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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143172

RESUMO

Nurses are exposed to psychosocial risks that can affect both psychological and physical health through stress. Prolonged stress at work can lead to burnout syndrome. An essential protective factor against psychosocial risks is emotional intelligence, which has been related to physical and psychological health, job satisfaction, increased job commitment, and burnout reduction. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of psychosocial risks and emotional intelligence on nurses' health, well-being, burnout level, and job satisfaction during the rise and main peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain. It is a cross-sectional study conducted on a convenience sample of 125 Spanish nurses. Multiple hierarchical linear regression models were calculated considering emotional intelligence levels, psychosocial demand factors (interpersonal conflict, lack of organizational justice, role conflict, and workload), social support and emotional work on burnout, job satisfaction, and nurses' health. Finally, the moderating effect of emotional intelligence levels, psychosocial factors, social support, and emotional work on burnout, job satisfaction, and nurses' health was calculated. Overall, this research data points to a protective effect of emotional intelligence against the adverse effects of psychosocial risks such as burnout, psychosomatic complaints, and a favorable effect on job satisfaction.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cultura Organizacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Justiça Social , Apoio Social , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho
2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236087, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697810

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth version-EQ-i:YV was developed by Bar-On & Parker in 2000 and later translated and adapted for the general Spanish adolescent population by Ferrandiz et al. in 2012. The Spanish scale presents similar psychometric properties to the original version (54 items and five subdimensions). The Emotional Quotient Inventory assesses a set of personal, emotional, and social skills that influence adaptation to and coping with environmental demands and pressures. These factors can influence an adolescent's success later in life, health, and psychological well-being. Traditionally, research in Down syndrome (DS) has focused on identifying cognitive deficits, relatively little is known about emotional intelligence (EI) and there are no scales that measure EI in people with DS adults. OBJECTIVES: To validate and analyze the psychometric properties of the scale in the clinical population, specifically in Spanish adults with DS (EQ-i: SVDS). METHODS: A cross-sectional investigation was carried out in several stages. Descriptive, exploratory factorial (n = 345), confirmatory (n = 397), and scale reliability analyses were performed with better goodness-of-adjustment indices. RESULTS: A new scale named Emotional Quotient Inventory: Short Version for DS adults was obtained with a structure of four factors called mood, stress management, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. This new scale was reduced to 25 items. Goodness-of-fit indices were excellent (RMSEA [95% CI] = 02[.01; .03]; CFI = .99; TLI = .98; GFI = .87; AGFI = .89). The internal consistency of the four dimensions and the calculated total score (α = .91, ω = .93 and divided halves = .90) yielded high values in this clinical sample. DISCUSSION: The results recommend the use of the revised EQ-i: YV, the EQ-i: SVDS, to assess EI in adults with DS. The psychometric properties of this study are satisfactory but have four factors. The findings are discussed in terms of future research and practical implication to gain a more thorough understanding of how this population behaves on both a general and preventive level in order to teach EI properly. CONCLUSIONS: This new version is a valid and reliable tool to evaluate emotional intelligence in people with intellectual disabilities and specifically in Spanish adults with DS.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Síndrome de Down/psicologia , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Psicometria/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Síndrome de Down/epidemiologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Psychol Assess ; 32(7): 649-662, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271059

RESUMO

This article describes (a) the origins of, (b) rationale underlying, and (c) preliminary validity evidence for, a new ability measure of emotional understanding (EU), a major component of emotional intelligence. A novel conceptual approach-the empathic agent paradigm (EAP)-provided the theoretical foundation. The EAP results in a veridical, logically defensible scoring key, a major development for the assessment of EI, which otherwise has relied on less defensible approaches. Validity evidence for test score interpretations of the Empathic Agent Paradigm Test (EAPT) was subsequently obtained in two studies. In Study 1, participants (N = 321) completed the EAPT (α = .72 at testlet level), along with measures of classical intelligence, the Big Five personality traits, and a situational judgment measure of EU. This study provides factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity evidence for EAPT test score interpretations. In Study 2 (N = 158), an important assumption about the response processes in the EAPT was verified experimentally, in the process providing further validity evidence for test score interpretations. In sum, findings suggest that the EAPT is a promising new maximum performance measure for the assessment of EU. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Compreensão , Inteligência Emocional , Empatia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto , Compreensão/fisiologia , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168366

