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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 82(12): 2613-2634, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341759

RESUMO

Faced with an unprecedented amount of data coming from evermore ubiquitous sensors, the wastewater treatment community has been hard at work to develop new monitoring systems, models and controllers to bridge the gap between current practice and data-driven, smart water systems. For additional sensor data and models to have an appreciable impact, however, they must be relevant enough to be looked at by busy water professionals; be clear enough to be understood; be reliable enough to be believed and be convincing enough to be acted upon. Failure to attain any one of those aspects can be a fatal blow to the adoption of even the most promising new measurement technology. This review paper examines the state-of-the-art in the transformation of raw data into actionable insight, specifically for water resource recovery facility (WRRF) operation. Sources of difficulties found along the way are pinpointed, while also exploring possible paths towards improving the value of collected data for all stakeholders, i.e., all personnel that have a stake in the good and efficient operation of a WRRF.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Inteligência , Recursos Hídricos
3.
Georgian Med News ; (306): 107-113, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130656

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to study the relationship between non-verbal intelligence, education and the factor of social functioning, taking into account the gender of patients with schizophrenia in childhood and adolescence. It should be noted that no such study was conducted in Georgia. The article discusses one of the most serious mental illnesses - schizophrenia, in terms of social functioning, since social functioning is an indicator of the degree of degradation of the patient. 246 patients with schizophrenia aged 18 to 45 years were examined. Studies have shown that the premorbid intelligence of the patient increases the degree of social adaptation. The higher the non-verbal intelligence, which is an integral part of the intellectual development of patients, the higher the indicators of social activity and adaptation, especially for women. The coefficient of social functioning does not obey the law of normal distribution. Any level of patient education is not a positive factor, although it does not significantly affect the functioning of female patients. The higher the level of non-verbal intelligence, the better the indicators of social activity, especially among women, although in general this dependence is insignificant. The article notes that in accordance with a complex, biopsychosocial approach, along with drug treatment, rehabilitation and social support of patients are necessary. The role of the human environment and other life circumstances of the patient in the severity of schizophrenia is discussed. A number of recommendations are presented that contribute to stopping cognitive decline and, therefore, preserving adaptive skills.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Inteligência , Testes de Inteligência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Orthod Fr ; 91(1-2): 139-144, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146128

RESUMO

Artificial Intelligence (AI) consists of setting different technics together aimed at allowing machines to simulate human cognitive fonctions, mimic human brain functions, sometime its logic, when it comes to answer to an interrogation, to take decisions or to anticipate events. This new fonction, after being used in numerous daily life domains (geo-guides, personal assistants, administratif procedures) comes now in the medical area. The press exaggerations on those systems doesn't have any wise and thoughtful judgment. This article will talk about the question of the real uses and expertise capacities which the AI should be able to provide in our area. Through the history of cognitive science and ideas, the recension of important works on the AI developments, we want to put in perspective the promises and opportunities provided to modify or complete the expertise in orthodontics. The willingness to extend cognitive and action abilities is older than what the comma historiography of the AI let us think. The recent development of computer systems, algorithmic science and databases allowed the development of a branch of the artificial intelligent giving, in some cases, seemingly undeniable results which should not be extrapolated because of the weakness of our databases, the current economic model and their real use.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Inteligência , Humanos
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5606, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154357

RESUMO

The phenotypic correlation between human intelligence and brain volume (BV) is considerable (r ≈ 0.40), and has been shown to be due to shared genetic factors. To further examine specific genetic factors driving this correlation, we present genomic analyses of the genetic overlap between intelligence and BV using genome-wide association study (GWAS) results. First, we conduct a large BV GWAS meta-analysis (N = 47,316 individuals), followed by functional annotation and gene-mapping. We identify 18 genomic loci (14 not previously associated), implicating 343 genes (270 not previously associated) and 18 biological pathways for BV. Second, we use an existing GWAS for intelligence (N = 269,867 individuals), and estimate the genetic correlation (rg) between BV and intelligence to be 0.24. We show that the rg is partly attributable to physical overlap of GWAS hits in 5 genomic loci. We identify 92 shared genes between BV and intelligence, which are mainly involved in signaling pathways regulating cell growth. Out of these 92, we prioritize 32 that are most likely to have functional impact. These results provide information on the genetics of BV and provide biological insight into BV's shared genetic etiology with intelligence.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Genoma Humano/genética , Inteligência/genética , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Neurológicos , Tamanho do Órgão , Locos de Características Quantitativas
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4937, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024110

RESUMO

The social intelligence hypothesis (SIH) posits that within-group interactions drive cognitive evolution, but it has received equivocal support. We argue the SIH overlooks a major component of social life: interactions with conspecific outsiders. Competition for vital resources means conspecific outsiders present myriad threats and opportunities in all animal taxa across the social spectrum (from individuals to groups). We detail cognitive challenges generated by conspecific outsiders, arguing these select for 'Napoleonic' intelligence; explain potential influences on the SIH; and highlight important considerations when empirically testing these ideas. Including interactions with conspecific outsiders may substantially improve our understanding of cognitive evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Cognição , Inteligência , Comportamento Social , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Reprodução , Seleção Genética
7.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943535

