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1.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444986

RESUMO

Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is an important and under-recognised disorder resulting from inadequate compensatory cardiovascular responses to meal-induced splanchnic blood pooling. Current approaches to management are suboptimal. Recent studies have established that the cardiovascular response to a meal is modulated profoundly by gastrointestinal factors, including the type and caloric content of ingested meals, rate of gastric emptying, and small intestinal transit and absorption of nutrients. The small intestine represents the major site of nutrient-gut interactions and associated neurohormonal responses, including secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and somatostatin, which exert pleotropic actions relevant to the postprandial haemodynamic profile. This review summarises knowledge relating to the role of these gut peptides in the cardiovascular response to a meal and their potential application to the management of PPH.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/farmacologia , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Hipotensão , Período Pós-Prandial , Somatostatina/sangue , Acarbose/farmacologia , Acarbose/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Glucagon/sangue , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/sangue , Humanos , Hipotensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Insulina/sangue , Peptídeos , Circulação Esplâncnica
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371959

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) increases type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with insulin resistance. We hypothesized that a 35 g whey preload would improve insulin sensitivity and glucose handling while reducing biomarkers associated with NAFLD. Twenty-nine age-matched women (CON = 15, PCOS = 14) completed oral glycemic tolerance tests following baseline (Day 0) as well as an acute (Day 1) and short-term whey supplementation (Day 7). Whey had an interaction effect on glucose (p = 0.02) and insulin (p = 0.03), with glucose remaining stable and insulin increasing with whey supplementation. Insulin sensitivity (p < 0.01) improved with whey associated with increased glucagon secretion (p < 0.01). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) remained unchanged, but "day" had an effect on the AST:ALT ratio (p = 0.04), whereas triglycerides and sex hormone binding globulin overall were greater in the PCOS group (p < 0.05). Total cholesterol decreased in PCOS (by 13%) and CON (by 8%) (NS). HepG2 cells treated with plasma from participants before and after whey decreased lipid accumulation in the PCOS group after whey (p < 0.05). Whey provided an insulinogenic and glycemic homeostatic effect in women with PCOS with the potential to combat NAFLD-consequences.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371854

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between maternal insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration and food consumption frequency and the birth parameters of the newborn. A total of 157 mother-newborn pairs participated in the study. The study showed that more frequent consumption of sweet and salty snacks as well as fruit and fruit or vegetable juices may promote greater weight gain in pregnancy and higher newborn birth weight. A significantly higher insulin concentration was found among overweight women according to body mass index (BMI), and a significantly lower concentration of IGF-1 was demonstrated among women ≥35 years of age. There was no significant correlation between the concentration of insulin and IGF-1 in the mother's blood plasma and the birth weight and length of the newborn. A significant relationship was only found between the concentration of IGF-1 in the mother's blood and the Ponderal index of the newborn. A woman's eating habits during pregnancy have a significant impact on the mother's health and on the proper growth and development of the foetus.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Estatura , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Insulina/sangue , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Polônia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in the considerable benefits of dietary supplementations, such as folic acid, on the glycemic profile. We aimed to investigate the effects of folic acid supplementation on glycemic control markers in adults. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials examining the effects of folic acid supplementation on glycemic control markers published up to March 2021 were detected by searching online databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Embase, and ISI web of science, using a combination of related keywords. Mean change and standard deviation (SD) of the outcome measures were used to estimate the mean difference between the intervention and control groups at follow-up. Meta-regression and non-linear dose-response analysis were conducted to evaluate the association between pooled effect size and folic acid dosage (mg/day) and duration of the intervention (week). From 1814 detected studies, twenty-four studies reported fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) as an outcome measure. RESULTS: Results revealed significant reductions in FBG (weighted mean difference (WMD): -2.17 mg/dL, 95% CI: -3.69, -0.65, p = 0.005), fasting insulin (WMD: -1.63 pmol/L, 95% CI: -2.53, -0.73, p < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (WMD: -0.40, 95% CI: -0.70, -0.09, p = 0.011) following folic acid supplementation. No significant effect was detected for HbA1C (WMD: -0.27%, 95% CI: -0.73, 0.18, p = 0.246). The dose-response analysis showed that folic acid supplementation significantly changed HOMA-IR (r = -1.30, p-nonlinearity = 0.045) in non-linear fashion. However, meta-regression analysis did not indicate a linear relationship between dose, duration, and absolute changes in FBG, HOMA-IR, and fasting insulin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Folic acid supplementation significantly reduces some markers of glycemic control in adults. These reductions were small, which may limit clinical applications for adults with type II diabetes. Further research is necessary to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Controle Glicêmico/métodos , Adulto , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise de Regressão , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26521, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397795

