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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445301

RESUMO

Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) treatment reduces functional mitral regurgitation (MR) to a greater extent than angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) treatment alone, but the mechanism is unclear. We evaluated the mechanisms of how ARNI has an effect on functional MR. After inducing functional MR by left circumflex coronary artery occlusion, male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 31) were randomly assigned to receive the ARNI LCZ696, the ARB valsartan, or corn oil only (MR control). Excised mitral leaflets and left ventricle (LV) were analyzed, and valvular endothelial cells were evaluated focusing on molecular changes. LCZ696 significantly attenuated LV dilatation after 6 weeks when compared with the control group (LV end-diastolic volume, 461.3 ± 13.8 µL versus 525.1 ± 23.6 µL; p < 0.05), while valsartan did not (471.2 ± 8.9 µL; p > 0.05 to control). Histopathological analysis of mitral leaflets showed that LCZ696 strongly reduced fibrotic thickness compared to the control group (28.2 ± 2.7 µm vs. 48.8 ± 7.5 µm; p < 0.05). Transforming growth factor-ß and downstream phosphorylated extracellular-signal regulated kinase were also significantly lower in the LCZ696 group. Consequently, excessive endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) was mitigated in the LCZ696 group compared to the control group and leaflet area was higher (11%) in the LCZ696 group than in the valsartan group. Finally, the MR extent was significantly lower in the LCZ696 group and functional improvement was observed. In conclusion, neprilysin inhibitor has positive effects on LV reverse remodeling and also attenuates fibrosis in MV leaflets and restores adaptive growth by directly modulating EndoMT.


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Valsartana/uso terapêutico , Aminobutiratos/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Combinação de Medicamentos , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/efeitos dos fármacos , Valva Mitral/patologia , Valva Mitral/fisiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/complicações , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Neprilisina/antagonistas & inibidores , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Valsartana/farmacologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Am J Cardiol ; 152: 88-93, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147209

RESUMO

Data from previous heart failure (HF) trials suggest that patients with mild symptoms (NYHA II) actually have a poor clinical outcome. However, these studies did not assess clinical stability and rarely included patients in NYHA I. We sought to determine the incidence of short-term clinical progression in supposedly stable HF patients in NYHA I. In addition, we aimed to investigate the predictive value of widely available electrocardiographic and echocardiographic parameters for short-term disease progression. This is a retrospective study including 153 consecutive patients with HF with reduced and mid-range ejection fraction (HFrEF: LVEF<40%; HFmrEF: LVEF 40-49%) in NYHA I with no history of decompensation within the previous 6 months. All patients underwent comprehensive baseline echocardiographic and electrocardiographic assessment. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death, hospitalization and need for intensification of HF treatment within a 12 month follow-up period. The cumulative incidence of HF progression was 17.8%, with a median time to event of 193 days. Death and hospitalization due to HF accounted for three-quarters of the events. QRS duration ≥120ms and mitral regurgitation grade >1 showed to be significant predictors of HF progression (HR: 8.92, p<0.001; and HR: 4.10, p<0.001, respectively). Patients without these risk factors had a low incidence of clinical events (3.8%). In conclusion, almost one in five supposedly stable HF patients in NYHA I experience clinical progression in short-term follow-up. Simple electrocardiographic and echocardiographic predictors may be useful for risk stratification and could help to improve individual HF patient management and outcomes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Progressão da Doença , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
3.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 17(1): e1-e4, 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104329

RESUMO

Patients with symptomatic stage D heart failure who require left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support and suffer concomitant severe mitral regurgitation are often difficult to manage. One reason is due to cardiac anatomic constraints that limit optimization of the mechanical assist device. Typically, these patients are not candidates for repeat sternotomy with surgical mitral valve repair, and heart transplantation may not be feasible or timely. This case describes two patients with LVAD support who received transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair for severe, symptomatic mitral regurgitation. We believe this procedure may be a therapeutic option in stable patients with severe mitral regurgitation who require mechanical support.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Coração Auxiliar , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Idoso , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Desenho de Prótese , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Am J Cardiol ; 150: 95-100, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006372

