Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.460
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327452

RESUMO

Facilitated self-help and problem-solving strategies can empower and support family carers to cope with caregiving for people with severe mental illnesses. This single-blind multi-site randomised controlled trial examined the effects of a five-month family-facilitated problem-solving based self-learning program (PBSP in addition to usual care), versus a family psychoeducation group program and usual psychiatric care only in recent-onset psychosis, with a six-month follow-up. In each of three study sites (integrated community centres for mental wellness), 114 people with early psychosis (≤5 years illness onset) and their family carers were randomly selected and allocated to one of three study groups (n = 38). Caregiving burden (primary outcome) and patients' and carers' health conditions were assessed at recruitment, and one-month and six-months post-intervention. Overall, 106 (94.7%) participants completed the assigned intervention and ≥1 post-test. Generalised estimating equations and subsequent contrast tests indicated that the PBSP participants showed significantly greater improvements in carers' burden, caregiving experiences and problem-solving ability, and patients' psychotic symptoms, recovery, and duration of re-hospitalisations over the six-month follow-up, compared with the other two groups (moderate to large effect size, η2 = 0.12-0.24). Family-assisted problem-solving based self-learning programs were found to be effective to improve both psychotic patients' and their carers' psychosocial health over a medium term, thus reducing patients' risk of relapse.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Resolução de Problemas , Instruções Programadas como Assunto , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Cuidadores/educação , Cuidadores/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Instruções Programadas como Assunto/normas , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Nurs Educ ; 59(2): 83-87, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of two simulated poverty teaching interventions-the Community Action Poverty Simulation (CAPS) and the Oxfam Hunger Banquet-to improve undergraduate nursing student attitudes toward people living in poverty. METHOD: Freshman and sophomore nursing students participated in a Missouri Community Action Network CAPS® experience or an Oxfam America Hunger Banquet® during a 3-year period, and completed pre- and post-assessments using the Undergraduate Perceptions of Poverty Tracking Survey (UPPTS). RESULTS: A significant improvement in UPPTS scores was seen in students after participating in a CAPS experience and less of an improvement was noted after participating in a Hunger Banquet. CONCLUSION: Both simulated poverty teaching interventions had positive effects on the students' perceptions toward people living in poverty, but the CAPS had a greater influence on improving student attitudes. [J Nurs Educ. 2020;59(2):83-87.].


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Pobreza/psicologia , Desempenho de Papéis , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Áreas de Pobreza , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instruções Programadas como Assunto
3.
J Microbiol ; 58(3): 193-205, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108315

RESUMO

Recent studies on microbiome highlighted their importance in various environments including human, where they are involved in multiple biological contexts such as immune mechanism, drug response, and metabolism. The rapid increase of new findings in microbiome research is partly due to the technological advances in microbiome identification, including the next-generation sequencing technologies. Several applications of different next-generation sequencing platforms exist for microbiome identification, but the most popular method is using short-read sequencing technology to profile targeted regions of 16S rRNA genes of microbiome because of its low-cost and generally reliable performance of identifying overall microbiome compositions. The analysis of targeted 16S rRNA sequencing data requires multiple steps of data processing and systematic analysis, and many software tools have been proposed for such procedures. However, properly organizing and using such software tools still require certain level of expertise with computational environments. The purpose of this article is introducing the concept of computational analysis of 16S rRNA sequencing data to microbiologists and providing easy-to-follow and step-by-step instructions of using recent software tools of microbiome analysis. This instruction may be used as a quick guideline for general next-generation sequencing-based microbiome studies or a template of constructing own software pipelines for customized analysis.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Microbiota/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Software , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biologia Computacional , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Instruções Programadas como Assunto , RNA Bacteriano/genética
4.
J Microbiol ; 58(3): 176-192, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108314

