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1.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 22(6): 597-598, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393112

RESUMO

Cone-beam computed tomography-based three-dimensional analysis of root canal trajectories and shapes have clearly shown that root canals are more complex in 3D, compared to traditional 2D visualization,1-4 and consequently, these findings affect properties of the nickel-titanium (NiTi) files requiring the following factors.


Assuntos
Instrumentos Odontológicos , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Ligas Dentárias , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Tratamento do Canal Radicular , Titânio
2.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 381, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sufficient biofilm removal in the furcation area (FA) is a major challenge in the clinical practice of supportive periodontal therapy. The aim of the present experimental study was to simulate subgingival cleaning of the FA using a powered scaler (sonic scaler (AIR), ultrasonic scaler (US)) for conventional mechanical debridement versus two air polishing with nonabrasive powder (LAPA-1: glycine powder, LAPA-2: erythritol powder) and different nozzles for supra-/subgingival cleaning for each device. METHODS: Seven trained and calibrated operators with ≥ 2 years each of professional experience in treating periodontitis used the instruments to clean 3D-printed replicas of six molars with through-and-through FA (four 3-rooted and two 2-rooted teeth) in a manikin head. AIR and US were used in the control group; air polishing instruments were used in the test group. For reproducible evaluation, the test teeth were separated vertically into two or three parts, illuminated with ultraviolet light, photographed and evaluated planimetrically. Treatment time (TrT, in s) and relative cleaning efficacy (RCE, in %) were measured. RESULTS: Overall, 3-rooted molars (RCE in the entire FA, 23.19 ± 20.98%) could be cleaned significantly less effectively than 2-rooted molars (53.04 ± 28.45%, p < 0.001), regardless of the instrument used. In the cleaning of the entire FA, significantly higher RCE values were achieved with conventional mechanical debridement (AIR/US: 46.04 ± 25.96%/39.63 ± 22.02%; AIR vs. US: p > 0.05) than with air polishing (LAPA-1/LAPA-2: 34.06 ± 29.48%/17.09 ± 18.85%; LAPA-1 vs. LAPA-2: p < 0.001) regardless of whether a supra- or subgingival cleaning nozzle used (p < 0.001). Only LAPA-1 with a subgingival nozzle showed RCE values comparable to those of US (41.07 ± 28.95% vs. 39.63 ± 22.02%, p > 0.05). TrT was longest for US (299.40 ± 120.69 s) and shortest for LAPA-1 with a supragingival nozzle (129.67 ± 60.92 s, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: All of the examined instruments were effective to some degree in removing the simulated biofilm from the FA, but they differed substantially in cleaning efficacy. Only one air polishing device (LAPA-1) with a rigid subgingival nozzle was able to achieve RCE values similar to those of US. The current investigation confirmed that conventional mechanical debridement with powered scalers were most effective, but treatment took longer with these devices than air polishing.


Assuntos
Raspagem Dentária , Periodontite , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Humanos , Dente Molar , Pós
3.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 22(3): 215-218, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210917

RESUMO

AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim and objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the cutting efficacy of two different nickel titanium rotary instruments by a novel methodology: the operative torque (torque and time needed to progress toward the apex). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten fresh extracted upper first premolars with two canals were instrumented with a KaVo (Biberach, Germany) and a KaVo 1:1 handpiece at 300 rpm with maximum torque set at 2 N. One canal was instrumented with ProGlider NiTi rotary instruments (Dentsply Sirona Endodontics, Ballaigues, Switzerland), with tip size of 16.02, and the other one with EgdeGlidePath rotary instrument (EdgeEndo, Albuquerque, New Mexico). Mean instrumentation time, mean torque values, and maximum torque values were evaluated for each instrument. The significance level was set at p <0.05. RESULTS: EdgeGlidePath instruments reached the working length in significantly less time with a significantly smaller amount of torque when compared to ProGlider (p >0.05). No instruments exhibited flute deformation or underwent intracanal failure. CONCLUSIONS: Operative torque is related to the capability to cut dentin and progress toward the apex: the smaller the torque values, the higher the cutting ability (and safety). Operative torque is also dependent on debris removal and irrigation techniques. Nevertheless, both operative torque and instrumentation time are clinically relevant parameters for evaluating instruments' performance (i.e., cutting ability). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Operative torque during endodontic instrumentation helps understanding the overall performance in terms of both cutting efficiency and safety.