RESUMO

Circadian typology has been related to several mental health aspects such as resilience, perceived well-being, emotional intelligence and psychological symptoms and disorders. However, the relationship between circadian typology and emotion regulation, metacognitions and assertiveness, which constitute core constructs related to psychological well-being and psychopathology, remain unexplored. This study aims to analyze whether circadian typology is related with those three constructs, considering the possible influence of sex. 2283 participants (833 women), aged 18-60 years (30.37 ± 9.26 years), completed the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire 30, and the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule. Main effects were observed between circadian typology and cognitive reappraisal, metacognitions, negative beliefs of uncontrollability and danger, cognitive confidence, cognitive self-consciousness, and assertiveness (F(2,2276) > 4.80, p < 0.009, ηp2 > 0.004, in all cases). Morning-type participants scored lower than evening-type in general metacognitive beliefs, negative beliefs of uncontrollability and danger, cognitive confidence, and cognitive self-consciousness, and higher than evening-type in cognitive reappraisal and assertiveness, while neither-type exhibited intermediate scores (p < 0.033 in all cases). According to the results, evening-type individuals might display a higher tendency to support maladaptive beliefs about thinking itself as well as a lesser tendency to reappraise a potentially emotion eliciting situations in order to modify its meaning and its emotional impact and to exert their rights respectfully. This new evidence improves the understanding of the relationships between circadian typology and psychological factors related to psychological well-being and psychopathology. Results implications for the onset and maintenance of psychological problems are discussed. Although future longitudinal studies are needed, results emphasize evening-type as a risk factor for the development of psychological disturbances and morning-type as a protective factor against those.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Assertividade , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 59(2): 224-240, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: While financial deprivation, social isolation, and low emotional intelligence (EI) have been separately identified as important predictors of mental illness, no research has assessed the contribution of these factors together in understanding early markers of severe psychological distress. This information can have key implications for the development of comprehensive interventions and psychological treatment programmes. This study investigated the shared and unique contribution of financial well-being, social support, and trait EI on different types of psychological distress. DESIGN: A total of 309 patients seeking psychological treatment at an outpatient mental health clinic in the United States provided consent to participate in this study. Patients responded to online questionnaires corresponding to symptomatology, demographic characteristics, and psychometric assessments. METHODS: Hierarchical linear regressions identified the common and unique role of each set of variables in predicting nine different symptom clusters of psychological distress. RESULTS: Financial well-being, social support, and trait EI were negatively related to the majority of symptom clusters, together explaining between 20% and 53% of the variance. Whereas financial well-being and social support uniquely captured a significant amount of the variance in all outcomes, trait EI, most notably the well-being and self-control dimensions, captured the most. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the importance of all factors in understanding variations in mental health among help-seeking urban individuals. Furthermore, the results identify well-being and self-control as emotional facets to consider in therapeutic programmes in as much as to mitigate the risk of severe psychological distress within this population. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Together, financial well-being, social support, and trait emotional intelligence (EI) can help prevent psychological distress in help-seeking urban individuals. Perceived social support and social contact differentially contributed to improved symptoms of psychological distress. Studies should examine the impact of targeting well-being and self-control in psychological treatment. The correlational nature of this study highlights the need to replicate findings via experimental or longitudinal designs.


