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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e20231, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To systematically evaluate the effects of physical activity on physiological markers in breast cancer survivors. METHODS: A systematic search of the PubMed, Wed of Science, Medline, CNKI and Wanfang Database was performed to identify eligible randomized controlled trials to explore physical activity on physiological markers in breast cancer survivors. STATA version 13.0 (Stata Corp LP, College Station, TX) was used for all statistical analyses. RESULTS: A total of 11 articles with 941 cases were eligible in this meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis showed that physical activity could decrease the levels of insulin (SMD = -1.90, 95%CI: -3.2 to -0.60; I = 92.3%, P < .001), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) (WMD = -4.67, 95%CI: -23.14 to 13.79; I = 96.2%, P < .001), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) (WMD = -20.09, 95%CI: -47.15 to 6.97; I = 93.3%, P < .001). However, compared with the control group, there was not the significant change of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-II), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), leptin, adiponectin, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-ɑ) levels after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity could improve the insulin function that might be associated with decreasing the levels of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and insulin in breast cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/análise , Insulina/sangue , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/análise , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/sangue , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/análise , Proteína 3 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/sangue
2.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(4): 577-584, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238640

RESUMO

Elneopa NF No. 1 and No. 2 infusions are complete parenteral nutrition solutions packaged as four-chambered bags. They have been used for home parenteral nutrition, with insulin injected into the bags for patients whose blood glucose becomes elevated. In this study, the stability of insulin in No. 1 and No. 2 bags was investigated. The quantity of insulin in Elneopa NF No. 2 was significantly lower than that in Elneopa NF No. 1. When insulin was injected into the upper chamber of either product, decreases in insulin levels were not observed. In contrast, the levels of insulin injected into the lower chamber of both products significantly decreased, with a larger difference in Elneopa NF No. 2. As the amino acid content is different between No. 1 and No. 2, amino acids may be considered a potential cause for the degradation of insulin in the bags. In addition, decreases in insulin levels were observed as the solutions passed through infusion sets just after flushing began, with both Elneopa NF No. 1 and No. 2. In conclusion, the concentration of insulin injected into the Elneopa infusion bags decreases, especially in No. 2 bags, and insulin is absorbed by the infusion sets.


Assuntos
Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Insulina/análise , Nutrição Parenteral Total , Soluções/química , Embalagem de Medicamentos , Insulina/administração & dosagem
3.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(1): 124-133, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902407

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To delineate the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the development of cardiovascular diseases in a community population. PATIENTS & METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of residents randomly selected through the Rochester Epidemiology Project, 45 years or older, of Olmsted County as of June 1, 1997, through September 30, 2000. Responders (2042) underwent assessment of systolic and diastolic function using echocardiography. The current analyses included all participants with DM and were compared with a group of participants without DM matched 1:2 for age, sex, hypertension, and coronary artery disease. Baseline characteristics and laboratory and echocardiography findings between groups were compared along with rates of mortality due to various cardiovascular conditions. RESULTS: We identified 116 participants with DM and 232 matched participants without DM. Those with DM had a higher body mass index and plasma insulin and serum glucose levels. Although left ventricular ejection fractions were similar, E/e' ratio (9.7 vs 8.5; P=.001) was higher in DM vs non-DM. During a follow-up of 10.8 (interquartile range, 7.8-11.7) years, participants with DM had a higher incidence of heart failure (HF); hazard ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence limits, 1.2-3.6; P=.01) and 10-year Kaplan-Meier rate of 21% (22 of 116) vs 12% (24 of 232) compared with those without DM. We also examined the subgroup of participants without diastolic dysfunction. In this subgroup, those with DM had an increased risk for HF; hazard ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence limits, 1.0-6.3; P=.04). CONCLUSION: In this cohort, participants with DM have an increased incidence of HF over a 10-year follow-up period even in the absence of underlying diastolic dysfunction. These findings suggest that DM is an independent risk factor for the development of HF and supports the concept of DM cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Ecocardiografia Doppler/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Insulina/análise , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1615: 460741, 2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810620

