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1.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 365-373, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686830

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a major public health problem in the USA and worldwide. A large majority of patients with CKD have mild to moderate disease and microalbuminuria. It has increasingly been noted that patients with CKD have a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes compared to patients with normal kidney function. Many studies have shown increased risk beginning at stage 3 CKD but risk has been elevated in patients with milder degrees of kidney dysfunction in some studies. This risk may be better predicted by the degree of albuminuria in the earlier stages of CKD. Data addressing interventions to improve outcomes in patients with mild to moderate CKD are scarce. In this paper, we examined data and post hoc analyses from the ORIGIN and ACCORD trials. Data indicate that intensive treatment of diabetes in patients with CKD actually may result in adverse outcomes. The mechanism by which CKD results in increased cardiovascular risk is not clear. Patients with CKD frequently have the traditional risk factors that cause cardiovascular disease and there are mechanisms that are unique to CKD that promote the development of cardiovascular disease. In this article, we describe in some detail traditional, newer and novel risk factors that play a role in the development of CKD and heart disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Prognóstico , Proteinúria/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
2.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 18(11): 1043-1053, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498687

RESUMO

Introduction: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide. However, concerns are growing about the serious adverse events and mortality linked to their long-term use. Areas covered: The authors review the main approved clinical indications and adverse events associated with PPIs, including, among others, pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, cardiovascular diseases, bone fractures, kidney diseases, and several nutrient deficiencies. Recent studies have reported that patients taking PPIs displayed increased mortality, linked to cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal malignancies, and chronic kidney diseases. Expert opinion: PPIs represent an important advance in the medical treatment of acid-related diseases. PPIs have contributed to profound reductions in hospitalizations and mortality due to upper GI complications. However, concern is growing about the wide range of potentially serious adverse events and mortality linked to chronic PPI use. Nevertheless, the level of evidence on adverse events is low; it is based on observational studies, and most findings have not been confirmed in the limited number of clinical trials available. PPI overuse and off-label prescriptions must be eradicated, but long-term PPI use for clear indications must continue, until we have stronger evidence to support claims of serious adverse events and mortality.


Assuntos
Uso Off-Label/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso Excessivo de Medicamentos Prescritos/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/etiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/mortalidade , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012379, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high morbidity and death, which increases as CKD progresses to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). There has been increasing interest in developing innovative, effective and cost-efficient methods to engage with patient populations and improve health behaviours and outcomes. Worldwide there has been a tremendous increase in the use of technologies, with increasing interest in using eHealth interventions to improve patient access to relevant health information, enhance the quality of healthcare and encourage the adoption of healthy behaviours. OBJECTIVES: This review aims to evaluate the benefits and harms of using eHealth interventions to change health behaviours in people with CKD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Register of Studies up to 14 January 2019 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies in the Register are identified through searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, conference proceedings, the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs using an eHealth intervention to promote behaviour change in people with CKD were included. There were no restrictions on outcomes, language or publication type. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 43 studies with 6617 participants that evaluated the impact of an eHealth intervention in people with CKD. Included studies were heterogeneous in terms of eHealth modalities employed, type of intervention, CKD population studied and outcomes assessed. The majority of studies (39 studies) were conducted in an adult population, with 16 studies (37%) conducted in those on dialysis, 11 studies (26%) in the pre-dialysis population, 15 studies (35%) in transplant recipients and 1 studies (2%) in transplant candidates We identified six different eHealth modalities including: Telehealth; mobile or tablet application; text or email messages; electronic monitors; internet/websites; and video or DVD. Three studies used a combination of eHealth interventions. Interventions were categorised into six types: educational; reminder systems; self-monitoring; behavioural counselling; clinical decision-aid; and mixed intervention types. We identified 98 outcomes, which were categorised into nine domains: blood pressure (9 studies); biochemical parameters (6 studies); clinical end-points (16 studies); dietary intake (3 studies); quality of life (9 studies); medication adherence (10 studies); behaviour (7 studies); physical activity (1 study); and cost-effectiveness (7 studies).Only three outcomes could be meta-analysed as there was substantial heterogeneity with respect to study population and eHealth modalities utilised. There was found to be a reduction in interdialytic weight gain of 0.13kg (4 studies, 335 participants: MD -0.13, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.01; I2 = 0%) and a reduction in dietary sodium intake of 197 mg/day (2 studies, 181 participants: MD -197, 95% CI -540.7 to 146.8; I2 = 0%). Both dietary sodium and fluid management outcomes were graded as being of low evidence due to high or unclear risk of bias and indirectness (interdialytic weight gain) and high or unclear risk of bias and imprecision (dietary sodium intake). Three studies reported death (2799 participants, 146 events), with 45 deaths/1000 cases compared to standard care of 61 deaths/1000 cases (RR 0.74, CI 0.53 to 1.03; P = 0.08). We are uncertain whether using eHealth interventions, in addition to usual care, impact on the number of deaths as the certainty of this evidence was graded as low due to high or unclear risk of bias, indirectness and imprecision. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: eHealth interventions may improve the management of dietary sodium intake and fluid management. However, overall these data suggest that current evidence for the use of eHealth interventions in the CKD population is of low quality, with uncertain effects due to methodological limitations and heterogeneity of eHealth modalities and intervention types. Our review has highlighted the need for robust, high quality research that reports a core (minimum) data set to enable meaningful evaluation of the literature.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Telemedicina , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sistemas de Alerta
4.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 44(4): 690-703, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit a highly increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Subtle changes in left ventricular function can be detected by two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). This study investigated whether myocardial dysfunction detected by 2D STE may aid in CV and all-cause mortality risk assessment in patients with CKD stages 3 and 4. METHOD: A study group of 285 patients (CKD 3: 193 patients; CKD 4: 92 patients) and a healthy control group (34 participants) were included in the retrospective study. 2D STE values as well as early and late diastolic strain rates were measured in ventricular longitudinal, circumferential and radial directions. Patients' CV and all-cause outcome was determined. RESULTS: In the CKD group all measured longitudinal STE values and radial strain were significantly reduced compared to the control group. Cox proportional hazards regression revealed global longitudinal strain to predict CV and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.25; p = 0.0008 and HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.14; p = 0.0003). After adjustment for sex, age, diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and preexisting CV disease, this association was maintained for CV mortality and all-cause mortality (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.06-1.27; p = 0.0019 and HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03-1.14; p = 0.0026, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that 2D STE detects reduced left ventricular myocardial function and allows the prediction of CV and all-cause mortality in patients at CKD stages 3 and 4.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Função Ventricular Esquerda
5.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 872-879, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378102

