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2.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 19, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perpendicular transvalvular leakage (TVL) is occasionally observed after aortic valve replacement (AVR) in biological valves with a stent post, often originating from the base of the stent post. However, an observed perpendicular jet flow is not always a TVL. In rare cases, paravalvular leakages (PVLs) can be perpendicular and are present behind a TVL. In the present case, both PVL and TVL existed simultaneously as unusual perpendicular jet flows that originated from sites in close proximity to the stent post. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old man underwent AVR with a biological valve in the supra-annular position using the non-everting mattress suture technique with pledgets. After weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed an unfamiliar perpendicular turbulent flow, similar to reported TVL, originating from the anterior stent post. Further TEE examination revealed a PVL had originated from the site between the sewing ring at the anterior stent post and native annulus attached to a pledget. The space between the sewing ring and annular retained native portion caused the perpendicular turbulent jet. Consequently, two types of perpendicular turbulent flows, TVL and PVL, existed adjacent to each other. After reinstitution of CPB, inspection of the prosthesis itself indicated it to be normal, but there was a region adjacent to the anterior stent post near the right coronary ostium where the tip of the curved Pean forceps entered between the sewing ring and the native annulus. The region was consistent with TEE findings. AVR was performed with the same prosthesis again. After weaning from CPB, immediate TEE revealed that the unusual perpendicular turbulent flows had disappeared and only a few small TVLs were observed. Regarding the disappearance of TVL, we considered that the fabric region of the prosthetic valve was covered with cellular elements to prevent the leak, as it was already used in AVR once and soaked in blood. CONCLUSIONS: Perpendicular turbulent flow raises the possibility of both TVL and PVL in the case of AVR with stented bovine pericardial valves. For a differential diagnosis of TVL or PVL, it is important to know the surgical procedures and valve morphology.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Animais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Bovinos , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Hemorreologia/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Reoperação , Stents/efeitos adversos
3.
N Engl J Med ; 382(9): 799-809, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are scant data on long-term clinical outcomes and bioprosthetic-valve function after transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) as compared with surgical aortic-valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis and intermediate surgical risk. METHODS: We enrolled 2032 intermediate-risk patients with severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis at 57 centers. Patients were stratified according to intended transfemoral or transthoracic access (76.3% and 23.7%, respectively) and were randomly assigned to undergo either TAVR or surgical replacement. Clinical, echocardiographic, and health-status outcomes were followed for 5 years. The primary end point was death from any cause or disabling stroke. RESULTS: At 5 years, there was no significant difference in the incidence of death from any cause or disabling stroke between the TAVR group and the surgery group (47.9% and 43.4%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.25; P = 0.21). Results were similar for the transfemoral-access cohort (44.5% and 42.0%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.20), but the incidence of death or disabling stroke was higher after TAVR than after surgery in the transthoracic-access cohort (59.3% vs. 48.3%; hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.71). At 5 years, more patients in the TAVR group than in the surgery group had at least mild paravalvular aortic regurgitation (33.3% vs. 6.3%). Repeat hospitalizations were more frequent after TAVR than after surgery (33.3% vs. 25.2%), as were aortic-valve reinterventions (3.2% vs. 0.8%). Improvement in health status at 5 years was similar for TAVR and surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with aortic stenosis who were at intermediate surgical risk, there was no significant difference in the incidence of death or disabling stroke at 5 years after TAVR as compared with surgical aortic-valve replacement. (Funded by Edwards Lifesciences; PARTNER 2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01314313.).


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(1): 91-100, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414256

RESUMO

Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the primary clinical imaging modality for the assessment of patients with isolated aortic regurgitation (AR) in whom TTE's linear left ventricular (LV) dimension is used to assess disease severity to guide aortic valve replacement (AVR), yet TTE is relatively limited with regards to its integrated semi-quantitative/qualitative approach. We therefore compared TTE and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) assessment of isolated AR and investigated each modality's ability to predict LV remodeling after AVR. AR severity grading by CMR and TTE were compared in 101 consecutive patients referred for CMR assessment of chronic AR. LV end-diastolic diameter and end-systolic diameter measurements by both modalities were compared. Twenty-four patients subsequently had isolated AVR. The pre-AVR estimates of regurgitation severity by CMR and TTE were correlated with favorable post-AVR LV remodeling. AR severity grade agreement between CMR and TTE was moderate (ρ = 0.317, P = 0.001). TTE underestimated CMR LV end-diastolic and LV end-systolic diameter by 6.6 mm (P < 0.001, CI 5.8-7.7) and 5.9 mm (P < 0.001, CI 4.1-7.6), respectively. The correlation of post-AVR LV remodeling with CMR AR grade (ρ = 0.578, P = 0.004) and AR volumes (R = 0.664, P < 0.001) was stronger in comparison to TTE (ρ = 0.511, P = 0.011; R = 0.318, P = 0.2). In chronic AR, CMR provides more prognostic relevant information than TTE in assessing AR severity. CMR should be considered in the management of chronic AR patients being considered for AVR.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Adulto , Idoso , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
5.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 17(2): 75-84, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527743

