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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 846-854, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pomegranate has antioxidant, cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. We designed a crossover study aimed at determining if consumption of pomegranate juice (PJ) improves lipid profile and oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers of hemodialysis patients. Forty-one hemodialysis patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: PJ-treated group receiving 100 mL of natural PJ immediately after their dialysis session three times a week and the control group receiving the usual care. After 8 weeks, a 4-week washout period was established and then the role of the groups was exchanged. Lipid profile, blood pressure and oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers were measured before and after each sequence. RESULTS: Based on the results of intention-to-treat analysis, triglycerides were decreased in PJ condition and increased in the controls. Conversely, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased in PJ and decreased in the control group. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not significantly change in either condition. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased in PJ condition. Total antioxidant capacity increased in PJ condition (P < 0.001) and decreased in the controls (P < 0.001). Conversely, malondialdehyde and interleukin-6 decreased in PJ (P < 0.001) and increased in the control group (P ≤ 0.001). The changes of these biomarkers were significantly different between the two conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Eight-week PJ consumption showed beneficial effects on blood pressure, serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidative stress and inflammation in hemodialysis patients. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
2.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(4): 898-904, jul.-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184716

RESUMO

Introducción: las estrictas restricciones dietéticas que imponemos en la enfermedad renal crónica avanzada (ERCA) tienen un impacto negativo en la calidad de vida. Objetivo: determinar si estas restricciones están justificadas y si un programa de educación nutricional mejoraría los parámetros de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS). Material y métodos: realizamos un ensayo clínico de intervención educativa, unicéntrico, randomizado y controlado en los pacientes de la consulta ERCA de Albacete. Se incluyeron 75 pacientes, 35 en el grupo control y 40 en el de intervención. Se realizó la valoración nutricional mediante valoración global subjetiva (VGS) e índice de masa corporal (IMC). Para medir la CVRS se empleó el cuestionario de salud SF-36. En el grupo intervención se realizó la intervención nutricional individual, colectiva y por recuerdo telefónico, adaptando a cada paciente el consejo dietético y ajustando las restricciones de forma personalizada. Resultados: la malnutrición medida por VGS fue del 20% en el grupo control y del 29,3% en el grupo intervención, donde mejoró aunque no fue significativo. El IMC mostró sobrepeso con una media de 28,83 (DE: 5,4) y 26,96 kg/m2 (DE: 4,09) respectivamente, sin cambios a lo largo del estudio. La intervención nutricional supuso una mejoría en las puntuaciones de todas las subescalas excepto en el dolor corporal. Además, los componentes físico y mental también mejoraron sus puntuaciones en el grupo intervención y empeoraron significativamente (p < 0,001) en el control. Conclusiones: la calidad de vida se puede mejorar en los pacientes con ERCA aplicando un programa de educación nutricional


Introduction: the strict dietary recommendations we impose on patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD) have negative impact on quality of life. Objective: determine whether such restrictions are justified and if an educational program can improve health-related quality of life (HRQL) parameters. Methods: we carried out an educational intervention, single center, randomized, controlled clinical trial on ACKD outpatients in Albacete. Seventy-five patients were included, 35 in the control group and 40 in the intervention group. Nutritional assessment was based on the Subjetive Global Assessment (SGA) and body mass index (BMI). We used the SF-36 health questionnaire to measure HRQL. In the intervention group we carried out individual, collective and telephone nutritional interventions, adapting diet advice and restrictions in a personalized way. Results: malnutrition measured by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) in the control group was 20%; meanwhile, in the intervention group it was 29.3% and it improved at the end of the study, but not significantly. BMI showed overweight with a mean of 28.83 kg/m² (DE: 5.4) and 26.96 kg/m² (DE: 4.09), respectively, and did not change throughout the study. The nutritional intervention improved the score in all the subscales except for body pain score. Besides, mental and physical components also improved their scores in the intervention group and worsened them in the control group (p < 0.001). Conclusions: quality of life can be improved in ACKD patients applying an educational nutrition program