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but clinical kidney measures (estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria) do not fully reflect the multiple aspects of kidney tubules influencing cardiovascular health. Applied methods are needed to integrate numerous tubule biomarkers into useful prognostic scores. In SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) participants with chronic kidney disease at baseline (estimated glomerular filtration ratecr&cys <60 mL/minute per 1.73 m2), we measured 8 biomarkers from urine (α1M [α1M microglobulin], ß2M [ß2M microglobulin], umod [uromodulin], KIM-1 [kidney injury molecule-1], MCP-1 [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1], YKL-40 [chitinase-3-like protein-1], NGAL [neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin], and IL-18 [interleukin 18]) and 2 biomarkers from serum (intact parathyroid hormone, iFGF-23 [intact fibroblast growth factor-23]). We used an unsupervised method, exploratory factor analysis, to create summary scores of tubule health dimensions. Adjusted Cox models evaluated each tubule score with CVD events, heart failure, and all-cause mortality. We examined CVD discrimination using Harrell C-statistic. Factor analysis of 10 biomarkers from 2376 SPRINT-chronic kidney disease participants identified 4 unique dimensions of tubular health: tubule injury/repair (NGAL, IL-18, YKL-40), tubule injury/fibrosis (KIM-1, MCP-1), tubule reabsorption (α1M, ß2M), and tubular reserve/mineral metabolism (umod, intact parathyroid hormone, iFGF-23). After adjustment for CVD risk factors, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio, 2 of the 4 tubule scores were associated with CVD (hazard ratio per SD; reabsorption, 1.21 [1.06-1.38]; reserve, 1.24 (1.08-1.38]), 1 with heart failure (reserve, 1.41 [1.13-1.74]), and none with mortality. Compared with a base model (C-statistic=0.674), adding estimated glomerular filtration rate and albumin-to-creatinine ratio improved the C-statistic (C=0.704; P=0.001); further adding tubule scores additionally improved the C-statistic (C=0.719; P=0.009). In the setting of chronic kidney disease, dimensions of tubule health quantified using factor analysis improved CVD discrimination beyond contemporary kidney measures. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01206062.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Creatinina/metabolismo , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
6.
Vasc Med ; 24(5): 422-430, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339474