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The influencing factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients remain unclear, we aimed to investigate the risk factors of GDM in patients with PCOS, to provide reliable evidence for the prevention and treatment of GDM in PCOS patients.PCOS patients treated in our hospital from January 1, 2019 to October 31, 2020 were included. The personal and clinical treatment details of GDM and no GDM patients were analyzed. Logistic regressions were performed to analyze the factors influencing the occurrence of GDM.A total of 196 PCOS patients were included, the incidence of GDM in patients with PCOS was 23.98%. There were significant differences in the age, body mass index, insulin resistance index, fasting insulin, testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone-binding protein between GDM and no GDM patients with PCOS (all P < .05), and no significant differences in the family history of GDM, the history of adverse pregnancy, and multiple pregnancies were found (all P > .05). Age ≥30 years (odds ratio (OR) 2.418, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.181-3.784), body mass index ≥24 kg/m2 (OR 1.973, 95%CI 1.266-3.121), insulin resistance index ≥22.69 (OR 2.491, 95%CI 1.193-4.043), fasting insulin ≥22.71 mIU/L (OR 2.508, 95%CI 1.166-5.057), testosterone ≥2.85 nmol/L (OR 1.821, 95%CI 1.104-2.762), androstenedione ≥6.63 nmol/L (OR 1.954, 95%CI 1.262-2.844), sex hormone-binding protein <64.22 nmol/L (OR 1.497, 95%CI 1.028-2.016) were the independent risk factors of GDM in patients with PCOS (all P < .05). The incidence of preeclampsia, premature delivery, premature rupture of membranes, polyhydramnios, and postpartum hemorrhage in the GDM group was significantly higher than that of the no-GDM group (all P < .05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of oligohydramnios between the 2 groups (P = .057).The incidence of GDM in PCOS patients is high, and the measures targeted at the risk factors are needed to reduce the occurrence of GDM in patients with PCOS.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Androstenodiona/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Poli-Hidrâmnios/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26622, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluated the efficacy of metformin combined with simvastatin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), yet the results of the researches are not consistent. It is necessary to conduct a meta-analysis to explore the efficacy and safety of metformin combined with simvastatin in the treatment of PCOS, to provide evidence supports for the treatment of PCOS. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and Chinese biomedical literature databases online to identify the RCTs evaluating the efficacy of metformin combined with simvastatin in the treatment of PCOS. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to evaluate the synthesized effects. RESULTS: Nine RCTs with a total of 746 PCOS patients were included. The synthesized results indicated that the combined use of metformin and simvastatin are more beneficial to reduce the total cholesterol (SMD -2.66, 95% CI -3.65 to -1.66), triglycerides (SMD -1.25, 95% CI -2.02 to -0.49), low density lipoprotein (SMD -2.91, 95% CI -3.98 to -1.84), testosterone (SMD -0.64, 95% CI -1.13 to -0.15), fasting insulin (SMD -1.17, 95% CI -2.09 to -0.26) than metformin alone treatment in PCOS patients (all P < .001), and there was no significant difference in the high density lipoprotein (SMD -0.05, 95% CI -0.56-0.46), luteinizing hormone (SMD -0.58, 95% CI -1.66 to -0.50), follicle stimulating hormone (SMD 0.41, 95% CI -0.78-1.59), prolactin (SMD -1.38, 95% CI -2.93-0.17), fasting blood sugar (SMD 0.23, 95% CI -0.52-0.97), and insulin sensitivity index (SMD -0.17, 95% CI -0.48-0.15) between experimental and control groups (all P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Metformin combined with simvastatin is superior to metformin alone in the treatment of PCOS patients with more advantages in improving the levels of sex hormones, blood lipids, and blood sugar. However, the safety of this therapy still needs to be further explored in clinical studies with high-quality and large samples.


