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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 50, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Kids save lives statement recommends annual Basic Life Support (BLS) training for school children but the implementation is challenging. Trainings should be easy to realise and every BLS training should be as effective as possible to prepare learners for lifesaving actions. Preparedness implies skills and positive beliefs in the own capability (high self-efficacy). METHODS: This randomized controlled cluster study investigates, if self-regulated learning promotes self-efficacy and long-term retention of practical BLS skills. Students in the age of 12 years participated in a practical training in BLS and a scenario testing of skills. In the control group the practical training was instructor-led. In the intervention group the students self-regulated their learning processes and feedback was provided by the peer-group. The primary outcome self-efficacy for helping in cardiac arrest after the training and 9 months later was analysed using a multilevel mixed model. Means and pass-rates for BLS skills were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Contrary to the assumptions, this study could not measure a higher self-efficacy for helping in cardiac arrest of the students participating in the intervention (n = 307 students) compared to the control group (n = 293 students) after training and at the follow-up (mean difference: 0.11 points, 95% CI: - 0.26 to 0.04, P = 0.135). The odds to pass all items of the BLS exam was not significantly different between the groups (OR 1.11, 95% CI: 0.81 to 1.52, p = 0.533). Self-regulated learning was associated with a higher performance of male students in the BLS exam (mean score: 7.35) compared to females of the intervention (female: 7.05) and compared to males of the control (7.06). CONCLUSION: This study could not resolve the question, if self-regulated learning in peer-groups improves self-efficacy for helping in cardiac arrest. Self-regulated learning is an effective alternative to instructor-led training in BLS skills training and may be feasible to realise for lay-persons. For male students self-regulated learning seems to be beneficial to support long-term retention of skills. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN17334920, retrospectively registered 07.03.2019.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/educação , Aprendizagem , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Estudantes/psicologia , Criança , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Autoeficácia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
J Psychol ; 154(1): 38-59, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373540

RESUMO

Despite the increasing body of research on workplace incivility, the relationship between supervisor incivility and employee job performance, as well as its intermediary mechanisms, has received relatively little attention from researchers. Drawing on the transactional model of stress and self-determination theory, we propose employees' job insecurity and amotivation as mediating mechanisms between supervisor incivility and employee job performance. The proposed serial-mediation model was tested through a multilevel analysis of two-wave surveys collected from kindergarten teachers and their principals. Our mediation analysis revealed that incivility perpetrated by kindergarten principals exerted a negative effect on teachers' job performance three months later by shaping job insecurity perceptions and amotivation. These findings have theoretical implications for the workplace incivility literature and managerial implications for practitioners.


Assuntos
Incivilidade , Satisfação no Emprego , Motivação , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Desempenho Profissional , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Incerteza
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1668, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given today's high prevalence of common mental disorders and related sick leave among teachers, an urgent need exists for a more systematic approach to the management of social and organizational risk factors within schools. In 2015, we launched the first Swedish occupational health guideline to support a structured prevention of these risks at the workplace. The existence of guidelines does however not guarantee their usage, as studies show that guidelines are often underused. Knowledge is therefore needed on effective implementation strategies that can facilitate the translation of guidelines into practice. The primary aim of the randomized waiting list-controlled trial described in this study protocol is to compare the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy versus a single implementation strategy for implementing the Guideline for the prevention of mental ill-health at the workplace within schools. The effectiveness will be compared regarding the extent to which the recommendations are implemented (implementation effectiveness) and with regard to social and organisational risk factors for mental ill-health, absenteeism and presenteeism (intervention effectiveness). METHODS: The trial is conducted among primary schools of two municipalities in Sweden. The single implementation strategy is an educational strategy (an educational meeting). The multifaceted strategy consists of the educational meeting, an implementation team and a series of workshops. The outcome measure of implementation effectiveness is guideline adherence. The primary outcome of intervention effectiveness is exhaustion. Secondary outcomes include demands at work, work organization and job contents, interpersonal relations and leadership, presenteeism, work performance, recovery, work-life balance, work-engagement, self-reported stress, self-perceived health, sickness absence and psychosocial safety climate. Process outcomes as well as barriers and facilitators influencing the implementation process are assessed. Data will be collected at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months by mixed methods (i.e. survey, focus-group interviews, observation). DISCUSSION: The study described in this protocol will provide valuable knowledge on the effectiveness of implementation strategies for implementing a guideline for the prevention of common mental disorders within schools. We hypothesize that successful implementation will result in reductions in school personnel's perceived social and organizational risk factors, mental ill-health and sick-leave. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03322839 (trial registration: 09/19/2017).