RESUMO

In patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD), the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on major adverse cardiovascular events has not been fully evaluated. The Examining Use of Ticagrelor In PAD (EUCLID) trial randomized 13,885 patients with PAD to ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily or clopidogrel 75 mg daily. This post hoc analysis compared the incidence of the primary composite endpoint (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), or ischemic stroke) in patients with CKD (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) with those without CKD (eGFR ⩾ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). The primary safety endpoint was thrombolysis in MI (TIMI) major bleeding. A total of 13,483 patients were included; 3332 (25%) had CKD, of whom 237 had stage 4/5 disease. Median follow-up was approximately 30 months. After statistical adjustment, patients with CKD had a higher rate of the primary endpoint compared with those without CKD (6.75 vs 3.72 events/100 patient-years; adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.45, 95% CI 1.30-1.63). CKD was not associated with increased risk of hospitalization for acute limb ischemia (ALI) (adjusted HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.69-1.34) or major amputation (adjusted HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.66-1.28). CKD was not associated with a significantly increased risk of major bleeding (adjusted HR 1.21, 95% CI 0.89-1.64), but minor bleeding was significantly increased (adjusted HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.07-2.15). In conclusion, patients with PAD and CKD had higher rates of cardiovascular death, MI, and ischemic stroke, but similar rates of ALI, major amputation, and TIMI major bleeding when compared with patients without CKD. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01732822.


Assuntos
Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Isquemia/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/fisiopatologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Ticagrelor/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amputação , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/mortalidade , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Clin Nephrol ; 92(4): 180-189, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347494

RESUMO

AIM: Some reports claim that intravenous iron supplements reduce serum phosphate levels in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), including those on dialysis. However, whether divalent oral iron supplements influence serum phosphate levels in patients with CKD remains unclear; thus, this study aimed to address this topic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study database was derived from the Aichi Cohort Study of Prognosis in Patients Newly Initiated into Dialysis (AICOPP), which is a multicenter, prospective, cohort study. Patients were classified into two groups: those who received iron orally (iron group, n = 255) from pre-dialysis to dialysis initiation and those who did not receive iron supplements (no-iron group, n = 1,261). Moreover, patients were classified into two groups (255 patients in each) by propensity score (PS) matching. We compared serum phosphate level at dialysis initiation and all-cause mortality. Multivariate regression analysis was used to extract factors contributing to serum phosphate level at dialysis initiation through a stepwise method. RESULTS: Serum phosphate levels at dialysis initiation were significantly lower in the iron group (all cohort, 6.0 ± 1.6 vs. 6.4 ± 1.9 mg/dL, p = 0.001; PS-matched cohort, 6.0 ± 1.6 vs. 6.5 ± 1.7 mg/dL, p = 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that oral iron supplementation was significantly correlated to serum phosphate level (p = 0.023). There were no significant differences in all-cause mortality after dialysis initiation. CONCLUSION: This study showed that oral ferrous citrate or ferrous sulfate use during predialysis was associated with differences in serum phosphate level at dialysis initiation.


