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1.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 581-586, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825598

RESUMO

Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic, it has several specificities influencing its outcomes due to the entwinement of several factors, which anthropologists have called "syndemics". Drawing upon Singer and Clair's syndemics model, I focus on synergistic interaction among chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes, and COVID-19 in Pakistan. I argue that over 36 million people in Pakistan are standing at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19, developing severe complications, and losing their lives. These two diseases, but several other socio-cultural, economic, and political factors contributing to structured vulnerabilities, would function as confounders. To deal with the critical effects of these syndemics the government needs appropriate policies and their implementation during the pandemic and post-pandemic. To eliminate or at least minimize various vulnerabilities, Pakistan needs drastic changes, especially to overcome (formal) illiteracy, unemployment, poverty, gender difference, and rural and urban difference.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Sindemia , /prevenção & controle , Mudança Climática/economia , Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/economia , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Letramento em Saúde/economia , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , Política , Pobreza/economia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 21(2): 197-209, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439090

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Performance-based risk-sharing agreements (PBRSAs), between payers, health care providers, and technology manufacturers can be useful when there is uncertainty about the (cost-) effectiveness of a new technology or service. However, they can be challenging to design and implement. AREAS COVERED: A total of 18 performance-based agreements were identified through a literature review. All but two of the agreements identified were pay-for-performance schemes, agreed between providers and payers at the national level. No examples were found of agreements between health care providers and manufacturers at the local level. The potential for these local agreements was illustrated by hypothetical case studies of water quality management and an integrated chronic kidney disease program. EXPERT OPINION: Performance-based risk-sharing agreements can work to the advantage of patients, health care providers, payers, and technology manufacturers, particularly if they facilitate the introduction of technologies or systems of care that might not have been introduced otherwise. However, the design, conduct, and implementation of PBRSAs in renal care pose a number of challenges. Efforts should be made to overcome these challenges so that more renal care patients can benefit from technological advances and new models of care.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Participação no Risco Financeiro , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Reembolso de Incentivo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Incerteza , Qualidade da Água/normas
3.
PLoS Med ; 17(12): e1003478, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with reduced kidney function have increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We present a policy model that simulates individuals' long-term health outcomes and costs to inform strategies to reduce risks of kidney and CVDs in this population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a United Kingdom primary healthcare database, the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), linked with secondary healthcare and mortality data, to derive an open 2005-2013 cohort of adults (≥18 years of age) with reduced kidney function (≥2 measures of estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <90 mL/min/1.73 m2 ≥90 days apart). Data on individuals' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics at entry and outcomes (first occurrences of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and hospitalisation for heart failure; annual kidney disease stages; and cardiovascular and nonvascular deaths) during follow-up were extracted. The cohort was used to estimate risk equations for outcomes and develop a chronic kidney disease-cardiovascular disease (CKD-CVD) health outcomes model, a Markov state transition model simulating individuals' long-term outcomes, healthcare costs, and quality of life based on their characteristics at entry. Model-simulated cumulative risks of outcomes were compared with respective observed risks using a split-sample approach. To illustrate model value, we assess the benefits of partial (i.e., at 2013 levels) and optimal (i.e., fully compliant with clinical guidelines in 2019) use of cardioprotective medications. The cohort included 1.1 million individuals with reduced kidney function (median follow-up 4.9 years, 45% men, 19% with CVD, and 74% with only mildly decreased eGFR of 60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2 at entry). Age, kidney function status, and CVD events were the key determinants of subsequent morbidity and mortality. The model-simulated cumulative disease risks corresponded well to observed risks in participant categories by eGFR level. Without the use of cardioprotective medications, for 60- to 69-year-old individuals with mildly decreased eGFR (60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2), the model projected a further 22.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 21.8-22.3) years of life if without previous CVD and 18.6 (18.2-18.9) years if with CVD. Cardioprotective medication use at 2013 levels (29%-44% of indicated individuals without CVD; 64%-76% of those with CVD) was projected to increase their life expectancy by 0.19 (0.14-0.23) and 0.90 (0.50-1.21) years, respectively. At optimal cardioprotective medication use, the projected health gains in these individuals increased by further 0.33 (0.25-0.40) and 0.37 (0.20-0.50) years, respectively. Limitations include risk factor measurements from the UK routine primary care database and limited albuminuria measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The CKD-CVD policy model is a novel resource for projecting long-term health outcomes and assessing treatment strategies in people with reduced kidney function. The model indicates clear survival benefits with cardioprotective treatments in this population and scope for further benefits if use of these treatments is optimised.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Rim/fisiopatologia , Modelos Teóricos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/economia , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244437, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end stage renal disease. However, it is largely unavailable in many sub-Sahara African countries including Ghana. In Ghana, treatment for end stage renal disease including transplantation, is usually financed out-of-pocket. As efforts continue to be made to expand the kidney transplantation programme in Ghana, it remains unclear whether patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) would be willing to pay for a kidney transplant. AIM: The aim of the study was to assess CKD patients' willingness to pay for kidney transplantation as a treatment option for end stage renal disease in Ghana. METHODS: A facility based cross-sectional study conducted at the Renal Outpatient clinic and Dialysis Unit of Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital among 342 CKD patients 18 years and above including those receiving haemodialysis. A consecutive sampling approach was used to recruit patients. Structured questionnaires were administered to obtain information on demographic, socio-economic, knowledge about transplant, perception of transplantation and willingness to pay for transplant. In addition, the INSPIRIT questionnaire was used to assess patients' level of religiosity and spirituality. Contingent valuation method (CVM) method was used to assess willingness to pay (WTP) for kidney transplantation. Logistic regression model was used to determine the significant predictors of WTP. RESULTS: The average age of respondents was 50.2 ± 17.1 years with most (56.7% (194/342) being male. Overall, 90 out of the 342 study participants (26.3%, 95%CI: 21.7-31.3%) were willing to pay for a kidney transplant at the current going price (≥ $ 17,550) or more. The median amount participants were willing to pay below the current price was $986 (IQR: $197 -$1972). Among those willing to accept (67.3%, 230/342), 29.1% (67/230) were willing to pay for kidney transplant at the prevailing price. Wealth quintile, social support in terms of number of family friends one could talk to about personal issues and number of family members one can call on for help were the only factors identified to be significantly predictive of willingness to pay (p-value < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The overall willingness to pay for kidney transplant is low among chronic kidney disease patients attending Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Patients with higher socio-economic status and those with more family members one can call on for help were more likely to pay for kidney transplantation. The study's findings give policy makers an understanding of CKD patients circumstances regarding affordability of the medical management of CKD including kidney transplantation. This can help develop pricing models to attain an ideal poise between a cost effective but sustainable kidney transplant programme and improve patient access to this ultimate treatment option.


