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1.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(12): e8786, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778439

RESUMO

Exercise-based training decreases hospitalizations in heart failure patients but such patients have exercise intolerance. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of Tai Chi exercise and lower limb muscles' functional electrical stimulation in older chronic heart failure adults. A total of 1,084 older adults with chronic systolic heart failure were included in a non-randomized clinical trial (n=271 per group). The control group did not receive any kind of intervention, one group received functional electrical stimulation of lower limb muscles (FES group), another group practiced Tai Chi exercise (TCE group), and another received functional electrical stimulation of lower limb muscles and practiced Tai Chi exercise (FES & TCE group). Quality of life and cardiorespiratory functions of all patients were evaluated. Compared to the control group, only FES group had increased Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) score (P<0.0001, q=9.06), only the TCE group had decreased heart rate (P<0.0001, q=5.72), and decreased peak oxygen consumption was reported in the TCE group (P<0.0001, q=9.15) and FES & TCE group (P<0.0001, q=10.69). FES of lower limb muscles and Tai Chi exercise can recover the quality of life and cardiorespiratory functions of older chronic heart failure adults (trial registration: Research Registry 4474, January 1, 2015).


Assuntos
Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/reabilitação , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Tai Ji/métodos , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 7512805, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583030

RESUMO

Background: The ratio of early mitral inflow velocity to the global diastolic strain rate (E/E'sr) and global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS) of the left ventricle (LV) are emerging indices of diastolic and systolic functions, respectively, for the LV. Their prognostic significance in the prediction of mortality and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes remains underexplored in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: This prospective study included 190 maintenance HD patients. The E/E'sr ratio and GLS were assessed using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. The clinical outcomes included overall mortality, CV mortality, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). The associations between the E/E'sr ratio, GLS, and clinical outcomes were evaluated using multivariate Cox regression analysis. The incremental values of the E/E'sr ratio and GLS in outcome prediction were assessed by χ 2 changes in Cox models. Results: Over a median follow-up period of 3.7 years, there were 35 overall deaths, 16 CV deaths, and 45 MACE. Impaired diastolic function with a higher E/E'sr ratio was associated with overall mortality (HR, 1.484; 95% CI, 1.201-1.834; p < 0.001), CV mortality (HR, 1.584; 95% CI, 1.058-2.371; p = 0.025), and MACE (HR, 1.205; 95% CI, 1.040-1.397; p = 0.013) in multivariate adjusted Cox analysis. Worsening GLS was associated with overall mortality (HR, 1.276; 95% CI, 1.101-1.480; p = 0.001), CV mortality (HR, 1.513; 95% CI, 1.088-2.104; p = 0.014), and MACE (HR, 1.214; 95% CI, 1.103-1.337; p < 0.001). The E/E'sr ratio and GLS had better outcome prediction than the E to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/E') ratio and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Moreover, adding the E/E'sr ratio and GLS to Cox models containing relevant clinical and conventional echocardiographic parameters improved the prediction of overall mortality (p < 0.001), CV mortality (p < 0.001), and MACE (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The E/E'sr ratio and GLS, as emerging indices of LV diastolic and systolic functions, significantly predict mortality and CV outcomes and outperform conventional echocardiographic parameters in outcome prediction in HD patients.


Assuntos
Diástole , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Diálise Renal , Sístole , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(5)2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068355

RESUMO

Necrotising autoimmune myopathy (NAM) is an immune-mediated myopathy that may be associated with statin use, malignancy or an autoimmune connective tissue disease, but it can also be idiopathic. Anti-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) myopathy is an extremely rare side effect of statin use, occurring in approximately 2-3 out of every 100 000 patients who use statins. Patients typically present with subacute proximal muscle weakness and creatine kinase levels >10 times the upper limit of normal. The diagnosis is suggested by muscle biopsy showing necrotic fibres with minimal inflammation along with positive anti-HMGCR antibodies. Treatment nearly always requires multiple immunosuppressive agents, the earlier use of which is associated with improved outcomes. Reports of statin-induced NAM leading to heart failure are limited. We present the case of a 69-year-old woman with statin-induced NAM who presented with acute systolic heart failure. Early initiation of high-dose corticosteroids and IVIG resulted in significant improvement in her symptoms.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Atorvastatina/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/induzido quimicamente , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Debilidade Muscular/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Musculares/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Creatina Quinase , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Doenças Musculares/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 35(9): 1691-1699, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056718