Assuntos
Níquel , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Ligas , Ligas Dentárias , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Cavidade Pulpar , Desenho de Equipamento , Alemanha , Titânio , Torque
4.
Br Dent J ; 231(1): 49-57, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244648

RESUMO

Since the introduction of nickel-titanium endodontic instruments, there have been a myriad of developments which can be confusing and sometimes contradictory. This article seeks to review and articulate these advances, and allow the reader to better understand the benefits and the limitations of the systems available. Ultimately, this helps clinicians to engage more confidently with trade and have a more informed choice of the most appropriate file to use for each individual endodontic case. All this should facilitate more predictable endodontic outcomes.


Assuntos
Instrumentos Odontológicos , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Ligas Dentárias , Desenho de Equipamento , Metalurgia , Tecnologia , Titânio
5.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 378, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shaping ability of a file plays an important role during instrumentation in an endodontic treatment. This study aimed to compare the shaping ability of OneShape (OS), Hero Shaper (HS), and Revo-S (RS) instruments in simulated L-shaped canals. METHODS: Forty-eight simulated L-shaped canals were prepared to an apical size of 25 using OS, HS, and RS (all from Micro-Mega SA, Besançon, France), (n = 16 canals/group) systems. The amount of resin removed after each canal's preparation was measured and compared after producing a composite image made from the superimposition of pre and post-instrumented canals. Canal aberrations and the preparation time were also recorded. The data were statistically analysed by using ANOVA, Tukey, and Chi-square tests. RESULTS: One file fractured during instrumentation in the RS group. A significant difference was found at the apical end of the prepared simulated canal between the groups, with RS showing the least amount of resin removal from the inner side of the canals and HS showing the highest amount of resin removal from the outer side (P < 0.05). Regarding the total width of the canals after preparation, a significant difference was found between the groups at the apical end and the straight portion of the canals, and RS removed the least amount of resin at the straight portion of the canals (P < 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found between the different instruments regarding canal aberrations' incidence (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: All of the files showed a tendency to straighten the canals, whereas OS files maintained the original canal curvatures well.


Assuntos
Níquel , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Ligas Dentárias , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Cavidade Pulpar , Desenho de Equipamento , França , Humanos , Titânio
6.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 22(4): 361-364, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267004

RESUMO

AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to evaluate the difference in torsional resistance of two reciprocating nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) rotary files: WaveOne Gold and EdgeOne Fire. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 nickel-titanium rotary instruments (n = 40): 20 WaveOne Gold Small (WOGS) and 20 EdgeOne Fire Small (EOFS) were divided into two groups. Each instrument was tested using a torsional resistance device already validated in previous studies to evaluate and compare torsional resistance. The static torsional test was implemented by blocking each instrument at 3 mm from the tip and rotating it until fracture with a reciprocating motion. Torque to fracture (TtF) and fragment length (FL) were measured and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Statistical analysis of TtF found significant differences between the two groups (p<0.05). The EOFS showed higher TtF if compared to WOGS, with a mean value and a standard deviation of 3.05 ± 0.07 (N cm) against 2.97 ± 0.08 (N cm). Data for FL showed no significant differences (p>0.05) between the two groups. CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study, it is reasonable to assert that EOFS instruments showed a higher torsional resistance if compared to the WOGS. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: As evidenced by this study, EOFS should be considered as a safer solution, in terms of torsional resistance, if compared to WOGS, reducing the risk of intracanal separation due to excessive torsional load.


Assuntos
Níquel , Titânio , Ligas Dentárias , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Temperatura Alta , Teste de Materiais , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Torção Mecânica
7.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 22(4): 427-434, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267014

