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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348536

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the role of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis parameters (blood carbon dioxide, pCO2; oxygen, pO2; carbonate, HCO3-; standard base excess, SBE) in monitoring respiratory function and ventilation compliance after noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) adaptation, predicting survival in ALS patients. Methods: We selected the first ABG performed after NIV start in ALS patients followed from 2000 to 2015 in Turin ALS Center. Correlations between ABG parameters and survival were calculated. Risk for death/tracheostomy was computed at modifying ABG parameters by using Cox regression models, adjusted for the main prognostic factors. Kaplan-Meier curves were then performed and compared. Results: A total of 186 post-NIV ABGs were included. HCO3- and SBE showed a significant correlation with survival after NIV (respectively, R = -0.183, p = 0.018 and R = -0.200, p = 0.010). Risk for death/tracheostomy after NIV was significantly higher at increasing HCO3- and SBE blood levels, especially when HCO3- was >29 mmol/L and SBE >4 mmol/L (respectively, HR 1.466, 95% CI 1.068-2.011, p = 0.018 and HR = 1.411, 95% CI 1.030-1.32, p = 0.032). Survival in NIV was higher in patients with HCO3- < 29.0 mmol/L and SBE < 4.0 mmol/L. Conclusions: HCO3- and SBE blood levels are markers of ventilation compliance, tolerance and efficacy, being able to predict survival after NIV start in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Ventilação não Invasiva , Insuficiência Respiratória , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , Gasometria , Carbonatos , Humanos , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348541

RESUMO

Background: Although noninvasive ventilation (NIV) improves survival and quality of life (QOL) in ALS, use of NIV is suboptimal. Objective: To determine compliance with "early" NIV initiation, requisite for the feasibility of a large study of early NIV initiation, and examine factors impacting compliance. Methods: Seventy-three ALS participants with forced vital capacities (FVC) >50% were enrolled. Participants with FVC over 80% (Group 1) were initiated on NIV early (FVC between 80 and 85%). Participants with FVC between 50 and 80% (Group 2) started NIV at FVC between 50 and 55%. Symptom surveys, QOL scores, and NIV compliance (machine download documenting use ≥4 hours/night >60% of time) were collected following NIV initiation. Results: 53.6% of Group 1 and 50% of Group 2 were compliant 28 days following NIV initiation, with increased compliance over time. Participants who were unmarried, had lower income, lower educational attainment, or limited caregiver availability were less likely to be compliant. Bothersome symptoms in non-compliant participants included facial air pressure, frequent arousals with difficulty returning to sleep, and claustrophobia. Both compliant and noncompliant participants felt improved QOL with NIV; improvement was significantly greater in compliant participants. Conclusions: These data suggest ALS patients can comply with NIV early in their disease, and potentially benefit as evidenced by improved QOL scores, supporting both feasibility and need for a study comparing early versus late NIV initiation. Moreover, modifiable symptoms were identified that could be optimized to improve compliance. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of "early" intervention on survival and QOL.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Ventilação não Invasiva , Insuficiência Respiratória , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , Humanos , Cooperação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Capacidade Vital
4.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(10): 1209-1216, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397301

