Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.028
Filtrar
1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1220-1222, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473679

RESUMO

In-person instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic concerns educators, unions, parents, students, and public health officials as they plan to create a safe and supportive learning environment for children and adolescents (1). Los Angeles County (LAC), the nation's largest county, has an estimated population of 10 million, including 1.7 million children and adolescents aged 5-17 years (2). LAC school districts moved to remote learning for some or all students in transitional kindergarten* through grade 12 (TK-12) schools during the 2020-21 school year (3). Schools that provided in-person instruction were required by LAC Health Officer orders to implement prevention measures such as symptom screening, masking, physical distancing, cohorting, and contact tracing (4). This analysis compares COVID-19 case rates in TK-12 schools among students and staff members who attended school in person with LAC case rates during September 2020-March 2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444883

RESUMO

The school closures, precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, required teachers to convert their entire classroom curricula to online formats, taught from home. This shift to a more sedentary teaching environment, coupled with the stresses related to the pandemic, may correlate with weight gain. In total, 52% of study participants reported weight gain, with a higher prevalence observed among kindergarten and elementary school teachers when compared to high school teachers (p < 0.05). Deviations in physical activity, emotional eating, and dietary patterns were assessed among 129 teachers (using the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Dutch Eating Behavioral Questionnaire, and a short-form Food Frequency Questionnaire, respectively) to uncover possible associations with the observed weight gain. Increases in sedentariness (p < 0.005), emotional eating (p < 0.001), the consumption of potatoes, fries, breads, cheese, cake (p < 0.05), chips, candy, ice-cream, and soft drinks (p < 0.005) were all positively correlated with weight gain. Decreases in exercise frequency (p < 0.001), and the consumption of fruits (p < 0.05) and beans (p < 0.005), were also positively correlated with weight gain. Weight gain, observed among teachers during school closures, was associated with changes in diet, emotional eating and physical activity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444793

RESUMO

Changes in school meal programs can affect well-being of millions of American children. Since 2014, high-poverty schools and districts nationwide had an option to provide universal free meals (UFM) through the Community Eligibility Provision (CEP). The COVID-19 pandemic expanded UFM to all schools in 2020-2022. Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011, we measured CEP effects on school meal participation, attendance, academic achievement, children's body weight, and household food security. To provide plausibly causal estimates, we leveraged the exogenous variation in the timing of CEP implementation across states and estimated a difference-in-difference model with child random effects, school and year fixed effects. On average, CEP participation increased the probability of children's eating free school lunch by 9.3% and daily school attendance by 0.24 percentage points (p < 0.01). We find no evidence that, overall, CEP affected body weight, test scores and household food security among elementary schoolchildren. However, CEP benefited children in low-income families by decreasing the probability of being overweight by 3.1% (p < 0.05) and improving reading scores of Hispanic children by 0.055 standard deviations. UFM expansion can particularly benefit at-risk children and help improve equity in educational and health outcomes.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Refeições , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Peso Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Segurança Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Almoço , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(29): e26541, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at investigating the effect of rational emotive occupational health coaching on quality of work-life among primary school administrators. METHOD: This is a double blinded and randomized control design study. A total of 158 administrators were sampled, half of them were exposed to rational emotive occupational health treatment package that lasted for 12 sessions. Two self-report measures were utilized in assessing the participants using quality of work life scale. Data collected were analyzed using MANOVA statistical tool. RESULT: The results showed that rational emotive occupational health coaching is effective in improving perception of quality of work-life among public administrators. A follow-up result showed that rational emotive occupational health coaching had a significant effect on primary school administrators' quality of work life. CONCLUSION: This study concluded rational emotive occupation health coaching is useful therapeutic strategy in improving quality of work of primary school administrators, hence, future researchers and clinical practitioners should adopt cognitive-behavioral techniques and principles in helping employers as well as employees. Based on the primary findings and limitations of this study, future studies, occupational psychotherapists should qualitatively explore the clinical relevance of rational emotive occupational health practice across cultures using different populations.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Tutoria/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida/métodos , Pessoal Administrativo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Método Duplo-Cego , Pessoal de Educação/psicologia , Pessoal de Educação/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tutoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 647380, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354557