Assuntos
Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Saúde Mental/economia , Saúde Mental/normas , Angústia Psicológica , Apoio Social , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
Emotion ; 20(1): 105-109, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961187

RESUMO

Emotion regulation skills are critical to young children's school readiness and later academic achievement, as well as educators' efficacy, stress, and job satisfaction. In this article, we demonstrate how the science of emotion regulation can be translated into practical steps for educating teachers and students in schools. We begin with the crucial role of supporting educators in developing their own emotion regulation skills. We also discuss concrete and accessible tools that can be used to support both educators' own skill development and that of their students. We demonstrate how educators can integrate the teaching of emotion regulation through direct instruction, its integration into existing curricula, and daily practices and routines. The examples we provide are part of RULER, an evidence-based, whole school approach to social and emotional learning (SEL) that was developed at the Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence. RULER is grounded in the theory of emotional intelligence, which emphasizes the critical role of emotion regulation in healthy development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Aprendizado Social/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
7.
Ansiedad estrés ; 25(2): 72-78, jul.-dic. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190726

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Currently, the assessment of emotional intelligence (EI) ability using performance measures is some what limited. Our study thus describes the development and validation of a new performance measure, known as the Strategic Test of Emotional Intelligence (STEI), to assess EI abilities in Spanish samples based on the Mayer and Salovey (1997) model and Situational Judgment Test paradigm. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Spanish undergraduate students and community participants (N = 504; 64.7% females aged 18-67 years) completed the STEI (consisting of 110 items, 55 of which correspond to the understanding emotions factor and 55 to the managing emotions factor). Different subgroups also completed measures of EI, empathy, personality, and general intelligence. RESULTS: The findings indicate appropriate reliability and convergent and discriminant validity with respect to EI, empathy, personality, and intelligence measures. Further, confirmatory factor analysis supported the existence of a two-factor structure composed of the understanding and managing emotions subscales. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were adequate (.82 understanding emotions, .85 managing emotions, and .90 total STEI). CONCLUSIONS: The STEI could be a promising new measure for assessing EI in Spanish samples, providing a novel tool for researching the construct and enabling the comparison with previous results found in other cultures


INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: En la actualidad, la evaluación de la capacidad de inteligencia emocional (IE) que utiliza medidas de rendimiento es algo limitada. Nuestro estudio describe el desarrollo y la validación de una nueva medida de rendimiento, conocida como Test Estratégico de Inteligencia Emocional (STEI), para evaluar las habilidades de IE en muestras españolas basada en el modelo de Mayer y Salovey (1997) y en el paradigma de Prueba de Juicio Situacional. MATERIALES Y MÉTODO: ESTUDIANTES universitarios, así como muestra de población general (n = 504; 64.7% mujeres; rango de edad de 18 a 67 años) de España completaron el STEI (con un total de 110 ítems, 55 pertenecientes al factor comprensión y 55 al factor manejo de las emociones). Diferentes subgrupos también completaron medidas de IE, empatía, personalidad e inteligencia general. RESULTADOS: Los resultados indican una fiabilidad apropiada y una validez convergente y discriminante con respecto a las medidas de IE, empatía, personalidad e inteligencia. Además, el análisis factorial confirmatorio apoyó la existencia de una estructura de dos factores compuesta por las subescalas de comprensión y manejo de las emociones. Los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach fueron adecuados (.82 comprensión emociones, .85 manejo emociones y .90 STEI total). CONCLUSIONES: El STEI podría ser una medida nueva y prometedora para evaluar la IE en muestras españolas, proporcionando una herramienta novedosa para investigar el constructo y poder comparar los resultados con los encontrados previamente en otras culturas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Testes Psicológicos , Testes de Inteligência , Espanha
8.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 14(8): 871-883, 2019 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593230

RESUMO

Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested that the neural bases of trait emotional intelligence (TEI) lie in the social cognition network (SCN) and the somatic marker circuitry (SMC). The current study was the first to investigate the associations of total TEI factors and subfactors with mean diffusivity (MD) of these networks as well as regional MD of the dopaminergic system (MDDS). We found that TEI intrapersonal factor score and total TEI score were negatively correlated with regional MDDS in the vicinity of the right putamen and right pallidum and that TEI intrapersonal factor score was negatively correlated with MD values of the fusiform gyrus. Total TEI score and TEI factor scores were positively correlated with MD values of various areas within or adjacent to SCN components, SMC structures and the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC). Our MD findings demonstrated the importance of the dopaminergic system to TEI and implicate the SCN, SMC and LPFC in TEI. Future studies are required to investigate the implications of positive and negative associations with MD values.


