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Can Assoc Radiol J ; 70(4): 329-334, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585825


This is a condensed summary of an international multisociety statement on ethics of artificial intelligence (AI) in radiology produced by the ACR, European Society of Radiology, RSNA, Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine, European Society of Medical Imaging Informatics, Canadian Association of Radiologists, and American Association of Physicists in Medicine. AI has great potential to increase efficiency and accuracy throughout radiology, but it also carries inherent pitfalls and biases. Widespread use of AI-based intelligent and autonomous systems in radiology can increase the risk of systemic errors with high consequence and highlights complex ethical and societal issues. Currently, there is little experience using AI for patient care in diverse clinical settings. Extensive research is needed to understand how to best deploy AI in clinical practice. This statement highlights our consensus that ethical use of AI in radiology should promote well-being, minimize harm, and ensure that the benefits and harms are distributed among stakeholders in a just manner. We believe AI should respect human rights and freedoms, including dignity and privacy. It should be designed for maximum transparency and dependability. Ultimate responsibility and accountability for AI remains with its human designers and operators for the foreseeable future. The radiology community should start now to develop codes of ethics and practice for AI that promote any use that helps patients and the common good and should block use of radiology data and algorithms for financial gain without those two attributes.

Inteligência Artificial/ética , Radiologia/ética , Canadá , Consenso , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Radiologistas/ética , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
Soins ; 64(838): 48-50, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542122


Artificial intelligence and its applications in healthcare inevitably raise ethical questions. The 'human guarantee' is at the heart of the discussions. Interview with Cynthia Fleury-Perkins, member of the French national advisory ethics committee and holder of the Humanities and Health Chair of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers.

Inteligência Artificial/ética , Assistência à Saúde , Comissão de Ética/organização & administração , França , Humanos
Yearb Med Inform ; 28(1): 56-64, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419816


OBJECTIVE: This paper explores the implications of artificial intelligence (AI) on the management of healthcare data and information and how AI technologies will affect the responsibilities and work of health information management (HIM) professionals. METHODS: A literature review was conducted of both peer-reviewed literature and published opinions on current and future use of AI technology to collect, store, and use healthcare data. The authors also sought insights from key HIM leaders via semi-structured interviews conducted both on the phone and by email. RESULTS: The following HIM practices are impacted by AI technologies: 1) Automated medical coding and capturing AI-based information; 2) Healthcare data management and data governance; 3) Fbtient privacy and confidentiality; and 4) HIM workforce training and education. DISCUSSION: HIM professionals must focus on improving the quality of coded data that is being used to develop AI applications. HIM professional's ability to identify data patterns will be an important skill as automation advances, though additional skills in data analysis tools and techniques are needed. In addition, HIM professionals should consider how current patient privacy practices apply to AI application, development, and use. CONCLUSIONS: AI technology will continue to evolve as will the role of HIM professionals who are in a unique position to take on emerging roles with their depth of knowledge on the sources and origins of healthcare data. The challenge for HIM professionals is to identify leading practices for the management of healthcare data and information in an AI-enabled world.

Inteligência Artificial , Assistência à Saúde , Gestão da Informação em Saúde , Informática Médica , Inteligência Artificial/ética , Inteligência Artificial/legislação & jurisprudência , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Papel Profissional
BMC Med ; 17(1): 137, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311535


The digital revolution is disrupting the ways in which health research is conducted, and subsequently, changing healthcare. Direct-to-consumer wellness products and mobile apps, pervasive sensor technologies and access to social network data offer exciting opportunities for researchers to passively observe and/or track patients 'in the wild' and 24/7. The volume of granular personal health data gathered using these technologies is unprecedented, and is increasingly leveraged to inform personalized health promotion and disease treatment interventions. The use of artificial intelligence in the health sector is also increasing. Although rich with potential, the digital health ecosystem presents new ethical challenges for those making decisions about the selection, testing, implementation and evaluation of technologies for use in healthcare. As the 'Wild West' of digital health research unfolds, it is important to recognize who is involved, and identify how each party can and should take responsibility to advance the ethical practices of this work. While not a comprehensive review, we describe the landscape, identify gaps to be addressed, and offer recommendations as to how stakeholders can and should take responsibility to advance socially responsible digital health research.