Assuntos
Metformina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Sinvastatina/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sinvastatina/efeitos adversos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
7.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research indicates potential cardiometabolic benefits of energy consumption earlier in the day. This study examined the association between fasting duration, timing of first and last meals, and cardiometabolic endpoints using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). METHODS: Cross-sectional data from NHANES (2005-2016) were utilized. Diet was obtained from one to two 24-h dietary recalls to characterize nighttime fasting duration and timing of first and last meal. Blood samples were obtained for characterization of C-reactive protein (CRP); glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c %); insulin; glucose; and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and total cholesterol. Survey design procedures for adjusted linear and logistic regression were performed. RESULTS: Every one-hour increase in nighttime fasting duration was associated with a significantly higher insulin and CRP, and lower HDL. Every one-hour increase in timing of the last meal of the day was statistically significantly associated with higher HbA1c and lower LDL. Every one-hour increase in first mealtime was associated with higher CRP (ß = 0.044, p = 0.0106), insulin (ß = 0.429, p < 0.01), and glucose (ß = 0.662, p < 0.01), and lower HDL (ß = -0.377, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In this large public health dataset, evidence for the beneficial effect of starting energy consumption earlier in the day on cardiometabolic endpoints was observed.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Jejum/sangue , Refeições/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444706

RESUMO

Cranberry is a fruit originally from New England and currently growing throughout the east and northeast parts of the USA and Canada. The supplementation of cranberry extracts as nutraceuticals showed to contribute to the prevention of urinary tract infections, and most likely it may help to prevent cardiovascular and gastroenteric diseases, as highlighted by several clinical trials. However, aiming to validate the efficacy and safety of clinical applications as long-term randomized clinical trials (RCTs), further investigations of the mechanisms of action are required. In addition, a real challenge for next years is the standardization of cranberry's polyphenolic fractions. In this context, the optimization of the extraction process and downstream processing represent a key point for a reliable active principle for the formulation of a food supplement. For this reason, new non-conventional extraction methods have been developed to improve the quality of the extracts and reduce the overall costs. The aim of this survey is to describe both technologies and processes for highly active cranberry extracts as well as the effects observed in clinical studies and the respective tolerability notes.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutas , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/dietoterapia , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis , Infecções Urinárias/dietoterapia , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química
9.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444719