RESUMO

Potential long-lasting adverse effects of child maltreatment have been widely reported, although little is known about the distinctive long-term impact of differing types of maltreatment. Our objective for this special article is to integrate findings from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a longitudinal prenatal cohort study spanning 2 decades. We compare and contrast the associations of specific types of maltreatment with long-term cognitive, psychological, addiction, sexual health, and physical health outcomes assessed in up to 5200 offspring at 14 and/or 21 years of age. Overall, psychological maltreatment (emotional abuse and/or neglect) was associated with the greatest number of adverse outcomes in almost all areas of assessment. Sexual abuse was associated with early sexual debut and youth pregnancy, attention problems, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and depression, although associations were not specific for sexual abuse. Physical abuse was associated with externalizing behavior problems, delinquency, and drug abuse. Neglect, but not emotional abuse, was associated with having multiple sexual partners, cannabis abuse and/or dependence, and experiencing visual hallucinations. Emotional abuse, but not neglect, revealed increased odds for psychosis, injecting-drug use, experiencing harassment later in life, pregnancy miscarriage, and reporting asthma symptoms. Significant cognitive delays and educational failure were seen for both abuse and neglect during adolescence and adulthood. In conclusion, child maltreatment, particularly emotional abuse and neglect, is associated with a wide range of long-term adverse health and developmental outcomes. A renewed focus on prevention and early intervention strategies, especially related to psychological maltreatment, will be required to address these challenges in the future.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Asma/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estatura , Criança , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sexual , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236412, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735590

RESUMO

Competitive intelligence (CI) has attracted much attention in innovation research, but most of existing literature studies CI in technological innovations in manufacturing industry, with little empirical research in context of service businesses. This paper first analyzes CI of service businesses and then uses covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) on a data of 333 got from the survey in tourism enterprises of east China to test the effect of customer CI, opponent CI, and supplier CI on service innovations in China's service industry. Results show that opponent CI and supplier CI have positive influence on both exploratory and exploitative service innovation. Customer CI has more obvious positive influence on exploratory service innovation than on exploitative service innovation.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Empírica , Indústrias/tendências , Inteligência , Invenções/tendências , China , Comércio/tendências , Análise Fatorial , Migração Humana/tendências , Humanos , Marketing/tendências , Software , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003213, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to green space has beneficial effects on several cognitive and behavioral aspects. However, to our knowledge, no study addressed intelligence as outcome. We investigated whether the level of urbanicity can modify the association of residential green space with intelligence and behavior in children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study includes 620 children and is part of the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey (EFPTS), a registry of multiple births in the province of East Flanders, Belgium. Intelligence was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) in 620 children (310 twin pairs) between 7 and 15 years old. From a subset of 442 children, behavior was determined based on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Prenatal and childhood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign green space indicators. Mixed modeling was performed to investigate green space in association with intelligence and behavior while adjusting for potential confounding factors including sex, age, parental education, neighborhood household income, year of assessment, and zygosity and chorionicity. We found that residential green space in association with both intelligence and behavior in children was modified by the degree of urbanicity (p < 0.001). In children living in an urban environment, multivariable adjusted mixed modeling analysis revealed that an IQR increment of residential green space (3,000-m radius) was associated with a 2.6 points (95% CI 1.4-3.9; p < 0.001) higher total intelligence quotient (IQ) and 2.0 points (95% CI -3.5 to -0.4; p = 0.017) lower externalizing behavioral score. In children residing in a rural or suburban environment, no association was found. A limitation of this study is that no information was available on school location and the potential for unmeasured confounding (e.g., time spend outdoors). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that residential green space may be beneficial for the intellectual and the behavioral development of children living in urban areas. These findings are relevant for policy makers and urban planners to create an optimal environment for children to develop their full potential.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Planejamento Ambiental/tendências , Inteligência , Características de Residência , População Rural/tendências , População Suburbana/tendências , População Urbana/tendências , Adolescente , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Gêmeos/psicologia
12.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e179, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772996

RESUMO

We consider the evolutionary plausibility of Osiurak and Reynaud's (O&R) arguments. We argue that technical reasoning is not quite the magic bullet that O&R assume, and instead propose a co-evolutionary account of the interplay between technical reasoning and social learning, with language emerging as a vital issue neglected in O&R's account.