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has revolutionized the treatment of symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis. Current guidelines recommend TAVI in patients at increased operative risk of death. Advanced imaging planning, new transcatheter valve platforms, procedure streamlining and growing operator experience have improved procedural safety and bioprosthetic valve performance. As a result, TAVI has been explored for other indications. Two randomized trials published in 2019 to assess TAVI in patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis at low operative risk have set the stage for a new wave of indications. In younger and low-risk patients, TAVI had an early safety benefit over surgical aortic valve replacement and was associated with faster discharge from hospital and recovery and fewer rehospitalizations. In patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis, TAVI has now been explored across the entire spectrum of operative risk, from inoperable to low-risk populations, in properly designed, randomized clinical trials, although data on the long-term durability of these valves are lacking. The use of TAVI in severe bicuspid aortic valve stenosis, asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis, moderate aortic stenosis in combination with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and isolated pure aortic regurgitation is now under investigation in clinical trials. In this Review, we provide our perspective on these evolving indications for TAVI, discuss relevant available data from clinical trials, and highlight procedural implications and caveats of new and future indications.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Fatores Etários , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 14(1): 219, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) have become a common treatment option in advanced heart failure. Lack of aortic valve opening during left ventricular unloading is a common complication and associated with a worse outcome. Maintaining a minimum pulse pressure is an important goal during the early postoperative period after LVAD implantation since it is commonly seen as secure sign of aortic valve opening. AIMS/OBJECTIVE: We report a case of an LVAD-supported patient with early permanent closure of the aortic valve despite a pulse pressure > 15 mmHg at all times following LVAD implantation. We demonstrate how careful assessment of the invasive arterial blood pressure curve can indicate aortic valve closure irrespective of pulsatile blood flow. METHOD: A 69-year old male patient with terminal ischemic cardiomyopathy was referred for long-term mechanical circulatory support. Due to mild aortic regurgitation both an aortic bioprosthesis and a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device were implanted. Postoperative echocardiography documented a patent aortic bioprosthesis and an acceptable residual systolic left ventricular contractility. During invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring repetitive transient slight blood pressure decreases followed by slight blood pressure increases coincided with programmed LVAD flushing cycles. Permanent pulsatile flow with a pulse pressure of ≥15 mmHg conveyed systolic opening of the aortic valve. Echocardiography, however, proved early permanent aortic valve closure. In retrospect, transformation of the automated LVAD flushing cycles into visible changes of the arterial blood pressure curve during invasive blood pressure monitoring is indicative of ejection of the complete cardiac output through LVAD itself, and therefore an early clinical sign of aortic valve closure. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: We present this interesting didactic case to highlight caveats during the early postoperative period after LVAD implantation. Moreover, this case demonstrates that careful and differentiated observation of the arterial blood pressure waveform provides crucial information in this unique and growing patient population of continuous-flow LVAD support.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Ecocardiografia , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Fluxo Pulsátil , Sístole
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(48): e18169, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770266

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm (SVA) protruding into the mitral anterior leaflet is an extremely rare clinical condition; herein, we present a case of unruptured noncoronary SVA protruding into the mitral anterior leaflet. PATIENT'S CONCERNS: A 46-year-old male was referred to hospital for exertional dyspnea. DIAGNOSIS: Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) suggested a noncoronary SVA protruding into the mitral anterior leaflet, causing mitral regurgitation and aortic insufficiency. INTERVENTIONS: The aneurysm was resected and the aortic and mitral valves were replaced with mechanical valves via a transaortic approach. OUTCOMES: Postoperative recovery was uneventful. CONCLUSIONS: A rare noncoronary SVA protruding into the mitral anterior leaflet can be diagnosed via TTE and CTA. Transaortic mitral surgery is feasible in patients with a dilated aortic annulus ring and mitral valve diseases.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Aórtico , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica , Dispneia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Valva Mitral , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Aneurisma Aórtico/complicações , Aneurisma Aórtico/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Aórtico/fisiopatologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Seio Aórtico/diagnóstico por imagem , Seio Aórtico/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 36(5): 737-744, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631621