RESUMO

In this work, we introduced an aptamer modified Au nanoparticles doped covalent organic frameworks composite (IBAs-AuNPs/COF) to improve the property of selective enrichment of insulin from serum samples. The Au nanoparticles were immobilized on imine-based COF by in-situ reduction reaction via mussel inspired polydopamine coating, and then sulfhydryl-containing aptamers were bonded to the surface of AuNPs through an Au-S linkage. Due to the excellent adsorption property of COF and specific recognition between insulin and IBAs, the IBAs-AuNPs/COF composites show selective and satisfactory extraction property to insulin in serum samples. Excellent specifity was obtained for insulin in the presence of 50-fold interfering substances including human immunoglobulin, lysozyme and biotin. The concentrations of insulin in the range of 1.0 to 50.0 µg L-1 show good linear relationship (R2 = 0.9917) with limit of detection and limit of quantitation of 0.28 µg L-1 and 0.93 µg L-1, respectively. Then, the IBAs-AuNPs/COF composites were applied to enrich insulin in serum samples followed by analysis with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). After the recovery experiment, the developed method shows good recoveries in range of 91.6%-112.4% with low RSD value (2.4%-9.4%, n = 3) for diabetic and healthy serum samples. The developed IBAs-AuNPs/COF composites propose a new perspective for selective and efficient enrichment of biomarkers in serum samples by functionalized COF.


Assuntos
Química Clínica/métodos , Ouro/química , Insulina/isolamento & purificação , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Adsorção , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Humanos , Indóis/química , Insulina/análise , Polímeros/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila
5.
Phytother Res ; 34(2): 409-417, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667906

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a systemic disease and one classical type of total DM. Bilobalide (BB) is constituted of EGb 761. Our purpose was identifying the role of BB in TIDM in the current study. MIN6 cells were treated by TNF-α; then, viability, apoptosis, and insulin secretion were assessed by performing Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, flow cytometry, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion assay, and western blot. The effects of BB were assessed to identify its function. Further, the above mentioned parameters were reassessed when silencing miR-153. TNF-α declined viability and insulin secretion as well as raised apoptosis and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in MIN6 cells. BB alleviated the apoptosis and dysfunction induced by TNF-α. MiR-153 expression was elevated by BB when induced by TNF-α. Increase of viability and insulin secretion as well as decline of apoptosis and iNOS induced by BB treatment was alleviated by silencing miR-153. The rates of p/t-p70S6K, p/t-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p/t-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were raised by BB and suppressed by silencing miR-153 under TNF-α induced condition. BB raised viability and insulin secretion, declined apoptosis and iNOS expression by up-regulating miR-153. Furthermore, BB activated AMPK/mTOR pathway by up-regulating miR-153.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Furanos/farmacologia , Ginkgolídeos/farmacologia , Insulina/análise , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos adversos , Regulação para Cima
6.
Talanta ; 207: 120321, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594568

RESUMO

An optical aptasensor-based sensing platform for rapid insulin detection was fabricated. Aminated porous silica microparticles (PSiMPs) were synthesized via a facile mini-emulsion method to provide large surface area for covalent immobilization of insulin-binding DNA aptamer (IGA3) by glutaraldehyde cross-linking protocol. A Nickel-salphen type complex with piperidine side chain [Ni(II)-SP] was synthesized with a simple one-pot reaction, and functionalized as an optical label due to strong π-π interaction between aromatic carbons of G-quadruplex DNA aptamer and planar aromatic groups of Ni(II)-SP to form the immobilized IGA3-Ni(II)-SP complex, i.e. the dye-labeled aptamer, thereby bringing yellow colouration to the immobilized G-quartet plane. Optical characterization of aptasensor towards insulin binding was carried out with a fiber optic reflectance spectrophotometer. The maximum reflectance intensity of the immobilized IGA3-Ni(II)-SP complex at 656 nm decreased upon binding with insulin as aptasensor changed to brownish orange colouration in the background. This allows optical detection of insulin as the colour change of aptasensor is dependent on the insulin concentration. The linear detection range of the aptasensor is obtained from 10 to 50 µIU mL-1 (R2 = 0.9757), which conformed to the normal fasting insulin levels in human with a limit of detection (LOD) at 3.71 µIU mL-1. The aptasensor showed fast response time of 40 min and long shelf life stability of >3 weeks. Insulin detection using healthy human serums with informed consent provided by participants suggests the DNA aptamer biosensor was in good agreement with ELISA standard method using BIOMATIK Human INS (Insulin) ELISA Kit.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Insulina/análise , Dispositivos Ópticos , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Fenilenodiaminas/química , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/química , Insulina/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , Porosidade , Bases de Schiff/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Fatores de Tempo
7.
J Invest Surg ; 33(1): 69-76, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846099