RESUMO

Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is associated with a poor outcome in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Two recent studies of percutaneous mitral valvular repair therapy reported disparate results, likely due in part to variable risk among FMR patients. The aim of this study is to define echocardiographic factors of prognostic significance in FMR patients, and particularly to compare ischemic and nonischemic FMR. We followed three hundred sixteen consecutive patients (age 60 ± 14 years, men 70%) with FMR and LVEF ≤ 35% between January 2010 and December 2015 (mean follow-up 3.7 years). Patients were categorized into ischemic (39.6%) and nonischemic (60.4%). MR was graded according to the American Society of Echocardiography guidelines. Although echo findings were similar between ischemic and nonischemic patient, the incidence of death, heart transplantation (HT), or LVAD implantation was higher in ischemic than in nonischemic patients (Log rank p = 0.001). In age and gender adjusted multivariate (11 variables) Cox regression analysis, left atrium volume index (LAVI) was associated with death, HT, or LVAD with hazard ratio of 2.1 for patients with FMR (p = 0.003). LAVI greater than 48.7 mL/m2 predicts adverse outcome in both nonischemic and ischemic FMR (AUC 0.62, p < 0.001). Combined ischemic FMR with LAVI ≥ 48.7 mL/m2 had the highest incident rate of all groups. In conclusion, despite similar LV function and MR severity, ischemic FMR patients had higher mortality than nonischemic patients. Of all echocardiographic parameters, an LAVI ≥ 48.7 mL/m2 predicted adverse clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Transplante de Coração/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico , Taxa de Sobrevida
5.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 16(5): 709-720, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978895

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mitral valve computational models are widely studied in the literature. They can be used for preoperative planning or anatomical understanding. Manual extraction of the valve geometry on medical images is tedious and requires special training, while automatic segmentation is still an open problem. METHODS: We propose here a fully automatic pipeline to extract the valve chordae architecture compatible with a computational model. First, an initial segmentation is obtained by sub-mesh topology analysis and RANSAC-like model-fitting procedure. Then, the chordal structure is optimized with respect to objective functions based on mechanical, anatomical, and image-based considerations. RESULTS: The approach has been validated on 5 micro-CT scans with a graph-based metric and has shown an [Formula: see text] accuracy rate. The method has also been tested within a structural simulation of the mitral valve closed state. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the chordae architecture resulting from our algorithm can give results similar to experienced users while providing an equivalent biomechanical simulation.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valva Mitral/anatomia & histologia , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Algoritmos , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Simulação por Computador , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Modelos Anatômicos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suínos , Microtomografia por Raio-X
6.
Am J Cardiol ; 151: 78-85, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049673

RESUMO

Using three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and isometric handgrip exercise (IHE), we investigated the determinants of exercise-induced mitral regurgitation (MR) according to MR etiologies. Seventy-six patients with more than moderate MR, 40 patients with functional MR (FMR) and 36 patients with degenerative MR (DMR), underwent 3D TEE combined with IHE. Mitral valve (MV) geometry and 3D vena contracta area (3D VCA) were simultaneously evaluated at baseline and during IHE. With regard to exercise-induced MR, Δ3D VCA was calculated as the difference between 3D VCA at baseline and 3D VCA during IHE. IHE caused different changes in MV geometry between etiologies and led to exacerbation of 3D VCA at baseline. Larger Δ3D VCA was observed in the FMR group compared with the DMR group (15.9 ± 10.3 mm2 versus 7.3 ± 4.2 mm2; p < 0.0001). In multivariate analyses, tenting height and 3D VCA were selected as independent factors associated with Δ3D VCA in the FMR group (p = 0.0135 and p = 0.0201, respectively), while flail width was selected as an independent factor associated with Δ3D VCA in the DMR group (p = 0.0066). In conclusion, IHE alters mitral valve geometry and causes exacerbation of MR regardless of MR etiology and the determinants of exercise-induced MR differed between MR etiologies.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Força da Mão , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/complicações , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810615

