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2.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 13-20, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597515

RESUMO

Cross-sectional study aimed to analyse differences in cognitive performance across fitness components categories (cardiorespiratory fitness [CRF], speed-agility and muscular fitness [MF]) and weight status in children, and to determine whether physical fitness mediates the association between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive performance. Fitness components and BMI were measured using standard procedures in 630 children aged 5-to-7 years from the provinces of Cuenca and Ciudad Real, Spain. BADyG was used to assess cognitive performance. We used ANCOVA models to test mean differences in cognition scores by BMI and fitness categories. Hayes's PROCESS macro was used for mediation analyses. Children with normal weight scored better in spatial factor and general intelligence than their overweight/obese peers (p < 0.05), but differences were attenuated when controlling for CRF (p > 0.05). Children with better results in CRF and speed-agility scored better in all cognitive dimensions even after controlling for BMI (p < 0.05). Similarly, children with high MF obtained better scores in verbal factor (p < 0.05). All fitness components acted as mediators of the relationship between BMI and general intelligence (p < 0.05). These findings highlight the crucial role of fitness in minimising the negative effect of excess weight on children's cognition.Abbreviations: BMI: Body mass index; CRF: Cardiorespiratory fitness; MF: Muscular fitness; BADyG E1: Battery of general and differential aptitudes; SES: Socioeconomic status; SD: Standard deviation; IE: Indirect effect.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência/fisiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Classe Social
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134519, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698272

RESUMO

This study sought to compare lead (Pb) concentrations in toenails and blood and to investigate the association of each biomarker with children's cognitive function. Toenails and whole blood samples were collected from 224 twelve-year-old children, and their full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th edition. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to determine blood (BPb) and toenail (TPb) Pb concentrations. Log BPb and Log TPb were significantly correlated (r2 = 0.49, p < 0.001). In unadjusted analyses, both log-transformed BPb and TPb were significantly associated with decreased FSIQ, but BPb accounted for approximately quadruple the FSIQ scores' variability than log-transformed TPb (model R2 = 0.12 and R2 = 0.03, respectively). After adjusting for neighborhood deprivation, caregiver intelligence (assessed with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-2nd edition), and child BMI, BPb remained significantly associated with decreased FSIQ, while TPb did not (p = 0.16). These results suggest that while concentrations of Pb in blood and toenails are correlated, TPb does not predict cognitive outcomes at these exposure levels. With caution and in conjunction with BPb, TPb may be used as a population-based biomarker of Pb exposure.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , Unhas
5.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(4): 464-466, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767808

RESUMO

No abstract available.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Humanos , Inteligência
6.
Nat Genet ; 51(11): 1652-1659, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676866

RESUMO

Short tandem repeats (STRs) have been implicated in a variety of complex traits in humans. However, genome-wide studies of the effects of STRs on gene expression thus far have had limited power to detect associations and provide insights into putative mechanisms. Here, we leverage whole-genome sequencing and expression data for 17 tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project to identify more than 28,000 STRs for which repeat number is associated with expression of nearby genes (eSTRs). We use fine-mapping to quantify the probability that each eSTR is causal and characterize the top 1,400 fine-mapped eSTRs. We identify hundreds of eSTRs linked with published genome-wide association study signals and implicate specific eSTRs in complex traits, including height, schizophrenia, inflammatory bowel disease and intelligence. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that eSTRs contribute to a range of human phenotypes, and our data should serve as a valuable resource for future studies of complex traits.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Estatura/genética , Biologia Computacional , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Inteligência/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética
7.
J Appl Meas ; 20(4): 399-404, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730546

RESUMO

The concept of IRT (Item Response Theory), offering several models which at least guarantee if they hold, that a scoring rule in question is indeed fair, can be referred to in regard to the pertinent scoring rule of the IQ (intelligence quotient) in many intelligence test-batteries. Muller's continuous Rasch model (1987, 1999) applies. Analyses were carried out for three test-batteries, that is the German and the English version of AID 3 and a respective version for group administration, to show this in an exemplary way. Sample sizes comprised 431, 761, and 2278, respectively. Above all, the graphical model check disclosed a serious misfit of the model: There is no support for the notion that the respective scoring rule is fair. Detailed inspections give the impression that essentially calculating the sum of the subtest scores mixes (at least) two components, "intelligence" and "willingness to achieve in unchallenging tasks." Practitioners should be assailed by doubts that all other intelligence test-batteries in use, which are not evaluated accordingly, do score fair.