RESUMO

Large animal ischemic cardiomyopathy models are widely used for preclinical testing of promising novel therapeutic approaches. Pressure volume (PV) loop analysis and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) allow functional and morphological phenotyping. In this study we performed a comparative analysis of both methods highlighting the strength of each and their synergistic potential. Myocardial infarction (MI) was created in German farm pigs (German Landrace) by 2 h LCX occlusion (n = 11) and subsequent reperfusion. Cardiac function was assessed by PV-loops and CMRI 56 and 112 days post-MI. Two hours occlusion of the LCX led to mid-size left ventricular (LV) MI represented by high-sensitive troponin T (hsTnT) 3 days post-MI, correlating well with cardiac CMRI late enhancement. CMRI determined end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes significantly increased post-MI, while ejection fraction was reduced in infarcted animals compared to the sham group (n = 6). PV-loop derived preload-insensitive parameters of systolic and diastolic function were diminished post-MI compared to sham animals while preload-dependent parameters only deteriorated in advanced HF. PV-loop analysis significantly correlates with CMRI analysis of cardiac function in pig post-MI ischemic cardiomyopathy. PV-Loop analysis accurately quantifies LV volumetry and function in post-MI HF, and thus eccentric LV morphology. PV-loop analysis correlates well to cardiac MRI. Preload-insensitive parameters show high sensitivity to quantify HF while preload-sensitive parameters are not able to quantify early-stages of LV HF.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
5.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(3): e007022, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866666

RESUMO

Background Patients with nonischemic systolic heart failure are at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death, but more discriminating tools are needed to identify those patients likely to benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Whether right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction (RVEF) can identify patients with nonischemic systolic heart failure more likely to benefit from ICD implantation is not yet known. Methods In this post hoc analysis of the DANISH trial (Danish Study to Assess the Efficacy of ICDs in Patients with Nonischemic Systolic Heart Failure on Mortality), patients with nonischemic systolic heart failure randomized to ICD or control underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance. RV systolic dysfunction was defined as RVEF ≤45%. Cox regression assessed the effects of RV function and ICD implantation on all-cause mortality, sudden cardiac death, and cardiovascular death. Results Overall, 239 patients had interpretable images of RV volume. Median RVEF was 51%, RV systolic dysfunction was present in 75 (31%) patients, and 55 (23%) patients died. RVEF was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality, hazards ratio 1.34 per 10% absolute decrease in RVEF (95% CI, 1.05-1.70), P=0.02. There was a statistically significant interaction between RVEF and the effect of ICD implantation ( P=0.001). ICD implantation significantly reduced all-cause mortality in patients with RV systolic dysfunction, hazards ratio 0.41 (95% CI, 0.17-0.97), P=0.04 but not in patients without RV systolic dysfunction, hazards ratio 1.87 (95% CI, 0.85-3.92), P=0.12, ( P=0.01 for the difference in effect of ICD between RV groups). Conclusions In this post hoc analysis of the DANISH trial, ICD therapy was associated with survival benefit in patients with biventricular heart failure. These findings need confirmation in a prospective study. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00542945.


Assuntos
Cardioversão Elétrica/instrumentação , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/terapia , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/terapia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/terapia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Função Ventricular Direita , Idoso , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Dinamarca , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia
6.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 108(10): 1117-1127, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874886