RESUMO

Background: Respiratory failure due to coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) often presents with worsening gas exchange over a period of days. Once patients require mechanical ventilation (MV), the temporal change in gas exchange and its relation to clinical outcome is poorly described. We investigated whether gas exchange over the first 5 days of MV is associated with mortality and ventilator-free days at 28 days in COVID-19. Methods: In a cohort of 294 COVID-19 patients, we used data during the first 5 days of MV to calculate 4 daily respiratory scores: PaO2/FiO2 (P/F), oxygenation index (OI), ventilatory ratio (VR), and Murray lung injury score. The association between these scores at early (days 1-3) and late (days 4-5) time points with mortality was evaluated using logistic regression, adjusted for demographics. Correlation with ventilator-free days was assessed (Spearman rank-order coefficients). Results: Overall mortality was 47.6%. Nonsurvivors were older (P < .0001), more male (P = .029), with more preexisting cardiopulmonary disease compared to survivors. Mean PaO2 and PaCO2 were similar during this timeframe. However, by days 4 to 5 values for all airway pressures and FiO2 had diverged, trending lower in survivors and higher in nonsurvivors. The most substantial between-group difference was the temporal change in OI, improving 15% in survivors and worsening 11% in nonsurvivors (P < .05). The adjusted mortality OR was significant for age (1.819, P = .001), OI at days 4 to 5 (2.26, P = .002), and OI percent change (1.90, P = .02). The number of ventilator-free days correlated significantly with late VR (-0.166, P < .05), early and late OI (-0.216, P < .01; -0.278, P < .01, respectively) and early and late P/F (0.158, P < .05; 0.283, P < .01, respectively). Conclusion: Nonsurvivors of COVID-19 needed increasing intensity of MV to sustain gas exchange over the first 5 days, unlike survivors. Temporal change OI, reflecting both PaO2 and the intensity of MV, is a potential marker of outcome in respiratory failure due to COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Insuficiência Respiratória , Humanos , Masculino , Respiração Artificial , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(7): 11-12, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431271

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The term post TB sequelae is usually used to describe the destructive lung parenchymal changes due to pulmonary tuberculosis, which occur over years, and cause chronic airway obstruction as well as restriction. Furthermore, post TB sequelae and COPD are common causes of acute exacerbation with respiratory failure in Indian setting. AIM OF THE STUDY: To compare the outcome of patients with post TB sequelae and COPD admitted with respiratory failure Methodes: 62 Post TB sequelae and 79 COPD patients admitted in respiratory failure were treated as per standard ICU protocols. Outcome of these patients in these groups were compared with respect to mortality, morbidity and requirement of type ventilatory support. RESULTS: It was observed that duration of stay, morbidity and mortality in these groups was comparable and difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The presentation and outcome of COPD and Post TB destroyed lung patients is similar, so Post TB Destroyed lung patients should be treated as per COPD guidelines.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Insuficiência Respiratória , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pulmão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações
8.
Chest ; 160(2): e189-e193, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366043

RESUMO

CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old man who had been intubated and placed on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonia was transferred to our facility. He underwent anticoagulation with IV heparin titrated to an anti-Factor Xa goal of 0.1 to 0.3 international unit/mL. Over extracorporeal membrane oxygenation days 13 to 17, his WBC count rose from 17,500 to 47,000 cells/µL. He simultaneously experienced the development of fluid-refractory shock that required multiple vasopressors and received stress-dose hydrocortisone when his WBC was 30,000 cells/µL. He remained afebrile and was started on broad-spectrum antimicrobials that included antifungal and anthelminthic therapy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Insuficiência Respiratória/sangue , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia
10.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): e345-e348, agosto 2021. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281782

RESUMO

El talco, un silicato de magnesio hidratado, formó parte durante décadas del cuidado tradicional de lactantes y niños pequeños. Si bien en los niños su inhalación aguda, que suele ser accidental durante el cambio de pañales, no es frecuente, es una condición potencialmente peligrosa, que puede provocar dificultad respiratoria grave e incluso cuadros mortales. Se describe el grave compromiso respiratorio por neumonitis química asociado con la inhalación accidental de talco en un lactante de 14 meses. El niño presentó un cuadro de dificultad respiratoria con requerimiento de asistencia respiratoria mecánica (ARM) durante una semana. En cuanto al tratamiento, no existe un estándar, se utilizaron antibióticos y corticoides sistémicos y aerosolterapia. No presentó complicaciones en otros órganos o sistemas. Su evolución fue favorable, se pudo externar al décimo día de internación y presentó posteriormente episodios aislados de hiperreactividad bronquial.