RESUMO

Low birthweight (LBW) is associated with metabolic complications, such as glucose and lipid metabolism disturbances in early life. The objective of this study was to assess: (1) the effect of dietary tryptophan (Trp) on glucose and fat metabolism in an LBW piglet model, and (2) the role peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5HT3) receptors in regulating the feeding behavior in LBW piglets fed with Trp-supplemented diets. Seven-day-old piglets were assigned to 4 treatments: normal birthweight-0%Trp (NBW-T0), LBW-0%Trp (LBW-T0), LBW-0.4%Trp (LBW-T0.4), and LBW-0.8%Trp (LBW-T0.8) for 3 weeks. Compared to LBW-T0, the blood glucose was decreased in LBW-T0.8 at 60 min following the meal test, and the triglycerides were lower in LBW-T0.4 and LBW-T0.8. Relative to LBW-T0, LBW-T0.8 had a lower transcript and protein abundance of hepatic glucose transporter-2, a higher mRNA abundance of glucokinase, and a lower transcript of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. LBW-T0.4 tended to have a lower protein abundance of sodium-glucose co-transporter 1 in the jejunum. In comparison with LBW-T0, LBW-T0.4 and LBW-T0.8 had a lower transcript of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and LBW-T0.4 had a higher transcript of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Blocking 5-HT3 receptors with ondansetron reduced the feed intake in all groups, with a transient effect on LBW-T0, but more persistent effect on LBW-T0.8 and NBW-T0. In conclusion, Trp supplementation reduced the hepatic lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis, but increased the glycolysis in LBW piglets. Peripheral serotonin is likely involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, particularly in LBW piglets fed diets supplemented with a higher dose of Trp.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucose/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Triptofano/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso ao Nascer , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Mucosa Intestinal/anatomia & histologia , Mucosa Intestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestino Delgado/anatomia & histologia , Intestino Delgado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Animais , Ondansetron/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Receptor 5-HT3 de Serotonina/farmacologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triglicerídeos/sangue
10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444739

RESUMO

Wholegrain flour produced by roller-milling is predominantly comprised of fine particles, while stoneground flour tends to have a comparatively smaller proportion of fine particles. Differences in flour particle size distribution can affect postprandial glycaemia in people with type 2 diabetes and postprandial insulinaemia in people with and without type 2 diabetes. No prior studies have investigated the effect of wholegrain flour particle size distribution on glycaemic or insulinaemic response among people with impaired glucose tolerance or risk factors for type 2 diabetes. In a randomised crossover study, we tested the 180-min acute glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to three wholegrain breads differing in flour particle size and milling method: (1) fine roller-milled flour, (2) fine stoneground flour, and (3) coarse stoneground flour. Participants (n = 23) were males and females with risk factors for type 2 diabetes (age 55-75 y, BMI >28 kg/m2, completing less than 150 min moderate to vigorous intensity activity per week). Each test meal provided 50 g available carbohydrate, and test foods were matched for energy and macronutrients. There was no significant difference in blood glucose iAUC (incremental area under the curve) between the coarse stoneground flour bread and the fine stoneground flour bread (mean difference -20.8 (95% CI: -51.5, 10.0) mmol·min/L) and between the coarse stoneground flour bread and the fine roller-milled flour bread (mean difference -23.3 (95% CI: -57.6, 11.0) mmol·min/L). The mean difference in insulin iAUC for fine stoneground flour bread compared with the fine roller-milled flour bread was -6.9% (95% CI: -20.5%, 9.2%) and compared with the coarse stoneground flour bread was 9.9% (95% CI: -2.6%, 23.9%). There was no evidence of an effect of flour particle size on postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia among older people with risk factors for type 2 diabetes, most of whom were normoglycaemic.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Pão , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Farinha , Insulina/sangue , Grãos Integrais , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Período Pós-Prandial , Fatores de Risco
11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371877

RESUMO

Pathological mechanisms underlining diabetic bone defects include oxidative damage and insulin/IGF-1 imbalance. Morin is a bioflavonoid with antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. This study evaluates morin's protective effects against altered bone histomorphometry in diabetic rats through assessing insulin/IGF-1 pathway as a potential mechanism. Diabetic animals were administered two morin doses (15 and 30 mg/kg) for 5 weeks. Different serum hepatic and renal functions tests were assessed. Bone density and histomorphometry in cortical and trabecular tissues were evaluated histologically. The expressions of insulin, c-peptide and IGF-1 were estimated. In addition, the enzymatic activities of the major antioxidant enzymes were determined. Diabetic-associated alterations in serum glucose, aminotransferases, urea and creatinine were attenuated by morin. Diabetic bone cortical and trabecular histomorphometry were impaired with increased fibrosis, osteoclastic functions, osteoid formation and reduced mineralization, which was reversed by morin; particularly the 30 mg/kg dose. Insulin/IGF-1 levels were diminished in diabetic animals, while morin treatment enhanced their levels significantly. Diabetes also triggered systemic oxidative stress noticeably. The higher dose (30 mg/kg) of morin corrected the endogenous antioxidant enzymatic activities in diabetic rats. Findings indicate the potential value of morin supplementation against hyperglycemia-induced skeletal impairments. Activation of insulin/IGF-1 signaling could be the underlining mechanism behind these effects.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Fêmur/metabolismo , Fêmur/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais , Estreptozocina
12.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 321(3): R303-R316, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259034