Assuntos
Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/psicologia , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Encéfalo , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Putamen , Comportamento Social
9.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 6530539, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583023

RESUMO

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) affects up to 4% of a pediatric population, with many comorbidities in the medium-long term. Functional alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may explain why OSAS impacts aspects such as executive functions, memory, motor control, attention, visual-spatial skills, learning, and mood regulation. Emotional intelligence (EI) is a complex neuropsychological function that could be impaired in many clinical conditions. Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate the difference in emotional intelligence skills among children with OSAS and healthy subjects (nOSAS). Methods: 129 children (72 males; mean age 7.64 ± 1.98 years) affected by OSAS were compared to 264 non-OSAS (nOSAS) children (138 males; mean age 7.98 ± 2.13) similar for gender, age, and socioeconomic status. In order to assess the emotional quotient, the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQ-i:YV) was used. Results: The comparison for means and standard deviation between OSAS children and nOSAS children for EQ-i:YV scores showed significant differences for Interpersonal, Adaptability, and Stress Management scales and EQ Total score. Conclusions: Our findings highlighted the role of intermittent hypoxia in the genesis of the effects of sleep-related respiratory disorders, which involves also aspects different from physical impairments.


Assuntos
Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/psicologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Polissonografia/métodos , Transtornos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/psicologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia
10.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(11): 4646-4657, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463630

RESUMO

In a context described as a challenge in parenting (having an autistic child), we sought to highlight the emotional skills that mothers gain as a result of interacting with their child, and how they then use these skills. Mothers of autistic children (n = 136) and mothers of non-autistic children (n = 139) responded to emotional intelligence, resilience, and coping scales. Comparisons revealed smaller differences between groups than expected. Nevertheless, mothers of autistic children showed greater resilience abilities than mothers of non-autistic children. Moreover, we noted differences between both groups regarding their use of emotional skills. Emotional intelligence is a resource that deserves to be explored in terms of its clinical implications, especially among the parents of autistic children.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 36: 176-180, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383436

RESUMO

The present study examines the effect of the Mindfulness and Emotional Intelligence Program (PINEP), adapted to the virtual learning platform Moodle where participants receive Mindfulness training in 12 sessions lasting an hour and a half. The sample consists of 89 people, assigned randomly to a control group on the waiting list and to an experimental group that undertakes the training. The results indicate that the participants who completed PINEP showed improvement in the variables of health, empathy and mindfulness, in comparison with the participants of the group on the waiting list.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Atenção Plena , Realidade Virtual , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Humanos , Atenção Plena/educação , Atenção Plena/métodos
12.
Br J Dev Psychol ; 37(4): 585-599, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469185