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this systemic review is to investigate these parameters by analyzing the characteristics of fractured instruments to determine which is the most relevant mechanical stress that induces intracanal separation in vivo. BACKGROUND: The fracture of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments is a result of flexural fatigue and torsional fatigue. An electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE database, Web of Science, and Cochrane following preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Data were collected and the key features from the included studies were extracted. Overview quality assessment questionnaire scoring assessed the quality of the articles. A total of 12 articles were selected, where the lowest score was 13. REVIEW RESULTS: Considering Ni-Ti rotary instruments, this overall evaluation comprehends 939 broken instruments with an incidence of fracture of 5%. Out of the 12 selected articles, 10 studies revealed that flexural failure was the predominant mode (range of 62-92%). It appears that motion plays an important role when it comes to mechanisms of fracture. The majority of defects found in hand-operated instruments were in the form of torsional failure. Although the major cause of separation of rotary instruments is flexural fatigue, smaller instruments show more torsional fracture than the larger instruments. The average fragment length was found to be 2.5 mm and 3.35 mm, respectively, for torsional failure and flexural failure. The risk of bias depends on fractographic analysis. CONCLUSION: Flexural fatigue is the predominant mode of fracture in rotary Ni-Ti instruments. The type of motion and size of the instrument seem to affect the mechanism of fracture. Fragment length may show a strong association with the type of fracture mechanism. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This systemic review found that flexural fatigue is the most relevant mechanical stress that induces intracanal separation in vivo. Moreover, in clinical practice, the fragment length might be an excellent indicator of the type of fracture.


Assuntos
Níquel , Titânio , Ligas Dentárias , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Falha de Equipamento , Incidência , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Estresse Mecânico , Torção Mecânica
9.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 34(1): 18-26, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137774

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible association between the roughness of 5 brands of stainless steel endodontic files and their resistance to fracture due to cyclic fatigue. The study included five different brands of stainless steel endodontic files: SybroEndo Triple-Flex Files (Kerr, Glendora, USA), Ready Steel K-Flexofile (Dentsply Sirona, Ballaigues, Switzerland), Mani Flexile Files (Mani, Tochigi- Ken, Japan), FKG K-Files (FKG, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) and Zipperer Flexicut Files (VDW, Munich, Germany). Twelve files per brand (total 60 files) were evaluated. File surface roughness over an area (Sa) was quantified using a focus variation microscope. Then the files were subject to a cyclical fatigue test to determine the number cycles to fracture due to fatigue and length of fractured fragment. Finally, fractographic analysis was performed using a scanning electron microscope. The electropolished Ready Steel K-Flexofile® files had the highest roughness according to Sa parameters, though they also had the highest resistance to fracture due to cyclic fatigue and the longest fractured fragment. Moderate positive correlation was found between fractured fragment length and roughness. The fractured surface showed characteristics of ductile fracture with cracks and plastic deformation. The electropolished stainless steel Ready Steel K-Flexofile® files were the most resistant to fracture due to cyclic fatigue even though they had highest surface roughness.


Assuntos
Preparo de Canal Radicular , Aço Inoxidável , Ligas Dentárias , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Falha de Equipamento , Teste de Materiais , Níquel , Titânio
10.
Rev. ADM ; 78(3): 176-180, mayo-jun. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1255021

RESUMO

La microendodoncia involucra la visualización a través de un microscopio operatorio de todas las fases del tratamiento de conductos y procedimientos de cirugía apical y correctiva por parte del endodoncista. Existe sobrada evidencia acerca de las mejoras que puede aportar la magnificación al tratamiento; la literatura demuestra que la capacidad del operador mejora si su visión del campo gana claridad y precisión, ambos recursos pueden ser proporcionados por el microscopio operatorio, aunado a que posibilita diagnósticos más certeros junto con mejoras en el pronóstico, lo que permite evitar posibles complicaciones. La calidad de los tratamientos endodóncicos involucra infinidad de factores, cada uno relevante en sí mismo pero, en determinados casos, el microscopio puede significar la diferencia entre un tratamiento exitoso o un fracaso clínico. En la actualidad, se ha convertido en un tema de lo más relevante, por lo que el objetivo del presente trabajo es revisar la literatura con el fin de ayudar al entendimiento basado en evidencia científica de los criterios que determinan la relevancia del uso del microscopio en el ámbito endodóncico (AU)


Microendodontics involves the visualization through an operating microscope of all phases of root canal treatment and apical and corrective surgery procedures by the endodontist. There is plenty of evidence about the improvements that magnification can provide, the literature shows that the operator's ability improves if his vision of the field gains clarity and precision, both resources can be provided by the operating microscope, added to the fact that it enables more accurate diagnoses together with improvements in the prognosis allowing to avoid possible complications. The quality of endodontic treatments involves countless factors, each relevant in itself, but in certain cases the microscope can mean the difference between a successful treatment or a clinical failure. At present, it has become a very relevant topic, so the objective of this work is to review the literature in order to help understand the criteria that determine the relevance of the use of the microscope in the endodontic field based on scientific evidence (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/tendências , Aumento da Imagem/instrumentação , Microscopia/métodos , Doenças Periapicais/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Doenças da Polpa Dentária/diagnóstico
11.
Proc Inst Mech Eng H ; 235(8): 947-957, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960227