RESUMO

Microbial communities present in diverse environments from deep seas to human body niches play significant roles in the complex ecosystem and human health. Characterizing their structural and functional diversities is indispensable, and many approaches, such as microscopic observation, DNA fingerprinting, and PCR-based marker gene analysis, have been successfully applied to identify microorganisms. Since the revolutionary improvement of DNA sequencing technologies, direct and high-throughput analysis of genomic DNA from a whole environmental community without prior cultivation has become the mainstream approach, overcoming the constraints of the classical approaches. Here, we first briefly review the history of environmental DNA analysis applications with a focus on profiling the taxonomic composition and functional potentials of microbial communities. To this end, we aim to introduce the shotgun metagenomic sequencing (SMS) approach, which is used for the untargeted ("shotgun") sequencing of all ("meta") microbial genomes ("genomic") present in a sample. SMS data analyses are performed in silico using various software programs; however, in silico analysis is typically regarded as a burden on wet-lab experimental microbiologists. Therefore, in this review, we present microbiologists who are unfamiliar with in silico analyses with a basic and practical SMS data analysis protocol. This protocol covers all the bioinformatics processes of the SMS analysis in terms of data preprocessing, taxonomic profiling, functional annotation, and visualization.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Metagenoma/genética , Metagenômica/métodos , Microbiota/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Software , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Instruções Programadas como Assunto , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Stichopus/microbiologia
5.
J Microbiol ; 58(3): 217-226, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989542

RESUMO

Gene expression changes in response to diverse environmental stimuli to regulate numerous cellular functions. Genes are expressed into their functional products with the help of messenger RNA (mRNA). Thus, measuring levels of mRNA in cells is important to understand cellular functions. With advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS), the abundance of cellular mRNA has been elucidated via transcriptome sequencing. However, several studies have found a discrepancy between mRNA abundance and protein levels induced by translational regulation, including different rates of ribosome entry and translational pausing. As such, the levels of mRNA are not necessarily a direct representation of the protein levels found in a cell. To determine a more precise way to measure protein expression in cells, the analysis of the levels of mRNA associated with ribosomes is being adopted. With an aid of NGS techniques, a single nucleotide resolution footprint of the ribosome was determined using a method known as Ribo-Seq or ribosome profiling. This method allows for the high-throughput measurement of translation in vivo, which was further analyzed to determine the protein synthesis rate, translational pausing, and cellular responses toward a variety of environmental changes. Here, we describe a simple analysis pipeline for Ribo-Seq in bacteria, so-called simple translatome analysis tool for Ribo-Seq (STATR). STATR can be used to carry out the primary processing of Ribo-Seq data, subsequently allowing for multiple levels of translatome study, from experimental validation to in-depth analyses. A command-by-command explanation is provided here to allow a broad spectrum of biologists to easily reproduce the analysis.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA-Seq/métodos , Software , Análise de Dados , Instruções Programadas como Assunto , RNA Bacteriano/genética , Ribossomos/genética
6.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 43(1,supl): 464-471, ene. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193422

RESUMO

Literature refers that patients are commonly affected by preventable adverse events associated with non-technical skills failures. Non-technical skills training programs address to prepare for, respond to, and mitigate adverse events in healthcare. This study took place at Center for Clinical Simulation of Aveiro University. Third year prelicensure nursing students were included in two groups: control group (N=27), and experimental group (N=20, who participated in the training course developed, focusing on non-technical skills and crisis resource management acting principles). The study was divided in two different moments, before the implementation of the course, and after the implementation of the course. The course was then divided in three sessions: one four-hour theoretical session; and two three-hour practical sessions, each including two high-fidelity simulation-based different scenarios, four in total.Regarding non-technical skills, we found significant differences in the experimental group in eleven items after intervention. As per participants' self-confidence levels, those who participated seem to have significantly increased confidence in their skills. Regarding social-demographic variables, it seems that students from primary healthcare tend to present better non-technical skills than students from maternal health specialty. Overall these results seem to suggest that the course developed was effective in increasing students' knowledge and awareness on non-technical skills. It was demonstrated that the development and application of the structured course is feasible and positive changes in behavior can be measured through the instru-ments developed. Then, consideration must be given in integrating non-technical skills training into nursing education


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Educação em Enfermagem/tendências , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Instruções Programadas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Autoaprendizagem como Assunto/classificação , Epidemiologia Experimental , Estudos de Casos e Controles
7.
Gastroenterol Nurs ; 42(3): 251-258, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145249