Assuntos
Inteligência , Idioma , China , Cognição , Resolução de Problemas
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(33): 41524-41539, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686045

RESUMO

In recent decades, various conventional techniques have been formulated around the world to evaluate the overall water quality (WQ) at particular locations. In the present study, back propagation neural network (BPNN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), support vector regression (SVR), and one multilinear regression (MLR) are considered for the prediction of water quality index (WQI) at three stations, namely Nizamuddin, Palla, and Udi (Chambal), across the Yamuna River, India. The nonlinear ensemble technique was proposed using the neural network ensemble (NNE) approach to improve the performance accuracy of the single models. The observed WQ parameters were provided by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) including dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, biological oxygen demand (BOD), ammonia (NH3), temperature (T), and WQI. The performance of the models was evaluated by various statistical indices. The obtained results indicated the feasibility of the developed data intelligence models for predicting the WQI at the three stations with the superior modelling results of the NNE. The results also showed that the minimum values for root mean square (RMS) varied between 0.1213 and 0.4107, 0.003 and 0.0367, and 0.002 and 0.0272 for Nizamuddin, Palla, and Udi (Chambal), respectively. ANFIS-M3, BPNN-M4, and BPNN-M3 improved the performance with regard to an absolute error by 41%, 4%, and 3%, over other models for Nizamuddin, Palla, and Udi (Chambal) stations, respectively. The predictive comparison demonstrated that NNE proved to be effective and can therefore serve as a reliable prediction approach. The inferences of this paper would be of interest to policymakers in terms of WQ for establishing sustainable management strategies of water resources.


Assuntos
Lógica Fuzzy , Qualidade da Água , Índia , Inteligência , Aprendizado de Máquina , Rios
14.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(9): 843-850, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728913

RESUMO

The risk of dementia seems to be established already early in life, which leads to the question if overweight early in life is an important risk factor for dementia as it appears to be later in life. We examined the association between body mass index (BMI) at entry to adult life and subsequent risk of dementia in men and assessed whether the relationship differed by levels of intelligence and education. The study population consisted of 377,598 Danish men born 1939-1959 with measures of height, weight, intelligence test score (ITS), and educational level (EL) at conscript board examinations around the age of 19 years. Dementia outcomes were obtained from National Patient and Prescription Registries between 1969 and 2016. The association between BMI and dementia was analysed using Cox proportional hazard regression including interactions between BMI and ITS and EL, respectively. During the follow-up through age 77 years, 6144 (1.6%) developed dementia. The frequency was highest in men with lowest BMI, lowest ITS and lowest EL. Young adult BMI below the mean of 21.8 kg/m2 was inversely associated with subsequent dementia, whereas there was no association with higher levels of BMI. Adjustment for young adult ITS and EL attenuated the risk estimates slightly, and interaction analyses showed that the shape of the association between BMI and dementia was unaffected by the levels of ITS and EL. Regardless of levels of ITS and EL, young adult BMI below the mean is inversely associated with subsequent dementia, whereas there is no association with higher levels of BMI.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Demência/epidemiologia , Inteligência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Humanos , Incidência , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 272: 17-20, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604589

RESUMO

The increased prevalence and frequency of infectious diseases are alarming with respect to the disproportionate fatalities across different regions, socio-economic conditions, and demographic groups. Combining pathological data, socio-environmental data, and extracted knowledge from white papers, we proposed a Globally Localized Epidemic Knowledge base (GLEK) that can be utilized for efficient and optimal epidemic surveillance. GLEK merges social, environmental, pathological, and governmental intervention data to provide efficient advice for epidemic control and intervention. Heuristically utilizing multi-locus data sources, GLEK can identify the best tailored intervention.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Epidemias , Humanos , Inteligência , Bases de Conhecimento
19.
Neuropsychopharmacol Hung ; 22(2): 60-71, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683330

RESUMO

In our review we describe the development of savant syndrome as a concept, its historical antecedents, most important characteristics and spectrum of savantism, and the frequency and features of the most common savant abilities. We present the relationship between autism and savant syndrome, the eff ect of genetic and familial factors, and the characteristics of savant memory functions and intelligence. We provide an overview of the most important theories explaining savantism and the future direction of research.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Humanos , Inteligência , Memória
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235552, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645114

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to compare the spatial working memory and visual perception between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing control (TDC). Furthermore, this study validated whether this impairment was a feature of autism in general population with different autism-like traits (ALTs). This study contains two parts: case-control study and community population study. The ASD group and the control group were enlisted voluntarily (ASD group, n = 52; control group, n = 32). In the population study, we recruited 2994 children. Based on the scores of Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), children were divided into two groups (higher ALTs n = 122, lower ALTs n = 122). The participants completed the cognition tasks focusing on spatial working memory, visual-motor integration, and Intelligence. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted, with potential confounders IQ, age, and gender were controlled. Pearson correlations were computed by controlling the IQ and age as covariate to better understand the relations between visual perception, spatial working memory, and autism-like traits. In the case-control study, the results of cognition tasks focusing on the spatial working memory and visual perception indicated underperformance in children with ASD. In the community population study, we found that individuals with higher ALTs performed worse than children with lower ALTs in spatial working memory. Pearson correlation analysis suggested that a correlation between SWM total errors and visual perception was identified both in the children with ASD and in community population (ASD group, r = -0.592, p<0.001; general population, r = -0.201, p = 0.003). It suggested that spatial working memory deficit was a characteristic of autism, and may be distributed across the general population. Furthermore, we speculated a correlation between spatial working memory and visual perception in children with ASD and in general population.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Memória de Curto Prazo , Memória Espacial , Percepção Visual , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor
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