Talc is a hydrated magnesium silicate. It was part of traditional infant and young child care for decades. In children, its acute inhalation, generally accidental during diaper changes, although not frequent, is a potentially dangerous condition, and can cause severe respiratory distress and even death. We describe the case of a 14-month child who had an accidental inhalation of talc, chemical pneumonitis and severe respiratory compromise. The patient had acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation for one week. There is no standard treatment, we used systemic antibiotics and corticosteroids and aerosol therapy. He did not have complications in other organs or systems. He was hospitalized for ten days. In the follow up, he had isolated episodes of bronchial hyperresponsiveness.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Lactente , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Talco/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Aspirativa , Acidentes Domésticos , Inalação , Intubação Intratraqueal
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230050

RESUMO

We report the case of a 59-year-old woman who developed acute macroglossia following prolonged prone positioning for management of COVID-19. We found that Biotene mixed in glycerin was effective at removing keratinised lingual plaques and better tolerated than Biotene alone. Additionally, uniform tongue compression applied via tubular elastic dressing yielded more efficacious results than uneven tongue compression via Coban.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Macroglossia , Insuficiência Respiratória , Feminino , Humanos , Macroglossia/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Posicionamento do Paciente , Decúbito Ventral , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 33(2): 320-324, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231814

RESUMO

We report a case of Influenza B infection and Kawasaki disease in an adolescent, diagnosed during the COVID-19 pandemic. An asthmatic female adolescent presented with fever and flu-like symptoms for 7 days and was admitted with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. She progressed with hemodynamic instability responsive to vasoactive drugs. Antibiotic therapy and support measures were introduced, showing progressive hemodynamics and respiratory improvement, however with persistent fever and increased inflammatory markers. During the hospitalization, she developed bilateral non-purulent conjunctivitis, hand and feet desquamation, strawberry tongue, and cervical adenopathy, and was diagnosed with Kawasaki disease. She was prescribed intravenous immunoglobulin and, due to the refractory clinical conditions, corticosteroid therapy was added; 24 hours later, the patient was afebrile. No coronary changes were found. A full viral panel including COVID-19 C-reactive protein and serology could only isolate the Influenza B virus. During the hospitalization, she was diagnosed with pulmonary thromboembolism; coagulopathies were investigated, and she was diagnosed with heterozygous factor V Leiden mutation. There is a potential association between Kawasaki disease and infection with Influenza B or with other viruses such as coronavirus. Therefore, this association should be considered in pediatric patients, adolescents included, with prolonged febrile conditions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/terapia , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/complicações , Respiração Artificial , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia
14.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(7): 703-10, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the therapeutic effect of acupuncture combined with western conventional therapy on type Ⅱ respiratory failure of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and evaluate the effect of acupuncture on diaphragmatic function and prognosis by bedside ultrasound. METHODS: A total of 111 patients with AECOPD type Ⅱ respiratory failure were randomized into an acupuncture group, a conventional treatment group and a non-acupoint acupuncture group, 37 cases in each one. The routine AECOPD nursing care and treatment with western medicine were provided in the 3 groups. Additionally, in the acupuncture group, acupuncture was applied at Dingchuan (EX-B 1), Feishu (BL 13), Taiyuan (LU 9), Danzhong (CV 17) and Zhongwan (CV 12), etc. In the non-acupoint acupuncture group, acupuncture was given at the points 5 to 10 mm lateral to each of the acupoints selected in the acupuncture group. Acupuncture was given once every day, 30 min each time, consecutively for 10 days in the above two groups. Separately, before treatment, on day 3, 7 and 10 of treatment, arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and diaphragm thickening fraction (TFdi) were observed in each group. Before and after treatment, the inflammatory and immune indexes (levels of white blood cell [WBC], procalcitonin [PCT], hypersensitive C-reactive protein [hs-CRP] and T lymphocyte percentage [ %]), auxiliary respiratory muscle movement score, the score of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT), the score of the modified British Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (mMRC) and the TCM syndrome score were compared in each group. The duration of mechanical ventilation, relative complications, 14-day clinical controlled discharge rate and the therapeutic effect were observed in each group. RESULTS: On day 3, 7 and 10 of treatment, PaO2 and TFdi were all increased as compared with those before treatment (P<0.01) and PaCO2 was reduced as compared with that before treatment in each group (P<0.01). After treatment, % was increased as compared with that before treatment in each group (P<0.01), WBC, PCT, hs-CRP, auxiliary respiratory muscle movement score, CAT score, mMRC score and TCM syndrome score were all reduced as compared with those before treatment in each group (P<0.01). After treatment, PaCO2, WBC, PCT, hs-CRP, auxiliary respiratory muscle movement score, CAT score and mMRC score in the acupuncture group were all lower than the other two groups (P<0.01), PaO2 and TFdi were higher than the other two groups (P<0.01); % was higher and TCM syndrome score was lower in the acupuncture group compared with those in the non-acupoint acupuncture group (P<0.01). The duration of mechanical ventilation and the total incidence of complications in the acupuncture group were all lower than the other two groups (P<0.01), and the 14-day clinical controlled discharge rate and total clinical effective rate were higher than the other two groups (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture as adjunctive therapy achieves significant therapeutic effect on AECOPD type Ⅱ respiratory failure. It improves diaphragmatic function, promotes oxygenation and relieves carbon dioxide retention of artery, alleviates clinical symptoms and reduces the time of mechanic ventilation and hospitalization. Besides, the bedside ultrasound detection can objectively reflect the effect of acupuncture on diaphragmatic function in the patients with AECOPD complicated with typeⅡrespiratory failure.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Insuficiência Respiratória , Pontos de Acupuntura , Diafragma , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290020