Assuntos
Compostos Ferrosos/administração & dosagem , Fosfatos/sangue , Diálise Renal , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
8.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 34(3): 279-284, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the operative mortality rate and outcomes of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) between young and geriatric people in a single center. METHODS: Eighty-five patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms who underwent EVAR between January 2012 and September 2016 were included. Outcomes were compared between two groups: the young (aged < 65 years) and the geriatric (aged ≥ 65 years). The primary study outcome was technical success; the secondary endpoints were mortality and secondary interventions. The mean follow-up time was 36 months (3-60 months). RESULTS: The study included 72 males and 13 females with a mean age of 71.08±8.6 years (range 49-85 years). Of the 85 patients analyzed, 18 (21.2%) were under 65 years old and 67 patients (78.8%) were over 65 years old. There was no statistically significant correlation between chronic disease and age. We found no statistically significant difference between aneurysm diameter, neck angle, neck length, or right and left iliac angles. The secondary intervention rate was 7% (six patients). The conversion to open surgery was necessary for only one patient and only three deaths were reported (3.5%). There was no statistically significant difference in the mortality and reintervention rates between the age groups. The three deaths occurred only in the geriatric group and two died secondary to rupture. Kidney failure was observed in three patients in the geriatric group (4.5%). CONCLUSION: Our single-center experience shows that EVAR can be used safely in both young and geriatric patients.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/cirurgia , Valores de Referência , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 20(1): 41, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant health burden that increases the risk of adverse events. Currently, there is no validated models to predict risk of mortality among CKD patients experienced adverse drug reactions (ADRs) during hospitalization. This study aimed to develop a mortality risk prediction model among hospitalized CKD patients whom experienced ADRs. METHODS: Patients data with CKD stages 3-5 admitted at various wards were included in the model development. The data collected included demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, laboratory tests and types of medicines taken. Sequential series of logistic regression models using mortality as the dependent variable were developed. Bootstrapping method was used to evaluate the model's internal validation. Variables odd ratio (OR) of the best model were used to calculate the predictive capacity of the risk scores using the area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: The best prediction model included comorbidities heart disease, dyslipidaemia and electrolyte imbalance; psychotic agents; creatinine kinase; number of total medication use; and conservative management (Hosmer and Lemeshow test =0.643). Model performance was relatively modest (R square = 0.399) and AUC which determines the risk score's ability to predict mortality associated with ADRs was 0.789 (95% CI, 0.700-0.878). Creatinine kinase, followed by psychotic agents and electrolyte disorder, was most strongly associated with mortality after ADRs during hospitalization. This model correctly predicts 71.4% of all mortality pertaining to ADRs (sensitivity) and with specificity of 77.3%. CONCLUSION: Mortality prediction model among hospitalized stages 3 to 5 CKD patients experienced ADR was developed in this study. This prediction model adds new knowledge to the healthcare system despite its modest performance coupled with its high sensitivity and specificity. This tool is clinically useful and effective in identifying potential CKD patients at high risk of ADR-related mortality during hospitalization using routinely performed clinical data.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/mortalidade , Modelos Logísticos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357472

RESUMO

Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and its enantiomer, Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), are naturally occurring amino acids that were first isolated and characterized in human urine in 1970. ADMA is the most potent endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), with higher levels in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). ADMA has shown to be a significant predictor of cardiovascular outcome and mortality among dialysis patients. On the other hand, although initially SDMA was thought to be an innocuous molecule, we now know that it is an outstanding marker of renal function both in human and in animal models, with ESRD patients on dialysis showing the highest SDMA levels. Today, we know that ADMA and SDMA are not only uremic toxins but also independent risk markers for mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, we summarize the role of both ADMA and SDMA in chronic kidney disease along with other cardiovascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Arginina/análogos & derivados , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Arginina/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Prognóstico , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
12.
BMJ ; 365: l1580, 2019 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate all cause mortality and cause specific mortality among patients taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). DESIGN: Longitudinal observational cohort study. SETTING: US Department of Veterans Affairs. PARTICIPANTS: New users of PPIs (n=157 625) or H2 blockers (n=56 842). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality and cause specific mortality associated with taking PPIs (values reported as number of attributable deaths per 1000 patients taking PPIs). RESULTS: There were 45.20 excess deaths (95% confidence interval 28.20 to 61.40) per 1000 patients taking PPIs. Circulatory system diseases (number of attributable deaths per 1000 patients taking PPIs 17.47, 95% confidence interval 5.47 to 28.80), neoplasms (12.94, 1.24 to 24.28), infectious and parasitic diseases (4.20, 1.57 to 7.02), and genitourinary system diseases (6.25, 3.22 to 9.24) were associated with taking PPIs. There was a graded relation between cumulative duration of PPI exposure and the risk of all cause mortality and death due to circulatory system diseases, neoplasms, and genitourinary system diseases. Analyses of subcauses of death suggested that taking PPIs was associated with an excess mortality due to cardiovascular disease (15.48, 5.02 to 25.19) and chronic kidney disease (4.19, 1.56 to 6.58). Among patients without documented indication for acid suppression drugs (n=116 377), taking PPIs was associated with an excess mortality due to cardiovascular disease (22.91, 11.89 to 33.57), chronic kidney disease (4.74, 1.53 to 8.05), and upper gastrointestinal cancer (3.12, 0.91 to 5.44). Formal interaction analyses suggested that the risk of death due to these subcauses was not modified by a history of cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, or upper gastrointestinal cancer. Taking PPIs was not associated with an excess burden of transportation related mortality and death due to peptic ulcer disease (as negative outcome controls). CONCLUSIONS: Taking PPIs is associated with a small excess of cause specific mortality including death due to cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and upper gastrointestinal cancer. The burden was also observed in patients without an indication for PPI use. Heightened vigilance in the use of PPI may be warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/mortalidade , Úlcera Péptica/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Saúde dos Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234433