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Absenteísmo , Cidades , Grupos Focais , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(9): 3443-3456, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508762

RESUMO

The analysis of physical activity (PA) assistance programs is of major importance to ensure progress in the area. The Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) tool has been broadly disseminated in the literature. This study set out to identify PA assistance programs among Brazilian students and analyze them using the RE-AIM tool. The search was conducted in the Lilacs, SportDiscus, SciELO, Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCOhot, PsycINFO and PubMed databases. After thoroughly researching titles, abstracts and studies, 15 articles (seven PA assistance programs) were included. The programs were conducted in the past decade at public schools in the South and Southeast of Brazil. Multicomponent (education and teacher training) strategies were used with positive results in the practice of PA. With respect to the results of the RE-AIM tool, it was found that the most reported dimensions were "reach" (74%), followed by "efficacy" (48%), "adoption" (43%), "implementation" (35%) and "maintenance" (5%). The indicators most frequently mentioned were those related to the internal validity of the program: demographic and behavioral information of the target population, method of identification of the target population, sample size, participation rate and number of organizational units involved.


Assuntos
Exercício , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Brasil , Humanos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 116, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reproductive health problems such as HIV, unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion among adolescents are closely linked to insufficient knowledge about sexuality and reproduction and lack of access to contraceptives. Supported by international agencies, Zambia has introduced an ambitious nation-wide program for comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) to be implemented into ordinary school activities by teachers. The curriculum is firmly based in a discourse of sexual and reproductive rights, not commonly found in the public debate on sexuality in Zambia. This paper explores how teachers perceive the curriculum and practice discretion when implementing the CSE in mid-level schools in Nyimba district in Zambia. METHODS: Using a case study design, data were collected through in-depth interviews with 18 teachers and analyzed thematically drawing upon theories of discretion and policy implementation. RESULTS: Individual teachers make decisions on their own regarding what and when to teach CSE. This discretion implies holding back information from the learners, teaching abstinence as the only way of preventing pregnancy or cancelling sexuality education sessions altogether. Teachers' choices about the CSE program were linked to lack of guidance on teaching of the curriculum, especially with regards to how to integrate sexuality education into existing subjects. Limited prioritization of CSE in the educational sector was observed. The incompatibility of CSE with local norms and understandings about adolescent sexuality combined with teacher-parent role dilemmas emerged as problematic in implementing the policy. Limited ownership of the new curriculum further undermined teachers' motivation to actively include CSE in daily teaching activities. Use of discretion has resulted in arbitrary teaching thus affecting the acquisition of comprehensive sexual and reproductive health knowledge among learners. CONCLUSION: The CSE had limited legitimacy in the community and was met with resistance from teachers tasked with its' implementation. In order to enhance ownership to the CSE program, local concerns about the contents of the curriculum and the parent-teacher role dilemma must be taken into consideration. Not addressing these challenges may undermine the policy's intention of increasing knowledge about sexuality and reproduction and empowering adolescents to access contraceptive services and avoid unwanted pregnancies.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , População Rural , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Educação Sexual/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Organizacional , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Zâmbia
6.
Public Health ; 177: 19-25, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494359