RESUMO

AIMS: In the IN-TIME trial, automatic daily implant-based multiparameter telemonitoring significantly improved clinical outcomes in patients with chronic systolic heart failure and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D). We compared IN-TIME results for ICD and CRT-D subgroups. METHODS: Patients with LVEF ≤ 35%, NYHA class II/III, optimized drug treatment, no permanent atrial fibrillation, and a dual-chamber ICD (n = 274) or CRT-D (n = 390) were randomized 1:1 to telemonitoring or no telemonitoring for 12 months. Primary outcome measure was a composite clinical score, classified as worsened if the patient died or had heart failure-related hospitalization, worse NYHA class, or a worse self-reported overall condition. RESULTS: The prevalence of worsened score at study end was higher in CRT-D than ICD patients (26.4% vs. 18.2%; P = 0.014), as was mortality (7.4% vs. 4.1%; P = 0.069). With telemonitoring, odds ratios (OR) for worsened score and hazard ratios (HR) for mortality were similar in the ICD [OR = 0.55 (P = 0.058), HR = 0.39 (P = 0.17)] and CRT-D [OR = 0.68 (P = 0.10), HR = 0.35 (P = 0.018)] subgroups (insignificant interaction, P = 0.58-0.91). CONCLUSION: Daily multiparameter telemonitoring has a potential to reduce clinical endpoints in patients with chronic systolic heart failure both in ICD and CRT-D subgroups. The absolute benefit seems to be higher in higher-risk populations with worse prognosis.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/terapia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Idoso , Causas de Morte/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 68, 2019 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial flow reserve (MFR, stress/rest myocardial blood flow) is a strong marker of myocardial vasomotor function. MFR is a predictor of adverse cardiac events in patients with non-ischemic systolic heart failure and previous studies using different methods have found association between myocardial blood flow and left ventricular dilatation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between increasing end-systolic- and end-diastolic volumes (ESV and EDV) and MFR in these patients measured with Rubidium-82 positron emission tomography computed tomography (82Rb-PET/CT) as a quantitative myocardial perfusion gold-standard. METHODS: We scanned 151 patients with non-ischemic heart failure with initial left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% with 82Rb-PET/CT at rest and adenosine-induced stress to obtain MFR and volumes. To account for differences in body surface area (BSA), we used indexed ESV (ESVI): ESV/BSA (ml/m2) and EDV (EDVI). We identified factors associated with MFR using multiple regression analyses. RESULTS: Median age was 62 years (55-69 years) and 31% were women. Mean MFR was 2.38 (2.24-2.52). MFR decreased significantly with both increasing ESVI (estimate - 3.7%/10 ml/m2; 95% confidence interval [CI] -5.6 to - 1.8; P < 0.001) and increasing EDVI (estimate - 3.5%/10 ml/m2; 95% CI -5.3 to - 1.6; P < 0.001). Results remained significant after multivariable adjustment. Additionally, coronary vascular resistance during stress increased significantly with increasing ESVI (estimate: 3.1 mmHg/(ml/g/min) per (10 ml/m2); 95% CI 2.0 to 4.3; r = 0.41; P < 0.0001) and increasing EDVI (estimate: 2.7 mmHg/(ml/g/min) per (10 ml/m2); 95% CI 1.6 to 3.8; r = 0.37; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Impaired MFR assessed by 82Rb-PET/CT was significantly associated with linear increases in ESVI and EDVI in patients with non-ischemic systolic heart failure. Our findings support that impaired microvascular function may play a role in heart failure development. Clinical trials investigating MFR with regard to treatment responses may elucidate the clinical use of MFR in patients with non-ischemic systolic heart failure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Sub study of the randomized clinical trial: A DANish randomized, controlled, multicenter study to assess the efficacy of Implantable cardioverter defibrillator in patients with non-ischemic Systolic Heart failure on mortality (DANISH), ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00541268 .


Assuntos
Circulação Coronária , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Radioisótopos de Rubídio/administração & dosagem , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(9): 1458-1463, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791999