Inteligência Artificial/ética , Assistência à Saúde/ética , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/ética , Prática Profissional/ética , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Promoção da Saúde/ética , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Invenções/ética , Invenções/tendências , Aplicativos Móveis/ética , Medicina de Precisão/ética , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/tendências
Brain Nerve ; 71(7): 715-722, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289245


In this article, I make an inquiry into ethical problems of neuroscience brought by artificial intelligence (AI). For this purpose, ethical issues in AI and neuroscience are examined respectively. Then, two groups of unique ethical issues are identified, namely: 1) practical problems encountered in research and clinical scenes, and 2) influence on humanity. Finally, I suggest some engagement needed for scientists and the public.

Inteligência Artificial/ética , Neurociências/ética
BMC Med ; 17(1): 143, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311603


Big data, coupled with the use of advanced analytical approaches, such as artificial intelligence (AI), have the potential to improve medical outcomes and population health. Data that are routinely generated from, for example, electronic medical records and smart devices have become progressively easier and cheaper to collect, process, and analyze. In recent decades, this has prompted a substantial increase in biomedical research efforts outside traditional clinical trial settings. Despite the apparent enthusiasm of researchers, funders, and the media, evidence is scarce for successful implementation of products, algorithms, and services arising that make a real difference to clinical care. This article collection provides concrete examples of how "big data" can be used to advance healthcare and discusses some of the limitations and challenges encountered with this type of research. It primarily focuses on real-world data, such as electronic medical records and genomic medicine, considers new developments in AI and digital health, and discusses ethical considerations and issues related to data sharing. Overall, we remain positive that big data studies and associated new technologies will continue to guide novel, exciting research that will ultimately improve healthcare and medicine-but we are also realistic that concerns remain about privacy, equity, security, and benefit to all.

Inteligência Artificial , Big Data , Bioética , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Algoritmos , Inteligência Artificial/ética , Inteligência Artificial/provisão & distribução , Inteligência Artificial/tendências , Big Data/provisão & distribução , Bioética/educação , Bioética/tendências , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Assistência à Saúde/ética , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/ética , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/provisão & distribução , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/tendências , Genômica/tendências , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Conhecimento
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (46): 1-8, jul. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184849


La expresión Inteligencia Artificial designa significados muy diferentes entre sí, cuando no antagónicos. En el presente artículo examinaremos algunos de estos sentidos, en concreto, Inteligencia Artificial como trending topic; como big data; como sesgo, como cuestión sociolaboral; como ente sin conciencia; como ente con conciencia; y, por último, como disciplina convergente. Cada una de estas expresiones nos muestra problemas de naturaleza muy diferente, algunos de los cuales intersecan con la bioética, de ahí el interés para nuestra disciplina. La normativa jurídica, dispersa y descoordinada, a veces incluso ausente, refleja las dificultades inherentes a no poder concretar exactamente a qué nos enfrentamos

L'expressió Intel•ligència Artificial designa significats molt diferents entre si, quan no antagònics. En el present article examinarem alguns d'aquests sentits, en concret, Intel•ligència Artificial com trending topic; com big data; com a biaix, com a qüestió sociolaboral; com a ens sense consciència; com a ens amb consciència; i, finalment, com a disciplina convergent. Cadascuna d'aquestes expressions ens mostra problemes de naturalesa molt diferent, alguns dels quals intersequen amb la bioètica, d'aquí l'interès per a la nostra disciplina. La normativa jurídica, dispersa i descoordinada, a vegades fins i tot absent, reflecteix les dificultats inherents a no poder concretar exactament a què ens enfrontem

The expression Artificial Intelligence designates meanings that are very different from each other, if not antagonistic. In this article we will examine some of these meanings, in particular, Artificial Intelligence as "trending topic"; as "big data"; as a "bias", as a "socio-labor issue"; as an "entity without conscience"; as an "entity with conscience"; and, finally, as a “convergent discipline". Each of these expressions shows us problems of different nature, some of which intersect with bioethics, hence the interest for our discipline. Legal regulations, dispersed and uncoordinated, sometimes even absent, reflects the inherent difficulties of not being able to specify exactly what we are facing

Inteligência Artificial/ética , Inteligência Artificial/legislação & jurisprudência , Big Data , Ciência de Dados , Viés , Robótica/ética , Robótica/legislação & jurisprudência , Internet/ética
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (46): 47-66, jul. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184851