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Educação Alimentar e Nutricional , Dietoterapia/métodos , Dietoterapia/tendências , Qualidade de Vida , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Análise Estatística , Inquéritos e Questionários , Modelos Lineares
3.
Life Sci ; 232: 116604, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260684

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients present L-arginine (L-arg) deficiency and L-arg supplementation has been used as a treatment. In addition, sarcopenia is another common problem in CKD population, resistance training (RT) is one of the conservative strategies developed to prevent CKD progression, and however there are no evidences of a combination of these two strategies to treat CKD outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral L-arg supplementation combined with RT in an experimental model of CKD. Twenty-five Munich-Wistar male rats, 8-week-old were divided in 5 groups: Sham (sedentary control), Nx (CKD sedentary), Nx L-arg (CKD sedentary supplemented with 2% of L-arg), Nx RT (CKD exercised) Nx RT + L-arg (CKD exercised and supplemented with 2% of L-arg). CKD model was obtained by a subtotal 5/6 nephrectomy. RT was performed on a ladder climbing, three weekly sessions on non-consecutive days, with an intensity of 70% maximum carrying capacity. They were submitted to RT and/or L-arg supplementation for 10 weeks. There was a significant improvement in muscle strength, renal function, anti-inflammatory cytokines, arginase metabolism and renal fibrosis after RT. However, the combination of RT and L-arg impaired all the improvements promoted by RT alone. The L-arg supplementation alone did not impair renal fibrosis and renal function. In conclusion, RT improved inflammatory balance, muscle strength, renal function and consequently decreased renal fibrosis. Nevertheless, the association with L-arg supplementation prevented all these effects promoted by RT.


Assuntos
Arginina/farmacologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Animais , Arginina/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Progressão da Doença , Fibrose/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos
4.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(extr.3): 63-69, jul. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184438

RESUMO

Los pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica presentan frecuentemente malnutrición calórico-proteica, y esta situación es un predictor de morbilidad y mortalidad. En este artículo, se resumen las causas de la desnutrición y las diferentes aproximaciones terapéuticas para revertirla, entre las que se incluyen la suplementación nutricional oral o parenteral, especialmente durante la diálisis


Chronic kidney disease patients often also present protein-calorie malnutrition, and it is a powerful predictor of morbidity and mortality. In this article, causes and management are shown, highlighting oral and parenteral nutritional supplementation, especially during dialysis process


Assuntos
Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/complicações , Suplementos Nutricionais , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Diálise , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/etiologia , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Nutrição Parenteral/métodos , Apoio Nutricional
5.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(3): 633-639, mayo-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184562

RESUMO

Objective: to analyze the association between phase angle (PA) and mid arm circumference (MAC) with protein energy wasting (PEW) in renal replacement therapy (RRT) patients. Methods: cross-sectional study. Hemodiafiltration (HDF) and automated peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients were enrolled in the study. MAC and body composition were measured using impedance bioelectric (BIA); PA, fat free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM) and ECW/TBW were obtained. Biochemical (serum albumin and cholesterol) and dietary data (energy and protein intake) were collected. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Patients were classified with PEW according to ISRNM criteria (low BMI, low albumin or cholesterol concentrations, low muscle mass and overhydration). Cut-off point of PA and MAC was obtained by ROC analysis. Logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate the ability of both indicators to predict PEW. Results: sixty-nine patients were included in the study. Fifty-two (52%) were female. Thirty-nine (39%) patients had PEW. The ROC curve reveals that the optimal PA cut-off value for malnutrition risk was 4.64° with 77.8% sensitivity and 76.2% specificity. For MAC, a cut-off value of 29.6 cm shows a sensitivity of 66.6% and specificity of 69.0%. Both indicators showed significant association to PEW after multivariate adjustment. Conclusion: PEW is present almost in 39% of the RRT patients. PA and MAC are useful, simple and independents indicators for predicting PEW in Chronic Kidney disease patients on RRT