RESUMO

Background: Liver regeneration is a complex procedure in which insulin metabolism has been implicated. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the role of insulin in rat hepatic regeneration following major hepatectomy (70%), employing an isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL) model to assess the extraction of insulin from the regenerating liver. Methods: Eighty-six male rats were randomized in 9 groups. A group of rats was studied at postoperative day (POD) 1 having a sham operation while control rats had no operation. All other animals were subjected to 70% hepatectomy. In phase B, at POD 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 14, the IPRL was applied. The regenerating liver was perfused with insulin (450 mu/ml) at a flow of 1.4 ml/gr liver/min for 20 min. Animal weight, liver weight, glucose, lactate, aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), total bilirubin, albumin, prothrombin time (PT), insulin clearance, and tissue proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression were recorded. Results: We observed reduction of the liver's biochemical activities resulting in increase of AST (684%), ALT (532%), PT (27.7%), international normalized ratio (72%), and total bilirubin (82.8%) at first POD, while a normalization of the essential liver's functions occurs at fifth POD. Endogenous insulin concentration increased, while insulin extraction by the liver was reduced at the first POD in animals who underwent hepatectomy (13.94 ± 0.8 vs 7.97 ± 1.80 u/ml, p = 0.0005 and 71 ± 9.9 vs 165.88 µU/gr liver/min, respectively, p = 0.0005). Conclusions: Insulin seems to take part in hepatic regeneration, as the pancreas increases insulin production and the liver absorbs less despite the reduced hepatic mass and function.


Assuntos
Insulina/metabolismo , Regeneração Hepática , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Hepatectomia , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/análise , Fígado/cirurgia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Perfusão/métodos , Período Pós-Operatório , Ratos
8.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 148: 111795, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665673

RESUMO

In this work, a high-efficiency electrochemiluminescence (ECL) ternary system was constructed for ultrasensitive assay of insulin based on hollow porous graphitic carbon nitride (HP-C3N4) as novel luminophore, S2O82- as coreactant and tri-metallic AuPtAg as coreaction accelerator. Specifically, in comparison with C3N4-based bulk nanomaterials, the as-prepared HP-C3N4 exhibits high luminous efficiency though decreased inner filter effect and minimized inactive ECL emitter. Noteworthy, tri-metallic AuPtAg, possessing the superiority of Au, Pt and Ag, was first used as coreaction accelerator to significantly enhance ECL intensity of HP-C3N4 and S2O82-. As a consequence, with the resultant ECL ternary (HP-C3N4/S2O82-/AuPtAg) system as aptasensing platform, a high-intense initial ECL signal was achieved. Subsequently, ferrocene-labeled quenching probe (Fc-HP2) as ECL quencher was used to quench the initial signal and achieve the low-background noise. Eventually, in the presence of insulin, the target-induced triple-helix molecular switch and Nb.BbvCI-assisted DNA walker amplification were executed to recover a strong ECL signal by releasing Fc-HP2 from the electrode surface. As expected, the constructed aptasensor presents an excellent sensitivity and selectivity for detecting insulin range from 0.05 pg mL-1 to 100 ng mL-1 with a detection limit of 17 fg mL-1. This work provides a new avenue for developing highly efficient HP-C3N4 based ECL ternary system as well as ultrasensitive ECL aptasensors for bioanalysis.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Grafite/química , Insulina/sangue , Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Compostos de Nitrogênio/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Ouro/química , Humanos , Insulina/análise , Limite de Detecção , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Metalocenos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Platina/química , Porosidade , Prata/química
9.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1089: 152-164, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627812