RESUMO

Infection of the tooth's root canal requires what is called root canal treatment (RTC). The most important part of endodontic treatment is to shape the root canal and remove its infected portion using endodontic files of various protocols, kinematics and designs that suit the particular geometry. Cleaning and Shaping the canal efficiently remove the root canal bacterial biofilms or tissue remnants while keeping its natural geometry. The result is determined by shaping the ability of the relevant endodontic file. In the available literature, no norm has been established for the measurement of various endodontic files' ability to do effective shaping. We present in this study a method to analyse and measure the shaping ability of endodontic files of three different kinematics.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Tratamento do Canal Radicular
12.
J Endod ; 47(8): 1245-1252, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000326

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Separated endodontic instruments may adversely affect the outcome of endodontic treatment. The combination of ultrasonic techniques and dental operating microscopes appears to be effective in the removal of separated instruments compared with more randomized techniques. This study evaluated the roles of root canal curvature and separated instrument length on the time needed to loosen and retrieve the instrument fragments. METHODS: The retrieval procedures of 128 separated instruments referred to a private endodontic practice for retreatment by general practitioners were evaluated in patients who were monitored for a minimum of 6 months. Preoperative cone-beam computed tomographic images were used to measure separated instrument lengths in relation to the degrees of canal curvatures. Ultrasonic instruments were used in the initial phase to remove the tooth structure and to loosen the fractured instrument. In the second phase, ultrasonic instruments, wire loops, or XP Shapers (FKG Dentaire SA, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) were used for fragment removal. The time periods for all procedures were recorded. Statistical analysis was completed applying log-normal regression, structural equation modeling, and linear regression using Stata Version 14.2 software (StataCorp LLC, College Station, TX). RESULTS: All separated instruments were successfully retrieved. Using the protocol in this study, 89.8% of the instruments were removed using ultrasonic instruments alone with a mean time of 221 seconds. The instrument removal time was dependent on both the instrument length and the root canal curvature. Additionally, preparation times were proportionately longer with increasing separated instrument lengths when the loop device was required. CONCLUSIONS: The preparation phase appears to have an important role in the retrieval of separated instruments. Preparation times for both non-loop and loop groups demonstrate that length and curvature are independent predictors of the log-transformed time. Generally, procedure times were extended with increasing file lengths and higher degrees of canal curvature.


Assuntos
Instrumentos Odontológicos , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidade Pulpar/cirurgia , Humanos , Retratamento
13.
Int Endod J ; 54(9): 1623-1637, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829516

RESUMO

AIM: To compare six reciprocating instruments regarding their geometric design, metallurgical characteristics, mechanical behaviour and ability to prepare root canals. METHODOLOGY: A total of 246 new 25-mm NiTi instruments (41 per group) from six reciprocating systems (Reciproc, Reciproc Blue, One Files, One Files Blue, Reverso Silver, and WaveOne Gold) were evaluated throughout a multimethod approach regarding their design using stereomicroscopy (number of blades and helix angle) and scanning electron microscopy (blades symmetry, cross section and surface finishing), nickel-titanium composition, phase transformation temperatures, mechanical performance (cyclic fatigue, torsional and bending resistance) and unprepared canal surface area on anatomically matched mandibular molars assessed by micro-CT. One-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's or Mood's median tests were selected depending on sample distribution with significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: The instruments had similarities regarding their metal composition and unprepared canal area, whilst differences in phase transformation temperatures and geometric design (number of blades, surface finishing and tip geometry) were observed. Overall, no difference was observed regarding the maximum torque values (P > 0.05), whilst One Files (72 s) and One Files Blue (414 s) had the shortest and longest times to fracture, respectively (P < 0.05). Similar angles of rotation were observed in Reciproc (310°), One Files (285°) and Reverso Silver (318°) instruments (P > 0.05), which were significantly lower than Reciproc Blue (492°), One Files Blue (456°) and WaveOne Gold (492°; P < 0.05). Maximum bending load demonstrated that Reciproc Blue (201.3 gf) was significantly more flexible that the other instruments (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Although there were similarities in metal composition and percentage of unprepared canal surface, the instruments had differences in the overall geometric design, phase transformation temperatures and in the four mechanical resistance parameters (time to fracture, maximum torque, angle of rotation and maximum bending load).