The purpose of this paper is to illuminate the main ethical, legal and social implications (ELSIs) concerning social humanoid robots that have their base in artificial intelligence (AI). The main dilemma highlighted touches upon the expansion of the concept of legal personhood, and the attribution of appropriate legal responses to govern the future proliferation of AI systems vis-à-vis social humanoid robots. The paper cautions on the need to carefully reflect on notions of personhood and human dignity for AI systems, balanced against the underlying representation of values and behaviors that may threaten to erode the human rights discourse. Additionally, it questions the wisdom of the broad expanse of the European legal response to the development and use of AI systems

Este artículo trata los principales aspectos éticos, legales y las implicaciones sociales (ELSI, por sus siglas en inglés) de los robots humanoides sociales basados en inteligencia artificial (IA). El principal dilema se refiere a la expansión del concepto de persona jurídica y la atribución de respuestas jurídicas apropiadas para regir la futura proliferación de los sistemas de IA frente a los robots humanoides sociales. El artículo advierte la necesidad de reflexionar cuidadosamente sobre las nociones de persona y dignidad humana para los sistemas de IA, que se equilibren con la representación subyacente de valores y comportamientos que pueden amenazar con erosionar el discurso de los derechos humanos. Además, cuestiona el juicio de la respuesta jurídica europea al desarrollo y uso de los sistemas de IA

Aquest article tracta els principals aspectes ètics, legals i les implicacions socials (ELSI, per les seves sigles en anglès) dels robots humanoides socials basats en intel•ligència artificial (IA). El principal dilema es refereix a l'expansió del concepte de persona jurídica i l'atribució de respostes jurídiques apropiades per a regir la futura proliferació dels sistemes de IA enfront dels robots humanoides socials. L'article adverteix la necessitat de reflexionar acuradament sobre les nocions de persona i dignitat humana per als sistemes de IA, que s'equilibrin amb la representació subjacent de valors i comportaments que poden amenaçar amb erosionar el discurs dels drets humans. A més, qüestiona el judici de la resposta jurídica europea al desenvolupament i ús dels sistemes de IA

Inteligência Artificial/ética , Robótica/ética , Robótica/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (46): 37-84, jul. 2019. graf
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-184852


dÉ a pessoa que inaugura a existência jurídica do ser: sem ela é difícil se chegar a acordos acerca das especificidades de direitos e deveres. No entremeio dessa relação, o transhumanismo, filosofia que advoga por um ser humano melhorado de modo a transcender sua natureza biológica, encontra respaldo prático na interação da tecnologia com a biologia, resultando na ampliação paulatina dos modos de "ser" humano, onde o ciborgue emerge como potencial humano diferenciado em vulnerabilidades e potencialidades em comparação ao Homo sapiens moderno. Assim, a personalidade jurídica contemporaneamente considerada é afetada e repensar sua formulação faz-se necessário. Sustenta-se que as inéditas possibilidades de proteção e responsabilização do ciborgue implicam sua existência jurídica através de uma nova pessoa, a pessoa não-natural

Es la persona que inaugura la existencia jurídica del ser: sin ella, es difícil llegar a acuerdos sobre las especificidades de derechos y deberes. En el centro de esa relación, el transhumanismo, filosofia que defiende un ser humano mejorado de manera a transcender su natureza biológica, encuentra respaldo práctico en la interacción de la tecnología con la biología, culminando en la ampliación paulatina de los modos de "ser" humano, donde el ciborg emerge como potencial humano diferenciado en vulnerabilidades y potencialidades en comparación al Homo sapiens moderno. Así, la personalidad jurídica contemporánea considerada es afectada y repensar su formulación se hace necesario. Se sustenta que las inéditas posibilidades de protección y responsabilización del ciborg implican su existencia jurídica a través de una nueva persona, la persona no-natural

És la persona que inaugura l'existència legal de l'ésser: sense ella és difícil arribar a acords sobre les especificitats dels drets i deures. Enmig d'aquesta relació, el transhumanisme, filosofia que advoca per un ésser humà millorat per a transcendir la seva naturalesa biològica, troba suport pràctic en la interacció de la tecnologia amb la biologia, resultant en l'expansió gradual de les maneres de "ser" humà, on el cyborg emergeix com un potencial humà diferenciat en vulnerabilitats i potencialitats enfront de l'Homo sapiens modern. Així, la personalitat jurídica contemporània es veu afectada i és necessari replantejar-se la seva formulació. S'argumenta que les possibilitats de protecció i responsabilitat del ciborg impliquen una existència jurídica sense precedents a través d'una nova persona, la persona no natural