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and the third most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer among women. Early detection of localized adenocarcinoma and adenomatous polyps helps reduce the mortality related to colon cancer. According to the American Gastroenterological Association, colonoscopy (CSPY) is the gold standard in screening for CRC. To improve the results of screening, the CSPY preparation (prep) needs to be optimal. This study was undertaken to determine whether a supplemental standardized educational video on bowel preparation in the viewer's native language would improve bowel preparation at the time of CSPY. After institutional review board approval, the records of adult patients who presented to the gastroenterology clinic were reviewed. Patients who underwent a CSPY were assigned according to whether they watched a supplemental educational video on CSPY bowel preparation in their native language. This video reflects the same information provided in written and verbal form at the time of CSPY scheduling. Bowel prep was rated by the endoscopist using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) and quantifies the adequacy of the preprocedure bowel prep. Participant characteristics and BBPS scores were statistically assessed for significant differences. We identified a total of 186 patients, 91 in March 2015 (pre-video intervention) and 95 in March 2016 (post-video intervention). Mean BBPS score was 7.9 and 8.54 for the March 2015 and 2016 group, respectively (p value of .0039). Although there was no statistical difference between the 2 groups with concern to gender and age, the racial makeup and BBPS score were statistically different. Multivariate analysis was performed. There was no interaction between gender or race and year effect to account for any difference in that factors' performance. Thus, it can be implied that there is not a consistent race effect but there is a consistent gender effect with females having higher success rates, regardless of video intervention (p value of .003). After controlling for both gender and race, the year effect is modestly significant (p value of .025), with the post-video subjects having higher prep success rates. A supplemental educational video incorporated into precolonoscopy teaching may provide a standardized method of effectively conveying simple bowel prep instructions in an efficient manner. This study demonstrated that using such a video produced significant results in improving the quality of bowel preparation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia/educação , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/educação , Instruções Programadas como Assunto , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto , Catárticos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(5): e14323, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used in children for its clear display of body parts. But it is usually hard to acquire high-quality images, for the uncooperative ability of children. It is believed that pre-MRI training could ensure the high quality of images. The current meta-analysis was done to analyze the current evidences in this field. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were systematically searched up to July 2018, for studies assessing the effects of training on pediatric MRI. Data, including image quality, failed scanning rate, and sedation use, were extracted and analyzed using Revman 5.2 software. RESULTS: There were 5 studies with 379 subjects in the meta-analysis. Training and control groups were quite comparable when accepted image quality was reviewed (P = .30), but a lower rate of excellent image quality was found in subjects with training (P = .02). The pooling results found no significance between training and control group in sedation use (P = .09) and successful MRI scanning (P = .63). CONCLUSIONS: It is cautious to conclude that pre-MRI training does not improve the image quality and reduce sedation use among children, for the limited number of studies and sample size. More trials should be encouraged to demonstrate this issue.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Instruções Programadas como Assunto , Treinamento por Simulação , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos
9.
J Surg Educ ; 76(2): 453-458, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: At our residency program, incoming interns are traditionally taught fundamental open surgical skills like suturing and knot tying in a group setting by viewing 12 instructional videos consecutively followed by individual baseline skill testing. We sought to evaluate if introduction to open surgical skills via self-paced viewing of video tutorials, as opposed to traditional group viewing, results in improved surgical skill acquisition in Obstetrics and Gynecology (OBGYN) interns as measured by higher proficiency score with decreased workload stress and anxiety. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: A randomized control trial was conducted in which OBGYN PGY-1 residents in 2015 and 2016 (N = 35) were introduced to basic open surgical skills, such as knot tying and suturing, by viewing 12 video tutorials produced at UTSW (https://youtu.be/4w3hyL9muVU) for a surgical skills curriculum. Residents were randomized to 2 groups: group viewing vs self-paced viewing. Performance scores were calculated based on time and accuracy while workload and anxiety were measured by preand post-testing surveys using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory 6 item questionnaires. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in proficiency score between the group vs self-paced viewing in 8 out of 12 tasks using the Wilcoxon signed rank test (p > 0.10). There was no statistically significant differences in workload stress based on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index questionnaire (p = 0.399) or self-reported anxiety based on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory 6 item questionnaire (p = 0.607). CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to recent educational data suggesting self-paced learning may improve outcomes, viewing instructional videos in a group setting continues to be a time efficient method to introduce basic open surgical skills to incoming OBGYN interns.