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although evidence-based interventions (EBIs) and effective strategies to implement them exist, they cannot be used by policy makers and practitioners if they do not align with end users' needs. As such, adaptations to EBIs and implementation approaches are likely to occur to increase 'fit' with end users' capacity. This article describes an approach undertaken by a population health service delivery unit in one Australian state to develop an adapted implementation strategy to support the implementation of the mandatory healthy canteen policy (EBI) to all schools located in the service delivery region. STUDY DESIGN: This is a case study of adapting an intervention to improve implementation of the healthy canteen policy. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a six-step pragmatic, empirically driven approach. The steps include (i) adapt, where appropriate, the EBI to facilitate implementation; (ii) identify end users' capacity for implementation; (iii) identify opportunities to adapt the implementation interventions while preserving meaningful intervention impact; (iv) undertake program adaptation; (v) develop training and resources to support delivery of implementation strategies and; (vi) evaluate the adapted intervention. This article describes the application of these steps by the authors to develop an adapted support strategy consistent with end users' needs. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides some guidance on how to adapt implementation support approaches particularly when EBIs cannot be adapted. Future empirical research providing guidance on making practical adaptation decisions are needed.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Austrália , Humanos
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1239, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary schools are valuable settings to implement healthy lifestyle (healthy eating and physical activity) interventions, aimed at targeting childhood obesity. This study explored school staff perceptions of factors that hinder and enable successful implementation and sustainability of healthy lifestyle interventions in primary schools. Qualitative data was pooled and analysed from two evaluations carried out in primary schools in North England: a feasibility study of a nutrition and physical activity educational programme (PhunkyFoods Feasibility Study), and an evaluation of a healthy eating programme (The Food Dudes Evaluation). METHODS: Sixty-five qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with head teachers, teachers, catering managers, designated school-based programme coordinators and programme staff supporting schools with programme delivery, at 14 schools involved in both evaluations. Thematic analysis was undertaken and emergent themes categorised using a framework for successful implementation by Durlak and Dupre (2008). RESULTS: Overall, all schools were delivering a range of healthy lifestyle programmes, often with overlapping content. Perceived challenges to implementation of individual programmes included: limited time, timing of implementation, limited training and support, insufficient resources, capacity and facilities, staff perceptions of intervention and perceived skill-proficiency (for cooking and physical activities). Short-term funding, lack of external and internal support were perceived to hinder sustainability. Staff recommendations for successful implementation of future programmes included: extended training and planning time, sufficient capacity, external support for delivery, good resources (interactive, practical and adaptable), and facilities for cooking, healthy eating, gardening and physical activities. Head teachers need to prioritise delivery of a few key healthy lifestyle programmes, in an overcrowded curriculum. Schools need to employ strategies to engage participation of staff, pupils and parents long term. CONCLUSIONS: Effective implementation of school-based healthy lifestyle programmes was thought to be aided by flexible and adaptable programmes, enabling good contextual fit, well-resourced programmes and effective leadership at multiple levels, pupil (pupils support delivery) and parent involvement. To facilitate sustainability, it was perceived that programmes need to be integrated within the curriculum and school policies long term, with sustained support from head teachers and staff. These findings are relevant to programme developers, policy makers and those involved in delivering interventions.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Criança , Inglaterra , Exercício , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390743

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of a school-based violence prevention programme implemented in Grade 1 classrooms in Jamaican primary schools. Fourteen primary schools were randomly assigned to receive training in classroom behaviour management (n = 7 schools, 27 teachers/classrooms) or to a control group (n = 7 schools, 28 teachers/classrooms). Four children from each class were randomly selected to participate in the evaluation (n = 220 children). Teachers were trained through a combination of workshop and in-class support sessions, and received a mean of 11.5 h of training (range = 3-20) over 8 months. The primary outcomes were observations of (1) teachers' use of violence against children and (2) class-wide child aggression. Teachers in intervention schools used significantly less violence against children (effect size (ES) = -0.73); benefits to class-wide child aggression were not significant (ES = -0.20). Intervention teachers also provided a more emotionally supportive classroom environment (ES = 1.22). No benefits were found to class-wide prosocial behaviour, teacher wellbeing, or child mental health. The intervention benefited children's early learning skills, especially oral language and self-regulation skills (ES = 0.25), although no benefits were found to achievement in maths calculation, reading and spelling. A relatively brief teacher-training programme reduced violence against children by teachers and increased the quality of the classroom environment.


Assuntos
Capacitação em Serviço/organização & administração , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Violência/prevenção & controle , Logro , Agressão , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Naftalenos
10.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 34(4): 401-406, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389327