Assuntos
Financiamento Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Transplante de Rim/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231375, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the costs and distribution of healthcare spending of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) at stages 3 and 4 and on dialysis both at the individual and population level in Germany. METHODS: The study took the perspective of the German statutory health insurance (SHI) system and analyzed claims data on 3,687,015 insurees from the year 2014. To extrapolate costs to the whole SHI population, a literature search on the prevalence of CKD was conducted. RESULTS: Average costs per person per year in an age- and gender-matched control group of the normal population were €2,876 (95% confidence interval [CI], €2,798 to €2,955) and ≥2.8-fold higher in CKD patients (€8,030 [95% CI, €7,848 to €8,212] at CKD stage 3, €9,760 [95% CI, €9,266 to €10,255] at CKD stage 4, and €44,374 [95% CI, €43,608 to €45,139] on dialysis). At CKD stages 3 and 4 the major cost driver was hospitalizations, contributing to more than 50% of total expenditures. Among dialysis patients, hospitalizations and dialysis-treatment costs contributed to 23% and 53% of total healthcare spending, respectively. At CKD stages 3 and 4, patients with the highest 20% of healthcare spending showed a considerable increase in per-patient costs over the reference population, while the bottom 80% of patients generated only moderately higher per-patient costs (p < 0.001). Comparing total CKD costs to total SHI expenditures yields that 10.2% of SHI expenditures was driven by patients at CKD stages 3 and 4 and 1.6% by dialysis patients. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare spending of patients with CKD at stages 3 and 4 and on dialysis is concentrated among a small number of high-need patients. As hospitalizations and dialysis treatment are key drivers of total expenditures, strategies that lead to a reduction in hospitalizations, delay in dialysis onset, or increase in the availability of kidney donors should become important considerations by policymakers.