Assuntos
Currículo , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Ginecologia/educação , Internato e Residência/métodos , Obstetrícia/educação , Instruções Programadas como Assunto , Técnicas de Sutura/educação , Gravação em Vídeo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 51(3): 675-680, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29770437

RESUMO

We trained four undergraduate students who reported no prior experience implementing behavior-analytic procedures to conduct a paired-stimulus preference assessment using a video self-instruction package. The package was composed of several components from prior research (i.e., a voice-over script, written instructions, multiple video models per step, and instructions for the trainee to rehearse throughout the video presentation). We used a nonconcurrent, multiple-baseline-across-participants design and found that all participants accurately implemented the preference assessment with a simulated client after viewing the video once. We discuss the contributions of the current results and directions for future research on video self-instruction for staff (i.e., maintenance, generalization, social validity).


Assuntos
Educação/métodos , Preferência do Paciente , Instruções Programadas como Assunto , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 18(1): 63, 2018 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29609654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the flipped classroom model has been widely adopted in medical education, reports on its use in graduate-level public health programs are limited. This study describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of a flipped classroom redesign of an introductory epidemiology course and compares it to a traditional model. METHODS: One hundred fifty Masters-level students enrolled in an introductory epidemiology course with a traditional format (in-person lecture and discussion section, at-home assignment; 2015, N = 72) and a flipped classroom format (at-home lecture, in-person discussion section and assignment; 2016, N = 78). Using mixed methods, we compared student characteristics, examination scores, and end-of-course evaluations of the 2016 flipped classroom format and the 2015 traditional format. Data on the flipped classroom format, including pre- and post-course surveys, open-ended questions, self-reports of section leader teaching practices, and classroom observations, were evaluated. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in examination scores or students' assessment of the course between 2015 (traditional) and 2016 (flipped). In 2016, 57.1% (36) of respondents to the end-of-course evaluation found watching video lectures at home to have a positive impact on their time management. Open-ended survey responses indicated a number of strengths of the flipped classroom approach, including the freedom to watch pre-recorded lectures at any time and the ability of section leaders to clarify targeted concepts. Suggestions for improvement focused on ways to increase regular interaction with lecturers. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in students' performance on quantitative assessments comparing the traditional format to the flipped classroom format. The flipped format did allow for greater flexibility and applied learning opportunities at home and during discussion sections.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação/métodos , Epidemiologia/educação , Saúde Pública/educação , Desempenho Acadêmico , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Instruções Programadas como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Pflege ; 31(4): 213-222, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361891

RESUMO

Impact of an e-learning program regarding patients' harmful alcohol consumption on the knowledge, attitudes and perceived competencies of nurses from an acute care hospital: a pretest-posttest-study Abstract. BACKGROUND: Harmful alcohol consumption is associated with approximately 1600 deaths in Switzerland annually, and is the third-largest risk factor for various diseases worldwide. It has been shown that through early identification of problematic drinking behaviours along with preventive intervention, alcohol-related illnesses and mortality can be reduced. Therefore, nurses play a crucial role for patients with alcohol problems. However, the most common reasons for nurses not providing preventive intervention are a lack of knowledge, personal attitudes and uncertainty. Learning programs hold the potential for influencing these factors. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an e-learning program regarding patients' harmful alcohol consumption on the knowledge, attitudes and perceived competencies of nurses in an acute care hospital. METHOD: A pretest-posttest-study was conducted with 33 registered nurses prior to and upon completion of the e-learning program. Data was collected from December 2013 to March 2014 using a literature-based questionnaire. RESULTS: It was shown that knowledge and perceived competencies significantly improved from pre-test to post-test. No significant differences were measured with regard to the attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the alcohol e-learning program could be used to enhance nurses' knowledge and perceived competencies, both of which are related to the reduction of uncertainty and improvement of confidence. To foster non-judgemental attitudes towards affected people, classroom courses are recommended in addition to the e-learning program and the implementation of directives.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/enfermagem , Instrução por Computador , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Instruções Programadas como Assunto , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/prevenção & controle , Competência Clínica , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Hospitais Privados , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça
13.
Hipertens Riesgo Vasc ; 35(1): 5-14, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28916164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effect of the use/implementation of 3methods to reduce weight in overweight or obese patients during one year of follow up. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The design corresponds to a double-blind, randomised, controlled clinical trial with 3arms, and 12 months of follow-up. Patients were randomised into 3intervention groups: obesity motivational intervention, with a nurse previously trained in motivational intervention by expert psychologists (G1; n=60); lower intensity consultation, non-motivational group, with digital platform support (G2; N=61), and a third group that received recommendations for weight loss and follow-up in Primary Care Clinic (G3; n=59). Anthropometric variables (weight, height, and abdominal-waist circumference) were measured, and the percentage of patients who managed to reduce their weight ≥5% was considered as the main measurement of treatment effectiveness. RESULTS: All groups significantly decreased body weight at the end of the study, with a reduction in G1 (-5.6kg) followed by G2 (-4.3kg), and G3 (-1.7kg), with an overall mean: -3.9kg. The indicators of clinical relevance were in G1/G3: relative risk (RR): 4.99 (95% CI: from 2.71 to 9.18); relative risk reduction (RRR): 399.1% (171.3 to 818.0); Absolute risk reduction (RAR): 65.3% (from 51.5 to 79.1) and NNT: 2 (from 2 to 2). In the G2/G3 groups: RR: 3.01 (from 1.57 to 5.76); RRR: 200.5% (from 57.0 to 475.5); RAR: 32.8% (from 16.9 to 48.7) and NNT: 4 (from 3 to 6). In the G1/G2 groups: RR: 1.66 (from 1.25 to 2.20); RRR: 66.1% (from 25.3 to 120.1); RAR: 32.5% (from 16.6 to 48.4) and NNT: 4 (from 3 to 7). CONCLUSIONS: All 3groups were able to reduce weight. Although the group with motivational intervention achieved the greatest decrease, as well as the most favourable clinical relevance indicators.