RESUMO

Objectives: Group-level characteristics in shared contexts such as schools may affect adolescent psychological health. This study examined if the immigrant density in the classroom was associated with the level of self-reported psychological complaints among students with an immigration background. Methods: Cross-sectional data were derived from 2,619 lower secondary school students (aged 13-15) in the 2017/18 wave of the Swedish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. Using multilevel analysis estimating two-level random intercept linear regression models, classroom immigrant density was considered as a potential predictor of immigrant students' psychological complaints. Results: Students with an immigration background reported significantly fewer psychological complaints, on average, than students without such a background, even when adjusting for other sociodemographic characteristics. A cross-level interaction indicated that both first- and second-generation immigrant students experienced fewer psychological complaints in immigrant-dense classes compared to when the proportion of immigrant students was lower. Conclusion: Students with an immigration background fare better psychologically in classes with a higher proportion of immigrant students. Such compositional effects could be alleviated by strengthening all schools' capacities to provide a more inclusive classroom climate.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Saúde Mental , Densidade Demográfica , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Suécia
6.
Occup Environ Med ; 78(9): 648-653, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgG antibodies among workers of the three public higher education institutions of Porto, Portugal, up to July 2020. METHODS: A rapid point-of-care test for specific IgM and IgG antibodies of SARS-CoV-2 was offered to all workers (SD Biosensor STANDARD Q COVID-19 IgM/IgG Duo and STANDARD Q COVID-19 IgM/IgG Combo). Testing was performed and a questionnaire was completed by 4592 workers on a voluntary basis from 21 May to 31 July 2020. We computed the apparent IgM, IgG, and combined IgM or IgG prevalence, along with the true prevalence and 95% credible intervals (95% CrI) using Bayesian inference. RESULTS: We found an apparent prevalence of 3.1% for IgM, 1.0% for IgG and 3.9% for either. The estimated true prevalence was 2.0% (95% CrI 0.1% to 4.3%) for IgM, 0.6% (95% CrI 0.0% to 1.3%) for IgG, and 2.5% (95% CrI 0.1% to 5.3%) for IgM or IgG. A SARS-CoV-2 molecular diagnosis was reported by 21 (0.5%) workers; and of these, 90.5% had a reactive IgG result. Seroprevalence was higher among those reporting contacts with confirmed cases, having been quarantined, having a previous molecular negative test or having had symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence among workers from the three public higher education institutions of Porto after the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 infection was similar to national estimates for the same age working population. However, the estimated true seroprevalence was approximately five times higher than the reported SARS-CoV-2 infection based on a molecular test.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
7.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 78(3): 216-224, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167146

RESUMO

Background: Due to the pandemic, children are undergoing many changes in their daily lives. Methods: We analyzed how parents perceive the effects of the contingency on their children through an online survey shared by digital media for 7 days. Results: We obtained 4000 responses. The most frequent difficulty of the children was online homeschooling (30.4%), followed by sleeping disorders (20.3%). The use of screens increased 30-80% in over 65% of children. Tantrum was detected in 34% and mood swings in 30% of children. The majority of parents (77.8%) considered that distance education does not guarantee children's education and that the level of learning acquired through online classes is not the same as that of face-to-face education (83.5%). In contrast, 70.6% of parents considered that it is not yet time to reopen schools, 78.8% believed that there is sufficient evidence to keep them closed, and 45% indicated that it is better not to return to campus this year. Regarding activities to improve mental health during the contingency, 51.3% have created home games, and 23.6% perform physical activity. However, 74.4% do not have the peace of mind to restart daily life. Among the positive aspects of the contingency, adaptability (35%) and family union (33.5%) were reported. Conclusions: Health professionals in contact with children must be prepared for the problems that this contingency is generating and sensitize parents to observe their children and seek professional help on any alarm data on the emotional or behavioral state of the child.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pais/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Educação à Distância/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internet , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Tela , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 137, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 infection, in the UK in early 2020, resulted in the introduction of several control policies to reduce disease spread. As part of these restrictions, schools were closed to all pupils in March (except for vulnerable and key worker children), before re-opening to certain year groups in June. Finally, all school children returned to the classroom in September. METHODS: Here, we analyse data on school absences in late 2020 as a result of COVID-19 infection and how that varied through time as other measures in the community were introduced. We utilise data from the Department for Education Educational Settings database and examine how pupil and teacher absences change in both primary and secondary schools. RESULTS: Our results show that absences as a result of COVID-19 infection rose steadily following the re-opening of schools in September. Cases in teachers declined during the November lockdown, particularly in regions previously in tier 3, the highest level of control at the time. Cases in secondary school pupils increased for the first 2 weeks of the November lockdown, before decreasing. Since the introduction of the tier system, the number of absences with confirmed infection in primary schools was observed to be (markedly) lower than that in secondary schools. In December, we observed a large rise in the number of absences per school in secondary school settings in the South East and London, but such rises were not observed in other regions or in primary school settings. We conjecture that the increased transmissibility of the new variant in these regions may have contributed to this rise in secondary school cases. Finally, we observe a positive correlation between cases in the community and cases in schools in most regions, with weak evidence suggesting that cases in schools lag behind cases in the surrounding community. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that there is no significant evidence to suggest that schools are playing a substantial role in driving spread in the community and that careful monitoring may be required as schools re-open to determine the effect associated with open schools upon community incidence.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
9.
Can Rev Sociol ; 58(2): 165-185, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080780