Assuntos
Custos e Análise de Custo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Alemanha , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Masculino , Diálise Renal/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230512, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208435

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects over 10% of the global population and poses significant challenges for societies and health care systems worldwide. To illustrate these challenges and inform cost-effectiveness analyses, we undertook a comprehensive systematic scoping review that explored costs, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and life expectancy (LE) amongst individuals with CKD. Costs were examined from a health system and societal perspective, and HRQoL was assessed from a societal and patient perspective. Papers published in English from 2015 onward found through a systematic search strategy formed the basis of the review. All costs were adjusted for inflation and expressed in US$ after correcting for purchasing power parity. From the health system perspective, progression from CKD stages 1-2 to CKD stages 3a-3b was associated with a 1.1-1.7 fold increase in per patient mean annual health care cost. The progression from CKD stage 3 to CKD stages 4-5 was associated with a 1.3-4.2 fold increase in costs, with the highest costs associated with end-stage renal disease at $20,110 to $100,593 per patient. Mean EuroQol-5D index scores ranged from 0.80 to 0.86 for CKD stages 1-3, and decreased to 0.73-0.79 for CKD stages 4-5. For treatment with renal replacement therapy, transplant recipients incurred lower costs and demonstrated higher HRQoL scores with longer LE compared to dialysis patients. The study has provided a comprehensive updated overview of the burden associated with different CKD stages and renal replacement therapy modalities across developed countries. These data will be useful for the assessment of new renal services/therapies in terms of cost-effectiveness.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Países Desenvolvidos/economia , Economia Médica , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/economia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Transplante de Rim/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/economia
8.
Int J Clin Pract ; 74(5): e13475, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909866

RESUMO

AIM: In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), hyperkalaemia (HK) (potassium level ≥ 5.0 mEq/L) is associated with poor clinical outcomes. This study provides novel insights by comparing management costs of CKD patients with normokalaemia vs those with persistent HK regularly followed in renal clinics in Italy. METHODS: To this aim, a Markov model over life-time horizon was developed. Time to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and time to death in CKD patients were derived from an observational multi-centre database including 1665 patients with non-dialysis CKD stage 1-5 under nephrology care in Italy (15 years follow-up). Resource use for CKD and HK management was obtained from the observational database, KDIGO international guidelines, and clinical expert opinion. RESULTS: Results showed that patients with normokalaemia vs persistent HK brought an average per patient lifetime cost-saving of €16 059 besides delayed onset of ESRD by 2.29 years and increased survival by 1.79 years with increment in total survival and dialysis-free survival in normokalaemia that decreased from early to advanced disease. Cost-saving related to normokalaemia increased at more advanced CKD; however, it was already evident at early stage (3388.97€ at stage 1-3a). OWSA confirmed cost-saving associated with normokalaemia across all parameter variations. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This model is the first to simulate the impact of HK in non-dialysis CKD patients on economic and clinical outcomes using real-world data from nephrology clinics. In these patients, persistent HK results into higher lifetime costs, besides poorer clinical outcomes, that are evident since the early stages of CKD. Maintaining normokalaemia should therefore be of main concern in CKD treatment planning to improve long-term economic and clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Hiperpotassemia/economia , Hiperpotassemia/terapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrologia/economia , Diálise Renal/economia
10.
Clin Nephrol ; 93(1): 100-102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397268