RESUMO

Patients with primary mitral regurgitation (MR) may remain asymptomatic for many years. For unknown reasons, some shift from a compensated to a decompensated state and progress to fatal heart failure. To elucidate the genetic determinants of this process, we recruited 28 patients who underwent mitral valve surgery and stratified them into control, compensated MR, and decompensated MR groups. Tissue biopsies were obtained from the patients' left ventricular (LV) lateral wall for a transcriptome-wide profiling of 64,769 probes to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Using cutoff values at the 1% FDR significance level and sex- and age-adjusted regression models, we identified 12 significant DEGs (CTGF, MAP1B, SERPINE1, MYH9, MICAL2, MYO1D, CRY1, AQP7P3, HTRA1, PRSS23, IGFBP2, and FN1). The most significant gene was CTGF (adjusted R2 = 0.74, p = 1.80 × 10-8). We found that the majority of genes expressed in the more advanced decompensated MR group were pro-fibrotic genes associated with cardiac fibrosis. In particular, six pro-fibrotic genes (CTGF, SERPINE1, MYH9, HTRA1, PRSS23, and FN1) were overexpressed and enriched in pathways involved in ECM (extracellular matrix) protein remodeling. Therapeutic interventions that antagonize these six genes may slow the progression toward decompensated MR.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/metabolismo , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Biópsia , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/patologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/complicações , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Análise de Regressão , Volume Sistólico , Transcriptoma , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular/genética
10.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 320(5): H1774-H1785, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666507

RESUMO

Intense exercise exposes the heart to significant hemodynamic demands, resulting in adaptive changes in cardiac morphology and function. Nevertheless, the athletic adaptation of the atrioventricular valves remains to be elucidated. Our study aimed to characterize the geometry of mitral (MA) and tricuspid (TA) annuli in elite athletes using 3-D echocardiography. Thirty-four athletes presented with functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) were retrospectively identified and compared with 34 athletes without mitral regurgitation (MR) and 34 healthy, sedentary volunteers. 3-D echocardiographic datasets were used to quantify MA and TA geometry and leaflet tenting by dedicated softwares. MA and TA areas, as well as tenting volumes, were higher in athletes compared with controls. MA area was significantly higher in athletes with MR compared with those without (8.2 ± 1.0 vs. 7.2 ± 1.0 cm2/m2, P < 0.05). Interestingly, athletes with MR also presented with a significantly higher TA area (7.2 ± 1.1 vs. 6.5 ± 1.1 cm2/m2, P < 0.05). Nonplanar angle describing the MA's saddle shape was less obtuse in athletes without MR, whereas the values of athletes with MR were comparable with controls. The exercise-induced relative increases in left ventricular (35 ± 25%) and left atrial (40 ± 29%) volumes were similar; however, the increment in the MA area was disproportionately higher (63 ± 23%, overall P < 0.001). The relative increase in TA area (40 ± 23%) was also higher compared with the increment in right ventricular volume (34 ± 25%, P < 0.05). Atrioventricular annuli undergo a disproportionate remodeling in response to regular exercise. Athletic adaptation is characterized by both annular enlargement and increased leaflet tenting of both valves. There are differences in MA geometry in athletes presented with versus without FMR.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We have characterized the annular geometry of mitral and tricuspid valves in elite athletes using 3-D echocardiography. We have found that exercise-induced remodeling of the atrioventricular annuli comprises a disproportionate dilation of annular dimensions and increased leaflet tenting of both valves. Moreover, we have demonstrated a more pronounced saddle shape of the mitral annulus in athletes without mitral regurgitation, which was not present in those who had mild regurgitation.