RESUMO

The 2020 COVID-19 pandemic closed most Canadian public schools for six consecutive months between March and September. This paper explores possible impacts of that closure on student achievement. Longstanding research suggests that lengthy periods of time out of school generally create losses of literacy and numeracy skills and widen student achievement gaps. New American studies have attributed sizeable learning losses to the COVID-19 closures. In lieu of comparable Canadian data, this paper extrapolates from summer learning research to estimate likely shortfalls in literacy and numeracy skills. We draw on data from 14 cohorts of Ontario primary-grade students collected between 2010 and 2015 in which 3,723 attended summer programs and 12,290 served as controls. Across three plausible scenarios, we use meta analyses and OLS and quintile regression models to predict learning losses of 3.5 and 6.5 months among typically-performing and lower-performing students respectively, and achievement gaps that grow up to 1.5 years among same grade peers. After qualifying these predictions, we recommend that provincial ministries offer targeted supplementary programs during the summer and synchronous instruction in the event of future school closures.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , COVID-19 , Aprendizagem , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Humanos , Ontário , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009420, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the major public health problems in Sri Lanka. Its outbreak pattern depends on a multitude of drivers, including human mobility. Here we evaluate the impact of COVID-19 related mobility restriction (lockdown) on the risk of dengue in Sri Lanka. METHODOLOGY: Two-stage hierarchical models were fitted using an interrupted time-series design based on the notified dengue cases, January 2015 to July 2020. In the first stage model, the district level impact was estimated using quasi-Poisson regression models while accounting for temporal trends. Estimates were pooled at zonal and national levels in the second stage model using meta-analysis. The influence of the extended period of school closure on dengue in children in the western province was compared to adults. FINDINGS: Statistically significant and homogeneous reduction of dengue risk was observed at all levels during the lockdown. Overall an 88% reduction in risk (RR 0.12; 95% CI from 0.08 to 0.17) was observed at the national level. The highest impact was observed among children aged less than 19 years showing a 92% reduction (RR 0.8; 95% CI from 0.03 to 0.25). We observed higher impact in the dry zone having 91% reduction (RR 0.09; 95% CI from 0.05 to 0.15) compared to wet zone showing 83% reduction (RR 0.17; 95% CI from 0.09 to 0.30). There was no indication that the overall health-seeking behaviour for dengue had a substantial influence on these estimates. SIGNIFICANCE: This study offers a broad understanding of the change in risk of dengue during the COVID-19 pandemic and associated mobility restrictions in Sri Lanka. The analysis using the mobility restrictions as a natural experiment suggests mobility patterns to be a very important driver of dengue transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Adulto , Criança , Clima , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Distanciamento Físico , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
11.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(9): 834-838, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035035