RESUMO

According to national guidelines and statements drugs that can cause or exacerbate heart failure (HF) are considered potentially harmful and should be avoided if possible in patients with a diagnosis of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). To evaluate the prevalence of potentially harmful drug (PHD) prescription among patients with a diagnosis of systolic heart failure we conducted a retrospective cohort study using Truven Health MarketScan Commercial database from 2011 to 2014. Prescription of PHD as defined by American Heart Association Statement was examined among patients with a HFREF diagnosis in: (1) Two outpatient encounters, (2) One inpatient encounter as primary diagnosis and/or (3) one inpatient encounter any position and one outpatient encounter. Among 40,966 patients, 24.2% were prescribed with at least 1 drug with the potential to cause or exacerbate heart failure. Of the 9,954 patients prescribed with PHD, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents were the most frequent category prescribed (67.4%), followed by antihypertensive (24%), diabetes mellitus (23.3%), neurological and psychiatric (21%) and antiarrhythmic medications (12.6%). After multivariable analysis female patients, the presence of a comorbidity associated with a PHD use and polypharmacy were more frequently prescribed a PHD. In conclusion almost » of adult patients with a diagnosis of HFREF have a prescription of a drug with a potential to cause or exacerbate heart failure as defined by current heart failure guidelines.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/farmacologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/tratamento farmacológico , Polimedicação , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Trials ; 20(1): 143, 2019 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism is a common condition in patients with heart failure and is defined as elevated serum thyroid hormone (TSH) with normal circulating free thyroxine (FT4). Evidence on the effect of thyroid hormone treatment is lacking. We designed a randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of thyroid hormone supplementation in patients with chronic heart failure complicated with subclinical hypothyroidism. METHODS/DESIGN: Eligible participants were identified from the cardiology units of five study centers based on the following criteria: 18 years or older, systolic heart failure with NewYork Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%, and subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH > 4.78µIU/ml, < 10 µIU/ml + FT4 level within reference range). Eligible patients will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 manner to receive thyroxine replacement therapy plus standard chronic heart failure (CHF) treatment or only standard CHF therapy. Levothyroxine will be administered at an initial dose of 12.5 µg once daily and will be titrated until TSH is within the normal range. The primary endpoints include the difference in distance of the six-minute walk test between 24 weeks and baseline. The secondary endpoints include differences in plasma NT-proBNP levels and serum lipid profiles, changes in the NYHA classification, cardiovascular death, re-hospitalization, differences in echocardiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging measures, and Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) results between 24 weeks and baseline. DISCUSSION: ThyroHeart-CHF is designed as a prospective, multi-center, randomized, controlled clinical trial to study the efficacy and safety of thyroid hormone supplementation in patients with chronic heart failure complicated with subclinical hypothyroidism. The study findings will have significant implications for discovering the new therapeutic targets and methods of heart failure. TRAIL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03096613 . Registered on 30 March 2017.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Assintomáticas , China , Doença Crônica , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo/fisiopatologia , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tiroxina/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Caminhada
10.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 219(1): 10-17, ene.-feb. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185584

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: la proteína C reactiva (PCR) plasmática ha sido evaluada como marcador pronóstico en insuficiencia cardíaca aguda (ICA). Sin embargo, no está confirmado que posea validez pronóstica cuando la población de ICA analizada está constituida por pacientes de edad avanzada. Métodos: analizamos los valores plasmáticos de PCR en todos los pacientes ingresados en servicios de medicina interna por ICA de cualquier tipo. Evaluamos la asociación existente entre dichos valores, las características clínicas basales de los pacientes y las tasas de mortalidad y reingreso por cualquier causa a los 3 meses del alta. Para las comparaciones se estratificó a los pacientes en terciles de valor de PCR bajo, medio y alto (< 2,24mg/l, 2,25-11,8mg/l y>11,8mg/l, respectivamente). Resultados: se incluyó a 1.443 pacientes, con una mediana de edad de 80 años (rango intercuartílico 73-85); de ellos, 680 (47%) eran hombres, con una carga de comorbilidad moderada; el 60,1% presentaba fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo preservada (> 50%). El análisis multivariante confirmó la existencia de una asociación independiente entre valores elevados de PCR al ingreso y la presencia de infección respiratoria, presión sistólica baja y función renal alterada. Tres meses después del ingreso índice, un total de 142 pacientes (9,8%) habían fallecido y 268 (18,6%) habían reingresado o habían muerto. Los valores de la PCR en el momento del ingreso no se correlacionaron con la tasa de mortalidad por cualquier causa a los 3 meses (p=0,79), ni con la tasa a los 3 meses de reingreso por cualquier causa (p=0,96) o con la combinación de ambos acontecimientos (p=0,96). Sin embargo, los valores altos de la PCR se asociaron a estancias hospitalarias más prolongadas (p<0,001). Conclusión: nuestro estudio no confirma la existencia de una asociación entre los valores de PCR plasmáticos presentes en el ingreso en los ancianos con ICA con un mayor riesgo de mortalidad o reingreso a los 3 meses