RESUMO

This study examines the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI), support, and parental psychological control practices. Three hundred adolescents, between 11 and 13 years old, took part in the study (163 were males and 137 were females). Participants completed the Perceptions of Parents Scales for the parental support, the Dependency (DPC)- and Achievement (APC)-oriented Psychological Control Scales for the parental psychological control, and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form for the child's trait EI. Trait EI was related to parenting variables, and also, parental practices (both support and psychological control) predicted global trait EI in adolescents. Some gender-specific differences were found: both APC and DPC were negative predictors of trait EI in males, whereas only APC significantly predicted trait EI in females. Future longitudinal studies are needed to examine these results and to shed light on the processes involved in the development of trait EI. STATEMENT OF CONTRIBUTION: What is already known on the subject? There exists strong evidence of the interaction between parenting practices and emotional development in children and adolescents. Therefore, parental psychological control is negatively correlated with peer support and self-esteem, and positively related to anxiety and aggressive behaviour in children. However, there is paucity on research examining the relationship between parenting and trait EI in children. What does this study adds? This study extends earlier work in this field and investigates whether there is a relationship between trait EI and parenting practices (parental support and psychological control) and whether it depends on child and parent gender. This study, therefore, aims to investigate, for the first time, parental factors that may, in addition to those constitutional, be related to trait EI in children. Specifically, the objective of the present study was to investigate whether parenting practices would predict adolescents' trait EI and whether these relations depend on the gender.


Assuntos
Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Percepção Social , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
13.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 207(8): 642-650, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356406

RESUMO

Our aim was to assess the relationship between personality and psychological traits, and burnout among the Lebanese population. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted with multiple validated scales used to measure burnout and other characteristics. A cluster analysis was then performed to split the population into mutually exclusive groups with different profiles according to the burnout scales using the K-mean method. A multivariate analysis of covariance was carried out to compare multiple measures between the cluster groups under comparison. The study, conducted between November 2017 and March 2018, enrolled 789 participants. The results showed that 100 (14.0%) had high emotional work fatigue, whereas 443 (62.5%) and 680 (95.4%) had high mental and physical work fatigue, respectively. People with high physical work fatigue (cluster 1) had lower alcohol dependence (ß = -2.78), alexithymia (ß = -3.16), depression (ß = -7.20), anxiety (ß = -6.99), perceived stress (ß = -2.53), social phobia (ß = -11.49), suicidal ideation (ß = -0.35), emotional awareness (ß = -4.54), emotional managament (ß = -1.71), social emotional awareness (ß = -9.27), and relationship management (ß = -9.12). People with high emotional work fatigue (cluster 2) had higher alcohol dependence (ß = 2.11), alexithymia (ß = 6.51), depression (ß = 2.48), anxiety (ß = 4.11), perceived stress (ß = 4.30), and lower emotional awareness (ß = -6.68), emotional management (ß = -7.80), social emotional awareness (ß = -3.71), and relationship management (ß = -3.05). Higher levels of burnout were found to be associated with multiple psychological factors. The results would help understand the burnout dimensions and their correlated factors in the Lebanese population.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Inteligência Emocional , Regulação Emocional , Personalidade , Autoimagem , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , Personalidade/fisiologia
14.
Br J Health Psychol ; 24(4): 828-846, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Low emotional intelligence (EI) may predispose individuals to applying maladaptive coping strategies. This may maintain anxious worrying, which is highly prevalent in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and may affect mental (MCS) and physical component summaries (PCS) of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). DESIGN: The current study is a cross-sectional and cross-cultural survey. METHODS: N = 200 outpatients with CHF were recruited at cardiology institutes in Germany and Pakistan and assessed with self-report questionnaires. RESULTS: Path analysis (χ2 (4) = 7.59, p = .11, GFI = .99) revealed that the expected associations between low EI and lower SF-36 MCS and PCS of HRQoL were fully mediated by negative metacognition and maladaptive coping in the Pakistani sample (p's ≤ .05). The German sample applied different maladaptive coping strategies, which also led to lower MCS and PCS scores, but did not mediate a direct positive effect of EI on HRQoL. CONCLUSION: The current findings support culture-independent validity of the metacognitive model but also reveal major cultural differences regarding the application and effect of specific maladaptive coping strategies. This has important implications for caregivers in a cross-cultural context and highlights the need for culture-specific tailoring of psychosocial interventions. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Worry, an integral component of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and highly comorbid in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients, contributes to anxiety and resulting stress as evident from metacognitive model of GAD. In addition, previous literature has also established the protective role of emotional intelligence (EI) against stress, thus maintaining quality of life. What does this study add? Cross-cultural (Pakistan vs. Germany) validation of the metacognitive model of GAD. Supportive evidence for the metacognitive model in patients with CHF. Mediation of maladaptive metacognitions and negative coping in the relationship of low trait EI and low health-related quality of life.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Comparação Transcultural , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/psicologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219468, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291333