RESUMO

As survival rates for children born extremely preterm (EP, <28 weeks' gestation) have increased with advances in perinatal and neonatal care, their long-term functioning and quality of life assume more importance. Outcomes in early childhood provide some information, but outcomes at school-age are more informative of life-long functioning. Children born EP at school-age have substantially higher rates of intellectual impairment, poorer executive, academic and motor function, more neurodevelopmental disability, and poorer health-related quality of life than do contemporaneous term-born controls. Because the rates of adverse outcomes remain unacceptably high, and particularly since some outcomes may be deteriorating rather than improving over time, new strategies to ameliorate these problems, targeting periods before, during and after birth, and throughout the lifespan, are a priority.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Instituições Acadêmicas/tendências , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Salud Publica Mex ; 63(2, Mar-Abr): 170-179, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989493

RESUMO

Objetivo. Cuantificar los cambios de sobrepeso y obesidad (SO+O) y determinar su asociación con características sociodemográficas en escolares mexicanos de primarias públicas durante 2015 y 2018. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal comparativo. Se analizaron 6.5 millones de alumnos de 59 724 escuelas. La información deriva del Registro Nacional de Peso y Talla (RNPT) en cuatro periodos escolares, de 2015 a 2019, para niños de 6 a 12 años. Se estimaron razones de momios (RM) y prevalencias ajustadas mediante regresión logística ordinal generalizada. Resultados. Las RM fueron positivas para SO+O y para obesidad en el sexo masculino, ámbito urbano y baja marginación (p<0.001). La mayor prevalencia ajustada tanto para sobrepeso como para obesidad se reportó en 2016 (p<0.001). La región Sur manifestó ascensos constantes y significativos para obesidad durante cuatro periodos. Conclusión. El RNPT permite detectar diversas características de riesgo actual para el desarrollo de SO+O en escuelas primarias del país.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Setor Público , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(5): e0009380, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Gambia initiated a control programme for schistosomiasis in 2015. In light of this, recent and comprehensive data on schistosomiasis is required to effectively guide the control programme. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and associated risk factors of schistosomiasis among primary school children in The Gambia. METHODS: We utilised data from a previous study conducted in 2015 in 4 regions of The Gambia: North Bank Region (NBR), Lower River Region (LRR), Central River Region (CRR) and Upper River Region (URR). In the parent study, ten schools were selected randomly from each region. Urine and stool samples collected from 25 boys and 25 girls (7-14 years) in each school were examined for urinary schistosomiasis (Schistosoma haematobium infection) and intestinal schistosomiasis (Schistosoma mansoni infection) using urine filtration, dipstick and Kato-Katz methods. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Urinary schistosomiasis had an overall prevalence of 10.2% while intestinal schistosomiasis had a prevalence of 0.3% among the sampled school children. Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis was significantly different among regions (χ 2 = 279.958, df = 3, p < 0.001), with CRR (27.6%) being the most endemic region, followed by URR (12.0%), then LRR (0.6%), and NBR (0.0%). Prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis was also significantly variable among regions, with 4 of the 5 positive cases detected in CRR and 1 case in URR. Every school sampled in CRR had at least one student infected with S. haematobium, 50% of schools in URR had S. haematobium infection, and just one school in LRR had S. haematobium infection. While S. haematobium infection was significantly higher in boys (χ 2 = 4.440, df = 1, p = 0.035), no significant difference in infection rate was observed among age groups (χ 2 = 0.882, df = 2, p = 0.643). Two of the 5 students infected with S. mansoni were boys and 3 were girls. Four of these 5 students were in the 10-12 years age group and 1 was in the 7-9 years age group. Macrohaematuria and microhaematuria were found to be statistically associated with presence of S. haematobium eggs in urine. Being a male was a risk factor of S. haematobium infection. Bathing, playing and swimming in water bodies were found to pose less risk for S. haematobium infection, indicating that the true water contact behaviour of children was possibly underrepresented. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study provide invaluable information on the prevalence of schistosomiasis in The Gambia. This was useful for the schistosomiasis control efforts of the country, as it guided mass drug administration campaigns in eligible districts in the study area. More studies on S. mansoni and its intermediate snail hosts are required to establish its true status in The Gambia. As children sometimes tend to provide responses that potentially please the research or their teacher, data collection frameworks and approaches that ensure true responses in studies involving children should be devised and used.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Schistosoma haematobium/isolamento & purificação , Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Programas Governamentais , Hematúria/diagnóstico , Hematúria/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Esquistossomose Urinária/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose mansoni/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(6): 1022-1035, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to test the effectiveness of the Whole of Systems Trial of Prevention Strategies for Childhood Obesity (WHO STOPS Childhood Obesity) for behavioral, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and BMI outcomes. METHODS: This was a cluster randomized trial of 10 communities randomly allocated (1:1) to start intervention in 2015 (step 1) or in 2019 (after 4 years) in South West Victoria, Australia. Data were collected from participating primary schools in April to June of 2015 (73% school participation rate), 2017 (69%), and 2019 (63%). Student participation rates were 80% in 2015 (1,792/2,516 invited), 81% in 2017 (2,411/2,963), and 79% in 2019 (2,177/2,720). Repeat cross-sectional analyses of measured height and weight (grades two, four, and six [aged approximately 7 to 12 years]), self-reported behavior, and HRQoL (grades four and six) were conducted. RESULTS: There was an intervention by time interaction in BMI z scores (P = 0.031) and obesity/overweight prevalence (P = 0.006). BMI z score and overweight/obesity prevalence decreased between 2015 and 2017 and increased between 2017 and 2019 in intervention communities. The intervention significantly reduced takeaway food consumption (P = 0.034) and improved physical (P = 0.019), psychosocial (P = 0.026), and global (P = 0.012) HRQoL. Water consumption increased among girls (P = 0.033) in the intervention communities, as did energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack consumption among boys (P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: WHO STOPS had a positive impact on takeaway food intake and HRQoL.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitória/epidemiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos
15.
Acta Trop ; 220: 105960, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004172