Assuntos
Atletas , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Coração/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valva Tricúspide/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Indian Heart J ; 73(1): 85-90, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Left atrial (LA) and left ventricular (LV) remodelling are the adaptive changes that occur in primary mitral regurgitation (MR) and are related to its clinical outcomes. Despite the pathophysiological differences in MR in rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and mitral valve prolapse (MVP), whether the pattern of LV and LA remodelling is different between the two conditions remains unknown. Hence, we compared the LA and LV strain pattern in MR due to RHD, the predominant etiology in developing countries topatients with MVP and age and sex-matched controls. METHODS: A total of 50 patients of severe MR which included 30 MVP MR and 20 RHD MR were assessed by strain imaging by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and were compared with age and sex-matched controls. 2D STE was used for LA and 3D STE was used for LV strain analysis. LA and LV strain parameters were compared between MVP MR and RHD MR groups. RESULTS: 30 patients with MVP and 20 with RHD were studied. 60% (n = 30) were symptomatic. Mean GLS was -17.2 ± 4.4% compared to -20 ± 3.2% among controls and mean LA strain was 17.35 ± 10.3% compared to 51.34 ± 11.5% among controls which were significantly lower (both p < 0.01). No significant difference in LA strain and GLS was found between MVP and RHD subgroups (LA strain 20.45 ± 11.9% and 14.63 ± 8.85%; p = 0.08; GLS - 18.25 ± 4.3% and-16.2 ± 4.6%; p = 0.12). PALS in the RHD group was lower compared to MVP(p = 0.08) which showed a trend towards significance. LV strain parameters showed no significant difference among the MVP and RHD groups. CONCLUSION: LA and LV strain parameters showed no significant difference in MR due to either RHD or MVP. There was a trend towards lower LA strain in RHD which needs validation with large multicentric studies. The current strain parameters from MVP with the prognostic value may be applied to MR of RHD etiology, pending confirmation of our results by other groups.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/complicações , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Cardiopatia Reumática/complicações , Remodelação Ventricular , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cardiopatia Reumática/diagnóstico , Cardiopatia Reumática/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 31, 2021 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Objective assessment of prosthetic paravalvular leak (PVL) is complex and challenging even in transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Our aim was to assess the value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in quantifying PVL in aortic (AVR) or mitral valve (MVR) replacement. METHODS: Thirty-one patients (62 ± 15.1 years, 63% males) with a preliminary diagnosis of significant PVL (AVR, n-23; MVR, n = 8) were recruited. The TEE PVL grading was based on the semi-quantitative (SQ) TEE according to the VARC II PVL classification (%PVL: mild < 10%; moderate 10%-30%; severe > 30%). Non-contrast CMR studies were acquired at 1.5 T with a quantitative approach (phase-contrast velocity encoded imaging). The CMR PVL severity was classified according to regurgitant fraction (RF: (1) mild ≤ 20%, (2) moderate 21%-39%, or (3) severe ≥ 40%). RESULTS: All patients revealed symptoms of heart failure (71%: New York Heart Association [NYHA] II; 91%: N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP] > 150 pg/ml) and typical cardiovascular disease risk factors. The SQ-TEE results revealed several categories: (1) mild (n = 5; 16%), (2) moderate (n = 21; 67%), and (3) severe (n = 5; 16%) PVL. However, CMR PVL RF reclassified the severity of PVL: (1) mild to moderate (in 80%), (2) moderate to severe (in 47%), and (3) severe to moderate (in 40%). The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that SQ-TEE and CMR PVL-vol and -RF predicted the upper tertile of NT-proBNP (> 2000 pg/ml) with the best sensitivity for CMR parameters. CONCLUSION: The SQ-TEE showed moderate agreement with CMR and underestimated a considerable number of AVR or MVR-PVL.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Idoso , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 18(3): 261-272, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682563

RESUMO

Introduction: Secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR) is one of the most common valvulopathies and is associated with poor prognosis. Over the past years, medical management and mitral valve repair options have rapidly evolved offering new opportunities for a wide range of patients.Areas covered: We provide an up-to-date review of the value of medical and transcatheter mitral valve leaflet approximation for SMR integrating the results of most recent trials and putting their findings into clinical perspective.Expert opinion: Treatment of SMR requires a multidisciplinary approach with a long-term perspective. After optimization of medical treatment, transcatheter mitral valve repair should be considered in patients with persisting symptomatic severe SMR to improve symptoms and prognosis.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/tendências , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Humanos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/epidemiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Revascularização Miocárdica , Prevalência , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Am J Cardiol ; 147: 101-108, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647268