RESUMO

Neonatal antibiotics administered to human infants initiate gut microbiota dysbiosis that may have long-term effects on body weight and metabolism. We examined antibiotic-induced adaptations in pancreatic islets of the piglet, a well-accepted model of human infant microbiota and pancreas development. Neonatal piglets randomized to amoxicillin [30 mg/kg body wt/day; n = 7, antibiotic (ANTI)] or placebo [vehicle control; n = 7, control (CON)] from postnatal day (PND)0-13 were euthanized at PND7, 14, and 49. The metabolic phenotype along with functional, immunohistological, and transcriptional phenotypes of the pancreatic islets were studied. The gut microbiome was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and microbial metabolites and microbiome-sensitive host molecules were measured. Compared with CON, ANTI PND7 piglets had elevated transcripts of genes involved in glucagon-like peptide 1 ((GLP-1) synthesis or signaling in islets (P < 0.05) coinciding with higher plasma GLP-1 (P = 0.11), along with increased tumor necrosis factor α (Tnf) (P < 0.05) and protegrin 1 (Npg1) (P < 0.05). Antibiotic-induced relative increases in Escherichia, Coprococcus, Ruminococcus, Dehalobacterium, and Oscillospira of the ileal microbiome at PND7 normalized after antibiotic withdrawal. In ANTI islets at PND14, the expression of key regulators pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1), insulin-like growth factor-2 (Igf2), and transcription factor 7-like 2 (Tcf7l2) was downregulated, preceding a 40% reduction of ß-cell area (P < 0.01) and islet insulin content at PND49 (P < 0.05). At PND49, a twofold elevated plasma insulin concentration (P = 0.07) was observed in ANTI compared with CON. We conclude that antibiotic treatment of neonatal piglets elicited gut microbial changes accompanied by phasic alterations in key regulatory genes in pancreatic islets at PND7 and 14. By PND49, reduced ß-cell area and islet insulin content were accompanied by elevated nonfasted insulin despite normoglycemia, indicative of islet stress.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Glucagon/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucagon/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Suínos
13.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201703

RESUMO

Global protein consumption has been increasing for decades due to changes in demographics and consumer shifts towards higher protein intake to gain health benefits in performance nutrition and appetite regulation. Plant-derived proteins may provide a more environmentally sustainable alternative to animal-derived proteins. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate, for the first time, the acute effects on glycaemic indices, gut hormones, and subjective appetite ratings of two high-quality, plant-derived protein isolates (potato and rice), in comparison to a whey protein isolate in a single-blind, triple-crossover design study with nine male participants (30.8 ± 9.3 yrs). Following a 12 h overnight fast, participants consumed an equal volume of the three isocaloric protein shakes on different days, with at least a one-week washout period. Glycaemic indices and gut hormones were measured at baseline, then at 30, 60, 120, 180 min at each visit. Subjective palatability and appetite ratings were measured using visual analogue scales (VAS) over the 3 h, at each visit. This data showed significant differences in insulin secretion with an increase in whey (+141.8 ± 35.1 pmol/L; p = 0.011) and rice (-64.4 ± 20.9 pmol/L; p = 0.046) at 30 min compared to potato protein. A significantly larger total incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was observed with whey versus potato and rice with p < 0.001 and p = 0.010, respectively. There was no significant difference observed in average appetite perception between the different proteins. In conclusion, this study suggests that both plant-derived proteins had a lower insulinaemic response and improved glucose maintenance compared to whey protein.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Oryza/química , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Solanum tuberosum/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia , Adulto , Aminoácidos/análise , Apetite , Hormônios/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/sangue , Saciação , Escala Visual Analógica , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204042