RESUMO

Urogenital schistosomiasis is a common experience among children in Zanzibar. There is a paucity of behavioural science-based, health education and behaviour change (HEBC) interventions for school-aged children, those at greatest risk for urogenital schistosomiasis. We assessed the influence of a HEBC intervention, guided by the Health Belief model, among rural schoolchildren on Pemba and Unguja islands in Zanzibar, Tanzania. From 2012 to 2016, a cluster-randomized trial to assess three different interventions against urogenital schistosomiasis was conducted in 90 schools and shehias across Zanzibar. The HEBC intervention was implemented in 15 schools per island. In 2017, at the trial conclusion, we administered written questionnaires to schoolchildren from 4 HEBC intervention schools and 4 not HEBC exposed schools on each island, respectively. Responses were compared between students that were exposed or not exposed to the HEBC intervention using a Fisher's exact test. A total of 1451 students, 708 from intervention and 743 from non-intervention schools completed the questionnaire. Noting some between island differences, students who had received the HEBC interventions reported significant improvements in knowledge about Schistosoma haematobium transmission and personal risk, strategies for schistosomiasis prevention, and self-reported changes in risk behaviours: stopped washing laundry/dishes 49.4% (350/708) versus 5.8% (43/743), stopped bathing in streams/ponds 49.4% (350/708) versus 4.2% (31/743), and stopped playing in streams/ponds 40.8% (289/708) versus 10.8% (80/743). HEBC exposed children also reported a significant increase in swallowing tablets during mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns (when they had not before) 30.2% (214/708) versus 4.6% (34/743). The school based HEBC interventions were associated with desirable positive behaviour change among students. Data suggest that scaling up HEBC interventions to all schools in high-risk areas, augmented with bi-annual MDA, can help to reduce prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis in Zanzibar, strengthening the possibility for future disease elimination.