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine if school personnel can understand and apply the Sort, Assess, Life-saving interventions, Treat/Transport (SALT) triage methods after a brief training. The investigators predicted that subjects can learn to triage with accuracy similar to that of medically trained personnel, and that subjects can pass an objective-structured clinical exam (OSCE) evaluating hemorrhage control. METHODS: School personnel were eligible to participate in this prospective observational study. Investigators recorded subject demographic information and prior medical experience. Participants received a 30-minute lecture on SALT triage and a brief lecture and demonstration of hemorrhage control and tourniquet application. A test with brief descriptions of mass-casualty victims was administered immediately after training. Participants independently categorized the victims as dead, expectant, immediate, delayed, or minimal. They also completed an OSCE to evaluate hemorrhage control and tourniquet application using a mannequin arm. RESULTS: Subjects from two schools completed the study. Fifty-nine were from a private school that enrolls early childhood through grade eight, and 45 from a public school that enrolls grades seven and eight (n = 104). The average subject age was 45 years and 68% were female. Approximately 81% were teachers and 87% had prior cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training. Overall triage accuracy was 79.2% (SD = 10.7%). Ninety-six (92.3%) of the subjects passed the hemorrhage control OSCE. CONCLUSIONS: After two brief lectures and a short demonstration, school personnel were able to triage descriptions of mass-casualty victims with an overall accuracy similar to medically trained personnel, and most were able to apply a tourniquet correctly. Opportunities for future study include integrating high-fidelity simulation and mock disasters, evaluating for knowledge retention, and exploring the study population's baseline knowledge of medical care, among others.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Emergências , Socorristas , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Triagem/métodos , Adulto , Algoritmos , Criança , Feminino , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Competência Profissional , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Torniquetes
11.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 72, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity is associated with improved physical and mental health among children, but many children do not meet the recommended hour per day of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). The aim of this paper is to investigate participation in active after-school clubs and active travel to and from school at age 11 and estimate the average daily minutes of MVPA associated with active club attendance and active travel. METHODS: Accelerometer data were collected on three weekdays for 1296 11-year-old children in a cross-sectional study. Children reported attendance at active after-school clubs and how they travelled to and from school for each day of the week. To account for repeat days within child and clustering within schools we used multilevel models with random effects at the school and child level, and fixed effects for all covariates. We calculated odds ratios for participation in active after-school clubs and active travel for gender, measures of socio-economic position and BMI category. We also explored the association between active club attendance, active travel and daily average MVPA. RESULTS: Boys and girls were equally likely to attend active after-school clubs. Boys were more likely to travel to school using active modes. Attendance at active after-school clubs and active travel home were not associated with each other. Attending an active after-school club was associated with an additional 7.6 min (95% CI: 5.0 to 10.3) average MVPA on that day among both boys and girls. Active travel was associated with an additional 4.7 min (95% CI: 2.9 to 6.5) average MVPA per journey for boys and 2.4 min (95% CI: 1.0 to 3.7) for girls. CONCLUSIONS: Both active after-school clubs and active travel are associated with greater physical activity on the day that children participate in these, and we saw no evidence that those attending active clubs do so at the expense of active travel home afterwards. While the increased daily MVPA is small to moderate, active after-school clubs and active travel on multiple days of the week could make important contributions as part of complex interventions aimed at increasing population levels of physical activity in children.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1186, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schools are an important setting for health promotion. In England, around one third of publicly funded schools have become independent of local authorities since 2000 and are now academies, run by an academy trust. The aim of this research was to examine attitudes towards health promotion held by academy trust leaders and senior staff. The research questions were: 1. How do academy trusts in England perceive their role in health promotion amongst students? 2. How are decisions around health promotion made in academy trusts? 3. What factors inhibit and encourage health promotion in academy schools? 4. How might public health academics and practitioners best engage with academy schools to facilitate health promotion activity and research? METHODS: Qualitative study utilising semi-structured interviews. Twenty five academy and school leaders were purposively sampled to achieve variation in trust size and type. In addition, five respondents were recruited from public and third-sector agencies seeking to work with or influence academy trusts around health promotion. Framework analysis was used to determine emergent themes and identify relationships between themes and respondent type. Early findings were triangulated at a stakeholder event with 40 delegates from academia, local authority public health teams, and third sector organisations. RESULTS: There is wide variation amongst senior academy and trust leaders in how they perceive the role of academies in promoting health and wellbeing amongst students. There is also variability in whether academy trusts responsible for more than one school adopt a centralised strategy to health promotion or allow individual schools autonomy. This was dependent on the trust leaders' attitude and interest in health promotion rather than any perceived external accountability. Identified barriers to health promotion include financial constraints, a narrow focus on educational outcomes and school performance, and limited understanding about effective health interventions. CONCLUSION: In the current absence of national policy or guidance around health promotion in schools, health has variable status in academies in England. There is a need to better engage all academy trusts in health promotion and support them to implement a strategic approach to health promotion.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Adolescente , Criança , Inglaterra , Humanos , Liderança , Pesquisa Qualitativa
13.
J Natl Black Nurses Assoc ; 30(1): 34-39, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465683