Assuntos
Entrevista Motivacional , Sobrepeso/terapia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Terapia Assistida por Computador , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Antropometria , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/enfermagem , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/enfermagem , Instruções Programadas como Assunto , Software , Telemedicina , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Med Teach ; 40(3): 285-295, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies support the notion that East Asian medical students do not possess sufficient self-regulation for postgraduate clinical training. However, some East Asian physicians who are employed in geographically isolated and educationally underserved rural settings can self-regulate their study during the early phase of their postgraduate career. To explore the contextual attributes that contribute to self-regulated learning (SRL), we examined the differences in self-regulation between learning as an undergraduate and in a rural context in East Asia. METHODS: We conducted interviews and diary data collection among rural physicians (n = 10) and undergraduates (n = 11) in Japan who undertook self-study of unfamiliar diseases. We analyzed three domains of Zimmerman's definition of SRL: learning behaviors, motivation, and metacognition using constructivist grounded theory. RESULTS: Rural physicians recognized their identity as unique, and as professionals with a central role of handling diseases in the local community by conducting self-study. They simultaneously found themselves being at risk of providing inappropriate aid if their self-study was insufficient. They developed strategic learning strategies to cope with this high-stakes task. Undergraduates had a fear of being left behind and preferred to remain as one of the crowd with students in the same school year. Accordingly, they copied the methods of other students for self-study and used monotonous and homogeneous strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Different learning contexts do not keep East Asian learners from being self-regulated. Awareness of their unique identity leads them to view learning tasks as high-stakes, and to initiate learning strategies in a self-regulated manner. Teacher-centered education systems cause students to identify themselves as one of the crowd, and tasks as low-stakes, and to accordingly employ non-self-regulated strategies.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Aprendizagem , Modelos Educacionais , Instruções Programadas como Assunto , Estudantes de Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Japão , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural
15.
World Neurosurg ; 109: e298-e304, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28987833

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Self-made devices composed of agar and gelatin gel were used for resident training in intra-axial brain tumor resection. The mixture gel of agar and gelatin is retractable and can be suctioned. Hardness of the gel depends on the concentration of the solution. Therefore, by changing the concentration, it is easy to make gels of various hardness. METHODS: In this study, a mass of gel that looked like a tumor was placed into another gel that looked like the brain. A part of the "brain" was regarded as the eloquent area. Three types of "tumor" were prepared: hard, moderately hard, and soft tumors. Residents tried to remove the tumor entirely with minimal brain invasion. The training was repeated with 3 types of gel. After resection, the weight of the residual tumor, resected normal brain, and resected eloquent area were measured, and the time taken for removal was recorded. RESULTS: These data were compared between residents and neurosurgeons. We also analyzed how these data improved with repeated practice. In most cases, residual tumor, resected normal brain, resected eloquent area, and time taken for removal were less in neurosurgeons than in residents. Repeated training made residents more skillful. The responses of the trainees were almost all favorable. CONCLUSIONS: Our devices with "tumors" of various hardness appear to be suitable for resident training in each surgical skill. For the next step of this study, we will attempt to fabricate more practical 3-dimensional gel models for presurgical simulation.