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the effect of aortic sinus diameter on aortic valve opening and closing performance in the case of no obvious disease of aortic valve and annulus and continuous dilation of aortic root. A total of 25 three-dimensional aortic root models with different aortic sinus and root diameters were constructed according to the size of clinical surgical guidance. The valve sinus diameter DS is set to 32, 36, 40, 44 and 48 mm, respectively, and the aortic root diameter DA is set to 26, 27, 28, 29 and 30 mm, respectively. Through the structural mechanics calculation with the finite element software, the maximum stress, valve orifice area, contact force and other parameters of the model are analyzed to evaluate the valve opening and closing performance under the dilated state. The study found that aortic valve stenosis occurs when the DS = 32 mm, DA = 26, 27 mm and DS = 36 mm, DA = 26 mm. Aortic regurgitation occurs when the DS = 32, 36 and 40 mm, DA = 30 mm and DS = 44, 48 mm, DA = 29, 30 mm. The other 15 models had normal valve movement. The results showed that the size of the aortic sinus affected the opening and closing performance of the aortic valve. The smaller sinus diameter adapted with the larger root diameter and the larger sinus diameter adapted with the smaller root diameter. When the sinus diameter is 40 mm, the mechanical performance of the valve are good and it can well adapt with the relatively large range of aortic root dilation.


Assuntos
Aorta/anatomia & histologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/fisiologia , Humanos
12.
Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 25(5): 265-273, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378750

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our study aimed to investigate the potential pathogenetic theories of different phenotype prevalence in bicuspid aortopathy. METHODS: A total of 407 bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) patients with aortic dilation were retrospectively reviewed. Association was determined between aortic valve lesion types and aortic configurations to confirm the homogeneous BAV subsets, and then, dominance analysis was used to evaluate the relative importance of two components of aortic valve lesion (BAV phenotype and valvular dysfunction) that associated with aortic configurations in each subgroup. RESULTS: Dominance analysis showed that Type-1 LR was the dominant contributor (79.0% and 79.6%) associated with the higher prevalence of the dilation of aortic root (AoR) and ascending aorta (AAo) in BAV patients with Type-1 LR and aortic regurgitation (AR) or aortic stenosis (AS) + AR. However, AS was the main contributor (60.0%) associated with the raised incidence of the dilation of AAo and proximal aortic arch (PArc) in Type-0 LAT and AS. CONCLUSIONS: Different dominant pathogenetic theory determined the phenotype of BAV aortopathy. In patients of Type-1 LR with AR, inherent disposition is mainly responsible for the higher frequency of AoR dilation. Valve-related hemodynamics determined greater prevalence of the dilation of AAo and PArc in patients of Type-0 LAT with AS.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Aórtico/epidemiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Aórtico/patologia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Pequim/epidemiologia , Dilatação Patológica , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/patologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 40(7): 1450-1459, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342116

RESUMO

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease demonstrates a range of clinical presentations and complications. We aim to use cardiac MRI (CMR) to evaluate left ventricular (LV) parameters, myocardial strain and aortic hemodynamics in pediatric BAV patients with and without aortic stenosis (AS) or regurgitation (AR) compared to tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) controls. We identified 58 pediatric BAV patients without additional cardiovascular pathology and 25 healthy TAV controls (15.3 ± 2.2 years) who underwent CMR with 4D flow. BAV cohort included subgroups with no valvulopathy (n = 13, 14.3 ± 4.7 years), isolated AS (n = 19, 14.5 ± 4.0 years), mixed valve disease (AS + AR) (n = 13, 17.1 ± 3.2 years), and prior valvotomy/valvuloplasty (n = 13, 13.9 ± 3.2 years). CMR data included LV volumetric and mass indices, myocardial strain and aortic hemodynamics. BAV patients with no valvulopathy or isolated AS had similar LV parameters to controls excepting cardiac output (p < 0.05). AS + AR and post-surgical patients had abnormal LV volumetric and mass indices (p < 0.01). Post-surgical patients had decreased global longitudinal strain (p = 0.02); other subgroups had comparable strain to controls. Patients with valvulopathy demonstrated elevated velocity and wall shear stress (WSS) in the ascending aorta (AAo) and arch (p < 0.01), while those without valve dysfunction had only elevated AAo velocity (p = 0.03). Across the cohort, elevated AAo velocity and WSS correlated to higher LV mass (p < 0.01), and abnormal hemodynamics correlated to decreased strain rates (p < 0.045). Pediatric BAV patients demonstrate abnormalities in LV parameters as a function of valvular dysfunction, most significantly in children with AS + AR or prior valvotomy/valvuloplasty. Correlations between aortic hemodynamics, LV mass and strain suggest valvular dysfunction could drive LV remodeling. Multiparametric CMR assessment in pediatric BAV may help stratify risk for cardiac remodeling and dysfunction.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Tricúspide/fisiopatologia , Remodelação Ventricular
15.
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 31(4): 650-655, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220531