Objetivo: analizar la asociación entre el ángulo de fase (AF) y la circunferencia media del brazo (CMB) con la presencia de desgaste proteico energético (DPE) en pacientes en terapia de remplazo renal (TRR). Métodos: estudio transversal. Fueron incluidos pacientes en hemodiafiltración y en diálisis peritoneal automatizada. Se tomaron mediciones de CMB y de composición corporal utilizando bioimpedancia eléctrica (AF, masa libre de grasa, masa grasa y agua extracelular/agua corporal total). Se obtuvieron mediciones de albúmina y colesterol y se cuantificó el consumo dietético de energía y proteína. Se calculó el IMC. Se diagnosticó el DPE utilizando los criterios de ISRNM (bajo IMC, baja albúmina o colesterol, baja musculatura y sobrehidratación). Se evaluó la habilidad del AF y CMB para predecir DPE a través de una regresión logística. Se obtuvieron puntos de corte para ambos indicadores utilizando una prueba ROC. Se evaluó la habilidad del AF y CMB para predecir DPE a través de una regresión logística. Resultados: se incluyeron 69 pacientes en el estudio, el 52% de sexo femenino, y el 39% cumplieron criterios para DPE. El AF y el CMB predicen de forma adecuada el DPE según el análisis multivariado. Los puntos de corte obtenidos por la prueba ROC son < 4,64° para AF, con una sensibilidad del 77,8% y una especificidad del 76,2%, y < 29,6 cm para la CMB, con una sensibilidad del 66,6% y una especificidad del 69%. Conclusión: el DPE está presente en el 39% de pacientes en TRR. El AF y CMB son indicadores independientes, útiles y simples para predecir DPE en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica en TRR


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/dietoterapia , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/diagnóstico , Circunferência Braquial/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Transversais , Curva ROC , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Hemodiafiltração/métodos , Composição Corporal
6.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(3): 714-717, mayo-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184572

RESUMO

Background: protein restriction is the mainstay of dietary management of chronic kidney disease. Aim: to assess the usefulness of urine urea nitrogen measurement as a marker of protein restriction. Methods: healthy young participants were randomly divided in two groups. During 14 days, one group received a diet containing 30 kcal/kg body weight and 1 g protein/kg body weight and the other group received a diet with the same amount of calories and 0.6 g/kg of proteins. At baseline, seven days and 14 days, 24 h dietary recalls were answered by the participants. They collected 24 hour urine and provided spot urine samples at baseline and at the end of the intervention, to measure creatinine and urea nitrogen. Results: forty-one participants aged 29 ± 5 years completed the follow-up. According to 24h dietary recalls, the group receiving 0.6 g/kg protein reduced significantly the protein intake during the intervention from 0.88 ± 0.06 to 0.59 ± 0.05 g/kg/day. A significant reduction in 24 h urea nitrogen excretion was also observed in this group. In the group receiving 1 g/kg of protein, no significant changes in 24 h urea nitrogen excretion were observed. Among all participants, the odds ratio of observing a reduction in protein intake in the dietary survey was 5.75 (95% confidence intervals 1.29-25.55, p = 0.02), when a reduction in 24 h urea nitrogen excretion corrected by creatinine was observed. No changes were observed in urea nitrogen excretion in spot urine samples. Conclusions: repeated urea nitrogen excretion measured in 24 h urine samples can be a reliable indicator of dietary protein restriction