RESUMO

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with the primary objective of assessing the effect of a natural extract of Sclerocarya birrea on glucose metabolism in subjects with prediabetes. The duration of the study was 90 days. Thirty-three subjects assigned to the experimental group (daily ingestion of 100 mg of the nutraceutical product) and 34 assigned to the placebo group completed the study. There were 36 men and 31 women with a mean age of 32.3 ± 14.1 years. In the area under the curve (AUC) of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), statistically significant decreases in the experimental group at 40 and 90 days as compared with baseline were found, whereas significant changes in the placebo group were not observed. Within-group differences were statistically significant in favor of the experimental group for glucose peak at OGTT, serum insulin, insulin resistance markers, and flow-mediated dilation. Changes in lipid and anthropometric parameters were not observed, although there was a trend for lower cholesterol levels and a decrease in body weight in the experimental group. Decreases in systolic blood pressure were also higher among subjects in the experimental group. This exploratory study confirms the antidiabetic activity of Sclerocarya birrea in prediabetes. Further studies using better measurements of beta-cell function are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the hypoglycemic effect of this natural compound.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Estado Pré-Diabético/terapia , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Controle Glicêmico/métodos , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue
15.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200102

RESUMO

Transcription factor-7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is one of the most important susceptibility genes for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of our cross-sectional population-based study was to analyze whether daily macronutrient intake may influence the effects of the TCF7L2 rs7901695 genotype on glucose homeostasis and obesity-related parameters. We recruited 810 participants (47.5% men and 52.5% women), 18-79 years old (mean age, 42.1 (±14.5) years), who were genotyped for the common TCF7L2 rs7901695 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), and anthropometric measurements, body composition, body fat distribution (visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) content), blood glucose and insulin concentrations after fasting and during OGTTs, and HbA1c were assessed. The VAT/SAT ratio, HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), HOMA-B (homeostatic model assessment of ß-cell function), and CIR30 (corrected insulin response) were calculated. The daily macronutrient intake was evaluated based on 3-day food-intake diaries. Daily physical activity was evaluated based on a validated questionnaire. We performed ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests, and multivariate linear regression models were created to evaluate the effects of dietary macronutrient intake on glucose homeostasis and obesity-related parameters in carriers of the investigated genotypes. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03792685. The TT-genotype carriers stratified to the upper protein intake quantiles presented higher HbA1c levels than the CT- and CC-genotype participants in the same quantiles (p = 0.038 and p = 0.022, respectively). Moreover, we observed higher HOMA-IR (p = 0.014), as well as significantly higher blood glucose and insulin concentrations, during the OGTTs for those in the upper quantiles, when compared to subjects from the lower quantiles of protein intake, while the CC-genotype carriers presented significantly lower HbA1c (p = 0.033) and significantly higher CIR30 (p = 0.03). The linear regression models revealed that an increase in energy derived from proteins in TT carriers was associated with higher HbA1c levels (ß = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.01-0.74, p = 0.05)), although, in general, carrying the TT genotype, but without considering protein intake, showed an opposite tendency-to lower HbA1c levels (ß = -0.22 (95% CI: 0.47 to -0.01, p = 0.05). Among the subjects stratified to the lower quantile of carbohydrate intake, the TT-genotype individuals presented higher HbA1c (p = 0.041), and the CC-genotype subjects presented higher VAT (p = 0.033), lower SAT (p = 0.033), and higher VAT/SAT ratios (p = 0.034). In both the CC- and TT-genotype carriers, we noted higher VAT (p = 0.012 and p = 0.0006, respectively), lower SAT (p = 0.012 and p = 0.0006, respectively) and higher VAT/SAT ratios (p = 0.016 and p = 0.00062, respectively) when dietary fat provided more than 30% of total daily energy intake, without any differences in total body fat content. Our findings suggest that associations of the common TCF7L2 SNP with glucose homeostasis and obesity-related parameters may be dependent on daily macronutrient intake, which warrants further investigations in a larger population, as well as interventional studies.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Glucose/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Composição Corporal , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202475