RESUMO

Aortic valve repair has become an important treatment alternative to patients with aortic insufficiency. In this paper, we review refinements and advances in the understanding of core concepts of aortic valve anatomy and pathophysiology which have enhanced our approach to aortic valve preservation and repair. With these improvements in understanding and techniques, the outcome for aortic valve repair continues to improve. We also review current challenges in the field and explore potential areas of innovation and future study including timing of surgical intervention for aortic insufficiency, comparisons between aortic valve repair and replacement in randomized trials, and development of personalized surgical management plan based on patient-specific pathologies. These advances will further establish the role of aortic valve repair in the management of aortic valve and aortic disease.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Cardíaca/tendências , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/tendências , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Anuloplastia da Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Anuloplastia da Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/tendências , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Humanos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 20(1): 47-52, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184096

RESUMO

Evidence for cardiac rehabilitation after valve surgery remains scarce. We retrospectively enrolled consecutive patients undergoing aortic valve surgery. The intervention group consisted of physical exercise for 3 months after surgery, while the control group underwent usual care without physical exercise. It was observed that cardiac rehabilitation has a beneficial effect on the peak oxygen uptake compared to the control group (24.2 ml/kg/min vs. 20.6 ml/kg/min) as measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing 3 months after surgery. There was no significant difference observed in New York Heart Association class I or II between groups. Conversely, the intervention group underperformed the SF-36 Mental Component Scale at 3 months (50.3 vs. 53.8 points).


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/reabilitação , Teste de Esforço , Terapia por Exercício , Tolerância ao Exercício , Consumo de Oxigênio , Idoso , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Reabilitação Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 112(6-7): 430-440, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153874

RESUMO

The combination of aortic and mitral regurgitation is a typical example of a frequent yet understudied multiple valve disease scenario. The aetiology is often rheumatic or degenerative; less frequently it can be induced by drugs or radiation, or caused by infective endocarditis or congenital valvular lesions. Aortic regurgitation resulting in secondary mitral regurgitation is also not uncommon. There are limited data to guide the management of combined aortic and mitral regurgitation. Left ventricular dysfunction is frequent at initial presentation, and even more so postoperatively, suggesting that surgical management should not be delayed, particularly when symptoms occur or when there is evidence of even subtle left ventricular dysfunction. The decision to operate on one or both valves not only depends on the severity of each lesion, but also on several other factors, including age, co-morbidities and frailty, the increased operative risk of double valve surgery, the increased risk of long-term thrombotic and bleeding complications with multiple mechanical valves, the risk of leaving one valve unoperated and the probability of requiring redo surgery. The role of a multidisciplinary heart valve team is critical in this setting to optimize management and outcomes. The role of transcatheter approaches is currently limited, but technological advances will probably soon change the management paradigm.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/epidemiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Prevalência , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/instrumentação , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
20.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 41: 29-37, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital cardiac malformation and is associated with ascending aortic dilation in 60%-80% of patients. In this study, we aimed to address the role of hemodynamic influences on the development of aortopathy in BAV patients. PATIENT AND METHODS: BAV (n=36) and tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) patients (n=17) undergoing aortic valve replacement underwent preoperative flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment to detect the area of maximal flow-induced stress in the proximal aorta. Based on these MRI data, paired ascending aortic wall samples [i.e., area of maximal jet impact (jet sample) and the opposite aortic wall (nonjet sample)] were collected during surgery. To study and describe the effects of jet stream on the complete vascular wall, a pathology score was developed based on the recently published aortic consensus paper statement on surgical pathology of the aorta using routine histologic stainings (resorcin fuchsin, hematoxylin-eosin, and Movat) and immunohistochemistry (alpha smooth muscle actin, smooth muscle 22 alpha, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule). RESULTS: Comparing the jet and nonjet samples in both BAV and TAV, regions of maximal jet impact did not show any difference in the pathology score in the adventitia and the middle and outer media. In the jet samples, the inner media however showed loss of actin expression in both BAV (P<.0001) and the TAV (P=.0074), and the intimal thickness was significantly enlarged in both patient groups (BAV P=.0005, TAV P=.0041), which was not accompanied by loss of elastic lamellae or vascular smooth muscle cell nuclei. CONCLUSIONS: In our study population, we could not demonstrate a potential distinct role for hemodynamics in the development of aortopathy in BAV patients even if corrected for aortic diameter, raphe position, or whether the valve is stenotic or regurgitant. The intimal layer and inner media however showed alterations in all jet specimens.


Assuntos
Aorta/fisiopatologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica , Actinas/análise , Idoso , Aorta/química , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Aórtico/etiologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/metabolismo , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Dilatação Patológica , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/complicações , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/análise , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/análise
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