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects ~ 10% of the world population. In most developing nations, the costs for the treatment of CKD are met by patients. Data on the economic burden of early stages of CKD are scarce; few studies have evaluated the cost of management of CKD stages 3 - 5 in non-dialysis (ND) patients in an out-of-pocket expenditure system. This study estimated the direct, indirect, and global economic cost of management of CKD stages 3 - 5 ND patients in Yaoundé, Cameroon. It was 1-month retrospective cost analysis. Sampling was consecutive and exhaustive of CKD 3 - 5 ND patients. We evaluated direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs. 69 patients were included in the study, and the mean age was 55 years. The median monthly salary of the population was USD 162. Only 1.4% of patients had 100% health insurance coverage. The total cost of management was ~ USD 163. Direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs accounted for 86.4%, 7.1%, and 6.3%, respectively. That global cost was prohibitive to Cameroonians and was tantamount to 2.7 times the minimal wage in Cameroon.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Gastos em Saúde , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(1): 26-38, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120141

RESUMO

La presente es una ponencia presentada durante la realización del Seminario de Enfermedad Renal Crónica no Tradicional, celebrado en ciudad de Guatemala en junio de 2019. El mismo busca el enfoque de tal enfermedad desde una perspectiva económica de costos, y previsión en la seguridad social, buscando el ahorro de prestaciones pecuniarias en materia de discapacidad para los trabajadores de arduas tareas agrícolas estacionales, principalmente en la costa sur. El enfoque se efectúa desde el ámbito de la Economía Preventiva, y las experiencias en costos sociales del autor, concluyendo que tal enfermedad se encuentra en ascenso y amerita de políticas de salud curativa y preventiva, para impedir la discapacidad de trabajadores agrícolas muy jóvenes, quienes gracias a una resolución especial de la Junta Directiva del Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social (Igss), son cubiertos.


This paper is based on a lecture given at the Seminar on Chronis Kidney Disease of Unknown Cause, celebrated in Guatemala City, in June 2019. The focus is placed on the perspective of the preventive economy framework and the discipline of social and economic costs, this time associated with heat stress of labor in agricultural activities, and the measures taken by the Social Security Institute of Guatemala, aiming to protect the seasonal workers. The critic nature of the analysis allows to present some recommendations for the future of the social protection policies in Guatemala.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Previdência Social , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Seguro por Invalidez , Custos e Análise de Custo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Guatemala
12.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(1): 39-46, 2020. ^c27 cmilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120258

RESUMO

La flexibilidad laboral es característica de la producción estacional agroindustrial, cuyo principal problema es aprovechar con intensidad los períodos en los que se incrementa la producción. Pero, ¿cómo la demandante competitividad laboral influye en las estrategias de los trabajadores para incrementar su productividad? A partir de esta pregunta, se identificaron los aspectos económicos, sociales y laborales que inciden en la salud, así como las respuestas para disminuir el dolor físico y aumentar las exigencias de competitividad, flexibilización y desregularización del mercado de trabajo. La exposición ambiental y ocupacional en las condiciones de trabajo, el estrés térmico asociado a la deshidratación en la actividad física intensa, el limitado acceso a los servicios de salud, la mala alimentación y la pobre calidad de vida, también pueden producir otras enfermedades como diabetes e hipertensión, así como infecciones y lesiones renales. En ese contexto, en los últimos 20 años, se empezaron a reportar casos de enfermedad renal. La metodología cualitativa aplicada a este estudio, permitió llevar a cabo un proceso investigativo descriptivo e interpretativo sobre la forma en que los sujetos interactúan. Para ello se utilizaron las trayectorias laborales como técnicas en la recolección de datos. Los resultados arrojaron información relevante sobre las estrategias que los trabajadores utilizan para incrementar su rendimiento laboral, entre ellas la automedicación de vitaminas y analgésicos para tratar los espasmos musculares, que estimulan el sistema nervioso central, así como de bebidas saborizadas y energizantes con posibles repercusiones en la excreción renal.