RESUMO

A valid diet quality assessment scale has not been investigated in hemodialysis patients. We aimed to adapt and validate the alternative healthy eating index in hemodialysis patients (AHEI-HD), and investigate its associations with all-cause mortality. A prospective study was conducted on 370 hemodialysis patients from seven hospital-based dialysis centers. Dietary data (using three independent 24-hour dietary records), clinical and laboratory parameters were collected. The construct and criterion validity of original AHEI-2010 with 11 items and the AHEI-HD with 16 items were examined. Both scales showed reasonable item-scale correlations and satisfactory discriminant validity. The AHEI-HD demonstrated a weaker correlation with energy intake compared with AHEI-2010. Principle component analysis yielded the plateau scree plot line in AHEI-HD but not in AHEI-2010. In comparison with patients in lowest diet quality (tertile 1), those in highest diet quality (tertile 3) had significantly lower risk for death, with a hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of HR: 0.40; 95%CI: 0.18 - 0.90; p = 0.028, as measured by AHEI-2010, and HR: 0.37; 95%CI: 0.17-0.82; p = 0.014 as measured by AHEI-HD, respectively. In conclusion, AHEI-HD was shown to have greater advantages than AHEI-2010. AHEI-HD was suggested for assessments of diet quality in hemodialysis patients.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Idoso , /mortalidade , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Ren Fail ; 41(1): 567-575, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234684

RESUMO

Background: Frailty is an aging-associated state of increased vulnerability, which raises the risk of adverse outcomes. Chronic kidney disease is associated with higher prevalence of frailty. Our aim was to estimate frailty prevalence in a hemodialysis population and its influence on short-term outcomes. Design: Observational prospective longitudinal study of 277 prevalent hemodialysis patients. Frailty was estimated through the Edmonton Frail Scale (EFS). Demographic and clinical data, comorbidity index, and laboratory parameters were recorded. A 29-month follow-up was conducted on mortality, including hospitalization, and visits to hospital emergency services in the first 12 months of this period. Results: According to the EFS, 82 patients (29.6%) were frail, 53 (19.1%) were vulnerable, and 142 (51.3%) were non-frail. During follow-up, 58.5% frail patients, 30.2% vulnerable, and 16.2% non-frail ones died (p < .005). In the analysis of survival using an adjusted Cox model, a higher hazard of mortality was observed in frail than in non-frail patients (HR 2.34; 95% CI 1.39-3.95; p = .001). During follow-up the hospitalization rate was 852 episodes/1000 patient-years for frail patients, 784 episodes/1000 patient-years for vulnerable patients, and 417 episodes/1000 patient-years for non-frail patients (p = .0005). The incidence ratio of visits to emergency services was 3216, 1735, and 1545 visits/1000 patient-years for each group (p < .001). Conclusions: Hemodialysis patients present high frailty prevalence. Frailty is associated with poor short-term outcomes and higher rates of mortality, visits to hospital emergency services, and hospitalization.


Assuntos
Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/etiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 323-330, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177906

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite statins, many patients fail to adequately lower lipids and remain at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Selective ETA (endothelin-A) receptor antagonists reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors. Preclinical data suggest that ETA antagonism has beneficial effects on circulating lipids. We assessed the effects of selective ETA antagonism on circulating lipids and PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) in CKD. This was a secondary analysis of a fully randomized, double-blind, 3-phase crossover study. Twenty-seven subjects with predialysis CKD on optimal cardio- and renoprotective treatment were randomly assigned to receive 6 weeks dosing with placebo, the selective ETA receptor antagonist, sitaxentan, or long-acting nifedipine. We measured circulating lipids and PCSK9 at baseline and then after 3 and 6 weeks. Baseline lipids and PCSK9 did not differ before each study phase. Whereas placebo and nifedipine had no effect on lipids, 6 weeks of ETA antagonism significantly reduced total (-11±1%) and low-density lipoprotein-associated (-20±3%) cholesterol, lipoprotein (a) (-16±2%) and triglycerides (-20±4%); high-density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol increased (+14±2%), P<0.05 versus baseline for all. Additionally, ETA receptor antagonism, but neither placebo nor nifedipine, reduced circulating PCSK9 (-19±2%; P<0.001 versus baseline; P<0.05 versus nifedipine and placebo). These effects were independent of statin use and changes in blood pressure or proteinuria. Selective ETA antagonism improves lipid profiles in optimally-managed patients with CKD, effects that may occur through a reduction in circulating PCSK9. ETA receptor antagonism offers a potentially novel strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in CKD. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00810732.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Antagonistas do Receptor de Endotelina A/uso terapêutico , Nifedipino/administração & dosagem , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Acta méd. costarric ; 61(2): 62-67, abr.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001117