Introduction and objectives: plasma c-reactive protein (crp) has been tested as a prognostic marker in acute heart failure (ahf). Whether its measurement really provides significant prognostic information when applied to elderly patients with ahf episodes remains unclear. Methods: we measured the plasma crp values of patients admitted because of any type of ahf to internal medicine services. We evaluated the association of these values with the patients' baseline clinical characteristics and their 3-month posdischarge all-cause mortality or readmission rates. For comparison purposes, we divided the sample in tertiles of low, medium and high crp values (<2,24mg/l, 2,25-11,8mg/l and>11,8mg/l). Results: we included 1443 patients with a median age of 80 years (interquartile range 73-85); 680 (47%) were men, with a moderate comorbid burden. 60.1% had preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (> 50%). Multivariate analysis confirmed an independent association between higher crp values and the presence of respiratory infection, lower systolic blood pressure and deteriorated renal function upon admission. Three months after the index admission, a total of 142 patients (9.8%) had died, and 268 (18.6%) had either been readmitted or died. admission crp values did not correlate with 3-month all-cause mortality (P=0.79), 3-month all-cause readmission (P=0.96) or the combination of both events (P=0.96). However, higher crp values were associated with a longer length of stay (P<0.001). Conclusion: our study does not confirm an association between admission plasma crp values in elderly ahf patients and subsequent higher 3-month mortality or readmission risks


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Proteína C-Reativa/sangue , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia
11.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 108(7): 806-814, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased resting heart rate is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) have been shown to improve cardiac sympathetic nerve activity, reduce heart rate and attenuate left ventricular remodelling. Whether or not the beneficial effects of MRA are affected by heart rate in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF) is unclear. METHODS: We undertook a secondary analysis of data from the Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization and Survival Study in Heart Failure study to assess if clinical outcomes, as well as the efficacy of eplerenone, varied according to heart rate at baseline. RESULTS: High resting heart rate of 80 bpm and above predisposed patients to greater risk of all outcomes in the trial, regardless of treatment allocation. The beneficial effects of eplerenone were observed across all categories of heart rate. Eplerenone reduced the risk of primary endpoint, the composite of cardiovascular death and hospitalisation for heart failure, by 30% (aHR 0.70; 95% CI 0.54-0.91) in subjects with heart rate ≥ 80 bpm, and by 48% (aHR 0.52; 95% CI 0.33-0.81) in subjects with heart rate ≤ 60 bpm. Eplerenone also reduced the risks of hospitalisation for heart failure, cardiovascular deaths and all-cause deaths independently of baseline heart rate. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline heart rate appears to be an important predictor of major clinical outcome events in patients with HFREF, as has been previously reported. The benefits of eplerenone were preserved across all categories of baseline heart rate, without observed heterogeneity in the responses.


Assuntos
Eplerenona/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/tratamento farmacológico , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Heart Lung Circ ; 28(3): 414-422, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29449079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Systolic Heart failure treatment with the If inhibitor Trial (SHIFT) randomised placebo-controlled trial, ivabradine was shown to reduce hospital admissions for worsening heart failure (HF) and deaths due to HF in patients with symptomatic systolic HF and an elevated resting heart rate (HR). This analysis evaluates the cost effectiveness of adding ivabradine to optimal standard HF treatment in patients with a HR≥77 bpm. METHODS: A Markov model was developed to assess the impact of ivabradine on mean survival and quality of life over a patient's lifetime (10 years). The hospitalisation and death rates were calculated using patient-level data from SHIFT. The reduction in quality of life due to HF hospitalisations was estimated directly from EQ-5D data collected in SHIFT. Australian costs were applied to the resource use from SHIFT. RESULTS: The modelled mean increase in survival with ivabradine was 0.115 years. The mean increase in quality-adjusted survival was 0.108 years. The average cost of ivabradine was A$2,957 and the cost savings associated with a reduction in HF hospitalisations was A$1,344. The cost per quality adjusted life year gained (QALYG) was A$14,905. The conservative approach to the modelled evaluation, as well as results of the sensitivity analysis, demonstrates that ivabradine is likely to be cost-effective in this indication. CONCLUSIONS: The conservative approach to the modelled evaluation, as well as results of the sensitivity analysis, demonstrates that ivabradine is a cost-effective treatment in the Australian setting for HF patients with a HR≥77 bpm on optimal standard therapy with a cost per QALYG similar or lower than that for other publicly funded treatments.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/tratamento farmacológico , Ivabradina/administração & dosagem , Qualidade de Vida , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/economia , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Acta Cardiol ; 74(2): 100-107, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29587582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Signs and symptoms of volume overload are the most frequent reason for hospital admission in acute heart failure (AHF). Diuretics are mainstay treatment, but their optimal type and dose regimen remain unclear, especially in patients with cardiorenal syndrome. METHODS: This prospective study aimed to include 80 AHF patients with volume overload and cardiorenal syndrome. Through a 2 × 2 factorial design, patients were randomised towards (1) combinational treatment with acetazolamide and low-dose loop diuretics versus high-dose loop diuretics; and (2) open-label oral spironolactone 25 mg OD given upfront versus at discharge. Here reported are the results of the spironolactone treatment arm after complete follow-up of 34/80 patients (since the study was stopped because of slow recruitment). The primary study end-point was incident hypokalaemia (<3.5 mmol/L) or hyperkalaemia (>5.5 mmol/L). RESULTS: Serum potassium derangements were numerically less frequent in the upfront versus discharge spironolactone group, yet this result was underpowered due to incomplete study recruitment (hyperkalaemia: 6% vs. 11%; hypokalaemia: 13% vs. 28%, respectively; p-value = .270). Natriuresis after 24 h was higher in the upfront vs. discharge spironolactone group (314 ± 142 vs. 200 ± 91 mmol/L, respectively; p-value = .010). Relative change in plasma NT-proBNP level after 72 h was similar among both groups (-16 ± 29% vs. -5 ± 45%, respectively; p value = .393), with no difference in all-cause mortality (p-value = .682) or the combination of all-cause mortality and heart failure readmission (p-value = .799). DISCUSSION: Spironolactone use upfront in AHF patients at high risk for cardiorenal syndrome is safe and increases natriuresis.