Introducción: la restricción proteica es fundamental en el manejo de la enfermedad renal crónica. Objetivo: evaluamos la utilidad de la medición de nitrógeno ureico urinario como marcador de restricción proteica. Métodos: participantes jóvenes sanos fueron divididos aleatoriamente en dos grupos. Un grupo recibió una dieta con 30 kcal/día/kg peso corporal y 1 g/proteína/día/kg peso corporal y el otro recibió una dieta con la misma cantidad de calorías pero con 0,6 g/kg peso corporal de proteína. Al inicio, a los siete y a los 14 días, los participantes respondieron una encuesta dietaria de recordatorio de 24 horas. Además, recolectaron orina de 24 horas y se les tomó una muestra aislada de orina al comienzo y a los 14 días de la intervención para medir creatinina y nitrógeno ureico. Resultados: cuarenta y un participantes de 29 ± 5 años completaron el estudio. El grupo que consumió 0,6 g/kg de proteínas redujo su ingesta proteica de 0,88 ± 0,06 a 0,59 ± 0,05 g/kg/día durante la intervención. En este grupo se observó una reducción significativa en la excreción urinaria de nitrógeno ureico en 24 horas. No se observó tal reducción en el grupo que consumió 1 g/kg de proteínas. La tasa de probabilidad de detectar una reducción en la ingesta proteica en las encuestas dietarias, cuando se observaba una disminución en la excreción urinaria de nitrógeno ureico/mg creatinina de 24 horas, fue de 5,75 (intervalos de confianza de 95% = 1,29-25,55, p = 0,02). No hubo cambios significativos en la excreción de nitrógeno ureico en las muestras aisladas de orina. Conclusión: las mediciones repetidas de nitrógeno ureico urinario en 24 horas son un marcador de restricción dietaria de proteínas


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/métodos , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Resultado do Tratamento , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Urinálise , Coleta de Urina , Creatinina/urina , Ingestão de Energia , Índice de Massa Corporal
7.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(3): 714-717, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144979

RESUMO

Introduction: Background: protein restriction is the mainstay of dietary management of chronic kidney disease. Aim: to assess the usefulness of urine urea nitrogen measurement as a marker of protein restriction. Methods: healthy young participants were randomly divided in two groups. During 14 days, one group received a diet containing 30 kcal/kg body weight and 1 g protein/kg body weight and the other group received a diet with the same amount of calories and 0.6 g/kg of proteins. At baseline, seven days and 14 days, 24 h dietary recalls were answered by the participants. They collected 24 hour urine and provided spot urine samples at baseline and at the end of the intervention, to measure creatinine and urea nitrogen. Results: forty-one participants aged 29 ± 5 years completed the follow-up. According to 24h dietary recalls, the group receiving 0.6 g/kg protein reduced significantly the protein intake during the intervention from 0.88 ± 0.06 to 0.59 ± 0.05 g/kg/day. A significant reduction in 24 h urea nitrogen excretion was also observed in this group. In the group receiving 1 g/kg of protein, no significant changes in 24 h urea nitrogen excretion were observed. Among all participants, the odds ratio of observing a reduction in protein intake in the dietary survey was 5.75 (95% confidence intervals 1.29-25.55, p = 0.02), when a reduction in 24 h urea nitrogen excretion corrected by creatinine was observed. No changes were observed in urea nitrogen excretion in spot urine samples. Conclusions: repeated urea nitrogen excretion measured in 24 h urine samples can be a reliable indicator of dietary protein restriction.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Cooperação do Paciente , Ureia/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Creatinina/urina , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrogênio/urina , Razão de Chances , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035482

RESUMO

The effects of ketoanalogues (KA) on chronic kidney disease (CKD) deterioration have not yet been fully confirmed. To strengthen the evidence of the role of KA in CKD, PubMed and Embase were searched for studies published through February 2019. Effect sizes from ten randomized control trials (RCTs) and two non-RCTs comprising a total of 951 patients were pooled and analyzed. A restricted protein diet supplemented with ketoanalogues (RPKA) was found to significantly delay the progression of CKD (p = 0.008), particularly in patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) > 18 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p < 0.0001). No significant change in eGFR was found when comparing a very-low-protein diet and a low-protein diet (p = 0.10). In addition, compared with the placebo, RPKA did not cause malnutrition (albumin: p = 0.56; cholesterol: p = 0.50). Moreover, RPKA significantly decreased phosphorous levels (p = 0.001), increased calcium levels (p = 0.04), and decreased parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (p = 0.05) in patients with eGFR < 18 mL/min/1.73 m2. In conclusion, RPKA could slow down the progression of CKD in patients with eGFR > 18 mL/min/1.73 m2 without causing malnutrition and reverse CKD-MBD in patients with eGFR < 18 mL/min/1.73 m2.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Densidade Óssea , Suplementos Nutricionais , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Albumina Sérica
9.
Food Funct ; 10(6): 3103-3112, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140512