RESUMO

A novel, highly selective and sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) biosensor for insulin (INS) detection was proposed based on aptamer and oligonucleotide-gold nanoparticles functionalized nanosilica @ graphene oxide aerogel. Initially, nanosilica functionalized graphene oxide aerogel (SiO2@GOAG) was successfully prepared and the composite showed rich pore distribution, large specific surface area and good biocompatibility. Insulin aptamer (IGA3) was used as a biorecognition element and oligonucleotide functionalized gold nanoparticles (ssDNA-AuNPs) was used as CL signal amplification materials, which were functionalized on the surface of SiO2@GOAG. The multi-functionalized composite - ssDNA-AuNPs/IGA3/SiO2@ GOAG was obtained and used to construct the CL biosensor for insulin detection. When insulin is present in a sample, the insulin will bind to the IGA3, which will result in the release of ssDNA-AuNPs. The released ssDNA-AuNPs would catalyze the luminescence of luminol and H2O2. The linear range of the CL biosensor for insulin detection was 7.5 × 10-12 to 5.0 × 10-9 moL/L and the detection limit was 1.6 × 10-12 moL/L (S/N = 3). The selectivity and stability of the CL biosensor were also studied and the results showed that the biosensor exhibited high selectivity and good stability due to the introduction of ssDNA-AuNPs/IGA3/SiO2@GOAG. The CL biosensor was finally used for recombinant human insulin detection in recombinant human insulin injection and the results were satisfactory.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Géis/química , Grafite/química , Insulina/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , DNA de Cadeia Simples/química , Ouro , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Limite de Detecção , Luminescência , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Luminol/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Analyst ; 144(23): 6898-6904, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638109

RESUMO

The accurate determination of disulfide bonds for protein identification is in high demand. In this study, a simple electrochemical-mass spectrometry (EC-MS) method that possesses advantages of real-time information, simultaneous disulfide bond electroreduction and tagging was developed. In this EC-MS, an ITO glass corner functions as a counter electrode and spray system, and allows the direct sampling of the droplet-scale reacting solution in real-time. The application of this method was successfully demonstrated by electrochemical reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) with one disulfide bond as well as insulin with multiple disulfide bonds. The preferred electroreduction of intermolecular-bonded disulfides for insulin has been observed and the intramolecular bond was not favored. Moreover, simultaneously tagging the formed thiol residues from electroreduction of GSSG using electrogenerated intermediates such as dopamine orthoquinone (DQ) and benzoquinone (Q) was performed. A proof-of-concept was also demonstrated with a large molecule, ß-lactoglobulin A. The relationship between signal strength and operating parameters was also studied. This method successfully detected the reduction reaction of the disulfide bond in the polypeptide and protein. The detection limit (S/N ≥ 3) is 0.398 µg mL-1. These results suggest that this EC-MS platform can count cysteine moieties in proteins using a single drop of sample and in real-time and is promising for protein identification experiments.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/química , Glutationa/análise , Insulina/análise , Lactoglobulinas/análise , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cisteína/química , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Eletrodos , Glutationa/química , Insulina/química , Lactoglobulinas/química , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Oxirredução , Compostos de Estanho/química
11.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480373