RESUMO

This article discusses the Provost Scholars, a novel University five-year Mentoring Program for middle and high school students in an inner-city school district. The Provost Scholars is an innovative enrichment Program in which a partnership was formed between an under-resourced inner city school district and a private research university in Cleveland, Ohio. The Program was formed to help students graduate from high school. As these students experience success and empowerment, their willingness and ability to give back to the health of the community is enhanced. The primary goal of the Provost Scholars Mentoring Program is to prepare students for entry into and graduation from colleges/universities, technical/vocational schools, or to find a successful place in the workforce. This article describes a number of initiatives established to ensure the success of the Scholars. One key aspect of the Programs' success is a strong personal interest, caring, engagement, and partnership between the administrative staffs of the following two educational institutions: Case Western Reserve University and the East Cleveland School District, as well as the committed relationships of the university Mentors and the Scholars. Students who participate in the Program are expected to demonstrate improved grades, higher ACT/SAT scores, and to meet the requirements for admission to the colleges and universities of their choice, or to develop skills for meaningful employment in industry.


Assuntos
Tutoria/organização & administração , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Cidades , Humanos , Ohio , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/organização & administração
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366064

RESUMO

Recent data on erosive tooth wear (ETW) in Belgium have associated a vocational/technical type of education with ETW risk. Since the role of schools is essential to the promotion of healthy diets, this study aimed to investigate school food policies (SFP) related to soft drink and fruit juice consumption and to detect differences among schools in Flanders, Belgium (BE-F). An online questionnaire related to the control of acidic beverages and promotion of healthy drinking habits was sent to all Flemish secondary schools. For analysis, schools (n = 275) were grouped by type of education (vocational secondary education (VSE) and general secondary education (GSE)), and by socioeconomic status. Multiple factor analyses (MFA) were performed to identify schools with a similar SFP profile. Additionally, descriptive analyses were performed to determine other associations. Overall, 44% of schools in BE-F claimed to have written SFP related to the consumption of soft drinks. SFP expressly prohibiting or limiting acidic beverages were significantly more frequent in GSE schools (p < 0.05), where a higher economic status was present. This study shows that a considerable group of schools in BE-F have no or incomplete rules concerning acidic beverage consumption. Such rules differ between types of education, with VSE schools reporting less control regarding the consumption of drinks.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Política Nutricional , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Adolescente , Bélgica , Ingestão de Líquidos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(4): 964-972, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432953

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand adolescents' perceptions on school health. METHOD: Qualitative and descriptive research grounded on Maurice Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology, which was developed with 90 adolescent students from a federal school of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Data were produced by gathering answers to the following question: what is your perception on school health? Those who chose to write their answer to the guiding question deposited the manuscripts in polls. RESULTS: School health is linked to hygienist practices and to the hegemonic assistentialist model. Nevertheless, we assigned senses and meanings to the practice of physical activity and health education by integrating and expanding behavioral strategies and healthy habits. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: a healthy school environment implies the protagonism of adolescents in school health promotion actions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Percepção , Serviços de Enfermagem Escolar/normas , Adolescente , Brasil , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/normas , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Serviços de Enfermagem Escolar/métodos , Serviços de Enfermagem Escolar/tendências , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/normas , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 90(4): 712-719, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282787

RESUMO

Purpose: Quality physical education (PE) reaches many objectives (e.g., knowledge, physical fitness, and physical skills) and could provide at least half the dose of recommended daily physical activity for youths if their opportunity to learn is provided according to national professional recommendations (min/week) and related state mandates. A 2015 California class-action lawsuit required affected schools to post data indicating they scheduled PE time meeting the state mandate of 200 min per 10-day period. The extent to which schools posted PE schedules on their websites and demographic factors related to their compliance was investigated in this study. Method: We performed a quantitative, cross-sectional content analysis of the websites of 37 school districts plus a random sample of 860 elementary schools in them. Z tests were used to analyze frequencies/proportions and associations among demographic (e.g., Hispanic enrollment, PE specialist) and PE schedule variables (e.g., schools meeting state-mandated PE time). Results: Twenty-two districts (59.4%) had websites with ≥1 page/document related to PE opportunities. Only 11% of schools posted PE schedules, an event that was associated with employing a PE specialist (p = .01). Of schools posting schedules, 68% specified a PE volume that met the state mandate. Meeting the mandate was independently associated with enrolling a minority of Hispanic students (p = .02). Conclusion: Websites can provide information about the importance/occurrence of PE; however, schools in the lawsuit did not use the potential of their websites to inform constituents either about the lawsuit or their PE programs. Non-compliant schools should adjust PE schedules to meet statutory requirements.