RESUMO

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) present many complications that potentially could be linked to increased cardiovascular mortality such as inflammation, oxidative stress, cellular senescence and gut dysbiosis. There is growing evidence suggesting that nutritional strategies may reduce some of these complications. Clinical studies suggest that supplementation of cranberries may have beneficial effects on human health such as prevention of urinary tract infections. More recently, the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects as well as modulation of gut microbiota provided by cranberry phytochemicals have drawn more attention. A better understanding of possible effects and mechanisms of action of cranberry supplementation in humans could inform researchers about warranted future directions for clinical studies targeting these complications in CKD patients by applying nutritional strategies involving cranberry supplementation.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Vaccinium macrocarpon/metabolismo , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/microbiologia , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química
10.
Nefrología (Madrid) ; 39(2): 115-123, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181318

RESUMO

La pica como entidad individual en el paciente con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) no ha sido ampliamente estudiada, a pesar de que se ha reportado una alta prevalencia en esta población, y de que las complicaciones propias de la pica (anemia, alteración en electrolitos, mala absorción de micro y macronutrientes y desnutrición) podrían verse exacerbadas en la ERC, lo cual limitaría alcanzar una mejor calidad de la terapia de remplazo renal. La ingesta de sustancias no calóricas y no nutricionales podría ser perjudicial por los efectos en la saciedad y en el descontrol metabólico/electrolítico, y por afectar la biocompatibilidad de los micronutrientes, toxinas y patógenos, lo que finalmente puede empeorar el estado de salud. En la práctica diaria es posible que la pica resulte subreportada debido a la vergüenza del paciente a reconocerlo, o el miedo a que dicho comportamiento pueda influir en su tratamiento. Adicionalmente, los clínicos, al no investigar la presencia de pica o sus complicaciones contribuyen a la falta de información acerca de la magnitud y la relevancia de este trastorno de la conducta alimentaria en la ERC


Pica is an individual entity in the patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD), which phenomenon has not been widely studied despite the high reported prevalence. Moreover, pica complications (anemia, altered electrolytes, poor absorption of micro and macronutrients and malnutrition) could be exacerbated in CKD and limit the quality of renal replacement therapy. The intake of non-caloric and non-nutritional substances could be harmful and cause effects on satiety and metabolic / electrolyte imbalance and modify the biocompatibility of micronutrients, toxins and pathogens worsening health status. In daily practice, pica could be under-reported because patient's shame to recognize it, or fear that such behavior influences their treatment. Additionally, clinicians who not investigate the presence of pica or its complications contribute to the lack of information about the magnitude and relevance of this problem in CKD


Assuntos
Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Comportamento Alimentar , Pica/epidemiologia , Nutrição de Grupos de Risco , Nível de Saúde , Diálise/métodos , Pica/diagnóstico , Pica/terapia , Eletrólitos , Micronutrientes
11.
Nephrol Nurs J ; 46(1): 23-47, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835093

RESUMO

Dietary recommendations that potentially delay the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be perceived as restrictive and unpalatable, negatively impacting quality of life (QOL). This pilot study examined the effect of a six-week small group intervention, "Self-Management of Dietary Intake Using Mindful Eating," on QOL, health literacy, and dietary self-efficacy among persons with CKD Stages 1-3. Improvements (n=19) were found from pre-test to post-test in total scores for Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form-36 (p=0.003), health literacy (p=0.001), and self-efficacy (p=0.003). The intervention had promising results for improving both diet management and QOL, which supports further testing in randomized control trials.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Autogestão/psicologia , Alfabetização em Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Plena , Projetos Piloto , Autoeficácia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(1): 183-217, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836755