Assuntos
Ágar , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Competência Clínica , Gelatina , Internato e Residência , Modelos Anatômicos , Neurocirurgia/educação , Instruções Programadas como Assunto , Currículo , Humanos , Neoplasia Residual/cirurgia , Duração da Cirurgia
16.
Fam Med ; 49(10): 789-795, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29190405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A family medicine residency is a unique training environment where residents are exposed to care in multiple settings, across all ages. Procedures are an integral part of family medicine practice. Family medicine residency (FMR) programs are tasked with the job of teaching these skills at a level of intensity and frequency that allows a resident to achieve competency of such skills. In an environment that is limited by work hour restrictions, self-study teaching methods are one way to ensure all residents receive the fundamental knowledge of how to perform procedures. We developed and evaluated the efficacy of a self-study procedure teaching method and procedure evaluation checklist. METHODS: A self-study procedure teaching intervention was created, consisting of instructional articles and videos on three procedures. To assess the efficacy of the intervention, and the competency of the residents, pre- and postintervention procedure performance sessions were completed. These sessions were reviewed and scored using a standardized procedure performance checklist. RESULTS: All 24 residents participated in the study. Overall, the resident procedure knowledge increased on two of the three procedures studied, and ability to perform procedure according to expert-validated checklist improved significantly on all procedures. CONCLUSIONS: A self-study intervention is a simple but effective way to increase and improve procedure training in a way that fits the complex scheduling needs of a residency training program. In addition, this study demonstrates that the procedure performance checklists are a simple and reliable way to increase assessment of resident procedure performance skills in a residency setting.


Assuntos
Artrocentese/educação , Biópsia , Competência Clínica , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Medicina de Família e Comunidade/educação , Instruções Programadas como Assunto , Implantação de Prótese/educação , Lista de Checagem , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Dispositivos Intrauterinos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Projetos Piloto , Ensino
17.
An. psicol ; 33(3): 680-688, oct. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-165643

RESUMO

The goal of the present study was to design and validate an instrument to assess the basic elements of cooperative learning, as well as a cooperation index. 11.202 primary education (grades 5, 6), secondary education and baccalaureate students (5.838 males, 5.364 females) from 68 different schools in 62 cities all over Spain agreed to participate. The age range was 11-18 years. The participating students had experienced several cooperative learning techniques during the last six months. The first version of the questionnaire was assessed by a group of experts. A pilot study with 60 students similar to the target sample was conducted on the second version of the instrument. The final version underwent several statistical tests. The Cooperative Learning Questionnaire included five subscales: Promotive Interaction, Positive Interdependence, Individual Accountability, Group Processing and Interpersonal skills. Factorial and confirmatory analysis showed that all reliability indices were acceptable, even under the most difficult conditions. The questionnaire showed adequate convergent, discriminant and concurrent validity. Results showed that it is an easy instrument to assess all the basic elements of cooperative learning in primary, secondary and baccalaureate students and obtain a global cooperation factor (AU)


El objetivo del estudio fue elaborar y validar un instrumento que pudiera evaluar los elementos fundamentales del aprendizaje cooperativo, así como proporcionar un factor de cooperación. Participaron 11.202 estudiantes de educación primaria (5º-6º curso), secundaria y bachillerato (5.838 varones, 5.364 mujeres) de 68 centros educativos en 62 ciudades españolas repartidas por toda su geografía. Las edades oscilaron entre los 11 y los 18 años. El único requisito para participar era haber experimentado varias técnicas de aprendizaje cooperativo en los últimos 6 meses. Tras elaborar una primera versión y ser sometida sucesivamente a un juicio de expertos y un estudio piloto se realizó un segundo estudio en el que se sometió la versión definitiva a diferentes pruebas estadísticas. El Cuestionario de Aprendizaje Cooperativo está formado por cinco sub-escalas: Interacción Promotora, Interdependencia Positiva, Responsabilidad Individual, Procesamiento Grupal y Habilidades Sociales. Los análisis factoriales confirmatorios mostraron que todos los índices de fiabilidad eran aceptables, incluso bajo las condiciones más exigentes. El cuestionario mostró una adecuada validez convergente, discriminante y concurrente. Se confirma como un instrumento sencillo para evaluar todos los elementos fundamentales del aprendizaje cooperativo en estudiantes de primaria, secundaria y bachillerato y proporcionar un factor de cooperación global (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Curva de Aprendizado , Psicometria/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Instruções Programadas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Cooperativo
18.
J Pediatr Urol ; 13(4): 374.e1-374.e8, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28733159