Assuntos
Documentação/métodos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/organização & administração , Internet , Educação Física e Treinamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , California , Estudos Transversais , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269644

RESUMO

Brain breaks is a physical activity (PA) video designed for school settings that is used to stimulate student's health and learning. The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of brain breaks on motives of participation in PA among primary school children in Malaysia. Purposive sampling was used to divide 159 male and 176 female students aged 10 to 11 years old, mean (standard deviation (SD)) = 10.51 (0.50), from two schools in Kelantan, Malaysia into intervention (n = 183) and control (n = 152) groups. Students undertook brain breaks activities on school days (five minutes per session) spread out for a period of four months. Mixed factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the students' motives of participation in PA for pre-, mid-, and post-tests using the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale-Youth-Malay (PALMS-Y-M). Mixed factorial ANOVA showed significant changes in enjoyment, F(2, 392) = 8.720, p-value (ηp2) = 0.001 (0.043); competitiveness, F(2, 195) = 4.364, p-value (ηp2) = 0.014 (0.043); appearance, F(2, 392) = 5.709, p-value (ηp2) = 0.004 (0.028); and psychological condition, F(2, 392) = 4.376, p-value (ηp2) = 0.013 (0.022), whereas mastery, affiliation, and physical condition were not significant (p < 0.05). Further post-hoc analysis revealed a significant downward trend in the control group (p < 0.05). Brain breaks is successful in maintaining students' motives for PA in four of the seven factors.


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Análise de Variância , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança , Grupos Controle , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Motivação , Atividade Motora
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323922

RESUMO

Background: The current study investigated the moderating role of the school context on the effects of a Dutch health promoting school initiative on children's health and health behaviors. Methods: The study used a mixed-methods design. The school context (n = 4) was assessed by the characteristics of the school population, teacher's health-promoting (HP) practices, implementers' perceived barriers, school's HP elements, and dominating organizational issues. Outcomes included objectively assessed BMI z-scores and physical activity (PA), and parent and child-reported dietary intake. Analyses included linear mixed models (four intervention schools versus four control schools), and qualitative comparisons between intervention schools with similar HP changes. Results: Effects on outcomes varied considerably across schools (e.g., range in effect size on light PA of 0.01-0.26). Potentially moderating contextual aspects were the child's socioeconomic background and baseline health behaviors; practices and perceived barriers of employees; and organizational issues at a school level. Conclusions: Similar HP changes lead to different outcomes across schools due to differences in the school context. The adoption of a complex adaptive systems perspective contributes to a better understanding of the variation in effects and it can provide insight on which contextual aspects to focus on or intervene in to optimize the effects of HP initiatives.


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos
20.
J Surg Res ; 244: 57-62, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pedestrian-related injuries are a significant contributor to preventable mortality and disability in children. We hypothesized that interactive pedestrian safety education is associated with increased knowledge, safe crosswalk behaviors, and lower incidence of pedestrian-related injuries in elementary school-aged children. METHODS: An interactive street-crossing simulation was implemented at target elementary schools in Los Angeles County beginning in 2009. Mixed-methods were used to evaluate the impact of this intervention. Multiple-choice examinations were used to test pedestrian safety knowledge, anonymous observations were used to assess street-crossing behaviors, and statewide traffic records were used to report pedestrian injuries in elementary school-aged (4-11 y) children in participating school districts. Pedestrian injury incidence was compared 1 y before and after the intervention, standardized to the incidence in the entire City of Los Angeles. RESULTS: A total of 1424 and 1522 children completed the pretest and post-test, respectively. Correct answers increased for nine of ten questions (all P < 0.01). Children more frequently looked both ways before crossing the street after the intervention (10% versus 41%, P < 0.001). There were 6 reported pedestrian-related injuries in intervention school districts in the year before the intervention and 2 injuries in the year after the intervention, resulting in a significantly lower injury incidence (standardized rate ratio 0.28; 95% CI, 0.11-0.73). CONCLUSION: Pedestrian safety education at Los Angeles elementary schools was associated with increased knowledge, safe street-crossing behavior, and lower incidence of pediatric pedestrian-related injury. Formal pedestrian safety education should be considered with injury prevention efforts in similar urban communities.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Pedestres/educação , Segurança , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Incidência , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pedestres/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/organização & administração , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle
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