RESUMO

Recently, intermittent fasting, also known as time-restricted eating (TRE), has become a popular diet trend. Compared to animal studies, there have been few studies and inconclusive findings investigating the effects of TRE in humans. In this study, we examined the effects of 8 h TRE on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults who were mainly active at night. A total of 33 young adults completed the 8 h TRE for 4 weeks. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis at baseline and every 2 weeks, and blood samples were collected at baseline and week 4. Daily dietary records were logged throughout the intervention period. Participants experienced significant changes in body weight (-1.0 ± 1.4 kg), body mass index (-0.4 ± 0.5 kg/m2), and body fat (-0.4 ± 1.9%) after 4 weeks of TRE. When participants were divided into weight loss/gain groups based on their weight change in week 4, fat mass reduction was significantly higher in the weight loss group than in the weight gain group. Regarding cardiometabolic risk factors, levels of fasting insulin and insulin resistance improved in the weight loss group after intervention, but not in the weight gain group. All subjects showed late-shifted sleeping patterns, but no significant differences in sleep duration, sleep quality, or psychological measures between the two groups. When meal frequency and energy proportion were evaluated, the average meal frequency was 2.8 ± 0.5 and energy proportions of breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks were 4.5, 39.2, 37.6, and 18.5%, respectively; there were no significant differences between the two groups. However, the saturated fat intake at dinner was lower in the weight loss group (3.1 ± 3.2%, 6.0 ± 2.5% respectively). In conclusion, 8 h TRE can be applied as a lifestyle strategy to manage body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors among young adults with late chronotypes.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Jejum/fisiologia , Refeições/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos , Registros de Dieta , Impedância Elétrica , Ingestão de Energia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Sono/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208508

RESUMO

Obesity and ageing are current issues of global concern. Adaptive homeostasis is compromised in the elderly, who are more likely to suffer age-related health issues, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. The current worldwide prevalence of obesity and higher life expectancy call for new strategies for treating metabolic disorders. Grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is reported to be effective in ameliorating these pathologies, especially in young animal models. In this study, we aimed to test the effectiveness of GSPE in modulating obesity-related pathologies in aged rats fed an obesogenic diet. To do so, 21-month-old rats were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (cafeteria diet) for 11 weeks. Two time points for GSPE administration (500 mg/kg body weight), i.e., a 10-day preventive GSPE treatment prior to cafeteria diet intervention and a simultaneous GSPE treatment with the cafeteria diet, were assayed. Body weight, metabolic parameters, liver steatosis, and systemic inflammation were analysed. GSPE administered simultaneously with the cafeteria diet was effective in reducing body weight, total adiposity, and liver steatosis. However, the preventive treatment was effective in reducing only mesenteric adiposity in these obese, aged rats. Our results confirm that the simultaneous administration of GSPE improves metabolic disruptions caused by the cafeteria diet also in aged rats.