RESUMO

Introduction: Background and objectives: by means of this update, the GARIN working group aims to define its position regarding the dietary treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this area there are many aspects of uncertainty. Material and methods: bibliographical review and specific questions in advance were discussed and answered at a meeting in the form of conclusions. Results: the therapeutic action must be individualized and taking into account the degree of renal failure that the patient presents and their comorbidities. Regarding nutritional medical therapy, our group proposes three different levels of action, in which the recommendations of protein intake, fiber, fatty acids or potassium are different. In addition, we suggest using the phosphorus/protein ratio concept in adjusting the diet of the patient with CKD. We give recommendations regarding treatment in diabetes and artificial supplementation. Conclusions: these recommendations about dietary issues in patients with CKD can add value to clinical work.


Assuntos
Dieta , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/dietoterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Estado Nutricional
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(10): 2839-2847, 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829482

RESUMO

Fu brick tea is a unique post-fermented dark tea product which undergoes controlled fermentation by "golden flower" fungus Eurotium cristatum. This study examined the effects of Fu brick tea aqueous extract (FTE) to alleviate insulin resistance, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and its regulatory mechanism in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Sixteen-week administration of FTE at 400 mg/kg bw in rats significantly antagonized HFD-induced insulin resistance and CKD with elevations in serum leptin, TC, TG, LDL-C, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, and creatinine levels, respectively ( p < 0.05). FTE treatment decreased the glomerular area, the thickness of basement membrane of renal tubules, and kidney fibrosis in HFD-fed rats. FTE alleviated insulin resistance through down-regulation of SIRP-α expression and activation of the insulin signaling Akt/GLUT4, FoxO1, and mTOR/S6K1 pathways in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, FTE prevented the HFD-caused kidney dysfunction and lipid or collagen accumulation, which was accompanied by the inhibition of GSK-3ß phosphorylation and the action of PI3K/Akt and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 in kidney. These results indicated that FTE alleviated insulin resistance and CKD through modulating insulin signal transduction cascades in skeletal muscle and enhanced the Nrf2 expression in kidney.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Chá/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Chá/química
14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(3): 517-525, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate assessment of dietary intake is essential, but self-report of dietary intake is prone to measurement error and bias. Discovering metabolic consequences of diets with lower compared with higher protein intake could elucidate new, objective biomarkers of protein intake. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to identify serum metabolites associated with dietary protein intake. METHODS: Metabolites were measured with the use of untargeted, reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantification in serum specimens collected at the 12-mo follow-up visit in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study from 482 participants in study A (glomerular filtration rate: 25-55 mL · min-1 · 1.73 m-2) and 192 participants in study B (glomerular filtration rate: 13-24 mL · min-1 · 1.73 m-2). We used multivariable linear regression to test for differences in log-transformed metabolites (outcome) according to randomly assigned dietary protein intervention groups (exposure). Statistical significance was assessed at the Bonferroni-corrected threshold: 0.05/1193 = 4.2 × 10-5. RESULTS: In study A, 130 metabolites (83 known from 28 distinct pathways, including 7 amino acid pathways; 47 unknown) were significantly different between participants randomly assigned to the low-protein diet compared with the moderate-protein diet. In study B, 32 metabolites (22 known from 8 distinct pathways, including 4 amino acid pathways; 10 unknown) were significantly different between participants randomly assigned to the very-low-protein diet compared with the low-protein diet. A total of 11 known metabolites were significantly associated with protein intake in the same direction in both studies A and B: 3-methylhistidine, N-acetyl-3-methylhistidine, xanthurenate, isovalerylcarnitine, creatine, kynurenate, 1-(1-enyl-palmitoyl)-2-arachidonoyl-GPE (P-16:0/20:4), 1-(1-enyl-stearoyl)-2-arachidonoyl-GPE (P-18:0/20:4), 1-(1-enyl-palmitoyl)-2-arachidonoyl-GPC (P-16:0/20:4), sulfate, and γ-glutamylalanine. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with chronic kidney disease, an untargeted serum metabolomics platform identified multiple pathways and metabolites associated with dietary protein intake. Further research is necessary to characterize unknown compounds and to examine these metabolites in association with dietary protein intake among individuals without kidney disease.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03202914.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aminoácidos/sangue , Análise Química do Sangue , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(1): 183-217, ene.-feb. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183205