Assuntos
Síndrome Cardiorrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/tratamento farmacológico , Natriurese/efeitos dos fármacos , Espironolactona/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Síndrome Cardiorrenal/complicações , Síndrome Cardiorrenal/fisiopatologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 108(2): 133-141, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30051179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Activated leukocytes may contribute to the development and progression of heart failure (HF). We investigated the predictive value of circulating levels of stable and readily detectable markers reflecting both monocyte/macrophage and T-cell activity, on clinical outcomes in HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS: The association between baseline plasma levels of soluble CD163 (sCD163), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), granulysin, soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) and the primary endpoint of death from any cause or first hospitalization for worsening of HF was evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models in 1541 patients with systolic HF and mild to moderate anemia, enrolled in the Reduction of Events by darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure (RED-HF) trial. Modifying effects and interaction with darbepoetin alfa treatment were also assessed. RESULTS: All leukocyte markers, except granulysin, were associated with the primary outcome and all-cause death in univariate analysis (all p < 0.01) and remained significantly associated in multivariable analysis adjusting for conventional clinical variables (e.g. age, gender, BMI, NYHA class, creatinine, LVEF, etiology) and CRP. However, after final adjustment for TnT and NT-proBNP no associations were found with outcomes. No interaction with darbepoetin alpha treatment was observed for any marker. CONCLUSIONS: Leukocyte activation markers sCD163, MIF, sIL-2R, and ALCAM were associated with adverse outcome in patients with HFrEF, but add little as prognostic markers on top of established biochemical risk markers. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00358215 .


Assuntos
Anemia/complicações , Antígenos CD/sangue , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/sangue , Darbepoetina alfa/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Fetais/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/sangue , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/sangue , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/sangue , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Idoso , Anemia/sangue , Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Hematínicos/administração & dosagem , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Ativação de Macrófagos/fisiologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Prognóstico
16.
Acta Cardiol ; 74(3): 216-221, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29914304