RESUMO

Sjogren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease with involvement of multiple organs, including both glandular and extraglandular organs. Usually involvement of glandular organs manifests before the extraglandular ones, but when the sequence is reversed, diagnosis may be missed. Hypokalaemic quadriparesis in SS is not uncommon. Respiratory failure in hypokalaemia is not usually seen, but in SS, it has been reported. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with sudden onset flaccid quadriparesis and respiratory muscle paralysis secondary to severe hypokalaemia. On detailed investigation, she was detected to have distal renal tubular acidosis secondary to clinically inapparent and asymptomatic SS.


Assuntos
Acidose Tubular Renal , Hipopotassemia , Insuficiência Respiratória , Síndrome de Sjogren , Feminino , Humanos , Hipopotassemia/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quadriplegia/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Síndrome de Sjogren/diagnóstico
16.
J Card Surg ; 36(10): 3921-3923, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260766

RESUMO

Hemidiaphragm paralysis (HP) is a potential complication of cardiac surgery. While most patients are either asymptomatic or have mild symptoms, some are at risk of developing life-threatening hypercapnia. We present a case of a patient who developed HP after tricuspid valve replacement. Diaphragm plication was deferred due to underlying comorbidities, but over time she developed severe hypercapnic respiratory failure requiring intensive care unit admission. Chronic noninvasive ventilation therapy (NIV) was initiated, which improved her symptoms and hypercapnia and prevented further hospitalizations. For patients with iatrogenic HP unable to undergo diaphragm plication, Pulmonology referral for initiation of NIV should be strongly considered.