Assuntos
Instrumentos Odontológicos , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Desenho de Equipamento , Teste de Materiais , Estresse Mecânico
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD014547, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caries is one of the most prevalent, preventable conditions worldwide. A wide variety of management options are available at different thresholds of disease, ranging from non-operative preventive strategies such as improved oral hygiene, reduced sugar diet, and application of topical fluoride, to minimally invasive treatments for early lesions which are limited to enamel, through to selective removal and restoration for extensive lesions. The cornerstone of caries detection is a visual and tactile dental examination, however, an increasing array of methods of caries lesion detection have been proposed that could potentially support traditional methods of detection and diagnosis. Earlier identification of disease could afford patients the opportunity of less invasive treatment with less destruction of tooth tissue, reduce the need for treatment with aerosol-generating procedures, and potentially result in a reduced cost of care to the patient and to healthcare services. OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of different electrical conductance devices for the detection and diagnosis of non-cavitated coronal dental caries in different populations (children, adolescents, and adults) and when tested against different reference standards. SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist undertook a search of the following databases: MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 26 April 2019); Embase Ovid (1980 to 26 April 2019); US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov, to 26 April 2019); and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (to 26 April 2019). We studied reference lists as well as published systematic review articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included diagnostic accuracy studies that compared electrical conductance devices with a reference standard of histology or an enhanced visual examination. This included prospective studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of single index tests and studies that directly compared two or more index tests. We included studies using previously extracted teeth or those that recruited participants with teeth believed to be sound or with early lesions limited to enamel. Studies that explicitly recruited participants with more advanced lesions that were obviously into dentine or frankly cavitated were excluded. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors extracted data independently using a piloted study data extraction form based on the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2). Sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported for each study. This information was displayed as coupled forest plots, and plotted as summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) plots, displaying the sensitivity-specificity points for each study. Due to variability in thresholds we estimated diagnostic accuracy using hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) methods. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven studies reporting a total of 719 tooth sites or surfaces, with an overall prevalence of the target condition of 73% (528 tooth sites or surfaces). The included studies evaluated two index tests: the electronic caries monitor (ECM) (four studies, 475 tooth surfaces) and CarieScan Pro (three studies, 244 tooth surfaces). Six studies used histology as the reference standard, one used an enhanced visual examination. No study was considered to be at low risk of bias across all four domains or low concern for applicability or both. All studies were at high (five studies) or unclear (two studies) risk of bias for the patient selection domain. We judged two studies to be at unclear risk of bias for the index test domain, and one study to be at high risk of bias for the reference standard and flow and timing domains. We judged three studies to be at low concern for applicability for patient selection, and all seven studies to be of low concern for reference standard and flow and timing domains. Studies were synthesised using a hierarchical method for meta-analysis. There was variability in the results of the individual studies, with sensitivities which ranged from 0.55 to 0.98 and specificities from 0 to 1.00. These extreme values of specificity may be explained by a low number of healthy tooth surfaces in the included samples. The diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 15.65 (95% CI 1.43 to 171.15), and indicative of the variability in the included studies. Through meta-regression we observed no meaningful difference in accuracy according to device type or dentition. Due to the small number of studies we were unable to formally investigate other potential sources of heterogeneity. We judged the certainty of the evidence as very low, and downgraded for risk of bias due to limitations in the design and conduct of the included studies, imprecision arising from the relatively small number of surfaces studied, and inconsistency due to the variability of results. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The design and conduct of studies to determine the diagnostic accuracy of methods to detect and diagnose caries in situ is particularly challenging. The evidence base to support the detection and diagnosis of caries with electrical conductance devices is sparse. Newer electrical conductance devices show promise and further research at the enamel caries threshold using a robust study design to minimise bias is warranted. In terms of applicability, any future studies should be carried out in a clinical setting to provide a realistic assessment within the oral cavity where plaque, staining, and restorations can be problematic.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Condutividade Elétrica , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Intervalos de Confiança , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Padrões de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(176): 20200967, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757291