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study is research relation of serum neopterin level with mortality and morbidity due to systolic HF and also its role in diagnosis of patients with systolic HF. Material and methods: Eighty-one patients with systolic heart failure (HF group) and eighty-one age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (the control group) were enrolled in the study. Echocardiographic examination was performed accordingly. At the beginning of the study, serum B type natriuretic peptide (BNP), neopterin, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured accordingly. The subjects were followed for one year then after. Mortality rate and number of hospitalisation due to HF were recorded. Results: Age and gender distribution over the groups were statistically similar (p > .05). LVEF of the control and HF groups were 62 ± 3 and 27 ± 3%, respectively (p < .001). Average neopterin value of HF group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p < .001). Both hs-CRP and BNP values were well correlated to neopterin values (p = .667 and .778, respectively). There was a significant correlation between number of hospitalisation and neopterin values among patients in HF group (p = .008). Also among HF group, neopterin value of patients died within first year of follow-up (n = 29) was higher than that of patients survived beyond first year (n = 52 and p = .011). Conclusions: Neopterin is a biomarker reflecting ongoing inflammatory process in deteriorating heart. High level of serum neopterin concentrations was associated with mortality and morbidity in systolic HF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Neopterina/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Admissão do Paciente , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima , Função Ventricular Esquerda
17.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 20(2): 233-240, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992262

RESUMO

Aims: Patients with non-ischaemic systolic heart failure often have reduced myocardial blood flow without significant coronary atherosclerosis. Likewise, patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have reduced myocardial perfusion during AF compared with sinus rhythm. The aim of this study was to explore whether there is an additive negative effect of AF during scan on the myocardial perfusion in patients with non-ischaemic systolic heart failure. Methods and results: We included 27 young healthy controls and 114 patients with non-ischaemic systolic heart failure to a Rubidium-82 positron emission tomography/computed tomography perfusion scan (23 with AF during scan). To obtain the myocardial flow reserve (MFR = stress flow/rest flow), patients were scanned at rest and during adenosine-induced stress. Among patients, those with AF were older [years: 73; interquartile range (IQR) 65-78 vs. 67; IQR 60-74; P = 0.03] and more were men (87% vs. 62%; P = 0.02). Distribution of sex in controls did not differ from either patient group. Patients with AF had significantly lower MFR than patients without [MFR: 1.87; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.58-2.22 vs. 2.50; 95% CI 2.06-2.86; percent difference: -21.5%; P = 0.01]. MFR remained significantly lower in the group with AF (estimate -24.2%; 95% CI -39.6% to -4.8%; P = 0.02) in an adjusted multivariable regression analysis. Further, patients had lower MFR compared with controls: 3.46; 95% CI 3.03-3.94; P < 0.0001. Additionally, coronary vascular resistance was highest in patients with AF and lowest in controls. Conclusion: Patients with systolic heart failure had lower flow reserve than healthy controls and even lower MFR if they had AF during scan.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Circulação Coronária , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/complicações , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Radioisótopos de Rubídio
18.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 108(2): 185-193, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differentiating heart failure from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a patient presenting with breathlessness is difficult but may have implications for outcome. We investigated the prognostic impact of diagnoses of COPD and/or heart failure in consecutive patients presenting to a secondary care clinic with breathlessness. METHODS: In patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) by visual estimation, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) levels and spirometry were evaluated (N = 4986). Heart failure was defined as either LVSD worse than mild (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction) or LVSD mild or better and raised NTproBNP levels (> 400 ng/L) (heart failure with normal ejection fraction). COPD was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio < 0.7. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: 1764 (35%) patients had heart failure alone, 585 (12%) had COPD alone, 1751 (35%) had heart failure and COPD, and 886 (18%) had neither. Compared to patients with neither diagnosis, those with COPD alone [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.84 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-2.43], heart failure alone [HR = 4.40 (95% CI 3.54-5.46)] or heart failure and COPD [HR = 5.44 (95% CI 4.39-6.75)] had a greater risk of death. COPD was not associated with increased risk of death in patients with heart failure on a multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: While COPD is associated with increased risk of death compared to patients with neither heart failure nor COPD, it has a negligible impact on prognosis amongst patients with heart failure.