It is the person who inaugurates the legal existence of the being: without it, it is difficult to reach agreements on the specificities of rights and duties. In the midst of this relationship, transhumanism, a philosophy that advocates an improved human being to transcend his biological nature, finds practical support in the interaction of technology with biology, resulting in the gradual expansion of human "being" modes, where the cyborg emerges as a human potential differentiated in vulnerabilities and potentialities in front of modern Homo sapiens. Thus, the contemporary legal personality is affected and it is necessary to rethink its formulation. It is argued that the possibilities of protection and responsibility of the cyborg imply an unprecedented legal existence through a new person, the non-natural person

Humanos , Cibernética/ética , Inteligência Artificial/ética , Robótica/ética , Aptidão/ética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Ergonomia , Desenvolvimento Humano , Inteligência Artificial/legislação & jurisprudência , Robótica/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
Yearb Med Inform ; 28(1): 41-46, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022751


BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence (AI) is heralded as an approach that might augment or substitute for the limited processing power of the human brain of primary health care (PHC) professionals. However, there are concerns that AI-mediated decisions may be hard to validate and challenge, or may result in rogue decisions. OBJECTIVE: To form consensus about perceptions, issues, and challenges of AI in primary care. METHOD: A three-round Delphi study was conducted. Round 1 explored experts' viewpoints on AI in PHC (n=20). Round 2 rated the appropriateness of statements arising from round one (n=12). The third round was an online panel discussion of findings (n=8) with the members of both the International Medical Informatics Association and the European Federation of Medical Informatics Primary Health Care Informatics Working Groups. RESULTS: PHC and informatics experts reported AI has potential to improve managerial and clinical decisions and processes, and this would be facilitated by common data standards. The respondents did not agree that AI applications should learn and adapt to clinician preferences or behaviour and they did not agree on the extent of AI potential for harm to patients. It was more difficult to assess the impact of AI-based applications on continuity and coordination of care. CONCLUSION: While the use of AI in medicine should enhance healthcare delivery, we need to ensure meticulous design and evaluation of AI applications. The primary care informatics community needs to be proactive and to guide the ethical and rigorous development of AI applications so that they will be safe and effective.

Inteligência Artificial , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Inteligência Artificial/ética , Inteligência Artificial/normas , Técnica Delfos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas
Can Assoc Radiol J ; 70(2): 107-118, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962048


Artificial intelligence (AI) software that analyzes medical images is becoming increasingly prevalent. Unlike earlier generations of AI software, which relied on expert knowledge to identify imaging features, machine learning approaches automatically learn to recognize these features. However, the promise of accurate personalized medicine can only be fulfilled with access to large quantities of medical data from patients. This data could be used for purposes such as predicting disease, diagnosis, treatment optimization, and prognostication. Radiology is positioned to lead development and implementation of AI algorithms and to manage the associated ethical and legal challenges. This white paper from the Canadian Association of Radiologists provides a framework for study of the legal and ethical issues related to AI in medical imaging, related to patient data (privacy, confidentiality, ownership, and sharing); algorithms (levels of autonomy, liability, and jurisprudence); practice (best practices and current legal framework); and finally, opportunities in AI from the perspective of a universal health care system.

Inteligência Artificial/ética , Inteligência Artificial/legislação & jurisprudência , Radiologia/ética , Radiologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Canadá , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Radiologistas/ética , Radiologistas/legislação & jurisprudência , Sociedades Médicas
IEEE Pulse ; 10(1): 15-17, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872208


After working at Apple designing circuits and signal processing algorithms for products including the first iPad, Timnit Gebru (Figure 1) received her Ph.D. from the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in the area of computer vision. She recently completed a postdoc with Microsoft Research in the FATE (Fairness, Transparency, Accountability, and Ethics in Artificial Intelligence (AI)) group, was a cofounder of Black in AI, and is currently working as a research scientist in the Ethical AI team at Google. Her research in algorithmic bias and the ethical implications of data mining have appeared in multiple publications, including The New York Times and The Economist. IEEE Pulse recently spoke with Gebru about the role societal bias plays in engineering AI, the deficits and dangers in the field caused by limited diversity, and the challenges inherent in addressing these complex issues.