RESUMO

Human milk composition is variable. The identification of influencing factors and interdependencies of components may help to understand the physiology of lactation. In this study, we analyzed linear trends in human milk composition over time, the variation across different European countries and the influence of maternal celiac disease. Within a multicenter European study exploring potential prevention of celiac disease in a high-risk population (PreventCD), 569 human milk samples were donated by women from five European countries between 16 and 163 days postpartum. Some 202 mothers provided two samples at different time points. Protein, carbohydrates, fat and fatty acids, insulin, adiponectin, and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) were analyzed. Milk protein and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased during the first three months of lactation. Fatty acid composition was significantly influenced by the country of residence. IGF-II and adiponectin concentrations correlated with protein content (r = 0.24 and r = 0.35), and IGF-II also correlated with fat content (r = 0.36), suggesting a possible regulatory role of IGF in milk macronutrient synthesis. Regarding the impact of celiac disease, only the level in palmitic acid was influenced by this disease, suggesting that breastfeeding by celiac disease mothers should not be discouraged.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/análise , Insulina/análise , Leite Humano/química , Nutrientes/análise , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação/fisiologia , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Período Pós-Parto , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 103: 109753, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349477

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder associated with impaired carbohydrate metabolism. We present a promising bioinspired approach against type 1 DM using yeast microcapsule (YMC). The glucan component in the outer shell of baker's yeast undergoes receptor-mediated uptake by phagocytic cells through M cell-mediated endocytosis. Thus, a drug can be expected to be delivered to the systemic circulation via lymphatic transport if it is attached to the surface of YMC. For the first time, this possibility has been explored by surface loading of insulin onto YMC. The electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged YMC and insulin resulted in the formation of insulin-loaded yeast microcapsule (IYMC) which was confirmed by fluorescence imaging. Alginate coating provided to IYMC protects YMC from the harsh environment of the gastrointestinal tract and prevents the degradation of insulin in IYMC. Cellular uptake of FITC conjugated IYMC by RAW macrophages confirmed the proposed mechanism of insulin uptake. Moreover, an in vitro method using YMC-imprinted gel was developed for insulin release study from the bioinspired system. Molecular docking studies proved the interaction of insulin with ß-glucan and alginate. A significant hypoglycemic effect was observed after oral administration of the alginate coated insulin-loaded yeast microcapsule (AL-IYMC) in diabetic rats. The AL-IYMCs could serve as a promising approach towards the oral delivery of insulin.


Assuntos
Cápsulas/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/farmacocinética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Administração Oral , Alginatos , Animais , Cápsulas/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Insulina/análise , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/patologia , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Imagem Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/citologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
13.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 130: 107326, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295699

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus can be considered one of the most widespread diseases globally. Hence, the diabetes research is currently focused on developing an effective, low-cost sensor having high stability and suitable analytical characteristics. Screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) embody ideal candidates for insulin determination due to the small area of the working electrode eliminating the solution volume required for the given purpose. Modification of SPCEs by using nanoparticles resulted in an increase of the working electrode surface area and formation of a higher number of active species. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of a chitosan membrane on the electrochemical determination of insulin on NiO nanoparticles (NiONPs) and multi-walled nanotube (MWCNTs) modified SPCE (NiONPs/MWCNTs/SPCE). This study is primarily conceived to compare the analytical characteristics and stability of NiONPs/chitosan-MWCNTs/SPCE and NiONPs/MWCNTs/SPCE. An electrode modified with chitosan displays a wider linear range, one of 0.25 µM - 5 µM (R2 0.997); a lower limit of detection, 94 nM; a high sensitivity (0.021 µA/µM) and better stability than that of an electrode without chitosan. According to these characteristics, the polymer is considered a necessary compound of the electrochemical insulin sensor, improving the sensor's analytical characteristics.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Quitosana/química , Insulina/análise , Membranas Artificiais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Eletrodos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Níquel/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/análise
14.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(1): 200-214, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Skeletal mass loss is reported in several catabolic conditions and it has been associated with a reduced intracellular L-glutamine content. We investigated the association of intracellular L-glutamine concentration with the protein content in skeletal muscle cells. METHODS: We cultivated C2C12 myotubes in the absence or presence of 2 (reference condition), 8 or 16 mM L-glutamine for 48 hours, and the variations in the contents of amino acids and proteins measured. We used an inhibitor of L-glutamine synthesis (L-methionine sulfoximine - MSO) to promote a further reduction in intracellular L-glutamine levels. Amino acids contents in cells and media were measured using LC-MS/MS. We measured changes in phosphorylated Akt, RP-S6, and 4E-BP1contents in the absence or presence of insulin by western blotting. RESULTS: Reduced intracellular L-glutamine concentration was associated with decreased protein content and increased protein breakdown. Low intracellular glutamine levels were also associated with decreased p-Akt contents in the presence of insulin. A further decrease in intracellular L-glutamine caused by glutamine synthetase inhibitor reduced protein content and levels of amino acids generated from glutamine metabolism and increased bAib still further. Cells exposed to high medium glutamine levels did not have any change in protein content but exhibited increased contents of the amino acids derived from L-glutamine metabolism. CONCLUSION: Intracellular L-glutamine levels per se play a role in the control of protein content in skeletal muscle myotubes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteína S6 Ribossômica/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/análise , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida , Fatores de Iniciação em Eucariotos , Glutamina/análise , Insulina/análise , Camundongos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/química , Fosfoproteínas/análise , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/análise , Proteína S6 Ribossômica/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 141: 111201, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302426