Labor flexibility is characteristic of seasonal agroindustrial production whose main problem is to take advantage of the periods in which production increases. But, how does this demanding labor competitiveness influence workers' strategies to increase their productivity? From this question, the economic, social and labor aspects that affect health were identified, as well as the answers to reduce physical pain and increase the demands for competitiveness, flexibility and deregulation of the labor market. Environmental and occupational exposure in working conditions, thermal stress associated with dehydration in intense physical activity, limited access to health services, poor diet and quality of life, can also cause other diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, as well as infections and kidney lesions. In that context, in the last 20 years, cases of kidney disease began to be reported. The qualitative methodology applied to this study, allowed to carry out a descriptive and interpretive investigation process on the way in which the subjects interact, for this, the work trajectories were used as techniques in data collection. The results yielded relevant information on the strategies that workers use to increase their work performance, including self-medication of "vitamins" and analgesics to treat muscle spasms, drugs that stimulate the central nervous system, as well as flavored and energizing drinks with possible repercussions on renal excretion.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trabalhadores Rurais , Condições de Trabalho , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Automedicação , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Costa , Desidratação/complicações , Mercado de Trabalho , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Eliminação Renal , Desempenho Profissional , Guatemala , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos
13.
G Ital Nefrol ; 36(6)2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830394

RESUMO

Introduction: Over the last decades, sepsis has become a real medical emergency, with a high mortality rate and often requiring admission to an intensive care unit. An increasing number of CKD patients contracts sepsis due to several clinical risk factors (use of catheters, immunosuppressive therapy, comorbidity, etc.) and is treated in Nephrology wards, generating additional costs that are not covered by hospital Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) reimbursement. The aim of the study is to evaluate the costs of sepsis in one Nephrology Unit and to detect the mortality rate of CKD patients with sepsis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study on a cohort of CKD patients admitted into one Nephrology Unit in 2017. CKD inpatients were divided in two groups: patients with sepsis (SP) and without (control group). Socio-demographic, clinical and therapeutic data, as well as routine biochemistry, were collected through a "sepsis form". SP were identified thanks to hospital discharge records (HDR). The hospital-related costs of a SP were obtained by summing up: (1) the average cost of an inpatient day of care for the average length of stay in the Nephrology Unit; (2) the average cost of the antimicrobial therapy, as recorded on the clinical folder. Results: Among the 408 CKD inpatients, 61 were septic. The overall average cost of a SP was 23.087,57 €; the average cost of the hospital stay and of the antimicrobial therapy was 19.364,98 € and 3.722,60 € respectively. The average length of stay in the Nephrology Unit was 16.7 days. The in-hospital mortality rate was 41.7%, with a 312% additional mortality rate. Conclusions: SP had an overall average cost three times higher than CKD inpatients without sepsis (9.290,79 €). This additional cost was due to a longer hospital stay (8.7 days more on average) and a higher cost of antimicrobial therapy per case (€ 221,24). A national multi-centre study is needed to confirm our data and to promote an adjustment of reimbursement tariff for DRG-sepsis, which is now applicable only to an ICU setting.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hospitalização/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Sepse/economia , Sepse/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/complicações
14.
Nefrología (Madrid) ; 39(6): 653-663, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189888

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: La enfermedad renal crónica tiene una alta prevalencia y coste, así como un mayor riesgo de ingreso. Disponemos de registros públicos y obligatorios, pero no hay referencias recientes para estimar el impacto que el tratamiento sustitutivo renal (TSR) tiene en la actividad hospitalaria. MÉTODOS: Tras las autorizaciones pertinentes, hemos integrado las bases de datos REMER (2013-2014) y CMBDH (2013-2015) para analizar la actividad hospitalaria durante el primer año de TSR. RESULTADOS: Un total de 767 pacientes iniciaron TSR en los 7 hospitales de tercer nivel de la Comunidad de Madrid. Más de una tercera parte lo hicieron de forma no programada durante un ingreso. Este inicio es más frecuente en HD que en DP, pero existen diferencias clínicas relevantes en edad y en comorbilidad. Descartando este primer episodio, casi el 60% de pacientes ingresan durante el primer año. La tasa de ingreso es de 1,2 ingresos/paciente, más alta en HD que en TX y DP; la estancia media es de 8,6días. El coste agregado de los ingresos del primer año es de 12.006 €/paciente. Nuestro análisis asegura la inclusión exhaustiva de todos los episodios y la estimación precisa de costes. CONCLUSIONES: El impacto del TSR en la actividad hospitalaria ha sido infraestimado y es una parte importante del coste global del TSR. Los resultados de la literatura internacional no pueden extrapolarse a nuestro país por las diferencias en el modelo sanitario y perfil de paciente. La integración de bases de datos clínicas es técnicamente viable y podría abrir una vía inmensa de información que solo requiere apoyo institucional para su desarrollo