RESUMO

Optimal patient selection for transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVR) remains challenging. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of left and right ventricular stroke work index (LVSWi, RVSWi) on mortality in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) undergoing TMVR. One hundred-forty patients (median age 74 ± 9.9 years, 67.9% male) with CHF who underwent successful TMVR were included. Primary end point was defined as all-cause mortality after 16 ± 9 months of follow-up. LVSWi was calculated as: Stroke volume index (SVi) * (mean arterial pressure - postcapillary wedge pressure) * 0.0136 = g/m-1/m2. RVSWi was calculated as: SVi * (mean pulmonary artery pressure - right atrial pressure) * 0.0136 = g/m-1/m2. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis determined an optimal threshold of 24.8 g/m-1/m2 for LVSWi (sensitivity 80.4%, specificity 40.2%, area under the curve (AUC) 0.71 [0.60 to 0.81]; p = 0.001) and 8.3 g/m-1/m2 for RVSWi (sensitivity 67.4%, specificity 57.0%, AUC 0.67 [0.56 to 0.78]; p = 0.006), respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly lower survival in patients with LVSWi ≤24.8 g/m-1/m2 (20.0% vs 39.4%; log-rank p = 0.038) and in patients with RVSWi ≤8.3 g/m-1/m2 (22.1% vs 43.7%; log-rank p = 0.026), respectively. LVSWi of ≤24.8 g/m-1/m2 and RVSWi of ≤8.3 g/m-1/m2 were independent predictors for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 2.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 7.6; p = 0.04; HR 2.52; 95% CI 1.04 to 6.1; p = 0.041). A risk-score incorporating LVSWi and RVSWi cut-off values from ROC analysis powerfully predicts long-term survival after successful TMVR (log-rank p = 0.02). In conclusion, LVSWi and RVSWi independently predict mortality in patients with CHF undergoing TMVR and might be useful in risk stratification of TMVR candidates.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Taxa de Sobrevida , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia
17.
ASAIO J ; 67(4): 423-429, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769997

RESUMO

Significant residual mitral regurgitation (MR) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The effect of cannula position on improvement of preexisting MR has yet to be evaluated. Consecutive patients who underwent centrifugal LVAD implantation with >mild preoperative MR and without concomitant mitral repair were reviewed. Left ventricular assist device position was determined by the angle between actual and ideal inflow cannula on computed tomography. The magnitudes of angles (anterior and lateral angle) were added to form an LVAD position assessment (LVADpa). Mitral regurgitation was numerically classified, and improvement in MR was determined by difference in MR preoperatively to MR >1 month postoperatively with a median of 162 (interquartile range: 78-218) days. The primary analysis examined the relationship between LVADpa and postoperative MR. Forty-one patients were identified with >mild preoperative functional MR. Mean age was 51 ± 13 years with an ejection fraction of 16 ± 4%. Overall, MR improved from moderate-severe preoperatively to mild postoperatively (p < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, higher LVADpa deviation was associated with greater postoperative MR (odds ratio [OR] = 2.29, p = 0.005) and higher 1-month pulsatility index was associated with lower postoperative MR (OR = 0.47, p = 0.011). Inflow cannula position during centrifugal LVAD implantation is an important determinant of postoperative MR.


Assuntos
Coração Auxiliar , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/métodos , Adulto , Cânula , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246701, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591991

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Study aims were to compare hemodynamics and viscous energy dissipation (VED) in 3D printed mitral valves-one replicating a normal valve and the other a valve with severe mitral annular calcification (MAC). Patients with severe MAC develop transmitral gradients, without the commissural fusion typifying rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS), and may have symptoms similar to classical MS. A proposed mechanism relates to VED due to disturbed blood flow through the diseased valve into the ventricle. METHODS: A silicone model of a normal mitral valve (MV) was created using a transesophageal echocardiography dataset. 3D printed calcium phantoms were incorporated into a second valve model to replicate severe MAC. The synthetic MVs were tested in a left heart duplicator under rest and exercise conditions. Fine particles were suspended in a water/glycerol blood analogue for particle image velocimetry calculation of VED. RESULTS: Catheter mean transmitral gradients were slightly higher in the MAC valve compared to the normal MV, both at rest (3.2 vs. 1.3 mm Hg) and with exercise (5.9 vs. 5.0 mm Hg); Doppler gradients were 2.7 vs. 2.1 mm Hg at rest and 9.9 vs 8.2 mm Hg with exercise. VED was similar between the two valves at rest. During exercise, VED increased to a greater extent for the MAC valve (240%) versus the normal valve (127%). CONCLUSION: MAC MS is associated with slightly increased transmitral gradients but markedly increased VED during exercise. These energy losses may contribute to the exercise intolerance and exertional dyspnea present in MAC patients.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valva Mitral/fisiologia , Viscosidade Sanguínea/fisiologia , Calcinose/complicações , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Valva Mitral/anatomia & histologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/complicações , Modelos Anatômicos , Impressão Tridimensional , Viscosidade
19.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 161(3): 981-994.e5, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419544