RESUMO

As a result of the outbreak and diffusion of SARS-CoV-2, there has been a directive to advance medical working conditions. In dentistry, airborne particles are produced through aerosolization facilitated by dental instruments. To develop methods for reducing the risks of infection in a confined environment, understanding the nature and dynamics of these droplets is imperative and timely. This study provides the first evidence of aerosol droplet formation from an ultrasonic scalar under simulated oral conditions. State-of-the-art optical flow tracking velocimetry and shadowgraphy measurements are employed to quantitatively measure the flow velocity, trajectories and size distribution of droplets produced during a dental scaling process. The droplet sizes are found to vary from 5 µm to 300 µm; these correspond to droplet nuclei that could carry viruses. The droplet velocities also vary between 1.3 m s-1 and 2.6 m s-1. These observations confirm the critical role of aerosols in the transmission of disease during dental procedures, and provide invaluable knowledge for developing protocols and procedures to ensure the safety of both dentists and patients.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , COVID-19/transmissão , Instrumentos Odontológicos , SARS-CoV-2 , Terapia por Ultrassom , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos
16.
Dent Mater J ; 40(3): 743-749, 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518688

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the mechanical properties of contemporary heat-treated nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments used in the single-length technique [ProTaper Next (PTN), HyFlex EDM (EDM), and JIZAI (JZ)]. Bending loads, cyclic fatigue resistance, torque/force values and canal-centering ratios were evaluated for the three instruments and a non-heat-treated experimental NiTi instrument with the same geometry as JZ (nJZ). EDM and JZ exhibited significantly lower bending load and more cycles to failure compared with nJZ and PTN (p<0.05). PTN and JZ exhibited significantly better centering ability than nJZ and EDM (p<0.05). JZ and nJZ generated significantly smaller upward force and maximum torque than PTN and EDM (p<0.05). Under the present experimental condition, JZ exhibited flexibility and cyclic fatigue resistance comparable to EDM, better maintained the canal curvature than the other instruments, and generated smaller torque and screw-in force than PTN and EDM.


Assuntos
Níquel , Titânio , Ligas , Ligas Dentárias , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Falha de Equipamento , Temperatura Alta , Teste de Materiais , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Estresse Mecânico
17.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246543, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539439

RESUMO

Dental turbines and scalers, used every day in dental operatories, feature built-in water spray that generates considerable amounts of water aerosol. The problem is that it is not exactly known how much. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, several aerosol safety recommendations have been issued-based on little empirical evidence, as almost no data are available on the exact aerosol concentrations generated during dental treatment. Similarly, little is known about the differences in the efficacy of different commercially available aerosol control systems to reduce in-treatment aerosol load. In this in vitro study, we used spectrometry to explore these questions. The time-dependent effect of conventional airing on aerosol concentrations was also studied. Everyday patient treatment situations were modeled. The test setups were defined by the applied instrument and its spray direction (high-speed turbine with direct/indirect airspray or ultrasonic scaler with indirect airspray) and the applied aerosol control system (the conventional high-volume evacuator or a lately introduced aerosol exhaustor). Two parameters were analyzed: total number concentration in the entire measurement range of the spectrometer and total number concentration within the 60 to 384 nm range. The results suggest that instrument type and spray direction significantly influence the resulting aerosol concentrations. Aerosol generation by the ultrasonic scaler is easily controlled. As for the high-speed turbine, the efficiency of control might depend on how exactly the instrument is used during a treatment. The results suggest that scenarios where the airspray is frequently directed toward the air of the operatory are the most difficult to control. The tested control systems did not differ in their efficiency, but the study could not provide conclusive results in this respect. With conventional airing through windows with a standard fan, a safety airing period of at least 15 minutes between treatments is recommended.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Instrumentos Odontológicos/virologia , Odontologia/métodos , Aerossóis/administração & dosagem , Aerossóis/análise , COVID-19/etiologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
18.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(2): 247-253, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605916