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic kidney disease has a high prevalence and economic impact, and an increased risk of hospitalization. Although there are public regional and country registries, we have not found references to estimate the impact of renal replacement therapy (RRT) on hospital admissions. METHODS: We obtained authorization from the ethics committee and health authorities to integrate the REMER [Madrid Kidney Disease Registry] (2013-2014) and Minimum Basic Data Set (2013-2015) databases and to analyze the admissions during the first year of RRT. RESULTS: 767 patients started RRT in all the hospitals of our region across all RRT modalities. More than a third of the patients start dialysis during a hospital admission. This unplanned start, more common in HD than PD, shows relevant differences in patient profile or admission characteristics. Without considering this initial episode, almost 60% of patients were admitted during their first year. The hospitalization rate was 1.2 admissions/patient, higher in HD than in TX or PD; the mean length of stay was 8.6 days. The estimated cost of admissions during the first year is €12,006/patient. Our analysis ensures the exhaustive inclusion of all episodes and accurate estimation based on the discharge form. CONCLUSION: The impact of RRT on hospitals has been underestimated and is very relevant when calculating the total cost of RRT. Results from other countries cannot be extrapolated due to differences in the health system and patient profile. The integration of clinical databases could open up an opportunity that needs only institutional support for its development


Assuntos
Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/economia , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Hospitalização/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Diálise Peritoneal/métodos
15.
Am J Manag Care ; 25(11): e326-e333, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To execute a chronic kidney disease (CKD) intervention to assess feasibility and preliminary outcomes for a health plan. STUDY DESIGN: This CKD quality improvement study was incorporated into an existing CareFirst primary care patient-centered medical home cohort with a pre- and postintervention assessment from July 1, 2015, to June 30, 2017. METHODS: The study targeted the population at risk for CKD with diabetes and/or hypertension by implementing a care plan according to the stratification by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (uACR) or CKD heat map class. RESULTS: The population included 7420 individuals (51.8% female) with a mean age of 55.9 years; 19.1% had diabetes only, 42.2% had hypertension only, and 38.2% had both conditions. Overall, there was no change in eGFR testing among risk groups (84.8%), but a small significant increase in uACR testing occurred (from 31.3% to 33.0%; P = .0020). Reductions in admissions per 1000 patients were from 362.5 to 249.0 for class 3, 311.7 to 219.2 for class 4, and 590.9 to 323.5 for class 5. Lastly, there were reductions in 30-day readmissions per 1000 patients, from 51.9 to 13.7 for class 4 and 45.5 to 0 for class 5. Although there were increases in many of the per-member per-month costs assessed pre- versus post intervention, net savings in medical costs were $276.80 and $480.79 for CKD classes 3 and 5, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This scalable CKD intervention demonstrated feasibility. For advanced CKD, decreased hospitalization and a reduction in several important costs were observed. These preliminary results support the stratification of laboratory data for CKD population health innovation in commercial health plans.