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: conocer la sobrevida del programa de trasplante renal en el Hospital Nacional de Niños, de enero 1978 a enero 2016. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo, en niños que recibieron un trasplante renal. Se recopiló la información de los expedientes clínicos. Se incluyeron pacientes menores de edad que tuvieran un injerto viable por al menos tres meses, pacientes con expediente pasivo completo y que brindaran el consentimiento informado. Resultados: se recopiló un total de 152 pacientes, y se incluyeron 143 en el estudio, ya que 9fueron excluidos. El 51 % (n= 73) fueron mujeres. Se realizó 167 trasplantes renales, el 63,5 % (n=105) fue de injertos provenientes de donante vivo relacionado. La sobrevida al primer año fue del 100 %, el 95 % a los 10 años y el 61% a los 20 años del trasplante. En cuanto a la sobrevida del injerto, se encontró una sobrevida al primer año del 95 %, del 76 % a los 3 años y del 73 % a los 5 años después del trasplante, con una incidencia de rechazo agudo del 28,7 %. Conclusión: el trasplante renal en niños es un procedimiento muy complejo donde la sobrevida depende de múltiples factores ambientales y adquiridos; sin embargo, sí es posible que centros pediátricos como el nuestro puedan llegar a alcanzar porcentajes de sobrevida acordes a los de centros de países desarrollados.


Abstract Objective: to know the survival of the renal transplant program at the National Children's Hospital, from January 1978 to January 2016. Methods: retrospective and descriptive study in children who received a kidney transplant. The information was compiled from the clinical files. We included children who had a viable graft for at least three months, patients with a complete passive file and who provided informed consent. Results: A total of 152 patients were collected, and 143 were included in the study, since 9 were excluded. 51% (n = 73) were women. A total of 167 kidney transplants were performed, 63.5% (n = 105) were grafts from a related living donor. Survival at the first year was 100%, 95% at 10 years and 61% at 20 years after transplantation. Regarding the survival of the graft, a survival rate of 95% was found in the first year, 76% at 3 years and 73% at 5 years after transplantation, with an incidence of acute rejection of 28.7%. Conclusions: Kidney transplantation in children is a very complex procedure where survival depends on multiple environmental factors and / or acquired, however it is possible that pediatric centers like ours can reach survival rates according to centers in developed countries.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Transplante de Rim/estatística & dados numéricos , Costa Rica , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Hospitais Pediátricos
17.
Amino Acids ; 51(6): 977-982, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049693

RESUMO

High plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and low homoarginine (hArg) predict adverse renal and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. In patients with chronic kidney disease and stable coronary artery disease, plasma OPG correlated with hArg (r = - 0.37, P = 0.03) and the hArg/ADMA molar ratio (r = - 0.46, P = 0.009), which was maintained upon adjustment for renal function. Elevated OPG levels and decreased hArg/ADMA ratios independently predicted 4-year composite CV and renal endpoints (CV death or progression to dialysis). Thus, high OPG and low hArg/ADMA ratio, albeit interrelated, appear to independently contribute to adverse clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Arginina/análogos & derivados , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Homoarginina/sangue , Osteoprotegerina/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Idoso , Arginina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia
18.
Hypertension ; 73(6): 1275-1282, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067189