Inteligência Artificial/ética , Mineração de Dados/ética , Ética em Pesquisa , Algoritmos , Viés , Bases de Dados Factuais/ética , Humanos
J Clin Neurosci ; 64: 277-282, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878282


Artificial intelligence (AI) is currently one of the mostly controversial matters of the world. This article discusses AI in terms of the medical ethics issues involved, both existing and potential. Once artificial intelligence is fully developed within electronic systems, it will afford many useful applications in many sectors ranging from banking, agriculture, medical procedures to military operations, especially by decreasing the involvement of humans in critically dangerous activities. Robots as well as computers themselves are embodiments of values inasmuch as they entail actions and choices, but their practical applications are modelled or programmed by the engineers building the systems. AI will need algorithmic procedures to ensure safety in the implementation of such systems. The AI algorithms written could naturally contain errors that may result in unforeseen consequences and unfair outcomes along economic and racial class lines. It is crucial that measures be taken to monitor technological developments ensuring preventative and precautionary safeguards are in place to safeguard the rights of those involved against direct or indirect coercion. While it is the responsibility of AI researchers to ensure that the future impact is more positive than negative, ethicists and philosophers need to be deeply involved in the development of such technologies from the beginning.

Inteligência Artificial/ética , Inteligência Artificial/tendências , Algoritmos , Humanos
Soins ; 64(832): 54-57, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771853


The positive regulation of artificial intelligence in healthcare represents a major stake to allow a diffusion of digital innovation, in a spirit of openness and coherence with ethical values. Operational principles have been proposed, particularly around the concept of Human Guarantee. The opinion issued at the end of 2018 by the National Consultative Ethics Committee is an important step forward in the recognition of this idea which leaves a large capacity for initiative to professionals and patients.

Inteligência Artificial/ética , Inteligência Artificial/legislação & jurisprudência , Assistência à Saúde/ética , Comissão de Ética , França , Humanos
Hastings Cent Rep ; 49(1): 15-21, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790315


Although decision-making algorithms are not new to medicine, the availability of vast stores of medical data, gains in computing power, and breakthroughs in machine learning are accelerating the pace of their development, expanding the range of questions they can address, and increasing their predictive power. In many cases, however, the most powerful machine learning techniques purchase diagnostic or predictive accuracy at the expense of our ability to access "the knowledge within the machine." Without an explanation in terms of reasons or a rationale for particular decisions in individual cases, some commentators regard ceding medical decision-making to black box systems as contravening the profound moral responsibilities of clinicians. I argue, however, that opaque decisions are more common in medicine than critics realize. Moreover, as Aristotle noted over two millennia ago, when our knowledge of causal systems is incomplete and precarious-as it often is in medicine-the ability to explain how results are produced can be less important than the ability to produce such results and empirically verify their accuracy.

Inteligência Artificial/ética , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/ética , Algoritmos , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Conhecimento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Responsabilidade Social , Incerteza
Sci Eng Ethics ; 25(2): 399-418, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29357047


Ethical thought experiments such as the trolley dilemma have been investigated extensively in the past, showing that humans act in utilitarian ways, trying to cause as little overall damage as possible. These trolley dilemmas have gained renewed attention over the past few years, especially due to the necessity of implementing moral decisions in autonomous driving vehicles (ADVs). We conducted a set of experiments in which participants experienced modified trolley dilemmas as drivers in virtual reality environments. Participants had to make decisions between driving in one of two lanes where different obstacles came into view. Eventually, the participants had to decide which of the objects they would crash into. Obstacles included a variety of human-like avatars of different ages and group sizes. Furthermore, the influence of sidewalks as potential safe harbors and a condition implicating self-sacrifice were tested. Results showed that participants, in general, decided in a utilitarian manner, sparing the highest number of avatars possible with a limited influence by the other variables. Derived from these findings, which are in line with the utilitarian approach in moral decision making, it will be argued for an obligatory ethics setting implemented in ADVs.

Inteligência Artificial/ética , Automação/ética , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Automóveis/ética , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Teoria Ética , Altruísmo , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Realidade Virtual