RESUMO

The study investigated the association between emotional intelligence and academic success among undergraduates of Kohat University of Science & Technology (KUST), Pakistan. A sample of 186 students who were enrolled during the semester Fall 2015 to Spring 2018 was selected through a random sampling technique. A cross-sectional, descriptive and correlational research methods were employed in this study. A standardized tool "Emotional Intelligence Scale" was employed for the collection of information from the undergraduates. Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) of the students was considered as academic success. Data were collected through personal visits. Statistical tools i.e., simple percentage, mean, standard deviation, ANOVA, Pearson's product-moment correlation and multiple linear regression were employed to reach the desired research outcomes. The findings revealed that there was a strong positive relationship (r = 0.880) between emotional intelligence and academic success among undergraduate students. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that self-development (Beta = 0.296), emotional stability (Beta = 0.197), managing relations (Beta = 0.170), altruistic behaviour (Beta = 0.145), and commitment (Beta = 0.117) predict academic success of undergraduates positively. The findings suggest that the emotional intelligence of the undergraduate students may be further improved so that their academic performance may further be enhanced.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(6): e13729, 2019 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As robots are increasingly designed for health management applications, it is critical to not only consider the effects robots will have on patients but also consider a patient's wider social network, including the patient's caregivers and health care providers, among others. OBJECTIVE: In this paper we investigated how people evaluate robots that provide care and how they form impressions of the patient the robot cares for, based on how the robot represents the patient. METHODS: We have used a vignette-based study, showing participants hypothetical scenarios describing behaviors of assistive robots (patient-centered or task-centered) and measured their influence on people's evaluations of the robot itself (emotional intelligence [EI], trustworthiness, and acceptability) as well as people's perceptions of the patient for whom the robot provides care. RESULTS: We found that for scenarios describing a robot that acts in a patient-centered manner, the robot will not only be perceived as having higher EI (P=.003) but will also cause people to form more positive impressions of the patient that the robot cares for (P<.001). We replicated and expanded these results to other domains such as dieting, learning, and job training. CONCLUSIONS: These results imply that robots could be used to enhance human-human relationships in the health care context and beyond.


Assuntos
Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Robótica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Pacientes/psicologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
17.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 14(4): 543-559, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059662

RESUMO

When people ruminate about an unfortunate encounter with a loved one, savor a long-sought accomplishment, or hold in mind feelings from a marvelous or regretfully tragic moment, what mental processes orchestrate these psychological phenomena? Such experiences typify how affect interacts with working memory, which we posit can occur in three primary ways: emotional experiences can modulate working memory, working memory can modulate emotional experiences, and feelings can be the mental representations maintained by working memory. We propose that this last mode constitutes distinct neuropsychological processes that support the integration of particular cognitive and affective processes: affective working memory. Accumulating behavioral and neural evidence suggests that affective working memory processes maintain feelings and are partially separable from their cognitive working memory counterparts. Affective working memory may be important for elucidating the contribution of affect to decision making, preserved emotional processes in later life, and mechanisms of psychological dysfunction in clinical disorders. We review basic behavioral, neuroscience, and clinical research that provides evidence for affective working memory; consider its theoretical implications; and evaluate its functional role within the psychological architecture. In sum, the perspective we advocate is that affective working memory is a fundamental mechanism of mind.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Afeto/fisiologia , Humanos
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(18): e15345, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045776