Assuntos
Inteligência , Psicometria
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1311, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mortality of coronary heart disease can be largely reduced by modifying unhealthy lifestyles. However, the long-term effectiveness of interventions for modifying unhealthy diet and physical inactivity of patients with coronary heart disease remain unsatisfactory worldwide. This study aims to systematically design a set of theory-based and evidence-based, individualized, and intelligent interventions for promoting the adoption and maintenance of a healthy diet and physical activity level in patients with coronary heart disease. METHODS: The interventions will be delivered by a mobile health care system called Individualized, Intelligent and Integrated Cardiovascular Application for Risk Elimination. Three steps of the intervention mapping framework were used to systematically develop the interventions. Step 1: needs assessment, which was carried out by a literature review, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Step 2: development of objective matrix for diet and physical activity changes, based on the intersection of objectives and determinants from the Contemplation-Action-Maintenance behavior change model. Step 3: formulation of evidence-based methods and strategies, and practical applications, through a systematic review of existing literature, research team discussions, and consultation with multidisciplinary expert panels. RESULTS: Three needs relevant to content of the intervention, one need relevant to presentation modes of the intervention, and four needs relevant to functional features of the application were identified. The objective matrix includes three performance objectives, and 24 proximal performance objectives. The evidence-based and theory-based interventions include 31 strategies, 61 evidence-based methods, and 393 practical applications. CONCLUSIONS: This article describes the development of theory-based and evidence-based interventions of the mobile health care system for promoting the adoption and maintenance of a healthy diet and physical activity level in a structured format. The results will provide a theoretical and methodological basis to explore the application of intervention mapping in developing effective behavioral mobile health interventions for patients with coronary heart disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-INR-16010242. Registered 24 December 2016. http://www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Exercício , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Adulto , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Inteligência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicina de Precisão , Telemedicina/métodos
10.
Psychol Aging ; 34(7): 912-920, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589057

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome affects persons of all ages and has been associated with cognitive decline. In a sample of 221 healthy adults (18.57 to 85.33 years), assessed up to 3 times (over up to 6.33 years), we applied a second-order bivariate dual-change-score model with strong factorial invariance to estimate the effects of previous levels of metabolic risk (MR) and fluid intelligence (Gf) on subsequent changes in both constructs. The results indicated that MR levels affect subsequent changes in Gf, whereas Gf does not affect changes in MR. This suggests that control of MR may be related to the change in a person's cognitive status, making early intervention, starting in young adulthood, a promising approach. To our knowledge, this is the first long-term study with such evidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Testes de Inteligência/normas , Inteligência/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 386-389, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, anxiety disorders are becoming more and more important in our population. And if there is one category of people more vulnerable to this problem, it is the teenagers. In addition, more and more children and teenagers are diagnosed with an IQ greater than 130, causing all the stress and questions that it generates. In this project, we are comparing two groups of adolescents, one with an IQ over 130, the other with an IQ less than 130. We are wondering if there is any difference between these groups, in terms of phobia and other psychopathologies. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A sample of 35 teenagers, from 12 to 16 years old, separated in two groups (IQ over 130 and IQ below 130), fulfilled the following questionnaires: the School Rehabilitation Assessment Scale-Revised (SARS-R), the "Family Adaptability and Cohesiveness Evaluation Scale III" (FACES III), and the "Kiddie- SADS-lifetime" (K-SADS-PL), and a social data collection questionnaire. RESULTS: At the end of this study, we can retain the following relevant elements: adolescents with IQs greater than 130 are statistically more likely to be the eldest siblings (Cochran Test F=9.159, p=0.010). They do not develop more phobias, but are more shy (t=4.375, p=0.036) than the control population. These high-potential and shy teenagers have a whole list of commonalities, such as being easily irritable, being easily distracted, ect... They have fewer friends in real life (t=2.255, p=0.033), fewer virtual friends (t=4.346, p=0.000) and fewer virtual relationships (t=2.431, p=0.021). Their families are very cohesive (Test t=0.004). There is no significant role of the socio-professional class of parents playing in the value of the IQ of their children (t=4.667, p=0.323). CONCLUSION: To conclude, being a teenager and having an IQ greater than 130 is not always a pleasure. Our results showed us that the majority of these young people consider themselves as shy, unsure of themselves and claim to have many fears. This is evidence of an increased anxiety component compared to the control sample. It seems important to insist on the need to be able and to know how to identify these young people as soon as possible, in order to propose appropriate therapeutic management.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Testes de Inteligência/estatística & dados numéricos , Inteligência , Psicopatologia , Timidez , Adolescente , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Medo , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 199: 102893, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476696

RESUMO

Rather than working memory capacity acting as a distinct subordinate function of fluid intelligence, there is an emerging consensus that their relationship can be understood as an outcome of common functions dictated by the strength and flexibility of bindings which integrate representations relationally. The current study considers the Arithmetic Chain Task (Oberauer, Demmrich, Mayr, & Kliegl, 2001) which contrasts access (integrating previously stored information for use in the arithmetic processing) against mere retention (holding previously stored information for recall after the arithmetic processing). Participants (n = 122) completed the Arithmetic Chain Task (ACT) with a novel manipulation that split the access condition into fixed-order vs. random-order access. Both forms of access require integration of previously stored information into the arithmetic, but random-order access restricts systematic chunking, necessitating multiple flexible bindings that can be updated in light of new information. Participants also completed a measure of working memory and a measure of fluid intelligence. Results replicated Oberauer et al.'s findings on a demarcation between retention and access, though the current data indicate that random-order presentation is necessary to distinguish access from retention. Crucially, this random-order access is also required to link the ACT to a factor representing the commonality in WM and Gf. These results suggest that what is common to WM and Gf is the capacity to maintain multiple durable and flexible bindings.