Assuntos
Ventilação não Invasiva , Insuficiência Respiratória , Diafragma/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercapnia , Paralisia , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia
17.
Acta Biomed ; 92(3): e2021269, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Diaphragmatic dysfunction is seen in up to 60% of critically ill patients with respiratory failure, and it is associated with worse outcomes. The functionality of the diaphragm can be studied with simple and codified bedside ultrasound evaluation. Diaphragm excursion is one of the most studied parameters. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of diaphragmatic dysfunction in critically ill non-intubated patients admitted to a general intensive care unit with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: We collected data, including ultrasound diaphragm excursion, at 2 time points: at T0 (at the time of recruitment, just before starting NIV) and at T1 (after one hour of NIV). RESULTS: A total of 47 patients were enrolled. The prevalence of diaphragm dysfunction was 42.5% (95% CI 28, 3 - 57,8). Surgical patients showed a higher incidence (relative risk of 1.97) than medical patients. Mean DE was not significantly different between NIV responders (1,35 ± 0.78 cm) and non-responders (1.21 ± 0.85 cm, p 0,6). Patients with diaphragmatic dysfunction responded positively to NIV in 60% (95% CI 36.0 - 80.9%) of cases, while patients without diaphragmatic dysfunction responded positively to the NIV trial in 70.4% (95% CI 49.8 - 86.2%) of cases (p = 0.54). Taking the use of ultrasound diaphragm excursion as a potential predictor of NIV response, the corresponding ROC curve had an area under the curve of 0.53; the best balance between sensitivity (58.1%) and specificity (62.5%) was obtained with a cut-off diaphragm excursion of 1.37 cm. CONCLUSIONS: Diaphragm dysfunction is particularly frequent in critically ill patients with respiratory failure. The functionality of the diaphragm can be effectively and easily tested by bedside ultrasound examination. Overall, our results point towards tentative evidence of a trend of a different response to NIV in patients with vs without diaphragmatic dysfunction.


Assuntos
Ventilação não Invasiva , Insuficiência Respiratória , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Ultrassonografia
18.
Med. intensiva (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 45(5): 289-297, jun.-jul. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186896

RESUMO

Objetivo: Describir las características y la evolución de los pacientes con bronquiolitis ingresados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Comparar el tratamiento administrado pre y pospublicación de la guía de práctica clínica de la Academia Americana de Pediatría. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo y observacional realizado entre septiembre de 2010 y septiembre de 2017. Configuración: Unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Pacientes: Menores de un año con bronquiolitis grave. Intervenciones: Se compararon 2 períodos (2010-14 y 2015-17), antes y después de la modificación del protocolo de manejo de la bronquiolitis en el hospital, según las guías de la Academia Americana de Pediatría. Principales variables: Sexo, edad, comorbilidades, gravedad, etiología, tratamiento administrado, infecciones bacterianas, soporte respiratorio e inotrópico, estancia y mortalidad. Resultados: Se recogieron 706 pacientes, 414 (58,6%) varones, con una mediana de edad de 47 días (RIC 25-100,25). Mediana de escala de gravedad de bronquiolitis (BROSJOD) al ingreso: 9 puntos (RIC 7-11). La etiología por virus respiratorio sincitial se dio en 460 (65,16%) pacientes. El primer período (2010-14) incluyó 340 pacientes y el segundo (2015-17), 366 pacientes. En el segundo período se administraron más nebulizaciones de adrenalina y suero salino hipertónico, y más tratamiento con corticoides. Se usó más ventilación no invasiva y menos ventilación mecánica convencional y precisaron menos soporte inotrópico, sin diferencias significativas. La tasa de antibioterapia disminuyó de forma estadísticamente significativa (p = 0,003). Conclusiones: Pese a la disminución en la antibioterapia, se debería limitar la utilización de nebulizaciones y corticoides en estos pacientes, como recomienda la guía