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: en el tratamiento dietético de los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) existen muchas áreas de incertidumbre. El grupo de trabajo GARIN tiene como objetivo definir su posición en este campo. Material y métodos: revisión bibliográfica previa y reunión presencial en la que se discutieron y contestaron preguntas específicas sobre el tema. Resultados: la actuación terapéutica debe ser individualizada y atendiendo al grado de enfermedad renal que presente el paciente y a sus comorbilidades. En cuanto a la terapia médica nutricional, nuestro grupo propone tres niveles diferentes de actuación, en los que las recomendaciones de ingesta proteica, fibra, ácidos grasos o potasio son distintas. Además, sugerimos utilizar el concepto ratio fósforo/proteína en el ajuste de la dieta del paciente con ERC. Damos recomendaciones en cuanto al tratamiento en diabetes y en suplementación artificial. Conclusiones: estas recomendaciones aportan respuestas concretas sobre cuestiones comunes en la asistencia a pacientes con ERC


Background and objectives: by means of this update, the GARIN working group aims to define its position regarding the dietary treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this area there are many aspects of uncertainty. Material and methods: bibliographical review and specific questions in advance were discussed and answered at a meeting in the form of conclusions. Results: the therapeutic action must be individualized and taking into account the degree of renal failure that the patient presents and their comorbidities. Regarding nutritional medical therapy, our group proposes three different levels of action, in which the recommendations of protein intake, fiber, fatty acids or potassium are different. In addition, we suggest using the phosphorus/protein ratio concept in adjusting the diet of the patient with CKD. We give recommendations regarding treatment in diabetes and artificial supplementation. Conclusions: these recommendations about dietary issues in patients with CKD can add value to clinical work


Assuntos
Humanos , Dieta , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/dietoterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Guias como Assunto , Estado Nutricional
16.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 66(1): 247-267, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454747

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease is an ongoing deterioration of renal function that often progresses to end-stage renal disease. Management goals in children include slowing disease progression, prevention and treatment of complications, and optimizing growth, development, and quality of life. Nutritional management is critically important to achieve these goals. Control of blood pressure, proteinuria, and metabolic acidosis with dietary and pharmacologic measures may slow progression of chronic kidney disease. Although significant progress in management has been made, further research is required to resolve many outstanding controversies. We review recent developments in pediatric chronic kidney disease, focusing on dietary measures to improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Qualidade de Vida , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia
17.
Kidney Int ; 95(1): 123-137, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455054

RESUMO

The kidneys consume a large amount of energy to regulate volume status and blood pressure and to excrete uremic toxins. The identification of factors that cause energy mismatch in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the development of interventions aimed at improving this mismatch are key research imperatives. Although the critical cellular energy sensor 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is known to be inactivated in CKD, the mechanism of AMPK dysregulation is unknown. In a mouse model of CKD, metabolome analysis confirmed a decrease in AMPK activation in the kidneys despite a high AMP: ATP ratio, suggesting that AMPK did not sense energy depletion. Similar AMPK inactivation was found in heart and skeletal muscle in CKD mice. Several uremic factors were shown to inactivate AMPK in vitro and in ex vivo preparations of kidney tissue. The specific AMPK activator A-769662, which bypasses the AMP sensing mechanism, ameliorated fibrosis and improved energy status in the kidneys of CKD mice, whereas an AMP analog did not. We further demonstrated that a low-protein diet activated AMPK independent of the AMP sensing mechanism, leading to improvement in energy metabolism and kidney fibrosis. These results suggest that a failure to sense AMP is the key mechanism underlying the vicious cycle of energy depletion and CKD progression and direct AMPK activation may be a novel therapeutic approach in CKD.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Rim/patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose/metabolismo , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Pironas/farmacologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia
18.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 73(2): 248-257, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149957