RESUMO

The brain has multiple functions, and its structures are very closely related to one another. Thus, the brain areas associated with stress, emotion, and intelligence are closely connected. The purpose of this study was to investigate the multiple associations between stress and emotional intelligence (EI), between EI and intelligence quotient (IQ), between cytokines and stress, and between cytokines and IQ. We measured the stress, EI, cognitive intelligence using IQ, and cytokine levels of 70 healthy subjects. We also analyzed the association of cytokines with IQ according to hemispheric dominance using the brain preference indicator (BPI). We found significant negative correlations between stress and the components of EI, such as emotional awareness and expression, emotional thinking, and emotional regulation. High levels of anger, which is a component of stress, were significantly related to poor emotional regulation. Additionally, emotional application was positively correlated with full-scale IQ scores and scores on the vocabulary, picture arrangement, and block design subtests of the IQ test. High IL-10 levels were significantly associated with low stress levels only in the right-brain-dominant group. High IL-10 and IFN-gamma levels have been associated with high scores of arithmetic intelligence. TNF-alpha and IL-6 were negatively associated with vocabulary scores and full-scale IQ, but IL-10 and IFN-gamma were positively associated with scores on the arithmetic subtest in left-brain-dominant subjects. On the other hand, IL-10 showed positive correlations with scores for vocabulary and for vocabulary and arithmetic in right-brain-dominant subjects. Furthermore, we found significant linear regression models which can show integrative associations and contribution on emotional and cognitive intelligence. Thus, we demonstrated that cytokines, stress, and emotional and cognitive intelligence are closely connected one another related to brain structure and functions. Also, the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 had negative effects, whereas the anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10 and IFN-gamma) showed beneficial effects, on stress levels, and multiple dimensions of emotional and cognitive intelligence. Additionally, these relationships among cytokines, stress, and emotional and cognitive intelligence differed depending on right and left hemispheric dominance.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Escalas de Wechsler , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dominância Cerebral/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Testes de Inteligência , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Interleucina-10 , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , República da Coreia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese , Adulto Jovem
19.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(1): 87-93, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994781

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emotional intelligence (EI) has been defined as the ability to perceive, understand, use and manage emotions. Studying EI could potentially be useful in understanding addictive behaviors as well as for designing and planning interventions. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a critical review on EI impairment in addiction disorders. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane, LILACS, and SciELO databases were searched. Articles that used the standardized Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) instrument to assess EI in people with addictions and healthy controls were selected for the review. RESULTS: We selected seven articles assessing EI and its associations with addiction disorders, mainly alcohol abuse and cocaine dependence. Most studies reported that individuals with addiction disorders had worse EI scores when compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Overall, the studies reviewed demonstrated that addictions are associated with EI deficits, compared to controls. However, aspects such as the small number of addictive disorders analyzed, methodological issues related to instruments for assessment of IE and the lack of follow-up remain significant limitations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Humanos
20.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(1): 94-102, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994788

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emotional intelligence (EI) is a theoretical construct postulated by Mayer and Salovey to designate the ability to perceive, understand, use and manage emotions. The study of EI in schizophrenia offers new insights into the disorder's cognitive and functional impacts. OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively review studies analyzing EI impairment in schizophrenia spectrum disorders using standardized instruments. METHODS: Searches were run on MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane, LILACS, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov and SciELO databases. The only validated instrument used was the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MSCEIT). Articles that used all branches of the MSCEIT to assess EI in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and healthy controls were included in the review. RESULTS: We found 30 articles on this topic. The studies analyzed showed a significant impairment of MSCEIT total score in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders when compared to healthy controls. In relation to the MSCEIT branches, understanding of emotions and management of emotions are the most impaired branches. CONCLUSION: Since most studies are cross-sectional, it is not possible to establish a cause and effect relationship between EI deficits and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Therefore, longitudinal studies are needed to establish a clearer relationship between these variables. By so doing, we may be able to intervene for prevention and management of these disorders, aiming at better quality of life for patients.


Assuntos
Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Humanos
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