Assuntos
Inteligência/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , /fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
13.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46782

RESUMO

New research examines the link between maternal consumption of fluoridated water and lower IQs in their children.


Assuntos
Inteligência , Fluoretação , Fluoretos , Gravidez
14.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 266: 168-173, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397319

RESUMO

Healthcare and wellness support that consider context within different dimensions can lead to intelligent, personalised recommendations that will more likely be accepted and acted upon by consumers. In this paper, we look at the main components of traditional personalised healthcare and wellness support services, and identify some of the challenges that should be addressed in creating a more intelligent and efficient solution. Our contribution lies in defining away forward in terms of designing such a solution.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Conscientização , Inteligência
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 829-833, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438040

RESUMO

This document describes the development of a Business Intelligence (BI) dashboard for tracking the drug-drug interaction (DDI) alerts implemented as Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) in Electronic Health Records (EHR). CDSS are known for their potential to reduce medical error. The use of requirements in the development of BI dashboards is crucial to obtain successful software. In this work, the requirements were analysed using a score methodology, considering the relevance of the indicators and visualization methods. CDSS effectiveness and acceptance have been questioned, so it is fundamental to monitor their behaviour and performance. The dashboard was designed in order to satisfy the needed indicators. Using BI as a tool for monitoring the CDSS performance made it possible to operationalize the EHR content repository, maximizing the understanding in relation to the override and, by inference, to optimize the CDSS system by opening new lines of work.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Interações de Medicamentos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Inteligência , Software
16.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1660-1661, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438280

RESUMO

The Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Infrastructure for Clinical Intelligence (DaVINCI) creates an electronic network between the two United States federal agencies that provides a consolidated view of electronic medical record data for both service members and Veterans. This inter-agency collaboration has created new opportunities for supporting transitions in clinical care, reporting to Congress, and longitudinal research.


Assuntos
United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Veteranos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Inteligência , Estados Unidos
17.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1813-1814, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438357

RESUMO

Intelligent conversation agents (ICAs) have been used for patient self-management and support in recent years. This study systematically reviewed ICA resarch and innovation in academic and industrial institutions using bibliometric and patent analysis. We reported the types of diseases and patients, and the ICAs delivery approaches for patient-self-management. We identified the gaps in the productivity and focused areas.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Comunicação , Autogestão , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Inteligência , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1923-1924, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438409

RESUMO

Management improvement was strongly required at public hospital and Local Incorporated Administrative Agency hospitals in Japan. We analysed financial statements of 880 public hospitals using Business Intelligence System. In order to raise the efficiency of management, it is important to have patients with a high profitability (seriously ill patients) at municipal hospitals; whereas, in Local Incorporated Administrative Agency hospitals, avoiding producing ordinary losses and not incurring excessive expenses will be important for management improvement.


Assuntos
Hospitais Públicos , Comércio , Administração Financeira de Hospitais , Humanos , Inteligência , Japão
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438468

RESUMO

The effect of exotropia on the intelligence of children is unknown. This study aimed to assess the intelligence in children with exotropia and investigate the influence of the main clinical indexes of strabismus on intelligence. Eighty-four participants aged 8-12 years were enrolled, including 37 patients with exotropia (exotropia group) and 47 normal individuals (normal group). Intelligence was assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), including the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ). The exotropia group had a significantly lower PRI score but a higher PSI score than the normal group. However, there was no significant difference in the WMI, VCI, and FSIQ between groups. Multiple linear regression showed that PRI-WMI and PRI-PSI differences were significantly lower in the exotropia group. Inter-subscale correlations analysis showed that the pattern of intelligence structure was different between groups. The type of exotropia, angle of deviation, duration of symptoms, and stereoacuity had no effect on the intelligence of children with exotropia. Children with exotropia had a relatively worse performance in the perceptual reasoning skill but a better processing speed and a different pattern of intelligence structure.


Assuntos
Exotropia , Inteligência , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo
20.
Pediatrics ; 144(3)2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462446

RESUMO

Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) has risen in prevalence from 1.2 per 1000 births in 2000 to 5.8 per 1000 births in 2012. Symptoms in neonates may include high-pitched cry, tremors, feeding difficulty, hypertonia, watery stools, and breathing problems. However, little is known about the neurodevelopmental consequences of prenatal opioid exposure in infancy, early childhood, and middle childhood. Even less is known about the cognitive, behavioral, and academic outcomes of children who develop NOWS. We review the state of the literature on the neurodevelopmental consequences of prenatal opioid exposure with a particular focus on studies in which NOWS outcomes were examined. Aiming to reduce the incidence of prenatal opioid exposure in the near future, we highlight the need for large studies with prospectively recruited participants and longitudinal designs, taking into account confounding factors such as socioeconomic status, institutional variations in care, and maternal use of other substances, to independently assess the full impact of NOWS. As a more immediate solution, we provide an agenda for future research that leverages the National Institutes of Health Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes program to address many of the serious methodologic gaps in the literature, and we answer key questions regarding the short- and long-term neurodevelopmental health of children with prenatal opioid exposure.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/complicações , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Inteligência , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Fatores de Risco
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