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) can negatively impact the quality of life (QoL) of children. Urotherapy is an accepted treatment option for BBD; however, literature that examines the impact of management options on QoL in this population is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a bladder training video (BTV) is non-inferior to standard urotherapy (SU) in improving QoL in children with BBD. METHODS: Children aged 5-10 years and who scored ≥11 on the Vancouver Non-Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction/Dysfunctional Elimination Syndrome Questionnaire (NLUTD/DES) were recruited from a pediatric tertiary care center. Children were excluded with known vesicoureteral reflux; spinal dysraphism; learning disabilities; recent urotherapy; and primary nocturnal enuresis. Quality of life was evaluated using the Pediatric Incontinence Quality-of-Life questionnaire (PinQ). Questionnaires were administered at the baseline and 3-month follow-up clinic visits. Following centralized electronic blocked randomization schemes to guarantee allocation concealment, patients were assigned to receive SU or BTV during their regular clinic visits. An intention-to-treat protocol was followed. Between-group baseline and follow-up QoL scores were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests, and linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 539 BBD patients who were screened, 173 (32%) were eligible, and 150 (87%) were randomized. Of these, 143 (96%) completed the study, five (3%) were lost to follow-up, and two (1%) withdrew. In total, 140/143 (97%) completed the QoL questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Mean follow-up time was 3.5 ± 1.1 months for BTV patients and 3.7 ± 1.6 months for SU. At baseline, BTV and SU patients had a mean QoL score of 26.6 ± 13 and 23.8 ± 12, respectively (P = 0.17). Between-group mean change in PinQ scores from baseline was not statistically significant (BTV: 6.25 ± 12.5 vs SU: 3.75 ± 12.2; P = 0.23; Summary Fig.). Significant predictors of positive change in QoL were: higher symptomatology score, with a correlation coefficient of 0.5 (95% CI: 0.2-0.9; P = 0.003), and worse baseline QoL score, with a correlation coefficient of 0.5 (95% CI: 0.4-0.7; P < 0.001). Overall, most patients had improved symptomatology and QoL scores. CONCLUSION: Significant and similar QoL changes from baseline to follow-up were observed in both the BTV and SU groups, suggesting that BTV was non-inferior to SU in improving QoL in children with BBD. Quality of life assessment should be considered when evaluating interventions for BBD, as it appears to be an important clinical outcome with which to determine urotherapy success.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Incontinência Fecal/terapia , Instruções Programadas como Assunto , Incontinência Urinária/terapia , Criança , Incontinência Fecal/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária/psicologia
19.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 48(5): 209-216, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28459493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown if completing educational modules on understanding, reviewing, and synthesizing research literature is associated with higher value of, attitudes toward, and implementation of evidence-based practices. METHOD: Nurses completed valid, reliable questionnaires on the value of, attitudes toward, and implementation of evidence-based practice 6 months after four educational modules were introduced. Multivariable modeling was used to learn associations of education modules and evidence-based practice themes. RESULTS: Of 1,033 participants, 54% completed at least one education module; 22% completed all modules. Value and attitude about evidence-based practice were moderately high, but implementation was low (mean = 15.15 ± 15.72; range = 0 to 72). After controlling for nurse characteristics and experiences associated with evidence-based practice value, attitudes, and implementation scores, education modules completion was associated with the implementation of evidence-based practice (p = .001), but not with value or attitude of evidence-based practices scores. CONCLUSION: Education on reviewing and synthesizing literature strengthened implementation of evidence-based practices. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(5):209-216.


Assuntos
Educação Continuada em Enfermagem/métodos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/educação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/educação , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/psicologia , Instruções Programadas como Assunto , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...