Assuntos
Ilhas/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Criança , Erradicação de Doenças , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Ilhas do Oceano Índico/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
16.
J Environ Public Health ; 2021: 2917874, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986811

RESUMO

Background: Reproductive health is a universal concern but it has special importance for women particularly during the reproductive year. Although policy actions and strategic efforts made reproductive health service uptake of youths in Ethiopia, still its utilization remains low. Adolescence is not quite capable of understanding complex concepts. This makes them vulnerable to sexual exploitation and high-risk sexual behaviors and reproductive health problems. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the utilization of reproductive health services and associated factors among adolescents in Woldia town secondary schools, Amhara, Ethiopia, 2019. Methods: An institutional-based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 420 secondary school students in Woldia Town from January to June 2019. A self-administered, structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. The samples were distributed proportionally, and participants in each school were selected by the systematic sampling technique. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression was carried out to assess the association between dependent and independent variables. Result: Out of 420 students participated in this study, 270 (64.3%) of the respondents utilize reproductive health service. Residence (AOR = 4.40, 95%CI (1.23, 9.362)), educational status of the partner (AOR = 2.66, 95%CI (2.35, 5.24)), presence of RHS facility in school (AOR = 2.53, 95%CI (1.57, 4.06)), and good knowledge level on reproductive health services (AOR = 1.77, 95%CI (1.14, 2.75)) were significantly associated with reproductive health service utilization. Conclusion: and Recommendations. Knowledge of respondents on reproductive health utilization in the study area was found to be low. Students who were from rural families have low utilization of reproductive health services. This low service utilization in these students might be disposed to different reproductive health risks such as sexually transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS, and unwanted pregnancy, which in turn can increase the school dropout rate and have an impact on an individual's future life. However, students who have good knowledge and were encouraged by their friends have good reproductive health service utilization. Therefore, it needs a great effort and attention of all concerned bodies including parents, school staff, and health professionals to improve service utilization in schools.


Assuntos
Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 66, 2021 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated teacher- and school-level characteristics associated with implementation of recommended physical activity (PA) promoting practices. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between teachers' PA practices and: [1] teacher-level factors, including their own PA, and [2] school-level factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined time spent daily in light PA (LPA) and moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) in association with 7 teacher PA practices among 288 classroom/special area teachers and teaching assistants in 20 urban, suburban and rural schools (recruited through a school wellness trial) in 4 districts. LPA and MVPA was assessed using 24-h ankle accelerometry (up to seven consecutive days). A sum score for teacher PA practices was assessed via survey (7 items; sum score range: 7-35; Cronbach's alpha = 0.73; higher scores indicate more PA promoting practices). Teacher-level factors included gender, race, self-reported height/weight, years teaching, and education. School-level factors included school type, free-and-reduced-price meal eligibility, student racial/ethnic composition, and urbanicity. Analyses included multilevel regression models, accounting for clustering within schools and adjusting for demographic covariates and school district. RESULTS: Teachers were 91% female, 63% elementary, 60% white, mean age 43.2 years (SD = 11.3), and 41% obese). Teachers wore accelerometers an average of 5.8 days, spent 399.6 min in LPA (SD = 85.0) per day, 24.1 min in MVPA (SD = 14.4) per day, and the mean teacher PA practices sum score was 22.4 (SD = 5.0). Every 15-min increase in MVPA was related to an increase in teacher PA practices sum score (coeff =1.07; SE = 0.28; p < 0.001). Female gender (versus males; coeff = - 1.95; SE = 0.92, p = 0.034), an obese weight status (versus non-obese; coeff = - 1.38; SE = 0.54, p = 0.010), and teaching in a middle school (versus elementary; coeff = - 3.86; SE = 0.54, p < 0.001) were associated with lower teacher PA practices scores. LPA was not associated with teacher PA promoting practices. CONCLUSIONS: Teachers with higher MVPA, but not higher LPA, and those without obesity were more likely to implement PA promoting practices that could positively impact their students' PA. Similar to prior studies, these practices were more commonly implemented in elementary schools and by male teachers. Future studies in schools should explore whether improvement of teacher health behaviors subsequently impacts student health behaviors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials, NCT03432715 ; Registered on 02/2/2018.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 417, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following a first wave in spring and gradual easing of lockdown, Luxembourg experienced an early second epidemic wave of SARS-CoV-2 before the start of summer school holidays on 15th July. This provided the opportunity to investigate the role of school-age children and school settings for transmission. METHODS: We compared the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 in school-age children, teachers and the general working population in Luxembourg during two epidemic waves: a spring wave from March-April 2020 corresponding to general lockdown with schools being closed and May-July 2020 corresponding to schools being open. We assessed the number of secondary transmissions occurring in schools between May and July 2020 using routine contact tracing data. RESULTS: During the first wave in March-April 2020 when schools were closed, the incidence in pupils peaked at 28 per 100,000, while during the second wave in May-July 2020 when schools were open, incidence peaked 100 per 100,000. While incidence of SARS-CoV-2 was higher in adults than in children during the first spring wave, no significant difference was observed during the second wave in early summer. Between May and July 2020, we identified a total of 390 and 34 confirmed COVID-19 cases among 90,150 school-age children and 11,667 teachers, respectively. We further estimate that 179 primary cases caused 49 secondary cases in schools. While some small clusters of mainly student-to-student transmission within the same class were identified, we did not observe any large outbreaks with multiple generations of infection. CONCLUSIONS: Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within Luxembourg schools was limited during an early summer epidemic wave in 2020. Precautionary measures including physical distancing as well as easy access to testing, systematic contact tracing appears to have been successful in mitigating transmission within educational settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Busca de Comunicante , Humanos , Incidência , Luxemburgo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distanciamento Físico , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
19.
Public Health Rep ; 136(4): 403-412, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Data-informed decision making is valued among school districts, but challenges remain for local health departments to provide data, especially during a pandemic. We describe the rapid planning and deployment of a school-based COVID-19 surveillance system in a metropolitan US county. METHODS: In 2020, we used several data sources to construct disease- and school-based indicators for COVID-19 surveillance in Franklin County, an urban county in central Ohio. We collected, processed, analyzed, and visualized data in the COVID-19 Analytics and Targeted Surveillance System for Schools (CATS). CATS included web-based applications (public and secure versions), automated alerts, and weekly reports for the general public and decision makers, including school administrators, school boards, and local health departments. RESULTS: We deployed a pilot version of CATS in less than 2 months (August-September 2020) and added 21 school districts in central Ohio (15 in Franklin County and 6 outside the county) into CATS during the subsequent months. Public-facing web-based applications provided parents and students with local information for data-informed decision making. We created an algorithm to enable local health departments to precisely identify school districts and school buildings at high risk of an outbreak and active SARS-CoV-2 transmission in school settings. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Piloting a surveillance system with diverse school districts helps scale up to other districts. Leveraging past relationships and identifying emerging partner needs were critical to rapid and sustainable collaboration. Valuing diverse skill sets is key to rapid deployment of proactive and innovative public health practices during a global pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Colaboração Intersetorial , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Ohio/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249328, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831061