Objective: To describe the characteristics and evolution of patients with bronchiolitis admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit, and compare treatment pre- and post-publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics clinical practice guide. Design: A descriptive and observational study was carried out between September 2010 and September 2017. Setting: Pediatric intensive care unit. Patients: Infants under one year of age with severe bronchiolitis. Interventions: Two periods were compared (2010-14 and 2015-17), corresponding to before and after modification of the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for the management of bronchiolitis in hospital. Main variables: Patient sex, age, comorbidities, severity, etiology, administered treatment, bacterial infections, respiratory and inotropic support, length of stay and mortality. Results: A total of 706 patients were enrolled, of which 414 (58.6%) males, with a median age of 47 days (IQR 25-100.25). Median bronchiolitis severity score (BROSJOD) upon admission: 9 points (IQR 7-11). Respiratory syncytial virus appeared in 460 (65.16%) patients. The first period (2010-14) included 340 patients and the second period (2015-17) 366 patients. More adrenalin and hypertonic saline nebulizations and more corticosteroid treatment were administered in the second period. More noninvasive ventilation and less conventional mechanical ventilation were used, and less inotropic support was needed, with no significant differences. The antibiotherapy rate decreased significantly (P = .003). Conclusions: Despite the decrease in antibiotherapy, the use of nebulizations and glucocorticoids in these patients should be limited, as recommended by the guide


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Bronquiolite/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Doença Aguda/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Academias e Institutos/normas , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Algoritmos
19.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 209, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of awake prone positioning on intubation rates is not established. The aim of this trial was to investigate if a protocol for awake prone positioning reduces the rate of endotracheal intubation compared with standard care among patients with moderate to severe hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Adult patients with confirmed COVID-19, high-flow nasal oxygen or noninvasive ventilation for respiratory support and a PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 20 kPa were randomly assigned to a protocol targeting 16 h prone positioning per day or standard care. The primary endpoint was intubation within 30 days. Secondary endpoints included duration of awake prone positioning, 30-day mortality, ventilator-free days, hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, use of noninvasive ventilation, organ support and adverse events. The trial was terminated early due to futility. RESULTS: Of 141 patients assessed for eligibility, 75 were randomized of whom 39 were allocated to the control group and 36 to the prone group. Within 30 days after enrollment, 13 patients (33%) were intubated in the control group versus 12 patients (33%) in the prone group (HR 1.01 (95% CI 0.46-2.21), P = 0.99). Median prone duration was 3.4 h [IQR 1.8-8.4] in the control group compared with 9.0 h per day [IQR 4.4-10.6] in the prone group (P = 0.014). Nine patients (23%) in the control group had pressure sores compared with two patients (6%) in the prone group (difference - 18% (95% CI - 2 to - 33%); P = 0.032). There were no other differences in secondary outcomes between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The implemented protocol for awake prone positioning increased duration of prone positioning, but did not reduce the rate of intubation in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 compared to standard care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN54917435. Registered 15 June 2020 ( https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN54917435 ).


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Decúbito Ventral , Insuficiência Respiratória/prevenção & controle , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Vigília
20.
N Engl J Med ; 385(5): 406-415, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, in patients who are hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pneumonia are unclear. METHODS: We randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, hospitalized adults with Covid-19 pneumonia to receive either tofacitinib at a dose of 10 mg or placebo twice daily for up to 14 days or until hospital discharge. The primary outcome was the occurrence of death or respiratory failure through day 28 as assessed with the use of an eight-level ordinal scale (with scores ranging from 1 to 8 and higher scores indicating a worse condition). All-cause mortality and safety were also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 289 patients underwent randomization at 15 sites in Brazil. Overall, 89.3% of the patients received glucocorticoids during hospitalization. The cumulative incidence of death or respiratory failure through day 28 was 18.1% in the tofacitinib group and 29.0% in the placebo group (risk ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.97; P = 0.04). Death from any cause through day 28 occurred in 2.8% of the patients in the tofacitinib group and in 5.5% of those in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.15 to 1.63). The proportional odds of having a worse score on the eight-level ordinal scale with tofacitinib, as compared with placebo, was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.36 to 1.00) at day 14 and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.27 to 1.06) at day 28. Serious adverse events occurred in 20 patients (14.1%) in the tofacitinib group and in 17 (12.0%) in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized with Covid-19 pneumonia, tofacitinib led to a lower risk of death or respiratory failure through day 28 than placebo. (Funded by Pfizer; STOP-COVID ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04469114.).


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Brasil , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Janus Quinase 3/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigenoterapia , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Respiratória/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia
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