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder lasting for the lifetime of a person. Glucose and insulin are the main indicators in the monitoring and control of this disease. Most often, various laboratory tests are used in the diagnosis and control of diabetes. Among them, the estimation of blood glucose concentration is one of the main diagnostic criteria. Proper control of the blood glucose level can delay, and to a greater extent, prevent complications. Thus, blood glucose monitoring is a requisite tool in the management of diabetes mellitus. Insulin plays a major role in glucose metabolism and its determination is of great value in the diagnosis and control of diabetes. An uncountable number of biosensors have been developed based on various mechanisms which will make sure a continuous glucose as well as insulin monitoring. Biosensors became the most sophisticated tool for the detection of glucose and insulin and they are of different types. Enzymatic, non-enzymatic, electrochemical, optical, non-invasive, and continuous monitoring biosensors are discussed in this review. In recent years, there is progress towards the development of nanobiosensors using various nanomaterials. Here, we have reviewed the fabrication, modification, and recent approaches associated with insulin and glucose biosensors for the treatment of diabetes.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Insulina/sangue , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Automonitorização da Glicemia/instrumentação , Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Glucose/análise , Humanos , Insulina/análise
16.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 51(6): 327-332, jun.-jul. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185712

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analizar los cambios en las concentraciones de glucosa, insulina y triglicéridos sanguíneos en relación con un ejercicio aerobio moderado en mujeres sedentarias de distinto peso corporal, expuestas a una dieta rica en hidratos de carbono de alto o bajo índice glucémico. Diseño: Tipo cruzado. Emplazamiento: Se realizó en el Laboratorio de Fisiología del Ejercicio de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Cultura Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, México. Participantes: Participaron 26 mujeres jóvenes sedentarias que no realizaron ejercicio en el último año. Se excluyeron 4 de peso adecuado (PA) y 2 con obesidad (OB) por no consumir los hidratos de carbono indicados (1 g/kg de peso) ni completar el ejercicio programado. Quedaron n = 10 en cada grupo (PA/OB). Intervención: Se aplicaron 2 tratamientos de 55 min de ejercicio aerobio cada uno, un día después de consumir hidratos de carbono de alto o de bajo índice glucémico. Mediciones principales: Se determinaron glucosa, insulina y triglicéridos plasmáticos, antes y después del ejercicio programado. Resultados: Glucosa, insulina y triglicéridos fueron más altos en OB que en PA al inicio del estudio. La glucosa se normalizó en OB de 5,8 ± 0,35 a 5,3 ± 0,23mmol/L (p = 0,001), solo por ingerir alimentos de bajo índice glucémico; los triglicéridos incrementaron de 139,5 ± 66 a 150,8 ± 67,2mg/dl (p = 0,004), al término del ejercicio, habiendo consumido alimentos de bajo índice glucémico. Conclusión: La elevación de triglicéridos secundaria al ejercicio posterior al consumo de bajo índice glucémico parece indicar aumento de oxidación lipídica en OB


Objective: To analyze changes in blood glucose, insulin and triglyceride concentrations in relation to a moderate aerobic exercise in sedentary women of different body weight, exposed to either a high or low glycemic index carbohydrates diet. Diseño: Cross-over type. Site: Research was performed in the Exercise Physiology Laboratory at Facultad de Ciencias de la Cultura Física, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, México. Participants: Twenty-six young sedentary women who did not exercise in the last year participated in the study. Four of adequate weight (AW) and 2 with obesity (OB) were excluded for not consuming the suggested carbohydrates (1 gr/kg of weight) nor completed the programed exercise. There were n = 10 in each group (AW/OB). Intervention: Two treatments of 55 minutes of aerobic exercise each were applied one day after consuming either high or low glycemic index carbohydrates. Main measurements: Plasmatic glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were determined before and after the scheduled exercise. Results: Glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were higher in OB than in AW at baseline. Glucose was normalized in OB from 5.8 ± 0.35 to 5.3 ± 0.23 mmol/L (P = .001), only by eating foods with low glycemic index; triglycerides increased from 139.5 ± 66.0 to 150.8 ± 67.2mg/dl (P = .004) at the end of the exercise, after consumption of low glycemic index carbohydrates. Conclusion. Elevation of triglycerides secondary to exercise after consumption of low glycemic index seems to indicate an increase of lipid oxidation in OB


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Índice Glicêmico , Comportamento Sedentário , Exercício Físico , Consumo de Alimentos , Carboidratos/administração & dosagem , Glicemia/análise , Insulina/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , México , Sobrepeso
17.
Adv Gerontol ; 32(1-2): 85-92, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228372

RESUMO

Currently, one of the approaches to correct metabolic disorders in the type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) with obesity are bariatric surgery (BS), including sleeve gastrectomy (SG), gastric bypass (GB) and ileal transposition (IT). However, their effectiveness and impact on the hypothalamic signaling and hormonal status in severe forms of DM2 without obesity remain little studied. The aim of the work was to study the effect of IT, SG and GB on the insulin, leptin, ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels in the blood and on the expression of the genes encoding the main components of the hypothalamic signaling systems in rats with decompensated form of DM2, which was induced by a high-fat diet (3 months) and a single low dose of streptozotocin (25 mg/kg, 2 months after the start of the diet). In diabetic rats, a significantly expressed hyperglycemia, an impaired glucose tolerance, a decrease in glucose-stimulated GLP-1 level, a slight decrease in the insulin and leptin levels and an slight increase in ghrelin level were detected. In the hypothalamus, the expression of the genes encoding GLP-1 receptor, orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP), as well as phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1B and SOCS3, the negative regulators of the leptin and insulin pathways was increased. In diabetic rats, the IT reduced the glucose levels 120 minutes after glucose load, increased the basal and glucose-stimulated GLP-1 levels, normalized the gene expression for phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1B, SOCS3, AgRP and GLP-1 receptor, which indicates the restoration of the hypothalamic signaling responsible for the control of energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity. In the case of SG and GB, an improvement in the glucose tolerance was found, and in the case of SG, an increase in the basal and glucose-stimulated GLP-1 levels was shown. However, no significant effect on the expression of the hypothalamic genes in SG and GB was found. Thus, IT is the most effective of all studied BS in the treatment of severe forms of DM2 without obesity.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Animais , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Gastrectomia , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Insulina/análise , Leptina/sangue , Ratos
18.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 154: 27-34, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238060

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the natural history of gastric emptying in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: 12 patients with type 2 diabetes (7 female; age 65.6 ±â€¯1.2 years; duration of known diabetes 22.9 ±â€¯1.5 years) were invited to return for repeat measurements of gastric emptying using the same dual-labelled solid and liquid meal, a mean of 14.0 ±â€¯0.5 years after their initial study. Blood glucose levels, glycated haemoglobin, upper gastrointestinal symptoms and autonomic nerve function at baseline and follow up were also compared. RESULTS: Gastric emptying of solids was more rapid at follow up than at baseline (period effect P < 0.05), while emptying of liquids was comparable at baseline and follow up (period effect P = 0.2). Gastric emptying of the solid component was abnormally slow (based on T100min) in 6 subjects at baseline and 1 subject at follow up. Liquid emptying was abnormally slow in 6 subjects at baseline, and 5 subjects at follow up. Two patients were insulin treated at baseline, and 6 at follow up. HbA1c was higher at follow up (P < 0.05); however, fasting blood glucose (P = 0.6), postprandial blood glucose excursions (P = 0.07), autonomic nerve function (P > 0.999), and total upper gastrointestinal symptom score (P = 0.1) did not differ. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with long-term type 2 diabetes, gastric emptying of solids and liquids does not usually become more delayed over time, and abnormally slow gastric emptying of solids may improve.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Neuropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hipoglicemia/etiologia , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemia/diagnóstico , Insulina/análise , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(6)2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216765

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Boxing is a popular combat sport that requires high intensity and cooperation. However, there are limited data about the influence of boxing matches on blood parameters. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the match-induced changes in the metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory status in male elite boxers. Materials and methods: High-level 20 male boxers with more than 5 years experience in boxing voluntarily participated in this study. Venous blood samples of the boxers, before and after combat, were taken for determination of the plasma parameters. Results: Our results indicated that a 9-min boxing match caused significant increases in plasma energy fuels (glucose and lactate), metabolic hormones (insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and growth hormone), inflammatory markers (interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)), muscle damage indicators (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), and oxidative stress marker (SOD). A decrease in total oxidant status (TOS) was also considered. However, there were no significant alterations in the plasma levels of androgenic hormone (free and total testosterone), anabolic hormone (IGF-1), lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)), kidney function markers (creatinine and urea), and minerals (iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg)). Conclusion: Elevations in the level of energy fuels and metabolic hormones of the boxers could be taken as a reflection of high-energy turnover during combat performance. The increases in inflammatory and tissue damage indicators may possibly be an indication of traumatic injury. Understanding the biochemical changes that occur during boxing match could be valuable to optimize the performance improvement of the athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas , Boxe/fisiologia , Metabolismo/fisiologia , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/análise , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/análise , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/análise , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Glucose/análise , Hormônio do Crescimento/análise , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Insulina/análise , Insulina/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Ácido Láctico/análise , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Tailândia
20.
Analyst ; 144(12): 3765-3772, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089611

RESUMO

Investigation of the functions of insulin-secreting cells in response to glucose in single-living cells is essential for improving our knowledge on the pathogenesis of diabetes. Therefore, it is desired to develop a new convenient method that enables the direct detection of insulin secreted from single-living cells. Here, insulin-sensor-cells expressing a protein-based insulin-detecting probe immobilized on the extracellular membrane were developed to evaluate the insulin-secretion response in single-living pancreatic ß cells. The protein-based insulin-detecting probe (NαLY) was composed of a bioluminescent protein (nano-luc), the αCT segment of the insulin receptor, L1 and CR domains of the insulin receptor, and a fluorescent protein (YPet). NαLY exhibited a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) signal in response to insulin; thus, cells of Hepa1-6 line were genetically engineered to express NαLY on the extracellular membrane. The cells were found to act as insulin-sensor-cells, exhibiting a BRET signal in response to insulin. When the insulin-sensor-cells and pancreatic ß cells (MIN6 cell line) were cocultured and stimulated with glucose, insulin-sensor-cells nearby pancreatic ß cells showed the spike-shaped BRET signal response, whereas the insulin-sensor-cells close to one pancreatic ß cell did not exhibit such signal response. However, all the insulin-sensor-cells showed a gradual increase in BRET signals, which were presumably attributed to the increase in insulin concentrations in the culture dish, confirming the function of these insulin-sensor-cells. Therefore, we demonstrated that heterogenetic insulin secretion in single-living pancreatic ß cells could be measured directly using the insulin sensor cells.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Transferência de Energia por Ressonância de Bioluminescência/métodos , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Insulina/análise , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Fluorescência , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Camundongos , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Receptor de Insulina/genética , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo
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