Assuntos
Extrato de Sementes de Uva/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Proantocianidinas/uso terapêutico , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Glucagon/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202194

RESUMO

Although lifestyle interventions can lead to diabetes remission, it is unclear to what extent type 2 diabetes (T2D) remission alters or improves the underlying pathophysiology of the disease. Here, we assess the effects of a lifestyle intervention on T2D reversal or remission and the effects on the underlying pathology. In a Dutch primary care setting, 15 adults with an average T2D duration of 13.4 years who were (pharmacologically) treated for T2D received a diabetes subtyping ("diabetyping") lifestyle intervention (DLI) for six months, aiming for T2D remission. T2D subtype was determined based on an OGTT. Insulin and sulphonylurea (SU) derivative treatment could be terminated for all participants. Body weight, waist/hip ratio, triglyceride levels, HbA1c, fasting, and 2h glucose were significantly improved after three and six months of intervention. Remission and reversal were achieved in two and three participants, respectively. Indices of insulin resistance and beta cell capacity improved, but never reached healthy values, resulting in unchanged T2D subtypes. Our study implies that achieving diabetes remission in individuals with a longer T2D duration is possible, but underlying pathology is only minimally affected, possibly due to an impaired beta cell function. Thus, even when T2D remission is achieved, patients need to continue adhering to lifestyle therapy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Jejum/sangue , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Indução de Remissão , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206322

RESUMO

Increasing epidemiological evidence highlights the association between systemic insulin resistance and Alzheimer's disease (AD). As insulin resistance can be caused by high-stress hormone levels and since hypercortisolism appears to be an important risk factor of AD, we aimed to investigate the systemic insulin functionality and circulating stress hormone levels in a mutant humanized amyloid precursor protein (APP) overexpressing (hAPP23+/-) AD mouse model. Memory and spatial learning of male hAPP23+/- and C57BL/6 (wild type, WT) mice were assessed by a Morris Water Maze (MWM) test at the age of 4 and 12 months. The systemic metabolism was examined by intraperitoneal glucose and insulin tolerance tests (GTT, ITT). Insulin and corticosterone levels were determined in serum. In the hippocampus, parietal and occipital cortex of hAPP23+/- brains, amyloid-beta (Aß) deposits were present at 12 months of age. MWM demonstrated a cognitive decline in hAPP23+/- mice at 12 but not at 4 months, evidenced by increasing total path lengths and deteriorating probe trials compared to WT mice. hAPP23+/- animals presented increased serum corticosterone levels compared to WT mice at both 4 and 12 months. hAPP23+/- mice exhibited peripheral insulin resistance compared to WT mice at 4 months, which stabilized at 12 months of age. Serum insulin levels were similar between genotypes at 4 months of age but were significantly higher in hAPP23+/- mice at 12 months of age. Peripheral glucose homeostasis remained unchanged. These results indicate that peripheral insulin resistance combined with elevated circulating stress hormone levels could be potential biomarkers of the pre-symptomatic phase of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Disfunção Cognitiva , Corticosterona/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Animais , Síndrome de Cushing/complicações , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos
20.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a state of excess energy storage resulting in body fat accumulation, and postmenopausal obesity is a rising issue. In this study using ovariectomized (OVX) rats, we mimicked low estrogen levels in a postmenopausal state in order to investigate the effects of different amounts and types of dietary fatty acids on body fat accumulation and body lipid metabolism. METHODS: At 9 weeks of age, rats (n = 40) were given an ovariectomy, eight of which were sham-operated to serve as a control group (S). We then divided OVX rats into four different intervention groups: diet with 5% soybean oil (C), and diet with 5% (L), 15% (M), and 20% (H) (w/w) experimental oil, containing 60% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and with a polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid (P/S) ratio of 5. RESULTS: After OVX, compared to the S group, the C group showed significantly higher body weight, and insulin and leptin levels. Compared to the C group, the H group had lower hepatic triglyceride level and FAS enzyme activity, and higher hepatic ACO and CPT-1 gene expressions and enzyme activities. CONCLUSIONS: An OVX leads to severe weight gain and lipid metabolism abnormalities, while according to previous studies, high fat diet may worsen the situation. However, during our experiment, we discovered that the experimental oil mixture with 60% MUFAs and P/S = 5 may ameliorate these imbalances.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Animais , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Ovariectomia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso
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