Assuntos
Dispneia/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Idoso , Dispneia/mortalidade , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espirometria , Volume Sistólico , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
19.
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging ; 39(3): 192-200, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total heart volume (THV) within the pericardium is not constant throughout the cardiac cycle and THV would intuitively be lowest at end systole. We have, however, observed a phase shift between ventricular outflow and atrial inflow which causes the minimum THV to occur before end systole. The aims were to explain the mechanism of the late-systolic net inflow to the heart and determine whether this net inflow is affected by increased cardiac output or systolic heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Healthy controls (n = 21) and patients with EF<35% (n = 14) underwent magnetic resonance imaging with flow measurements in vessels to and from the heart, and this was repeated in nine controls during 140 µgram kg-1  min-1 adenosine infusion. Minimum THV occurred 78 ± 6 ms before end of systolic ejection (8 ± 1% of the cardiac cycle) in controls. The late-systolic net inflow was 12·3 ± 1·1 ml or 6·0 ± 0·5% of total stroke volume (TSV). Cardiac output increased 66 ± 8% during adenosine but late-systolic net inflow to the heart did not change (P = 0·73). In patients with heart failure, late-systolic net inflow of the heart's left side was lower (3·4 ± 0·5%) compared to healthy subjects (5·3 ± 0·6%, P = 0·03). CONCLUSIONS: Heart size increases before end systole due to a late-systolic net inflow which is unaffected by increased cardiac output. This may be explained by inertia of blood that flows into the atria generated by ventricular systole. The lower late-systolic net inflow in patients with systolic heart failure may be a measure of decreased ventricular filling due to decreased systolic function, thus linking systolic to diastolic dysfunction.


Assuntos
Débito Cardíaco , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem
20.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 37(3): 194-200, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042595

RESUMO

Resumen: Los modelos experimentales de falla cardíaca con fracción de eyección disminuida en murinos son pocos. Uno de estos modelos es el de coartación de la aorta torácica en el arco aórtico (COA) en ratones. Un aspecto importante en su desarrollo es la evaluación precoz del procedimiento y su relación con la función sistólica posterior. En este sentido, las velocidades de flujo carotídeo y la relación entre ambos flujos (derecho, pre-coartación; izquierdo post coartación) pueden permitir evaluar tempranamente la precisión del procedimiento y relacionarse más tardíamente con la función sistólica VI. Nuestro objetivo fue comparar precozmente (semana 2 post operatoria) las velocidades de flujo en ambas carótidas (Doppler continuo) y tardíamente (semana 5 postoperatoria) la función sistólica VI (Ecocardiograma de superficie) en ratones seudocoartados o sham (n= 6) vs ratones COA (n = 12). Se confirmó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la relación de velocidades de flujo entre ambas carótidas medida precozmente entre los ratones sham y COA (1,1 ± 0,1 vs 2,5 ± 0,5, p< 0,001), lo que se correlacionó con un deterioro significativo de la función sistólica del ventrículo izquierdo evaluada a las 5 semanas en los ratones COA. Conclusión: En este modelo preclínico de falla cardíaca por sobrecarga de presión con fracción de eyección VI disminuida en ratón, el aumento precoz de la velocidad de flujo en la arteria carótida derecha (pre-coartación en el modelo COA) y sobre todo de la relación entre las velocidades de flujo carotídeo entre ambas carótidas se asocia a deterioro importante de la función sistólica VI cinco semanas después de efectuada la COA, lo que permite predecir la efectividad del procedimiento en este modelo experimental.


Abstract: There are few experimental models of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction in murines. One of these models is transverse aortic coarctation (TAC) in mice. However, an important challenge in its development is the early evaluation of the procedure and its relationship with late systolic LV function. In this sense, carotid flow velocities and the relationship between both (right, precoarctation, left post-coarctation) may allow early evaluation of the accuracy of the procedure and be related to late LV systolic function. The aim was to compare early (week 2 post-operative) flow velocities determined in both carotid arteries (by continuous Doppler) with late (week 5 postoperative) LV systolic function (by echocardiogram) in sham (n= 6) vs. TAC (n: 12) mice. We confirmed a statistically significant difference in the early ratio of carotid flow velocities (left/right common carotid velocity ratio) between sham and TAC mice (1.1 ± 0.1 vs 2.5 ± 0.5, p< 0.001) and this correlated well with a deteriorated left ventricular function in the TAC mice after 5 weeks. In this preclinical model of cardiac failure due to pressure overload with reduced LV ejection fraction in the mouse, the early increase in right carotid flow velocity (precoarctation) and especially the relationship between precoarctation/postcoarctation carotid flow velocities is associated with significant impairment of LV systolic function five weeks after the TAC, which allows to predict the effectiveness of the procedure in this experimental model.


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Coartação Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/fisiopatologia , Coartação Aórtica/cirurgia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Volume Sistólico , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Insuficiência Cardíaca Sistólica/cirurgia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
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