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mitral repair for asymptomatic (New York Heart Association [NYHA] class I) degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) is supported by the guidelines, but is not performed often. We sought to determine outcomes for asymptomatic patients when compared with those with symptoms. METHODS: Between 2004 and 2018, 1027 patients underwent mitral replacement (22) or repair with or without other cardiac surgery (1005), the latter being grouped by NYHA class: I (n = 470; 47%), II (n = 408; 40%), or III/IV (n = 127; 13%). Statistical analyses included propensity score matching and weighting, and multistate models. RESULTS: The proportion of patients designated as NYHA class I undergoing surgery increased steadily during this period (P < .001). Overall, 30-day mortality was 0.4%, and zero for patients designated NYHA class I. Unadjusted 10-year survival was significantly greater in patients designated NYHA class I compared with II and III/IV (P < .001). Freedom from reoperation at 10 years was 99.8% overall, and 100% for patients designated NYHA class I. In patients designated as NYHA class I, predischarge and 10-year moderate MR were 0.7% and 20.1%, whereas more than moderate was zero and 0.6%. Preoperative ejection fraction less than 60% was associated with late mortality (P = .025). After covariate-adjustments, freedom from MR and tricuspid regurgitation were not statistically significantly different by NYHA class. However, overall survival was significantly worse in patients with NYHA class III/IV, compared with class II. CONCLUSIONS: Mitral repair in asymptomatic patients is safe and durable. Careful monitoring until class II symptoms is appropriate. However, repair before ejection fraction decreases below 60% is important for late overall survival.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/normas , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/mortalidade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Recidiva , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 161(3): 937-946, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The durability of mitral valve repair (MVr) is usually defined by the absence of recurrent significant mitral regurgitation. Postrepair mitral stenosis (MS) is a less frequent and less studied mode of failure of MVr. We analyzed our experience in patients who underwent reoperation for postrepair MS to characterize mechanisms resulting in MS and to summarize reoperative surgical strategies and mid-term outcomes. METHODS: Using a prospective database, we retrospectively analyzed data on 35 consecutive patients who underwent reoperation for symptomatic moderate to severe MS between January 1, 2011, and February 1, 2020. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 61.4 ± 11.4 years, and 69% were female. The median annuloplasty ring size used at the initial repair was 28 mm (interquartile range, 26-30 mm). Additional repair techniques at the initial operation included leaflet resection in 12 patients (34%) and commissuroplasty or edge-to-edge repair in 6 patients (18%). At reoperation, the most common mechanism of MS was pannus ingrowth in 20 patients (57%), leaflet calcification in 12 (34%), commissural fusion in 5 (14%), and tunnel effect (functional MS) in 3 (9%). Twenty-two patients (63%) underwent valve replacement, and 13 (37%) underwent valve re-repair. In patients who underwent re-repair, annuloplasty revision was performed in all patients, with 6 patients (46%) converted from complete ring to band, 4 (11%) converted from ring to pericardial annuloplasty, 2 (6%) converted to no annuloplasty, and 1 (8%) with annuloplasty ring upsizing. There were no in-hospital or 1-year mortalities. Survival at the 5-year follow-up was 93.9%. CONCLUSIONS: MS causing late failure of MVr is frequently associated with smaller ring sizes and inflammatory or calcific changes in the valve. Highly selected patients may be good candidates for mitral valve re-repair.


Assuntos
Calcinose/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Reoperação , Idoso , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/etiologia , Calcinose/fisiopatologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Fibrose , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/instrumentação , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Estenose da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Falha de Prótese , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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