Assuntos
Seguro Saúde/tendências , Melhoria de Qualidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Doença Crônica , Controle de Custos , Complicações do Diabetes/economia , Complicações do Diabetes/terapia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Fatores de Risco
16.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 37(12): 1451-1468, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive condition that leads to irreversible damage to the kidneys and is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. As novel interventions become available, estimates of economic and clinical outcomes are needed to guide payer reimbursement decisions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to systematically review published economic models that simulated long-term outcomes of kidney disease to inform cost-effectiveness evaluations of CKD treatments. METHODS: The review was conducted across four databases (MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane library and EconLit) and health technology assessment agency websites. Relevant information on each model was extracted. Transition and mortality rates were also extracted to assess the choice of model parameterisation on disease progression by simulating patient's time with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and time to ESRD/death. The incorporation of cardiovascular disease in a population with CKD was qualitatively assessed across identified models. RESULTS: The search identified 101 models that met the criteria for inclusion. Models were classified into CKD models (n = 13), diabetes models with nephropathy (n = 48), ESRD-only models (n = 33) and cardiovascular models with CKD components (n = 7). Typically, published models utilised frameworks based on either (estimated or measured) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or albuminuria, in line with clinical guideline recommendations for the diagnosis and monitoring of CKD. Generally, two core structures were identified, either a microsimulation model involving albuminuria or a Markov model utilising CKD stages and a linear GFR decline (although further variations on these model structures were also identified). Analysis of parameter variability in CKD disease progression suggested that mean time to ESRD/death was relatively consistent across model types (CKD models 28.2 years; diabetes models with nephropathy 24.6 years). When evaluating time with ESRD, CKD models predicted extended ESRD survival over diabetes models with nephropathy (mean time with ESRD 8.0 vs. 3.8 years). DISCUSSION: This review provides an overview of how CKD is typically modelled. While common frameworks were identified, model structure varied, and no single model type was used for the modelling of patients with CKD. In addition, many of the current methods did not explicitly consider patient heterogeneity or underlying disease aetiology, except for diabetes. However, the variability of individual patients' GFR and albuminuria trajectories perhaps provides rationale for a model structure designed around the prediction of individual patients' GFR trajectories. Frameworks of future CKD models should be informed and justified based on clinical rationale and availability of data to ensure validity of model results. In addition, further clinical and observational research is warranted to provide a better understanding of prognostic factors and data sources to improve economic modelling accuracy in CKD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Nephrol Ther ; 15(6): 452-460, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640944

RESUMO

The number of new patients with chronic kidney diseases strongly increases while the one of nephrologists does not: this is developing new challenges, in which e-health will take a special part. This field is poorly investigated: so, we developed a dedicated survey. Telenephrology is a new approach that includes all what nephrologists can do in their routine practice: especially, telehealth with teleconsulting, telesurvey, and helpline. We also studied their relationship with m-health. The questionnaire was developed and validated by members from the Club des Jeunes Néphrologues and the Société Francophone de Néphrologie, Dialyse et Transplantation: it was then broadcast to all french nephrologists, thru web media. From June to July, 2017, we collected 175 answers: they represented all kinds of practices of the profession. Results show that French nephrologists are connected: most of them are present on social network(s) and/or uses connected objects, mostly for personal reasons. They communicate a lot, between them and/or with patients, mainly via email. Computerized medical records are mostly used in the follow-up of patients on renal dialysis or with chronic kidney diseases. Most of French nephrologists are satisfied by telenephrology but there are still obstacles to its deployment: mainly, technical, administrative, and/or billing difficulties. All should be taken into account to help telenephrology developing. In conclusion, French nephrologists are yet connected but they really need more help again to face new challenges raised by e-health.


Assuntos
Nefrologistas/psicologia , Nefrologia/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica , Prevalência , Prática Profissional , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Rede Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/economia , Telemedicina/organização & administração
18.
Adv Ther ; 36(11): 3253-3264, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489572

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis (HD) are at high risk of developing both iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). The administration of intravenous iron therefore represents the standard of care for the management of anemia in this patient setting. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 38 HD patients in Italy was analyzed to assess the clinical and economic implications of switching from intravenous ferric gluconate (FG) to ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) on achievement of adequate hemoglobin (Hb) values and iron balance. The total observational period for each patient was 12 months, 6 months before and 6 months after switching to iron FCM. The pharmacoeconomic analysis considered the hospital perspective and the consumption of iron, blood transfusions and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), including healthcare personnel time. RESULTS: Switching from FG to FCM in dialysis adult patients with IDA allows a cost reduction per patient/month in the range €14-46, considering the use of biosimilar ESA or originator ESA, respectively. The percentage of patients with Hb target values increased from 63% to 82%, considering the entire observation period. In addition, other clinical parameters (ferritin, transferrin saturation, erythropoietin resistance index) improved after switching from FG to FCM. CONCLUSION: FCM in HD patients was shown to provide a favorable efficacy profile over FG, with a lower cost per patient, mainly driven by a consistent reduction of ESA consumption. FUNDING: Vifor Pharma Italia Srl.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Ferropriva/economia , Compostos Férricos/economia , Hematínicos/economia , Maltose/economia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Compostos Férricos/uso terapêutico , Hematínicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Maltose/análogos & derivados , Maltose/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16808, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415394