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined the association between the school policy, social and physical environment and change in adolescent physical activity (PA) and explored how sex and socioeconomic status modified potential associations. METHODS: Data from the GoActive study were used for these analyses. Participants were adolescents (n = 1765, mean age±SD 13.2±0.4y) from the East of England, UK. Change in longitudinal accelerometer assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was the outcome. School policy, social and physical environment features (n = 267) were exposures. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator variable selection method (LASSO) was used to determine exposures most relevant to the outcome. Exposures selected by the LASSO were added to a multiple linear regression model with estimates of change in min/day of MVPA per 1-unit change in each exposure reported. Post-hoc analyses, exploring associations between change in variables selected by the LASSO and change in MVPA, were undertaken to further explain findings. FINDINGS: No school policy or physical environment features were selected by the LASSO as predictors of change in MVPA. The LASSO selected two school social environment variables (participants asking a friend to do physical activity; friend asking a participant to do physical activity) as potential predictors of change in MVPA but no significant associations were found in subsequent linear regression models for all participants (ß [95%CI] -1.01 [-2.73;0.71] and 0.65 [-2.17;0.87] min/day respectively). In the post-hoc analyses, for every unit increase in change in participants asking a friend to do PA and change in a friend asking participants to do PA, an increase in MVPA of 2.78 (1.55;4.02) and 1.80 (0.48;3.11) min/day was predicted respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The school social environment is associated with PA during adolescence. Further exploration of how friendships during adolescence may be leveraged to support effective PA promotion in schools is warranted.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Exercício Físico , Política Pública , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sedentário
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...