RESUMO

Aims: To evaluate the effect of multiple-use and sterilization on cyclic fatigue and shaping ability of heat-treated nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments. Methods: A total of 120 acrylic blocks with S-shaped canals were photographed and prepared by HyFlex CM, ProTaper Next, and Twisted File. Ten new sets of each rotary instruments were used for four times. The autoclaving process was repeated after each use. Pre- and post instrumentation images were superimposed. The amount of resin removal and canal transportation by each system was measured in eleven different points. Instruments were subsequently subjected to a cyclic fatigue test in a double-curved artificial canal. The means and standard deviations of the number of cycles to failure (NCF) were calculated and statistically analyzed (P < 0.05). Results: No fractures occurred during the shaping of the simulated canals. The ProTaper Next removed the greatest amount of resin, whereas the Twisted File had the lowest values at all levels. Repeated clinical use and sterilization resulted in a decrease in the resin removal at most levels in Twisted File and ProTaper Next. In terms of canal transportation, an increase in a limited number of levels was detected after repeated use of all rotary files. Twisted File had the greatest cyclic fatigue resistance, followed by HyFlex CM and ProTaper Next (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The effects of repeated use and autoclaving on the cyclic fatigue resistance of HyFlex CM, ProTaper Next, and Twisted File were not significant. Canal transportation increased mostly in the apical region. The amount of resin removal decreased as the number of use increased for ProTaper Next and Twisted File instruments.


Assuntos
Níquel , Titânio , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Cavidade Pulpar , Desenho de Equipamento , Falha de Equipamento , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Preparo de Canal Radicular
19.
Braz Oral Res ; 35: e021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605352

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cyclic fatigue, torsional resistance and surface roughness of Reciproc R25 instruments in four different situations, namely as new instruments and as instruments tested after clinical preparation of one, two or three maxillary molars with four root canals. The total time required to perform each root canal preparation was recorded. Cyclic fatigue resistance was determined by the time to fracture using a customized testing device (n = 10 per group). The torsional test evaluated the torque and angle of rotation to failure according to ISO 3630-1 (n = 10 per group). The roughness of the working parts of new and used instruments was evaluated with a profilometer (n = 5 per group). Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. The level of significance was set at 5%. No fractures or deformations were observed after clinical use. Higher preparation time was needed during the third use of the instruments for all root canals (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences among the groups in regard to either cyclic fatigue or torsional resistance (p > 0.05). Regarding the roughness measurements, groove depth was higher on new and one- versus two- or three-maxillary-molar-prepared instruments (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that the clinical use of Reciproc instruments increased preparation time and decreased surface roughness. However, clinical use did not affect the cyclic fatigue or torsional resistance of the Reciproc instruments.


Assuntos
Preparo de Canal Radicular , Titânio , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Teste de Materiais , Estresse Mecânico , Torque
20.
Int Endod J ; 54(7): 1166-1174, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556198

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate in a laboratory setting the performance of two reciprocating glide path systems, WaveOne Gold Glider (WO) and R-Pilot (RP), to create a glide path in mesial root canals of mandibular molars and to assess the torsional resistance of instruments after performing the glide path. METHODOLOGY: A total of 60 mesial root canals of extracted human mandibular molars were divided into two groups (n = 30) according to the glide path system to be used. The data from the volume of each canal, acquired by microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), were validated statistically for the anatomical pairing of the groups. Preparation time, frequency in gaining apical patency, plastic deformation rate of instruments, and canal transportation and centring ability were recorded and compared statistically. The torsional fatigue of the instruments after use was also evaluated. Data were analysed using Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney U-test with a 5% significance level. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between groups regarding the time required to perform the glide path, the frequency distributions of the canals classified as patent and the instruments with plastic deformation after use (P > 0.05). No significant differences were found between groups regarding the degree of canal transportation and centring ability at the cervical, middle and apical thirds (P > 0.05). The RP groups had significantly greater maximum torsional strength values compared with the WO groups (P < 0.05). The used WO group had greater angular deflection to fracture when compared to the new WO group (P < 0.05). A significant difference was also found in the percentage of loss of angular deflection in a comparison of the WO group with the RP group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The WO and RP instruments performed the same in terms of preparation time, plastic deformation, gaining apical patency, degree of canal transportation and centring ability. The RP instruments had greater torsional strength, less angular deflection and lower percentage of loss in angular deflection than the WO. The used WO group had the greatest angular deflection values.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Laboratórios , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Cavidade Pulpar/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Molar/cirurgia , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Titânio , Microtomografia por Raio-X
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