RESUMO

Evidence-based studies have revealed outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease that differed depending on the design of care delivery. This study compared the effects of 3 types of nephrology care: multidisciplinary care (MDC), nephrology care, and non-nephrology care. We studied their effects on the risks of requiring dialysis and the differences between these methods had on long-term medical resource utilization and costs.We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of (eGFR) ≤45 mL/min/1.73 m from 2005 to 2007. Patients were divided into MDC, non-MDC, and non-nephrology referral groups. Between-group differences with regard to the risk of requiring dialysis and annual medical utilization and costs were evaluated using a 5-year follow-up period.In total, 661 patients were included. After other covariates and the competing risk of death were taken into account, we observed a significant (56%) reduction in the incidence of dialysis in both the MDC and non-MDC groups relative to the non-nephrology referral group. Costs were markedly lower in the MDC group relative to the other groups (average savings: US$ 830 per year; 95% confidence interval: 367-1295; P < .001).For patients without nephrology referrals, MDC can substantially reduce their risk of developing end-stage renal disease and lower their medical costs. We therefore strongly advocate that all patients with an eGFR of ≤45 mL/min/1.73 m should be referred to a nephrologist and receive MDC.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nefrologia/economia , Diálise Renal/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Idoso , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrologia/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 74(4): 463-473, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255335

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Prior studies suggesting that medical therapy is inferior to percutaneous (percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) or surgical (coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG]) coronary revascularization in chronic kidney disease (CKD) have not adequately considered medication optimization or baseline cardiovascular risk and have infrequently evaluated progression to kidney failure. We compared, separately, the risks for kidney failure and death after treatment with PCI, CABG, or optimized medical therapy for coronary disease among patients with CKD stratified by cardiovascular disease risk. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 34,385 individuals with CKD identified from a national 20% Medicare sample who underwent angiography or diagnostic stress testing without (low risk) or with (medium risk) prior cardiovascular disease or who presented with acute coronary syndrome (high risk). EXPOSURES: PCI, CABG, or optimized medical therapy (defined by the addition of cardiovascular medications in the absence of coronary revascularization). OUTCOMES: Death, kidney failure, composite outcome of death or kidney failure. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Adjusted relative rates of death, kidney failure, and the composite of death or kidney failure estimated from Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Among low-risk patients, 960 underwent PCI, 391 underwent CABG, and 6,426 received medical therapy alone; among medium-risk patients, 1,812 underwent PCI, 512 underwent CABG, and 9,984 received medical therapy alone; and among high-risk patients, 4,608 underwent PCI, 1,330 underwent CABG, and 8,362 received medical therapy alone. Among low- and medium-risk patients, neither CABG (HRs of 1.22 [95% CI, 0.96-1.53] and 1.08 [95% CI, 0.91-1.29] for low- and medium-risk patients, respectively) nor PCI (HRs of 1.14 [95% CI, 0.98-1.33] and 1.02 [95% CI, 0.93-1.12], respectively) were associated with reduced mortality compared with medical therapy, but in low-risk patients, CABG was associated with a higher rate of the composite, death or kidney failure (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.53). In high-risk patients, CABG and PCI were associated with lower mortality (HRs of 0.57 [95% CI, 0.51-0.63] and 0.70 [95% CI, 0.66-0.74], respectively). Also, in high-risk patients, CABG was associated with a higher rate of kidney failure (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.16-1.69). LIMITATIONS: Possible residual confounding; lack of data for coronary angiography or left ventricular ejection fraction; possible differences in decreased kidney function severity between therapy groups. CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes associated with cardiovascular therapies among patients with CKD differed by baseline cardiovascular risk. Coronary revascularization was not associated with improved survival in low-risk patients, but was associated with improved survival in high-risk patients despite a greater observed rate of kidney failure. These findings may inform clinical decision making in the care of patients with both CKD and cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Medicare/tendências , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/tendências , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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