RESUMO

Hypertension is highly prevalent and morbid in the chronic kidney disease population, and blood pressure (BP) targets for this population are unclear. We aimed to compare all-cause mortality outcomes with intensively targeting systolic BP to <130 mm Hg versus a standard of <140 mm Hg. Individual patient data from 4983 chronic kidney disease patients with hypertension were pooled from 4 multicenter randomized control trials-AASK (African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension), ACCORD (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes), MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease), and the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial). Patients were assigned their trial-assigned randomized intervention group-standard (n=2474) versus intensive (n=2509) BP targets. Additional analyses included excluding patients with a glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 along with those undergoing intensive glycemic control. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Average achieved BP was 125.0 mm Hg in the intensive group and 136.9 mm Hg in the standard group. In the primary analysis, the all-cause mortality rate trended towards improved outcomes with intensive treatment but was not statistically significant (hazard ratio: 0.87 [0.69-1.08]; P=0.21). One hundred seventy-three of 2474 patients (1.95% per year) in the standard group and 153 of 2509 patients (1.71% per year) in the intensive group died. After excluding patients with higher glomerular filtration rate values and those undergoing intensive glycemic control, there was a statistically significant decrease in all-cause mortality rate (hazard ratio: 0.79 [0.63-1.00]; P=0.048). An intensive BP target of <130 mm Hg decreases all-cause mortality when compared with a standard target of <140 mm Hg in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 or greater who are not undergoing intensive glycemic therapy.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Causas de Morte/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Ann Transplant ; 24: 273-290, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Prognostic models for 3-year mortality after kidney transplantation based on pre-transplant donor and recipient variables may avoid futility and thus improve donor organ allocation. MATERIAL AND METHODS There were 1546 consecutive deceased-donor kidney transplants in adults (January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2012) used to identify pre-transplant donor and recipient variables with significant independent influence on long-term survival (Cox regression modelling). Detected factors were used to develop a prognostic model for 3-year mortality in 1289 patients with follow-up of >3 years (multivariable logistic regression). The sensitivity and specificity of this model's prognostic ability was assessed with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). RESULTS Highly immunized recipients [hazard ratio (HR: 2.579, 95% CI: 1.272-4.631], high urgency recipients (HR: 3.062, 95% CI: 1.294-6.082), recipients with diabetic nephropathy (HR: 3.471, 95% CI: 2.476-4.751), as well as 0, 1, or 2 HLA DR mismatches (HR: 1.349, 95% CI: 1.160-1.569) were independent and significant risk factors for patient survival. Younger recipient age ≤42.1 years (HR: 0.137, 95% CI: 0.090-0.203), recipient age 42.2-52.8 years (HR: 0.374, 95% CI: 0.278-0.498), recipient age 52.9-62.8 years (HR: 0.553, 95% CI: 0.421-0.723), short cold ischemic times ≤11.8 hours (HR: 0.602, 95% CI: 0.438-0.814) and cold ischemic times 11.9-15.3 hours (HR: 0.736, 95% CI: 0.557-0.962) reduced this risk independently and significantly. The AUROC of the derived model for 3-year post-transplant mortality with these variables was 0.748 (95% CI: 0.689-0.788). CONCLUSIONS Older, highly immunized or high urgency transplant candidates with anticipated longer cold ischemic times, who were transplanted with the indication of diabetic nephropathy should receive donor organs with no HLA DR mismatches to improve their mortality risk.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Isquemia Fria , Nefropatias Diabéticas/complicações , Feminino , Seguimentos , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Transplantados
20.
Ann Hematol ; 98(7): 1627-1640, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089794

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate the incidence of chronic renal injury in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP) receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and to identify the associated factors. Data for CML-CP patients with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and receiving TKI therapy ≥ 3 months were retrospectively reviewed. The CRAE (chronic renal adverse event, defined as a 30% eGFR reduction from baseline or eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 ≥ 90 days whichever occurred first)-free survival rates at 3 years in the imatinib cohort (n = 360) were significantly lower than those in the nilotinib cohort (n = 100) (55% versus 77%, P = 0.001) as a first-line TKI therapy. In multivariate analyses, imatinib, male sex, increasing age, and previous non-TKI treatment were associated with poor CRAE-free survival. In newly diagnosed patients who received imatinib treatment (n = 40), 24-h urine protein levels significantly increased after 6 months, and urinary ß2-microglobulin values significantly increased compared to those in the nilotinib cohort (n =15) at 36 months (P = 0.042) and 42 months (P = 0.039). There was no significant difference in CRAE-free survival rates at 3 years between the nilotinib (n = 65) and dasatinib (n = 74) cohorts (67% versus 83%, P = 0.832) as second- or third-line TKI therapies. In multivariate analyses, previous non-TKI treatment was associated with poor CRAE-free survival. We concluded that imatinib was significantly correlated to chronic renal injury, possibly associated with glomerulus and renal tubular injury, compared with nilotinib as a first-line TKI therapy in CML-CP patients. However, nilotinib and dasatinib had similar mild adverse impacts on renal function as second- or third-line therapies.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Taxa de Sobrevida
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