity/GD was measured using the GIDYQ-A. A total of 318 male and 401 female youth participated in 2012-2013, and 326 male and 701 female youth in 2017. In the earlier survey, the GIDYQ-A scores, both among males and females, were strongly skewed toward a cis-gender experience with very narrow interquartile ranges. Of males, 2.2%, and of females, 0.5% nevertheless reported possibly clinically significant GD. The 2017 GIDYQ-A distribution was similarly skewed. The proportion of those reporting potentially clinically significant GD was 3.6% among males and 2.3% among females. Validity screening proved to have a considerable impact on conclusions. GD seems to have increased in prevalence in the adolescent population.


Assuntos
Disforia de Gênero/epidemiologia , Identidade de Gênero , Adolescente , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 674: 1-8, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003082

RESUMO

Both building materials and consumer products have been identified as possible sources for potentially hazardous substances like phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organophosphorous flame retardants (OPFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in indoor air. Thus, indoor air has been suggested to contribute significantly to human exposure to these chemicals. There is lack of data on the occurrence of several of the aforementioned chemicals in indoor air. Therefore, indoor air (gas and particulate phase) was collected from 48 households and 6 classrooms in two counties in Norway. In both the households and schools, median levels of low molecular weight phthalates (785 ng/m3), OPFRs (55 ng/m3) and SCCPs (128 ng/m3) were up to 1000 times higher than the levels of PCBs (829 pg/m3) and PBDEs (167 pg/m3). Median concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) and SCCPs were 3-6 times higher in households compared to schools. The levels of OPFRs, PCBs and PBDEs were similar in households and schools. In univariate analysis, the indoor concentrations of different environmental chemicals were significantly affected by location of households (OPFRs), airing of living room (some PCBs and PBDEs), presence of upholstered chair/couch (OPFRs), pet animal hold (some PBDEs) and presence of electrical heaters (selected PCBs and PBDEs). Significant correlations were also detected for the total size of households with OPFRs, frequency of vacuuming the living room with selected PCBs and PBDEs, frequency of washing the living room with selected PCBs and the total number of TVs in the households with selected phthalates and SCCPs. Finally, intake estimates indicated that indoor air contributed more or equally to low molecular weight phthalates and SCCPs exposure compared to food consumption, whereas the contribution from indoor air was smaller than the dietary intake for the other groups of chemicals.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Poeira/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Noruega , Parafina/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA