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J Med Humanit ; 40(2): 171-180, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29143888


Soon after the discovery of insulin in the early 1920s, the popular press celebrated the miraculous discovery. Although insulin had no curative effect on the chronic state of diabetes, it was frequently heralded as a "cure." This paper examines how the discovery of insulin intersected with the rise of diabetic technology and the transfer of medical technology to the home setting. By analyzing diabetic manuals written for patients and physicians, letters exchanged between patient and physician, medical journals, magazines and newspapers, I trace how patients learned about insulin and more significantly how patients adopted measurement technologies designed to allow better home administration of insulin. This included acquiring knowledge about nutritional content and scales, maintaining sterile glass syringes, sharpening needles, using chemistry to measure sugar in the urine, and recording various measurements into meaningful text for patient-physician dialogue. As diabetes was re-imagined as a chronic and controllable illness, patients and physicians alike grappled with the promises and limitations of new medical technologies. This historical perspective offers a lens for better understanding the process of implementing diabetic treatment plans that required home testing, measurement, and recording of medical data. Such processes centered the importance of patient-centered work and the value of diabetic technologies. Much of this discourse is outlined in diabetic manuals of the 1920s.

Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/história , Tecnologia Biomédica , História do Século XX , Humanos , Autocuidado
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-909292


Nos últimos anos, os avanços nas descobertas da terapêutica para o DM2 entusiasmaram os clínicos e especialistas no que diz respeito à redução dos eventos cardiovasculares, internações e mortalidade. Outros estudos ainda estão em andamento e prometem fortalecer a expectativa de mudança nos desfechos cardiovasculares dessa população. O objetivo dessa revisão consiste em reunir os principais estudos clínicos que demonstraram a segurança e/ou redução na ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares com uso de fármacos anti-hiperglicemiantes.

In recent years, breakthroughs in therapeutic findings for DM2 have encouraged physicians and specialists with regards to the reduction of cardiovascular events, hospitalization and mortality. Other studies are underway, and promise to strengthen the prospects of change in cardiovascular outcomes for this population. The goal of this review is to bring together the most important clinical trials that have demonstrated safety and/or a decrease in cardiovascular events with the use of antihyperglycemic drugs.

Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Insulina/história , Metformina/história , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Liraglutida/administração & dosagem
Mol Biosyst ; 13(8): 1432-1437, 2017 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28685788


Type 1 diabetes is associated with such complications as blindness, kidney failure, and nerve damage. Replacing C-peptide, a hormone normally co-secreted with insulin, has been shown to reduce diabetes-related complications. Interestingly, after nearly 30 years of positive research results, C-peptide is still not being co-administered with insulin to diabetic patients. The following review discusses the potential of C-peptide as an auxilliary replacement therapy and why it's not currently being used as a therapeutic.

Peptídeo C/uso terapêutico , Complicações do Diabetes/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Bibliometria , Peptídeo C/deficiência , Peptídeo C/história , Peptídeo C/farmacocinética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Complicações do Diabetes/história , Complicações do Diabetes/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/história , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Insulina/deficiência , Insulina/história , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Albumina Sérica/farmacocinética , Zinco/metabolismo
Consult Pharm ; 32(4): 190-198, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28376984


The identification and purification of insulin in 1922 changed life for individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Its discovery was, to a certain extent, serendipitous. Although medical researchers suspected that some type of hormone was responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, by the end of the 19th century they had made little progress. When World War I broke out, efforts stalled. A somewhat cantankerous group of Canadian researchers led by Frederick Grant Banting, a surgeon, are credited with insulin's discovery. Their initial research was discredited and criticized for poor technique. Regardless, they persevered, and in January 1922 they successfully treated their first patient. A mere nine months later, collaboration between the University of Toronto and Eli Lilly Company made insulin available in North America. Derived from beef and pork pancreases, the 40 unit/mL product little resembled today's more refined human insulin. While insulin is indispensable to individuals with T1DM, it is also used or being studied for several different conditions. Some researchers have dubbed Alzheimer's disease "type 3 diabetes" because of similar aberrations in the blood-brain barrier and protein deposits.

Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Diabetes Mellitus/história , Insulina/história , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Indústria Farmacêutica/história , Indústria Farmacêutica/organização & administração , História do Século XX , Humanos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Extratos Pancreáticos/história , Extratos Pancreáticos/farmacologia
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 44(4): 218-22, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25429881


The islet cells were found in 1869 and officially named "ilots de Langerhans" in 1893. The secretions of pancreas were found to contain ingredients to control blood sugar in 1890 which was named insulin in 1909. However, it was not until 1921 that insulin was purified, which was used to treat diabetes in 1922. American scholars obtained insulin crystals firstly in 1926. Since then, increasing knowledge were found in insulin, thus arousing a rapid development of its synthesis. Furthermore, Chinese scholars synthesized crystalline of bovine insulin firstly in 1965. Due to the presence of immunogenicity in animal insulin, Novo Nordisk used recombinant DNA technology to synthesize human insulin and for clinical use in 1980s. And Tonghua Dongbao Company developed the first recombinant human insulin of China in 1998. Meanwhile, insulin injections have also been changed from the ordinary syringes to dedicated insulin syringes, from the insulin pens to the insulin pumps, and eventually to the most advanced needleless syringes. Currently, academia is endeavored in the development of non-injectable insulin formulations.

Insulina/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/síntese química
Ceska Slov Farm ; 63(5): 228-32, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25354744


The article aims to outline the historical development of treatment of diabetes in Czechoslovakia. Information has been obtained mainly from two Czech journals, Casopis lékaru ceských (The Journal of Czech Physicians, published since 1862) and Praktický lékar (The General Practitioner, published since 1921). Until the discovery of insulin, the treatment of diabetes was based on the use of different diets and a great benefit was obtained by spa treatment. In 1923, imported insulin appeared on the market in Czechoslovakia; insulin injections or substances from which insulin was prepared. In the years 1923-1945, insulin was produced by five companies, then insulin and oral antidiabetics were manufactured just by one firm Léciva (Pharmaceuticals).

Diabetes Mellitus/história , Hipoglicemiantes/história , Insulina/história , Tchecoslováquia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Insulina/uso terapêutico