RESUMO

In experimental studies a low-protein diet (LPD) and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors are both reported to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and reduce proteinuria. RAAS activity contributes to increased blood pressure, fluid retention, and positive sodium balance, but also to kidney damage by enhancing glomerular capillary filtration pressure and synthesis of profibrotic molecules such as transforming growth factor ß. It has been well established that an LPD decreases glomerular hyperfiltration and the generation of uremic toxins, as well as the burden of acid load, phosphorus, and sodium. In different animal CKD models, a significant reduction in proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis has been achieved when an RAAS inhibitor and LPD were combined. To date, high-quality intervention trials investigating this combined strategy are lacking. We summarize the experimental and clinical studies that have examined a potential additive action of these therapies on CKD progression. We outline potential mechanisms of action and additive efficacy of an LPD and RAAS inhibitors in CKD, with a particular emphasis on phosphate levels, uremic toxin production, acid load, and salt intake. Finally, although the evidence is inadequate to recommend combining RAAS inhibitors and an LPD to slow the progression of CKD, we provide a perspective to support a large-scale randomized clinical trial to study this combination.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/métodos , Falência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Combinada , Gerenciamento Clínico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Papel (figurativo) , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Nutrients ; 10(12)2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544535

RESUMO

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are often instructed to adhere to a renal-specific diet depending on the severity and stage of their kidney disease. The prescribed diet may limit certain nutrients, such as phosphorus and potassium, or encourage the consumption of others, such as high biological value (HBV) proteins. Eggs are an inexpensive, easily available and high-quality source of protein, as well as a rich source of leucine, an essential amino acid that plays a role in muscle protein synthesis. However, egg yolk is a concentrated source of both phosphorus and the trimethylamine N-oxide precursor, choline, both of which may have potentially harmful effects in CKD. The yolk is also an abundant source of cholesterol which has been extensively studied for its effects on lipoprotein cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Efforts to reduce dietary cholesterol to manage dyslipidemia in dialysis patients (already following a renal diet) have not been shown to offer additional benefit. There is a paucity of data regarding the impact of egg consumption on lipid profiles of CKD patients. Additionally, egg consumption has not been associated with the risk of developing CKD based on epidemiological studies. The egg yolk also contains bioactive compounds, including lutein, zeaxanthin, and vitamin D, which may confer health benefits in CKD patients. Here we review research on egg intake and CKD, discuss both potential contraindications and favorable effects of egg consumption, and describe the need for further research examining egg intake and outcomes in the CKD and end-stage renal disease population.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ovos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo
20.
Nutrients ; 10(11)2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428524

RESUMO

Whether the effect of a low-protein diet on progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality risk differs between young and elderly adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. We conducted a retrospective CKD cohort study to investigate the association between protein intake and mortality or renal outcomes and whether age affects this association. The cohort comprised 352 patients with stage G3-5 CKD who had been followed up for a median 4.2 years, had undergone educational hospitalization, and for whom baseline protein intake was estimated from 24-h urine samples. We classified the patients into a very low protein intake (VLPI) group (<0.6 g/kg ideal body weight/day), a low protein intake (LPI) group (0.6⁻0.8 g), and a moderate protein intake (MPI) group (>0.8 g). Compared with the LPI group, the MPI group had a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 0.29; 95% confidence interval: 0.07 to 0.94) but a similar risk of ESRD, although relatively high protein intake was related to a faster decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate. When examined per age group, these results were observed only among the elderly patients, suggesting that the association between baseline dietary protein intake and all-cause mortality in patients with CKD is age-dependent.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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